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416 - Fluid reaction surfaces (i.e., impellers)

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Class / Patent application numberDescriptionNumber of patent applications / Date published
416044000 Impeller rotation speed responsive 30
416040000 Responsive to relative working fluid velocity 21
416039000 Temperature or icing condition responsive 12
416036000 Plural diverse condition responsive 10
416043000 Responsive to condition of torque or thrust of device or driving or driven means or mechanism 9
416042000 Pressure or altitude responsive 4
20090311097WIND TURBINE INFLOW ANGLE MONITORING AND CONTROL SYSTEM - A wind turbine including a control system and at least one wind turbine blade having a pressure measurement system is disclosed. The pressure measurement system includes a pressure probe that provides a measurement of inflow angle to the control system. The control system adjusts the blade pitch angle of the at least one turbine blade in response to the inflow angle measurement to improve energy capture. The pressure probe is mounted by a probe support structure at a predetermined position from the leading edge of the at least one wind turbine blade.12-17-2009
20090311096METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MEASURING AIR FLOW CONDITION AT A WIND TURBINE BLADE - A method and an apparatus for measuring an air flow at an airfoil surface are provided, wherein at least one pressure sensor adapted to detect an air flow associated with a rotor blade surface and a pressure transducer which converts the detected air flow into an electrical signal indicating the air flow are provided. The pressure sensor is arranged within the boundary layer of the air flow at the airfoil surface such that the boundary layer profile may be determined from the electrical signal. The air flow sensor is adapted for rotor blades of a wind turbine to assist in adjusting a pitch angle of the rotor blades.12-17-2009
20090097976ACTIVE DAMPING OF WIND TURBINE BLADES - A wind turbine blade, includes a sensor, arranged upstream from a trailing edge of the blade for measuring an airflow characteristic near a surface of the blade; and an actuator, arranged downstream from the sensor, for adjusting the airflow in response to the measured characteristic.04-16-2009
20130189102WIND TURBINES - An upwind wind turbine comprising a tower and a rotor is described. The wind turbine additionally includes a pressure-sensing device supported by the tower at a location within the wake of the rotor. The pressure-sensing device is configured to sense air pressure and provide a signal indicative of the sensed air pressure to a wind turbine controller for use in controlling the rotor of the wind turbine.07-25-2013
416033000 Plural distinct impellers having related control 4
20110142630WIND TURBINE PITCH-ANGLE CONTROL DEVICE AND METHOD THEREOF - The object is to reduce aerodynamic load when a wind turbine is halted. When a wind turbine halt command is input, pitch angles of wind turbine blades 06-16-2011
20120099987STATIONARY ACTUATOR DEVICE FOR CONTROLLING THE PITCH OF FAN BLADES OF A TURBOPROP - A device for controlling pitch of fan blades of a turboprop including at least one set of variable-pitch fan blades constrained to rotate with a rotary ring centered on a longitudinal axis and mechanically connected to a turbine rotor, each blade coupled for pitch adjustment to a synchronization ring. A turntable is mounted via a rotary connection to a rod of an actuator that is secured to a stationary structural element of the turboprop, the turntable being mechanically connected to the synchronization ring by a plurality of connection arms hinge-mounted on the turntable and connected to the synchronization ring such that a longitudinal movement of the turntable under drive from the actuator causes the synchronization ring to turn about the longitudinal axis.04-26-2012
20100014973Vertical Axis Fluid Flow Turbine System - The present invention is vertical axis fluid flow turbine system for generating an alternative fuel. The turbines of the present invention are centered between at least two support structures so that the rotor holding the hub and the blades is perpendicular to the ground, rooftop, or the floor of a body of water and the axis of the blades coming from the hub are parallel to the ground, rooftop, floating structure, or the floor of a body of water. The turbines are secured to the support structures using struts. The struts are attached to each support structure and to the nacelle of each turbine. Attaching each turbine in this manner allows the turbines of the present invention to be stacked one on top of the other, that in turns minimizes the footprint of the vertical axis fluid flow turbine system.01-21-2010
20110305570AERODYNAMIC DEAD ZONE-LESS TRIPLE ROTORS INTEGRATED WIND POWER DRIVEN SYSTEM - The present invention relates to an aerodynamic dead zone-less triple-rotor integrated wind power driven system wherein control rotor 12-15-2011
416035000 With electrical means comparing and reducing error related to preset datum 1
20110142631WIND TURBINE GENERATOR - Provided is a wind turbine generator including an electric pitch-control device that efficiently utilizes the entire circumferential teeth of a ring gear of a wind turbine blade so as to eliminate the need for work at high elevation using a crane or the like even when the teeth of the ring gear are partly broken. A wind turbine generator having an electric pitch-control device that performs pitch-angle control by using a motor to drive a pinion gear that meshes with a ring gear of a wind turbine blade includes a plurality of pinion-driving-mechanism securing supporters or a fixing/releasing switching part as a meshing-region changing mechanism that changes a pitch-angle-control meshing region of the ring gear that meshes with the pinion gear during the pitch-angle control.06-16-2011
416032000 Control of drive brake or clutch 1
20090097975Ceiling Fan with Concentric Stationary Tube and Power-Down Features - A fan system comprises a hub, a plurality of fan blades, a drive system, and a stationary tube. The hub is configured to rotate. The fan blades are mounted to the hub. The drive system comprises a rotatable hollow output shaft. The hollow output shaft is in communication with the hub, such that the drive system is operable to rotate the hub via the hollow output shaft. The stationary tube is inserted through the hollow output shaft. The stationary tube is configured to remain stationary as the hollow output shaft rotates. Wires and the like may be passed through the stationary tube, to reach an accessory mounted at the bottom of the stationary tube. The fan system may also include a detector, such as a heat detector, a smoke detector, or an accelerometer. The detector may power down the fan system in response to detecting certain conditions.04-16-2009
20090196747COMPACT VARIABLE PITCH FAN - A compact variable pitch fan has a hydraulic pitch change mechanism. A pitch change piston is constrained to follow reciprocating motion under hydraulic control within a peripheral hub from which fan blades extend outward. An additional feature is the use of separated guiding and seal surfaces. A still further feature is the use of a pitch sensor, particularly on the hydraulic line leading to the variable pitch fan.08-06-2009
20080260531Method for Regulating a Wind Energy Installation - The invention relates to a method for operating installations (10-23-2008
20100074749DIFFERENTIAL VIBRATION CONTROL FOR WIND TURBINES - A wind turbine includes a first vibration sensor for producing a first vibration signal; a second vibration sensor, displaced from the first vibration sensor, for producing a second vibration signal; and a processor for comparing the first vibration signal to the second vibration signal and controlling the wind turbine in response to the comparison.03-25-2010
20080298963Method and device for controlling load reduction for a wind turbine rotor - A method for controlling load reduction for a wind turbine rotor with rotor blades comprising an aerodynamic active element responsive to a control signal for modifying its setting is provided. The loads acting on the rotor blades in relation to the rotor's azimuth are detected and individual control signals based on a PI control system are established. Each individual control signal is a complex number containing an amplitude defining the degree of modification of the respective setting and an angle defining the phase of the modification of the respective setting with respect to the rotor's azimuth. The angle of the complex number is corrected by a phase correction factor. The elements are provided with the individual control signals. The input to the PI-control system is a complex load vector.12-04-2008
20100104436ACTIVE CURCILATION CONTROL OF AERODYNAMIC STRUCTURES - Active Circulation Control (ACC) of aerodynamic structures, such as a turbine blade, uses unsteady or oscillatory flow from either synthetic jets or pulsed jets to modify a velocity profile of the blade. The blade includes an opening disposed in a surface of the blade at a location proximate to a trailing edge, a leading edge, or both the trailing edge and the leading edge of the blade. An active flow control device in fluid communication with the opening produces a wall-jet of pulsed fluid that flows over the trailing edge, the leading edge, or both the trailing and leading edges of the blade and modify the velocity profile of the blade.04-29-2010
20090116962SENSORISED BLADE JOINT - Wind turbine blade subdivided transversely into two or more sections made up of a number of sensors, preferably load cells and ultrasound sensors, assembled into the mechanical joining elements between blade sections and characterised in that their measurements allow the loads to be reduced and the forces to be controlled during the entire life of the blade. They also allow damages to be detected (stopping the machine if necessary) and an optimised design for real loads.05-07-2009
20130164132DUAL FREQUENCY HUB MOUNTED VIBRATION SUPPRESSOR SYSTEM - A vibration suppressor system includes an annular electric motor system which independently controls rotation of at least two masses about the axis of rotation to reduce in-plane vibration of the rotating system. A method of reducing vibrations in a rotary-wing aircraft includes independently controlling a relative angular position of a multiple of independently rotatable masses to reduce vibrations of a main rotor system.06-27-2013
20100215494Wind Turbine Rotor Blade - A wind turbine rotor blade is provided comprising a main body portion and a movable auxiliary component. The auxiliary component is mounted about a leading edge of the main body portion. The auxiliary component comprises first and second longitudinally extending edges together with an arcuate surface extending therebetween. The first edge is connected to a pressure surface of the main body portion to form a substantially continuous surface therewith.08-26-2010
20110286843DRIVE DEVICE FOR DRIVING SEVERAL AXLES - A drive device for driving at least one first axle and one second axle (axle 11-24-2011
20100034651Ceiling fans with low solidity ratio - An overhead fan system of a building comprises a ceiling fan underneath a nearby fire sprinkler head. The ceiling fan has particularly low fan solidity to minimize the fan obstructing the spray of water from the sprinkler head. To further reduce the obstruction, some example fans include fan blades that automatically retract in the event of a fire.02-11-2010
20090148286APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR REDUCING ASYMMETRIC ROTOR LOADS IN WIND TURBINES DURING SHUTDOWN - An apparatus and method for reducing asymmetric rotor load in a wind turbine includes calculating a time delay for pitching each blade toward feather upon initiation of a shutdown condition. The blades with the larger blade angle begin moving toward feather with an initial pitch rate, while the blade with the smallest blade angle begins moving toward feather with a final pitch rate. Once all the blades have reached approximately an identical blade angle, the blades move simultaneously together to feather at the final pitch rate. By introducing the time delay for pitching the blades having higher blade angles at the final pitch rate, a simple, time-based correction of initial conditions during shutdown reduces the extreme loads on turbine components.06-11-2009
20100129214Machine such as a gas turbine engine - A engine such as a gas turbine engine has a bladed rotor 05-27-2010
20090202347Systems and methods for mitigating the effects of wind turbines on radar - A control system for mitigating the effects of a wind turbine on a radar system is disclosed. The control system includes a sensor configured to detect an operating condition of the radar system; a processor configured to receive an operating condition of the wind turbine and determine a rotation modification sequence based on the operating condition of the radar system and the operating condition of the wind turbine; and a controller configured to apply the rotation modification sequence to the wind turbine. A method of mitigating the effects of a wind turbine on a radar system is also disclosed.08-13-2009
20100061852Wind turbine blade pitch control system - The present invention provides an improvement for a wind turbine (03-11-2010
20120195756METHOD FOR OPERATING A WIND TURBINE, ARRANGEMENT AND SYSTEM - A method is provided for operating a wind turbine having an elongated stand apparatus, a generator rotatably mounted on the stand apparatus, and a rotor coupled to the generator via a rotor hub and the wind turbine also having an elongated rotor blade. A position of a radar system is determined with respect to the wind turbine and at least one area is determined for the rotational axis of the rotor as a function of the determined position which is not intended to be permanently assumed for alignment of the rotational axis of the rotor about the longitudinal axis of the stand apparatus. The wind turbine is operated with the at least one determined area not being permanently assumed for the alignment of the rotational axis of the rotor about the longitudinal axis of the stand apparatus.08-02-2012
20090097974AEOLIAN SYSTEM COMPRISING POWER WING PROFILES AND PROCESS FOR PRODUCING ELECTRIC ENERGY - An aeolian system is described for converting energy comprising at least one power wing profile (04-16-2009
20100014972SYSTEM FOR ROTATING A WIND TURBINE BLADE - A system for driving a wind turbine blade (01-21-2010
20100158687Control Modes for Extendable Rotor Blades - A wind turbine may be controlled in a variety of manners to optimize operating parameters. In one arrangement, for example, the length or the pitch of a wind turbine rotor blade may be adjusted to avoid harmonic resonance frequencies. In another example, the length of a rotor blade may be modified to reduce noise or to optimize profits or both. The controls may be based on data from various types of sensors including accelerometers, sound meters, strain gauges and the like. Actuation of extendable rotor blades can rotate wind turbine rotors without wind or generator pulsing affording multiple advantages. A battery test control may also be used to determine the operational readiness of a battery useful for a variety of purposes in a turbine.06-24-2010
20100221110HELICOPTER VIBRATION CONTROL SYSTEM AND ROTATING ASSEMBLY ROTARY FORCES GENERATORS FOR CANCELING VIBRATIONS - A rotary blade rotating hub mounted rotating assembly vibration control system including a first imbalance mass concentration rotor, a second imbalance mass concentration rotor, a third imbalance mass concentration rotor, and a fourth imbalance mass concentration rotor. The first imbalance mass concentration rotor has a first imbalance mass concentration rotor center axis rotation centered on the rotating assembly center rotation axis. The second imbalance mass concentration rotor has a second imbalance mass concentration rotor center axis rotation centered on the rotating assembly center rotation axis. The third imbalance mass concentration rotor has a third imbalance mass concentration rotor center axis rotation centered on the rotating assembly center rotation axis. The fourth imbalance mass concentration rotor has a fourth imbalance mass concentration rotor center axis rotation centered on the rotating assembly center rotation axis. The first and second imbalance mass concentration rotors are driven at a first rotation speed greater than the rotating assembly operational rotation frequency while controlling the rotational position of the first imbalance mass concentration and the second imbalance mass concentration to produce a first rotating net force vector to inhibit a first vibration frequency. The third and fourth imbalance mass concentration rotors are driven at a second rotation speed greater than the rotating assembly operational rotation frequency while controlling the rotational position of the third imbalance mass concentration and the fourth imbalance mass concentration to produce a second rotating net force vector to inhibit a second vibration frequency.09-02-2010
20090169379METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR ADVANCED WIND ENERGY CAPTURE SYSTEM - Methods and apparatus of improved wind energy capture system design and operation are discussed. Improved wind energy capture system blade/sail implementations are described. Retractable sails are used in a novel configuration in some but not all implementations. In one embodiment, a turbine blade assembly includes a plurality of uniformly spaced hollow blades. Each hollow blade includes a furling rod onto which a retractable sail can be rolled and stored. Each hollow blade also includes a sail tensioning cable guide for providing tension for a retractable sail included in an adjacent hollow blade. The turbine blades are secured at their root end to a hub assembly. In some but not all embodiments the turbine blades are supported at their tip end, e.g., by using a set of support cables which provide tension. Computer control and automated operations of sail deployment and/or blade adjustments are implemented.07-02-2009
20100054940WIND TURBINE BLADE CLEANING METHOD - A method for cleaning the blades of a wind turbine using precipitation. The method includes determining the presence or absence of precipitation. In response to the determination of the presence of precipitation, adjusting the rotor speed to increase the speed of the blades and/or adjusting the variable pitch drive to increase the pitch of the blades. The combination of the increased blade speed and/or the increase blade pitch and the presence of precipitation facilitate the removal of debris from the blades by the precipitation.03-04-2010
20080279685Helicopter Rotor Control System with Individual Blade Control - Controlling the pitch of individual rotor blades of a helicopter to reduce control loads, vibration and noise in or from the rotating rotor control elements. The system generates blade dynamics signals representing dynamic forces acting on either or both of the rotating and non-rotating elements of the helicopter, including rotor blades of a rotating assembly. The system extracts information representing at least one dynamic force, generates a dynamic force compensation output that represents a compensation for the dynamic force, and generates, from flight control signals and the dynamic force compensation output, a compensated pitch actuator control signal for each rotor blade wherein the compensation factor of the pitch control signal compensates for the dynamic force.11-13-2008
20110097207PRESSURE RELIEF DEVICE - A pressure relief device includes a main body and at least two air control units. The main body has at least one passage therein and two outlets formed at upper and lower ends of the passage. A lid is pivotally connected to each of the outlets. The two air control units are each disposed in the passage close to the lid. An air control device drives the air control units to open/close the lid which is adapted to open/close the passage.04-28-2011
20100021299ADJUSTABLE, SELF-ALIGNING ROTOR LOCKING DEVICE FOR AN AEROGENERATOR - Wind turbine comprising a rotor, a nacelle frame (01-28-2010
20090175723Undershot impulse jet driven water turbine having an improved vane configuration and radial gate for optimal hydroelectric power generation and water level control - A low-head impulse jet water turbine for electric power generation at irrigation canal drop structures, navigation dam spillways or other low head watercourses achieves renewable electric power generation at competitive cost. Kinetic energy of a low-pressure jet is employed in a way that enables numerous locations to generate electricity conveniently near points of use, from a renewable source at minimum cost. The equipment can be pre-assembled for minimum installation cost at sites with no existing impoundment and can be automatically raised clear of flood levels with built-in lifting equipment. Existing multi-span bridges offer convenient access for installation and maintenance. The system for raising the equipment also provides clear passage for fish migration.07-09-2009
20090068013Wind turbine, yaw system controller and yaw system for a wind turbine and method of reducing the acting on such a yaw system - A method for reducing the loads acting on a wind turbine yaw system due to yawing moments which are induced to the yaw system by a rotor which comprises at least one rotor blade with a pitch control system is provided. In the method, the yawing moment which is induced to the yaw system by the rotor is determined and the pitch of the at least one rotor blade is set based on the detected yawing moment such that the determined yawing moment is reduced.03-12-2009
20120063896LOAD MITIGATION DEVICE FOR WIND TURBINE BLADES - The present invention includes a rotor blade (03-15-2012
20100290906PLASMA SENSOR STALL CONTROL SYSTEM AND TURBOMACHINERY DIAGNOSTICS - A system for detecting onset of a stall in a rotor is disclosed, the system comprising a plasma sensor spaced radially outwardly and apart from tips of a circumferential row of blades at a location on a static component that is between a first location and a second location wherein the first location is at a first distance of about 25% blade tip-chord length axially forward from the leading edge of a blade and the second location is at a second distance of about 25% blade tip-chord length axially aft from the trailing edge of a blade and wherein the plasma sensor is capable of generating an input signal corresponding to a flow parameter at a location near the tip of a blade and indicative of the onset of a stall and a correlation processor that generates a stability correlation signal.11-18-2010
20120128488ROTOR-SECTOR BASED CONTROL OF WIND TURBINES - Embodiments of the invention generally relate to controlling a wind turbine comprising blades attached to a rotor hub for rotation in a rotor plane and a control system for individually pitching the blades relative to the hub. The rotor planes divided into a plurality of predefined section, wherein each section has an associated pitch reference value. A light detection and ranging device may be used to determine expected properties of wind in each respective section of the rotor plane so that the pitch reference value may be adjusted accordingly.05-24-2012
20120134816PILOT CIRCUITRY FOR CONTROLLING THE EMERGENCY FEATHERING OF A WIND TURBINE - A pilot circuitry is disclosed for controlling the activation of an emergency feathering system of a wind turbine by means of a pilot pressure, wherein the pilot circuitry comprises at least two parallel control circuits for providing a pilot pressure. Additionally, a selector may provided for selectively preventing a control circuit from providing the pilot pressure to the emergency feathering system in case of malfunction of the control circuit.05-31-2012
20110103954POWER TRANSMITTING SYSTEM THROUGH CABLES FOR AIRBORNE WIND-TYPE POWER GENERATION AND SAIL WINCH-DRIVING APPLICATIONS - The present invention deals with a new system for transmitting energy through a cable (05-05-2011
20110103953SYSTEMS AND METHOD OF ASSEMBLING AN AIR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM FOR USE IN A ROTOR BLADE OF A WIND TURBINE - A method of assembling an air distribution system for use in a rotor blade of a wind turbine wherein the rotor blade includes a sidewall extending from a blade root towards a blade tip. The method includes coupling a manifold to the sidewall, wherein the manifold extends from the blade root towards the blade tip and has a root end and an opposing tip end defining a passage from the root end to the tip end. A plurality of apertures is defined through the sidewall. The apertures provide flow communication between the passage and ambient air. A debris collector is coupled to the tip end of the manifold and is configured to collect debris flowing through the air distribution system.05-05-2011
20080298962Method and apparatus for reducing bird and fish injuries and deaths at wind and water-turbine power-generation sites - A simple system is provided to dramatically reduce the number of bird fatalities and injuries, as these are bird-kills that man should be able to do something about. Essentially, the inventive apparatus comprises one or more instantaneously inflatable mini-airbags on turbine blade leading edges which, in the “stowed position” are tightly conformally elastically wrapped around or juxtaposed to the turbine blade surface(s) and/or edges(s) thereby not affecting the blade's aerodynamic efficiency. The airbag(s) can be activated and restowed or recollapsed very rapidly, thereby not significantly negatively impacting the operational efficiency of the wind machine. In a similar manner, fish-kills or injuries taking place in the turbine impellers of hydroelectric power-generator facilities may be avoided (as opposed to ameliorated) using another inventive system and method taught herein, this one being primarily a collision avoidance system which does not require the problematic alteration of the turbine blades themselves.12-04-2008
20110038728INDEPENDENT VARIABLE BLADE PITCH AND GEOMETRY WIND TURBINE - A variable blade pitch wind turbine and method of passively varying the blade pitch is presented. Each blade of the turbine rotor can individually and passively rotate about a respective blade axis to continuously vary the pitch of the blades to adjust to the ever changing wind speed and direction without active controls or other mechanical or electrical induced inputs to force rotational movement of the blades. Sections of each blade can respectively rotate to change the blade twist. In one example, a second rotor is used to increase the electrical generation and efficiency of the blade turbine.02-17-2011
20110158806Wind Turbines and Other Rotating Structures with Instrumented Load-Sensor Bolts or Instrumented Load-Sensor Blades - A turbine includes a turbine blade, a plurality of sensors, a wireless sensor module, a data aggregator, and a blade pitch control unit. The plurality of sensors are distributed in a plurality of locations on the turbine blade suitable for determining a moment of the turbine blade. The sensor module is configured to transmit data to the data aggregator to determine the moment. The data aggregator is configured to provide an output to the blade pitch control unit. The blade pitch control unit is configured to adjust pitch of the turbine blade based on the moment.06-30-2011
20110268570SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR CONTROLLING WIND TURBINE BLADES - A wind turbine system is presented. The wind turbine system includes a blade comprising an airfoil and a sensing device disposed on a surface of the airfoil, wherein the sensing device generates signals that are representative of pressure deflection on the surface of the airfoil. The wind turbine system further comprises a processing subsystem that receives location details of the sensing device and a transfer function corresponding to the airfoil, determines a location of a stagnation point on the surface of the airfoil based upon the signals and the location details, and determine an angle of attack (AOA) on the surface of the airfoil based upon the location of the stagnation point and the transfer function.11-03-2011
20130136597WIND TURBINE CONTROL SYSTEM - A wind turbine control system is provided. The control system has a wind turbine controller arranged locally at the wind turbine and adapted to adjust operation parameters of the wind turbine, and a central control unit arranged remotely from the wind turbine and adapted to communicate with the controller. The central control unit has a module for virtualizing a first computing device and a second computing device. The first computing device monitors information provided by sensors of the wind turbine and received by the central control unit. The central control unit generates a control signal based on the received information and provides a control signal to the second computing device. The second computing device generates an adjusting signal based on the control signal to the wind turbine controller for controlling the operation of the wind turbine by adjusting operation parameters of the wind turbine.05-30-2013
20130156578COMPRESSOR AIRFOIL TIP CLEARANCE OPTIMIZATION SYSTEM - A compressor airfoil tip clearance optimization system for reducing a gap between a tip of a compressor airfoil and a radially adjacent component of a turbine engine is disclosed. The turbine engine may include ID and OD flowpath boundaries configured to minimize compressor airfoil tip clearances during turbine engine operation in cooperation with one or more clearance reduction systems that are configured to move the rotor assembly axially to reduce tip clearance. The configurations of the ID and OD flowpath boundaries enhance the effectiveness of the axial movement of the rotor assembly, which includes movement of the ID flowpath boundary. During operation of the turbine engine, the rotor assembly may be moved axially to increase the efficiency of the turbine engine.06-20-2013
20120070285 INDEPENDENT, DISTRIBUTED PROTECTION AND SAFETY SYSTEM WITH FIBER OPTIC COMMUNICATION FOR WIND TURBINES - A safety system and method for monitoring the safety of a windmill turbine is disclosed. A protection safety master (PSM) controller is coupled to one or more input/output modules via an optic conductor. Safety components are individually coupled to and monitored by the modules. The modules are distributed throughout a wind turbine tower and provide status information about the safety components to the PSM controller. Based on data received, the PSM controller independently determines whether a fail-safe reaction should be initiated and initiates the fail-safe reaction accordingly.03-22-2012