# Synthetic seismograms and models

## Subclass of:

## 367 - Communications, electrical: acoustic wave systems and devices

## 367014000 - SEISMIC PROSPECTING

## 367037000 - Land-reflection type

### Patent class list (only not empty are listed)

#### Deeper subclasses:

Class / Patent application number | Description | Number of patent applications / Date published |
---|---|---|

367073000 | Synthetic seismograms and models | 86 |

20100271904 | SEPARATING SEISMIC SIGNALS PRODUCED BY INTERFERING SEISMIC SOURCES - A technique includes obtaining seismic data acquired by seismic sensors of a composite seismic signal that is produced by the firings of multiple seismic sources. The technique includes modeling the seismic data as being a function of models for the sources and linear operators and defining desired constraints on the models. The technique includes simultaneously determining the models based on the modeling and the desired constraints. The datasets are generated based on the determined models. Each dataset is indicative of a component of the composite seismic signal and is attributable to a different one of the seismic sources. | 10-28-2010 |

20100074053 | METHODS FOR CONCURRENT GENERATION OF VELOCITY MODELS AND DEPTH IMAGES FROM SEISMIC DATA - In various embodiments, the present disclosure describes methods for processing seismic data to concurrently produce a velocity model and a depth image. Various embodiments of the methods include: a) acquiring seismic data; b) generating a shallow velocity model from the seismic data; c) generating a stacking velocity model using the shallow velocity model as a guide; d) generating an initial interval velocity model from the stacking velocity model; and e) generating an initial depth image using the initial interval velocity model. The methods also include iterative improvement of the initial depth image and the initial interval velocity model to produce improved depth images and improved interval velocity models. Improvement of the depth images and the interval velocity models is evaluated by using a congruency test. | 03-25-2010 |

20100315903 | METHOD FOR PASSIVE SEISMIC EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY USING ADAPTIVE VELOCITY FILTER - A method for seismic event mapping includes adaptively velocity filtering seismic signals recorded at selected positions. The velocity filtered signals are transformed into a domain of possible spatial positions of a source of seismic events. An origin in spatial position and time of at least one seismic event is determined from space and time distribution of at least one attribute of the transformed seismic data. | 12-16-2010 |

20130229892 | METHOD OF PREDICTING THE PRESSURE SENSITIVITY OF SEISMIC VELOCITY WITHIN RESERVOIR ROCKS - A method of predicting the pressure sensitivity of seismic velocity within reservoir rocks includes defining the degree of cementation of rock as at least one of friable sand, partially cemented rock and cemented rock. For rock including friable sand, a first model specifying a dependence of seismic velocity upon pressure is defined. For rock including partially cemented rock, a second model specifying a dependence of seismic velocity upon pressure and a weighting function accounting for a degree of cementation of the rock is defined. For rock including cemented rock, a third model demonstrating an insensitivity of seismic velocity to pressure is defined. For a given dry rock moduli and porosity, the method includes determining a degree of cementation, selecting the appropriate model, and using the selected model to predict the sensitivity of seismic velocity to pressure. | 09-05-2013 |

20090303834 | COMBINING GEOMECHANICAL VELOCITY MODELING AND TOMOGRAPHIC UPDATE FOR VELOCITY MODEL BUILDING - A method for updating a velocity model of a subsurface of the earth is described herein. A tomographic update to the velocity model of the subsurface may be performed to generate a tomographic velocity model update. A geomechanical velocity model update of the subsurface may be calculated. The geomechanical velocity model update may be combined with the tomographic velocity model update. | 12-10-2009 |

20120236686 | SEISMIC IMAGING APPARATUS WITHOUT EDGE REFLECTIONS AND METHOD FOR THE SAME - A seismic imaging technology for imaging a subsurface structure is provided. The seismic imaging technology is applied to modeling parameters of a wave equation redefined in a new coordinate system resulting from converting space axes into a logarithmic scale. The redefined wave equation is applied to wave inversion or reverse-time migration. | 09-20-2012 |

20100195440 | CORRECTION OF VELOCITY CUBES FOR SEISMIC DEPTH MODELING - Systems and methods perform correction of velocity cubes for seismic depth modeling. An example system receives a velocity model defined in the time domain for seismic modeling of a subsurface earth volume and receives well depth data associated with the subsurface earth volume. The system updates an average velocity cube associated with the velocity model to correct depth-converted time horizons to accord with known well markers, thereby increasing the accuracy and correctness of the velocity model. | 08-05-2010 |

20100002541 | INTERPOLATING SEISMIC DATA - A technique includes modeling interpolated seismic measurements as a random process characterized by seismic measurements acquired at a set of sensor locations and an interpolation error. The technique includes determining the interpolated seismic measurements based at least in part on a minimization of the interpolation error. | 01-07-2010 |

20110141851 | SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR INTEGRATED RESERVOIR AND SEAL QUALITY PREDICTION - A system for and method of integrated reservoir and seal prediction is useful for evaluation of effective mean stresses affecting geologic systems through their history, and subsequently to predict reservoir and seal quality, flow and seal properties and other behaviors. Porosity and permeability as well as seal properties are modeled based on the effective mean stress. Integrated earth models are built using seismic interpretations, wells and other available data. Geo-mechanical earth models are built and stresses are computed. Basin models are built using inputs from seismic interpretation tools, wells, geochemistry, and earth and mechanical earth models. Reservoir quality and seal quality prediction is performed and the building earth models, computing stresses, building basin models and quality prediction are iterated to converge to a solution that honors well, seismic, core, geochemical and any other available calibration data. | 06-16-2011 |

20110292766 | Estimating Anisotropic Parameters - A method for processing seismic data. The method includes performing a plurality of stochastic simulations for one or more rock model parameters to generate one or more anisotropic parameters for a subsurface area of the earth. The method then derives one or more joint multi-dimensional probability density functions for the anisotropic parameters. Using the joint multi-dimensional probability density functions and measured well log data, the method computes one or more posterior probability density functions. The method then includes deriving one or more anisotropic profiles from the posterior probability density functions and generating a seismic image from the anisotropic profiles. | 12-01-2011 |

20130265852 | CONVERTING A FIRST ACQUIRED DATA SUBSET TO A SECOND ACQUIRED DATA SUBSET - Acquired data that corresponds at least in part to a target structure is received. One or more subsets of a first type are formed from the acquired data. The one or more subsets of the first type are converted to one or more subsets of a second, different type. | 10-10-2013 |

20110170373 | Method For Predicting Time-Lapse Seismic Timeshifts By Computer Simulation - A method for predicting time-lapse seismic timeshifts in a three-dimensional geomechanical system including defining physical boundaries for the geomechanical system. In addition, one or more reservoir characteristics such as pore pressure and/or temperature history are acquired from multiple wells within the physical boundaries. The method also includes determining whether a formation in the geomechanical system is in an elastic regime or a plastic regime. The method also includes obtaining first and second seismic data sets for the geomechanical system, taken at first and second times. The method also includes running a geomechanical simulation to simulate the effects of changes in pore pressure or other reservoir characteristic on time-lapse seismic timeshifts in the formation. | 07-14-2011 |

20130286782 | SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR OPTIMAL STACKING OF SEISMIC DATA - Systems and methods include seismic data stacking derived from a set of image volumes. Stacking includes finding a sub-set of seismic image volumes (and in some implementations their respective stacking weights) or multiple realizations of sub-set of seismic image volumes from a given set that are consistent and similar to each other. Some or all of the input seismic image volumes can be stacked together as they would be with a conventional stack. However, the signal-to-noise ratio can be enhanced by only stacking those volumes that contain consistent and relevant information. Optimal stacking can utilize an algorithm that can be implemented in a moving window fashion. | 10-31-2013 |

20120263016 | SEISMIC IMAGING APPARATUS - A technology of imaging a land seismic wave in the Laplace domain is provided. According to an aspect, a plurality of geophones are distributed in a lattice form at a regular interval of 150-250 m over a region to be inspected, and buried in the ground. Each of the geophones is buried in a hole excavated in the ground, and the hole is filled with cement. | 10-18-2012 |

20140098639 | Identifying Dominant Fracture Orientations - Systems, methods, and software can be used to identify properties of fractures in a subterranean zone. In some aspects, a basic plane orientation is determined for each of a plurality of basic planes. The basic planes are defined by coplanar subsets of microseismic event data from a fracture treatment of a subterranean zone. The quantity of the basic plane orientations in each of a plurality of ranges is calculated. In some implementations, a histogram is displayed to indicate the quantity of basic plane orientations in each of the orientation ranges. A dominant fracture orientation is identified for the subterranean zone based on one or more of the identified quantities. | 04-10-2014 |

20140071791 | APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR RECONSTRUCTING COMPLEX SALT GEOMETRY USING DUAL-FLOOD RTM WITH PRISMATIC WAVES - A method, an apparatus and a computer-readable medium for processing seismic data are provided. The method includes selecting well-imaged areas of a sediment-to-salt interface, and performing (1) a dual-flood RTM with prismatic waves to identify new areas of the sediment-to-salt interface, and (2) one or more RTM to identify other new areas of the sediment-to-salt interface or of a salt-to-sediment interface. | 03-13-2014 |

20130003500 | Seismic Data Processing - The invention includes a method for reducing noise in migration of seismic data, particularly advantageous for imaging by simultaneous encoded source reverse-time migration (SS-RTM). One example embodiment includes the steps of obtaining a plurality of initial subsurface images; decomposing each of the initial subsurface images into components; identifying a set of components comprising one of (i) components having at least one substantially similar characteristic across the plurality of initial subsurface images, and (ii) components having substantially dissimilar characteristics across the plurality of initial subsurface images; and generating an enhanced subsurface image using the identified set of components. For SS-RTM, each of the initial subsurface images is generated by migrating several sources simultaneously using a unique random set of encoding functions. Another embodiment of the invention uses SS-RTM for velocity model building. | 01-03-2013 |

20120195165 | EXPLOITATION OF SELF-CONSISTENCY AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN VOLUME IMAGES AND INTERPRETED SPATIAL/VOLUMETRIC CONTEXT - Self-consistency and/or differences between volume images and interpreted spatial/volumetric context may be exploited for improving seismic imaging and estimation of attributes of geobodies, in accordance with one or more embodiments. Exemplary embodiments allow exploitation of positional and/or shape discrepancies and/or similarities of geobodies in image volumes associated with a geologic model of a geologic volume of interest to improve the accuracy of the geologic model and/or the image volumes. Constraints associated with the geologic volume of interest may be determined and/or utilized to confirm and/or specify dependencies between attributes that are potentially associated with individual geobodies. | 08-02-2012 |

20140254321 | METHODS AND SYSTEMS FOR DETERMINING CLATHRATE PRESENCE AND SATURATION USING SIMULATED WELL LOGS - Methods and systems for determining a presence and saturation of clathrates are provided. One method includes identifying a potential zone of clathrates based on observed seismic data, the observed seismic data including an observed signal amplitude at the potential zone of clathrates, and assigning subsurface sediment types within and around the potential zone of clathrates. The method includes creating one or more lithologic type logs based on the interpreted subsurface sediment types, and creating from each of the one or more lithologic type logs a plurality of synthetic logs including compressional velocity at a plurality of possible clathrate saturation levels. The method includes matching expected signals from one of the plurality of synthetic logs to the observed signals in the observed seismic data to determine a best-fit match synthetic log to the observed seismic data, thereby determining a clathrate saturation level from among the plurality of possible clathrate saturation levels. | 09-11-2014 |

20100142323 | Inversion of 4D Seismic Data - The invention is a method for inferring the saturation and pressure change of a reservoir by combining the information from 4D (time-lapse) seismic and time lag data volumes ( | 06-10-2010 |

20100142322 | ADAPTIVE WAVEFRONT RECONSTRUCTION - A method for generating a synthetic seismogram. In one implementation, a ray tracing may be performed on a subsurface. The ray tracing may generate a plurality of rays. A first seismic wavefront by may be reconstructed by triangulating a first plurality of control points that correspond to the plurality of rays. Each control point may represent an end point of a ray at the first seismic wavefront. The plurality of rays may be propagated to a second seismic wavefront. The second seismic wavefront may have a hole associated with at least one missing ray at the second seismic wavefront. A plurality of points on a circle may be defined that correspond to a second plurality of control points defining the hole. The second seismic wavefront may be reconstructed based on the plurality of points on the circle. | 06-10-2010 |

20140043939 | IMAGING BY EXTRAPOLATION OF VECTOR-ACOUSTIC DATA - Methods for wavefield extrapolation using measurements of a wavefield quantity and a component of the gradient of the wavefield quantity are disclosed. The methods use “exact” representations of scattering reciprocity. The methods can yield “exact”, nonlinear, “true-amplitude” receiver wavefields that are beyond the receiver measurement boundary. Methods of evaluating/validating the extrapolated data are also disclosed. Some methods may also evaluate the accuracy of models for the areas where data are extrapolated or measured. These methods can be used in any industries involving imaging, such as geophysical/seismic exploration, bio-medical imaging, non-destructive remote sensing, acoustic space architecture, design and engineering. | 02-13-2014 |

20110122726 | ANNIHILATOR BASED WAVE INVERSION - A method for verifying the accuracy of a wave velocity model. The method may include generating an extended image using the wave velocity model, operating on the extended image using an annihilator, where the extended images represent a geophysical field, and determining if the extended image obeys at least one physical characteristic. In the event that the extended image does not obey at least one physical characteristic the method may include recreating or altering the wave velocity model accordingly. | 05-26-2011 |

20090285053 | VELOCITY ANALYSIS FOR VSP DATA - A method for providing a velocity profile for a subsurface region that includes the reflective interfaces, the method comprising the steps of: providing a set of data comprising signals transmitted by a transmitter and collected at a receiver, wherein the data include a primary signal that has been reflected off of one of the reflective interfaces and a multiply-reflected signal that has been reflected off of at least two of the reflective interfaces, providing a velocity model for the subsurface region, using the velocity model and the primary signal to construct a first image of the subsurface region, using the velocity model and the multiply-reflected signal to construct a second image of the subsurface region, determining a measure of match between the first and second images, adjusting the velocity model based on this measure, and repeating the steps until the measure of match attains a desired level. | 11-19-2009 |

20110249531 | GENERATING AN IMAGE OF A SUBTERRANEAN STRUCTURE - Different values of at least one migration parameter are selected. An imaging technique is applied a plurality of times, where each application of the imaging technique uses a corresponding different one of the different values. Each application of the imaging technique produces a corresponding image of a subterranean structure. An aggregate of the images is computed to produce an output image of the subterranean structure. | 10-13-2011 |

20120269034 | Separation and Noise Removal For Multiple Vibratory Source Seismic Data - The invention discloses a way to recover separated seismograms with reduced interference noise by processing vibroseis data recorded (or computer simulated) with multiple vibrators shaking simultaneously or nearly simultaneously ( | 10-25-2012 |

20100027377 | Locating oil or gas actively by exciting a porous oil and gas saturated system to give off its characteristic resonance response, with optional differentiation of oil, gas and water - This patent deals with methods to selectively excite and analyze the resonance phenomena existing in an enclosed oil, gas and or water reservoir, thereby locating its presence, by doing qualitative and quantitative estimates of its extent via forward modeling. The oil, gas or water reservoir is represented as a fluid filled crack system or as a fluid saturated sponge located in solid rock. This patent covers the actively excited response and details methods to optimize the excitation. Due to interaction between either fluid filled fractures or fluid saturated rock lenses and the surrounding rock, the incident seismic energy is amplified in specific frequency ranges corresponding to the resonance frequencies of such systems. Measurements are made over the survey area, singly or in arrays. These are first used to determine qualitatively the resonance behavior, by relating them to resonance signal sources and possibly their direction. Overall statistical analysis assesses dominant frequencies in the spectrum. H/V analysis excludes resonance effects in rock structures. Time windows are used in the frequency domain to help isolate oscillations in a cursory manner in the noise, which can then be refined to extract oscillation parameters more precisely with the Sompi method. Such found oscillations can then be related to oscillator properties from theoretical and numerical model simulations. A direction analysis with array measurements can be used to locate sources in the earth. Dimensions of the source are estimated via mapping techniques of strong signal areas. The influence of gas bubbles on the fluid velocity, expected to often present, enhances the impedance difference significantly, leading to a stronger resonance effect; to take this into consideration is an important part of this patent. A qualitative method in form of a numerical simulation using one of several specific physical concepts is used for further analysis. For instance the oscillation behavior is known from existing fluid dynamic research for cracks. A single or an assemblage of cracks can be used. For fluid saturated rock pillows with significant over-pressure there is a simplified theoretical model presented. Numerical models using Biot's theory for higher precision results represent a further example. By using a successive forward modeling/investigation with feedback, more details about the fluid saturated area below the surface are gained. It is also possible to determine the type of fluid present with the techniques of this patent. The physical properties of oil, water and gas affect the oscillating characteristics (frequency and Q value) of fluid filled fractures and fluid filled pillows enclosed in rock. These differences in the oscillations allow determining the type of fluid present. Specifically a qualitative survey method and a quantitative method based on a numerical modeling in conjunction with the Monte Carlo method are used to relate the oscillation characteristics to fluid properties. In the Monte Carlo method only fluid parameters are varied, while all other parameters are kept constant. There are specific dependencies on crack length in the case of cracks which needs to be properly estimated to obtain good results. We expect similar constraints for liquid filled pillows. The uniqueness of this method is that it is directly sensitive to the oil or gas itself, because the resonance effect is only present when a fluid is there. Non fluid related oscillations due to impedance differences have shear waves involved and can be excluded using H/V technique. In summary the patent uses techniques to relate the actual measurement with a numerical model based on specific physical concepts, and so arriving at relevant conclusions about the reservoir. | 02-04-2010 |

20110075517 | CORRECTING AN ACOUSTIC SIMULATION FOR ELASTIC EFFECTS - A technique includes simulating seismic wave propagation based on an acoustic model and based on a result of the simulation, estimating an error between the result and another result obtained if the seismic wave propagation were simulated based on an elastic model. The technique includes based at least in part on the estimated error predicting the other result without performing the simulation based on the elastic model. | 03-31-2011 |

20130077440 | RECIPROCAL METHOD TWO-WAY WAVE EQUATION TARGETED DATA SELECTION FOR IMPROVED IMAGING OF COMPLEX GEOLOGIC STRUCTURES - The invention relates to seismic imaging where complex geologies are likely to create data that is confusing or ambiguous for a conventional matrix of acquisition source points and receiver locations. With some understanding of the geological substructure, the acquisition source points and receiver locations that optimize the imaging may be found by using a reciprocal two-way wave equation propagation method coupled with a quality geologic model. With this, the acquisition source points and receiver locations that optimize the imaging may be selected and used to better resolve the substructure and avoid the inclusion of data that obscures understanding of the substructure. | 03-28-2013 |

20110255371 | Hydrocarbon Detection With Passive Seismic Data - Method for using seismic data from earthquakes to address the low frequency lacuna problem in traditional hydrocarbon exploration methods. Seismometers with frequency response Select Receivers of Desired Frequency Ranges and Design Survey Seismometer Configuration down to about | 10-20-2011 |

20140293745 | METHODS AND SYSTEMS FOR PERFORMING AZIMUTHAL SIMULTANEOUS ELASTIC INVERSION - An improved method for analyzing seismic data to obtain elastic attributes is disclosed. In one embodiment, a reflectivity series is determined for at least one seismic trace of seismic data obtained for a subterranean formation, where the reflectivity series includes anisotropy properties of a formation. One or more synthetic seismic traces are obtained by convolving the reflectivity series with a source wavelet. The one or more synthetic seismic traces are inverted to obtain elastic parameters estimates. According to one aspect, the data inputs are angle-azimuth stacks. According to another aspect, the data inputs are azimuthal Fourier coefficients u | 10-02-2014 |

20090290451 | SUBSALT VELOCITY MODEL BUILDING - Method for building a subsalt velocity model. In one implementation, the method may include determining a velocity of a sedimentary area surrounding a salt body, determining an initial velocity of a subsalt sedimentary area disposed below the salt body by interpolating the velocity of the surrounding sedimentary area with one or more boundaries defining the salt body, and updating the initial velocity of the subsalt sedimentary area. | 11-26-2009 |

20130083626 | SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR ANALYZING SEISMIC DATA BACKGROUND - A system, method and device may be used to evaluate stacked seismic trace data. A portion of each of a number of seismic traces is isolated and an un-tuned biased volume and a tuned biased volume are produced for each trace. The un-tuned biased volume and tuned biased volume are combined to determine zones having a high probability of containing hydrocarbon resources. | 04-04-2013 |

20110096627 | METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR SEISMIC IMAGING AND EARTH MODELING USING BEAM TOMOGRAPHY - A beam tomography computer implemented method and system for generating improved seismic images and earth models without dependence on reflector structure is disclosed. Recorded seismic data is transformed into data beams which are compared to forward modeled beams using an earth model having a velocity model to compute raypaths and a seismic image to specify the reflectors. The tomographic updates to the earth model and velocity model are based on misalignments between the data beams and the same beams forward modeled from the velocity model and the seismic image. The updated earth model and seismic image better describe the true propagation of the beams through the earth. | 04-28-2011 |

20130077439 | RECIPROCAL METHOD TWO-WAY WAVE EQUATION TARGETED DATA SELECTION FOR SEISMIC ACQUISITION OF COMPLEX GEOLOGIC STRUCTURES - The invention relates to seismic surveying where complex geologies are likely to create data that is confusing or ambiguous for a conventional matrix of acquisition source points and receiver locations. With some understanding of the geological substructure, the acquisition source points and receiver locations that optimize the imaging may be found by using a reciprocal two-way wave equation propagation method coupled with the best geologic model available. With this, the acquisition source points and receiver locations that optimize the imaging may be used in seismic survey to better resolve the substructure and avoid the inclusion of data that obscures understanding of the substructure. | 03-28-2013 |

20110090760 | FULL-WAVEFORM INVERSION IN THE TRAVELTIME DOMAIN - A method for processing seismic data. The method includes predicting seismic data according to an earth model representing seismic properties of subterranean formations in the earth, determining a difference between seismic data acquired from one or more seismic receivers and the predicted seismic data, projecting the difference into a model space in traveltime, and updating the earth model according to the projected difference. As a result, the updated earth model more accurately represents the seismic properties of subterranean formations in the earth. | 04-21-2011 |

20120300583 | METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DETERMINING A LOCATION TO ACQUIRE GEOPHYSICAL DATA - Methods, apparatuses, and systems are disclosed that assist in determining a location to acquire seismic data. In one embodiment, a method includes modeling acquisition of seismic data in a first location based on a first factor that impacts acquisition of seismic data in the first location. The method also includes generating a modeled attribute based on the modeling, and determining whether to acquire seismic data in the first location based on the modeled attribute or the first factor. | 11-29-2012 |

20110110192 | SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR ANALYZING AND TRANSFORMING GEOPHYSICAL AND PETROPHYSICAL DATA - A computer system and a computer-implemented method for analyzing input data from a geological volume of interest in a subterranean formation. The method includes processing the input data using a first subterranean interpretation model, the first subterranean interpretation model being configured to provide first output data that are representative of characteristics of the geological volume of interest. The method further includes processing the input data using a second subterranean interpretation model, the second subterranean interpretation model being configured to provide second output data that are representative of the characteristics of the geological volume of interest. The method further includes determining a relationship between the first output data and the second output data, and transforming the second output data into the first output data using the relationship to obtain a transformed second output data. | 05-12-2011 |

20110110191 | METHOD FOR DETERMINING DISCRETE FRACTURE NETWORKS FROM PASSIVE SEISMIC SIGNALS AND ITS APPLICATION TO SUBSURFACE RESERVOIR SIMULATION - A method for mapping a fracture network that includes determining a source of at least one seismic event from features in recorded seismic signals exceeding a selected amplitude (“visible seismic event”). The signals are generated by a plurality of seismic receivers disposed proximate a volume of subsurface to be evaluated. The signals are electrical or optical and represent seismic amplitude. A source mechanism of the at least one visible seismic event is determined. A fracture size and orientation are determined from the source mechanism. Seismic events are determined from the signals from features less than the selected amplitude (“invisible seismic events”) using a stacking procedure. A source mechanism for the invisible seismic events is determined by matched filtering. At least one fracture is defined from the invisible seismic events. A fracture network model is generated by combining the fracture determined from the visible seismic event with the fracture determined from the invisible seismic events. | 05-12-2011 |

20110222370 | METHODS AND SYSTEMS FOR PERFORMING AZIMUTHAL SIMULTANEOUS ELASTIC INVERSION - An improved method for analyzing seismic data to obtain elastic attributes is disclosed. In one embodiment, a reflectivity series is determined for at least one seismic trace of seismic data obtained for a subterranean formation, where the reflectivity series includes anisotropy properties of a formation. One or more synthetic seismic traces are obtained by convolving the reflectivity series with a source wavelet. The one or more synthetic seismic traces are inverted to obtain elastic parameters estimates. According to one aspect, the data inputs are angle-azimuth stacks. According to another aspect, the data inputs are azimuthal Fourier coefficients, u | 09-15-2011 |

20110103187 | MIGRATION-BASED ILLUMINATION DETERMINATION FOR AVA RISK ASSESSMENT - According to a preferred aspect of the instant invention, there is provided herein a system and method for extending zero-offset or stacked wave-equation illumination analysis into the angle-gather domain, where it becomes an appropriate tool for assessing the effects of complex overburden on AVA response. A preferred method for doing this involves first creating an angle gather that has a perfect AVA response (i.e. a constant amplitude as a function of angle). This gather is then preferably used as a reflectivity map that is fed into a demigration process which creates modeled data that by construction carries with it a completely flat reflectivity signature. Remigration of such a data set then results in a gather on which any amplitude variation is more likely to be a measure of illumination effects alone. The resulting AVA signature on the gather can then be used to assess the validity of the AVA response on modeled or actual data, resulting in a useful AVA risk analysis. | 05-05-2011 |

20140177390 | MODELING OF PARALLEL SEISMIC TEXTURES - An approach for seismic data analysis is provided. In accordance with embodiments of this approach, parallel regions within a volume of seismic data are modeled. Residual regions within the volumetric data set are identified, where the residual regions comprise those regions not modeled as parallel regions. The residual regions or a graphic derived from the residual regions are displayed for review. | 06-26-2014 |

20090251995 | FAST RESIDUAL MIGRATION OF SEISMIC DATA THROUGH PARSIMONIOUS IMAGE DECOMPOSITION - A technique for performing a fast residual migration of seismic data through parsimonious image decomposition is presented. In one aspect, the technique includes a software-implemented method for processing a set of seismic data includes through parsimonious image decomposition. Other aspects of the technique include a program storage medium encoded with instructions that, when executed by a processor, perform such a method or a computing apparatus programmed to perform such a method. | 10-08-2009 |

20120218861 | Sensitivity Kernal-Based Migration Velocity Analysis in 3D Anisotropic Media - Seismic imaging systems and methods that employ sensitivity kernel-based migration velocity analysis in 3D anisotropic media may demonstrate increased stability and accuracy. Survey data analysts employing the disclosed systems and methods are expected to provide better images of the subsurface and be better able to identify reservoirs and deposits for commercial exploitation. Certain embodiments migrate seismic survey data with an anisotropic velocity model to obtain common angle image gathers. These gathers are processed to obtain depth residuals along one or more horizons. Angle-domain sensitivity kernels are used to convert the depth residuals into velocity errors, which are then used to refine the velocity model. A user is then able to view a representation of the subsurface structure determined in part from the refined velocity model. Multiple iterations may be needed for the velocity model to converge. The velocity model may be a layered to have constant velocity values between formation boundaries. | 08-30-2012 |

20130258810 | Method and System for Tomographic Inversion - Method and system is described for reducing sensitivity imbalance issues and/or implements target-oriented tomography to enhance tomographic inversion for velocity model building. The method may include performing a preparation stage to construct a measurement vector from seismic data and a kernel matrix from ray-path information; performing a sensitivity optimization stage to generate a data weighting vector; and performing a property optimization stage to reconstruct a subsurface model of one or more geophysical properties. | 10-03-2013 |

20090213693 | USING A WAVE PROPAGATOR FOR TRANSVERSELY ISOTROPIC MEDIA - A technique includes modeling a seismic wavefield in a vertical transversely isotropic media as a second order derivative of a first wavefield function with respect to a vertical direction and not with respect to crossline and inline directions and as second order derivatives of a second wave field function with respect to the inline and crossline directions and not with respect to the vertical direction. The method includes processing seismic measurements of the media in accordance with the modeled seismic wavefield to obtain information about the media. In another technique, a seismic wavefield in a tilted transversely isotropic media are modeled based at least in part on orientation of the symmetry axis and a nonzero shear velocity for the media; and seismic measurements of the media are processed in accordance with the modeled seismic wavefield to obtain information associated with the media | 08-27-2009 |

20140126328 | Methods and Systems for Improving Microseismic Event Detection and Location - Methods and systems for location and/or direction of a hypocenter. The methods may involve one or more of: a) computing a joint probability density function (PDF) which includes polarization PDF and onset time PDF or a time integral of product of detection transforms to estimate the location and/or direction of a hypocenter, where the polarization PDF is generated using a weighted average of differences between measured and computed polarizations; b) computing a time integral of product of modified detection transforms associated with onset times from received data in Coalescence Microsesimic Mapping where modified detection transform is defined as (ε, fd(t)−1); c) resolving 180 degree ambiguities in polarization estimated according to Hodogram; d) using polynomial interpolation to tune the location of a hypocenter; and e) computing an integration time interval of 4-D (t,x,y,z) PDF or product of modified detection transform and the restriction on grid nodes. | 05-08-2014 |

20120300584 | TWO-WAY WAVE EQUATION TARGETED DATA SELECTION FOR IMPROVED IMAGING OF PROSPECTS AMONG COMPLEX GEOLOGIC STRUCTURES - The invention relates to seismic imaging where complex geologies are likely to create data that is confusing or ambiguous for a conventional matrix of source points and receiver locations. With some understanding of the geological substructure, the source points and receiver locations that optimize the imaging may be found by using two-way wave equation propagation coupled with a quality geologic model. With this, the source points and receiver locations that optimize the imaging may be selected and used to better resolve the substructure and avoid the inclusion of data that obscures understanding of the substructure. | 11-29-2012 |

20100142321 | HYBRID MODELING IN THE TAU-P DOMAIN - A method for generating a synthetic seismogram. In one implementation, the method may include generating a first seismogram in a tau-p domain for a wavefront that moves through an overburden to an upper boundary of a reservoir. The first seismogram is based on a common shot point gather. The method may further include generating a second seismogram in the tau-p domain for the wavefront moving from the upper boundary to a lower boundary of the reservoir and reflected back up to the upper boundary; generating a third seismogram in the tau-p domain for the wavefront moving from the upper boundary of the reservoir through the overburden; and adding the first seismogram in the tau-p domain, the second seismogram in the tau-p domain, and the third seismogram in the tau-p domain. | 06-10-2010 |

20130235697 | METHODS AND COMPUTING SYSTEMS FOR PROCESSING DATA - Computing systems and methods for processing collected data are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method for iteratively separating a simultaneous-source dataset is provided, wherein the simultaneous-source dataset is used as an input dataset for a first iteration of simultaneous-source separation. The input dataset includes a plurality of shots that include data corresponding to a plurality of source activations. The method of iteratively separating the input dataset includes generating simulated simultaneous shots based on shots separated in the input dataset; and forming an output dataset based on the separated simultaneous shots and the simultaneous-source dataset, wherein the output dataset is configured for use as the input dataset for the next iteration of separating the simultaneous-source dataset. | 09-12-2013 |

20150346367 | SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR RAY BASED TOMOGRAPHY GUIDED BY WAVEFORM INVERSION - Disclosed herein is a system and method for building a velocity model for a geographical area of interest (GAI). The system and method comprise determining a ray based tomography velocity image of said GAI using acquired data, determining a high resolution velocity guide (HRVG) image of said GAI, scaling said determined HRVG of said GAI, adding the scaled HRVG to the ray based tomography velocity image to determine an updated ray based tomography velocity image, and determining whether said updated ray based tomography velocity image has experienced convergence by determining whether a cost function of said ray based tomography velocity image does not improve compared to a previously determined cost function value of said ray based tomography velocity image. | 12-03-2015 |

20130121111 | Method Of Generating and Combining Multiple Horizons To Determine A Seismic Horizon And Its Uncertainty - There is provided a system and method for creating model of a subsurface region based on multiple depth values. The method includes selecting seeds that represent a starting location within a desired horizon surfaces and generating a plurality of candidate horizons from the selected seeds. A number of depth values from the candidate horizons may be combined into a representative depth value and an uncertainty may be computed based on discrepancies among the depth values. A model of the subsurface region may be created using the depth values and the uncertainty. | 05-16-2013 |

20150055438 | FORMATION STABILITY MODELING - A method can include receiving data that characterizes anisotropy of a formation; receiving a model that models one or more planes of weakness in an anisotropic formation; and, based at least in part on the model and the data, outputting information germane to stability of a bore in an anisotropic formation. | 02-26-2015 |

20100039895 | METHODS AND SYSTEMS FOR DETECTING CHANGES IN A FLUID RESERVOIR - Methods and systems for detecting changes of a fluid in a subterranean reservoir, wherein at several points in time, data are collected with the aid of a passive method in which low-frequency acoustic signals are passively measured by means of acoustic sensors. Changes in the fluid can be monitored in a simple and cost efficient way when these data are overlaid with static 3D data, which were collected with the aid of a reflection-seismic method so that a time-related representation of the change of the fluid is possible. | 02-18-2010 |

20110176386 | WAVE EQUATION ILLUMINATION - A method for generating an illumination map. The method includes receiving an earth model that represents one or more properties of the earth. The method then includes receiving a target area in the earth model and propagating one or more wavefields from the target area to a potential seismic data acquisition region in the earth model. After propagating the wavefields, the method includes decomposing the propagated wavefields into one or more subsets of the propagated wavefields and creating the illumination map based on the subsets of the propagated wavefields. The illumination map may indicate one or more contributions of one or more synthetic source and receiver pairs for illuminating the target area in the earth model. The method may then include creating a seismic survey design based on the contributions. | 07-21-2011 |

20150071037 | METHOD FOR DETERMINING A LITHOLOGY MAP - The present invention relates to a method for determining a lithology map. The method comprises receiving a geophysical attribute image comprising a plurality of points associated with geophysical attribute value, and receiving first information data representing a plurality of zones in the image, each point of the image being contained in a zone. For at least one point of the image, computing a uniform value associated with said point based on the geophysical attribute value and distributions values of the geophysical attribute values. The method further comprises receiving second information data representing geological probability value for a plurality of facies associated with the points of the image, and for at least one point of the image, determining a facies in the plurality facies based on the computed uniform value and the geological probabilities associated with said point. | 03-12-2015 |

20120099396 | SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR CHARACTERIZATION WITH NON-UNIQUE SOLUTIONS OF ANISOTROPIC VELOCITIES - A system and method for characterizing structural uncertainty in a seismic analysis of features in a subsurface region includes obtaining seismic data including information representative of the features, performing a plurality of depth migrations on the seismic data, each depth migration being based on a model using a respective set of parameters relating to a velocity field and anisotropy of the subsurface region, selecting a family of equivalent solutions from the plurality of depth migrations, evaluating a characteristic of at least a portion of the subsurface region for each member of the family of equivalent solutions, determining a range of values of the evaluated parameters, and based on the determined range, determining a degree of uncertainty of the seismic analysis. | 04-26-2012 |

20120281501 | ESTIMATING A PROPERTY BY ASSIMILATING PRIOR INFORMATION AND SURVEY DATA - Prior information describing a distribution of values of a parameter relating to physical characteristic of a target structure is received. Acquired survey data of the target structure is received. Using a probabilistic technique, the prior information and the survey data is assimilated to produce an estimated property of the target structure. | 11-08-2012 |

20100177595 | Using Seismic Attributes for Data Alignment and Seismic Inversion In Joint PP/PS Seismic Analysis - Method for aligning converted wave seismic reflection data (PS data) with conventional PP seismic reflection data so that both data types may be used to more accurately image the subsurface for hydrocarbon exploration or field development. Amplitude vs. angle (AVA) or amplitude vs. offset (AVO) attributes of PP and PS seismic data are identified and defined, which attributes are theoretically expected to be in phase and optimize seismic resolution in the data. In one embodiment of the invention, such attributes are calculated ( | 07-15-2010 |

20130250726 | QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF TIME-LAPSE SEISMIC DATA - A method for quantitative analysis of time-lapse seismic data of a reservoir, including: obtaining a plurality of compressional and shear velocities from a seismic inversion analysis; selecting a rock physics model based on a property of the reservoir; calculating a transform function using the rock physics model, where the transform function transforms variations in the plurality of compressional and shear velocities into variations in saturation and pore pressure; calculating a transform grid performing a domain transformation of the transform function; obtaining a plurality of cloud points from the seismic inversion analysis and the transform grid; and overlaying the plurality of cloud points onto the transform grid to estimate a plurality of reservoir parameters of the reservoir. | 09-26-2013 |

20130294197 | AUTOMATIC EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FAULT AND FRACTURE POPULATIONS - Systems, methods, and computer-readable media for modeling a fracture network are provided. The method includes mapping a sub-seismic data set to a portion of a seismic-resolution data set, and defining a fractal region of the seismic-resolution data set containing the portion thereof to which the sub-seismic data is mapped. The method also includes generating a training image for sub-seismic scale characteristics of the one or more fracture networks of the seismic-resolution data set using the portion of the seismic-resolution data, and modeling the sub-seismic scale characteristics of the one or more fracture networks of the fractal region of the seismic-resolution data set outside of the portion, using the training image. | 11-07-2013 |

20130223187 | Geological Structure Contour Modeling and Imaging - The invention is a method for geological structure contour modeling and imaging beneficial for quality control and evaluating aerial extent parameter during seismic survey design, quality control of process of migration during processing stage of seismic data, and quality control of structure maps during interpretation of 3-D seismic volume. This method provides a quick and efficient parametric 3-D representation of geologic structures, also allows the use of existing depth data for structure contour modeling and imaging. Normal incident rays, either linear or curved, are traced starting from points along selected contours of structural surface and ending at imaged points on the recording surface to define projected location of the imaged structure contours at the recording surface. Further analysis and quality control is conducted by generating structure maps utilizing third party software using structure contour data, and data for the corresponding contours imaged on the recording surface. | 08-29-2013 |

20080225642 | Interpolation of Irregular Data - Implementations described herein provide methods and devices for interpolating or estimating data from previously acquired data. Furthermore, implementations described herein calculate optimum interpolation operators by maximizing the spatial bandwidth of interpolation operators within a specified acceptable mean square error. According to one implementation, spatial bandwidth may be maximized by selecting a local grid within a global grid having nodes corresponding to desired interpolation locations. According to another implementation, spatial bandwidth may be maximized by specifying maximum wave numbers when calculating interpolation operators. | 09-18-2008 |

20120026835 | SUBSURFACE IMAGING METHOD USING VIRTUAL SOURCES DISTRIBUTED UNIFORMLY OVER THE SUBSURFACE - There are provided a subsurface imaging apparatus and method for modeling a subsurface structure by solving a wavefield equation by waveform inversion. A virtual source that generates an observed wavefield and is distributed over grid points of the subsurface is obtained by applying a least-square method to an equation including a Green's function of the subsurface medium. Then, a subsurface model generating the observed wavefield when applying the virtual source is obtained. | 02-02-2012 |

20120147704 | Integrated Formation Modeling Systems and Methods - Integrated formation modeling systems and methods are described. An example method of performing seismic analysis of a subterranean formation includes obtaining seismic data of the formation, obtaining fluid from the formation and analyzing at least some of the fluid to determine a fluid parameter. The example method additionally includes generating a model of the formation based at least on the seismic data and modifying the model based on the fluid parameter. | 06-14-2012 |

20120300585 | RECIPROCAL METHOD TWO-WAY WAVE EQUATION TARGETED DATA SELECTION FOR SEISMIC ACQUISITION OF COMPLEX GEOLOGIC STRUCTURES - The invention relates to seismic surveying where complex geologies are likely to create data that is confusing or ambiguous for a conventional matrix of acquisition source points and receiver locations. With some understanding of the geological substructure, the acquisition source points and receiver locations that optimize the imaging may be found by using a reciprocal two-way wave equation propagation method coupled with the best geologic model available. With this, the acquisition source points and receiver locations that optimize the imaging may be used in seismic survey to better resolve the substructure and avoid the inclusion of data that obscures understanding of the substructure. | 11-29-2012 |

20140140174 | REDUCING RUN TIME IN SEISMIC IMAGING COMPUTING - A system, method and computer program product for seismic imaging implements a seismic imaging algorithm utilizing Reverse Time Migration technique requiring large communication bandwidth and low latency to convert a parallel problem into one solved using massive domain partitioning. Since in RTM, both the forward and reverse wave propagation is iteratively calculated on time step increments, the method implements methods that includes partitioning memory between computation and intermediate results to optimize an RTM computation. The methods make maximum use of the memory to either eliminate storing the snapshot wavefield data to disk, or hide all or a significant portion of the disk I/O time. Furthermore, the schemes can provide the flexibility to vary a number of iterations (step size) for each snapshot to be kept in the memory. If any of the given conditions changes during the process, maximum usage of the available memory is ensured. | 05-22-2014 |

20110194379 | Methods For Subsurface Parameter Estimation In Full Wavefield Inversion And Reverse-Time Migration - Method for converting seismic data to obtain a subsurface model of, for example, bulk modulus or density. The gradient of an objective function is computed ( | 08-11-2011 |

20130064040 | METHOD FOR SEISMIC HYDROCARBON SYSTEM ANALYSIS - Method for analyzing seismic data representing a subsurface region for presence of a hydrocarbon system or a particular play. Seismic attributes are computed, the attributes being selected to relate to the classical elements of a hydrocarbon system, namely reservoir, seal, trap, source, maturation, and migration. Preferably, the attributes are computed along structural fabrics ( | 03-14-2013 |

20140029383 | SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR MIGRATION VELOCITY MODELING - A method of modifying a seismic image of a subsurface region includes identifying a location within the seismic image that includes a distortion, indicating a structural change associated with the distortion, that is selected to at least partially correct for the distortion, identifying a region causing the distortion in which corrections to a velocity model corresponding to the seismic image are to be applied, performing an inversion for the region in accordance with the indicated structural change, updating the velocity model on the basis of the inversion, and producing a modified seismic image on the basis of the updated velocity model. | 01-30-2014 |

20140153365 | SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR PRODUCING LOCAL IMAGES OF SUBSURFACE TARGETS - Full wavefield images are produced for a target within a geologic volume of interest from which seismic information has been acquired. The images are generated by generating Green's functions for wavefields propagating from a location at or near the target to the surface without requiring imaging of the entire geologic volume of interest. | 06-05-2014 |

20140153366 | SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR VELOCITY ANOMALY ANALYSIS - Methods of analyzing velocity models include defining velocity anomaly models for a subsurface region under study. The velocity anomaly model is overlain on a seismic stack image to produce a hybrid velocity/amplitude model. Regions in which stack amplitudes are coincident with velocity anomalies may be interpreted as representing structures of interest. In an embodiment, clathrate deposits are identified using the hybrid model. In an embodiment, geobodies are identified, and velocity anomalies are constrained by the geobodies for revising migration models. | 06-05-2014 |

20140153367 | SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR VELOCITY ANOMALY ANALYSIS - Methods of analyzing velocity models include defining velocity anomaly models for a subsurface region under study. The velocity anomaly model is overlain on a seismic stack image to produce a hybrid velocity/amplitude model. Regions in which stack amplitudes are coincident with velocity anomalies may be interpreted as representing structures of interest. In an embodiment, clathrate deposits are identified using the hybrid model. In an embodiment, geobodies are identified, and velocity anomalies are constrained by the geobodies for revising migration models. | 06-05-2014 |

20140098634 | Updating Microseismic Histogram Data - Systems, methods and software can be used for analyzing microseismic data collected from a fracturing treatment of a subterranean zone. In some aspects, a plurality of basic planes are each defined from a subset of the microseismic data and each have an orientation relative to a common axis. Clusters of orientations of the basic planes previously identified adaptively based on the extent of variation in the orientations can be updated with new data. The number of orientations associated with each of the clusters is then identified. | 04-10-2014 |

20140098635 | Identifying Orientation Clusters From Microseismic Data - Systems, methods and software can be used for analyzing microseismic data from a subterranean zone. In some aspects, a plurality of basic planes are each defined from a subset of the microseismic data and each have an orientation relative to a common axis. Clusters of orientations of the basic planes are identified adaptively based on the extent of variation in the orientations. The number of orientations associated with each of the clusters is then identified. | 04-10-2014 |

20140098638 | Identifying Fracture Planes From Microseismic Data - Systems, methods, and software can be used to identify fracture planes in a subterranean zone. In some aspects, data representing locations of microseismic events associated with a subterranean zone are received. Fracture plane parameters are calculated from the locations of the microseismic events. The fracture plane parameters are calculated based on a sum of weighted terms, and each of the weighted terms includes a weighting factor that decreases with a distance between at least one of the microseismic events and a fracture plane defined by the fracture plane parameters. | 04-10-2014 |

20140098636 | Managing Microseismic Data for Fracture Matching - Systems, methods, and software can be used to analyze microseismic data from a fracture treatment. In some aspects, stored data associate a fracture plane with a first plurality of microseismic events from a fracture treatment of a subterranean region. Additional stored data indicate an ordering of a second, different plurality of microseismic events from the fracture treatment. One of the second plurality of microseismic events is selected based on the ordering, and the fracture plane is updated based on the selected microseismic event. | 04-10-2014 |

20140098637 | Propagating Fracture Plane Updates - Systems, methods, and software can be used to update fracture planes based on microseismic data from a fracture treatment. In some aspects, a first fracture plane is updated based on a microseismic event in a microseismic data set associated with a fracture treatment. The first fracture plane is one of multiple previously-generated fracture planes. A second, different fracture plane of the previously-generated fracture planes is updated to account for information generated by updating the first fracture plane based on the microseismic event. | 04-10-2014 |

20130176822 | METHOD FOR ESTIMATING ELASTIC PARAMETERS BY INVERTING 4D SEISMIC MEASUREMENTS - According to the invention, elastic parameters, including density, pressure wave propagation speed, and/or shear in pervious layers located in a dense underground area along an array of horizontal positions, are estimated by inverting 4D seismic data. Firstly, an estimate of variations in the elastic parameters in one or more starting positions of the array, which can be located on bored wells within the area in question, is obtained. Then, a propagation algorithm is used in order to gradually carry out the 4D data inversion on the basis of the starting positions. The inversion takes into account the previously estimated parameter variations. A spatial variation in the depth and/or the thickness of the pervious lavers in question can also be taken into account. Propagation is based on positions that are consecutively selected as providing optimal values for a cost function assessed in order to invert the 4D data. | 07-11-2013 |

20140233352 | VELOCITY MODELS FOR PROCESSING SEISMIC DATA BASED ON BASIN MODELING - A method of developing a velocity model for processing a seismic dataset is implemented at a computer system having a processor and memory. The method includes: deriving a first velocity model from the seismic dataset; building a basin model based on the first velocity model and interpretation of the seismic dataset; validating the basin model using calibration data; deriving a second velocity model from the validated basin model; and updating the first velocity model based, at least in part, on the second velocity model. | 08-21-2014 |

20130279293 | VECTORIZATION OF FAST FOURIER TRANSFORM FOR ELASTIC WAVE PROPOGATION FOR USE IN SEISMIC UNDERWATER EXPLORATION OF GEOGRAPHICAL AREAS OF INTEREST - Numerical simulations of elastic wave propagation algorithms are critical components for seismic imaging and inversion. Finite-difference schemes yield good efficiency but cannot ensure the accuracy of the high frequency component. Pseudo-spectral algorithms are accurate up to the Nyquist frequency, but its efficiency depends on the optimization of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm. The conventional FFT algorithms are optimized for signal processing, in which problems are generally one dimensional time series. For 3D wave propagation, FFT algorithms have the potential to be further optimized. Under current computer hardware architecture, a vectorization scheme for high dimensional FFTs is presented. Compared to conventional numerical scheme implementations, the systems and methods disclose herein has the best performance on the slowest or higher dimensions of data. For elastic wave propagation, vectorization improves the efficiency by more than a factor of two when compared to standard FFT algorithms. | 10-24-2013 |

20100014384 | Method for Building Velocity Models for Pre-Stack Depth Migration via the Simultaneous Joint Inversion of Seismic, Gravity and Magnetotelluric Data - A method for quantitatively evaluating and using multiple geophysical datasets and external constraints for performing velocity model building through simultaneous Joint Inversion and finalized at the improvement of seismic depth images in particularly difficult geology and hydrocarbon high-risk exploration areas is disclosed, which involved the development of techniques: | 01-21-2010 |

20140112099 | METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR SEISMIC NOISE REDUCTION - Methods, apparatuses, and systems are disclosed that reduce seismic noise. In one embodiment, a method of processing seismic data includes accessing seismic data representative of a plurality of seismic input traces acquired by one or more seismic sensors. The method also includes stacking the plurality of seismic input traces into a stacked trace. The method also includes generating, utilizing at least one processor unit, a function of similarity between at least two of the plurality of seismic input traces. The method also includes scaling at least one of the seismic input traces or the stacked trace with the function of similarity. | 04-24-2014 |

20110292767 | DETERMINING A QUANTITY OF A GIVEN MATERIAL IN A SUBTERRANEAN STRUCTURE - A profile is produced based on measured survey data, where the profile contains indications corresponding to refraction events at different depths in a subterranean structure. Based on the profile and a critical angle model that correlates different concentrations of a given material to respective critical angles, a quantity of the given material in a subterranean structure at a particular depth is determined. | 12-01-2011 |

20100061184 | Common Reflection Azimuth Migration - Method for migration of seismic data into datasets having common azimuth angle at the reflection point. A velocity model is selected that prescribes subsurface P and/or S wave velocities including any required anisotropy parameters. ( | 03-11-2010 |

20120243373 | SEISMIC IMAGING APPARATUS UTILIZING MACRO-VELOCITY MODEL AND METHOD FOR THE SAME - There is provided a seismic imaging technology for imaging a subsurface structure by processing measured data reflected from the subsurface structure after a wave from a source wave has been propagated to the subsurface structure. According to an aspect, there is provided a seismic imaging method for obtaining imaging data of a subsurface structure through waveform inversion using a macro-velocity model as an initial value, wherein the macro-velocity model which is used as the initial value for the waveform inversion is calculated by: calculating a velocity difference function which is a difference between a real velocity and an initial velocity model, wherein the velocity difference function is a ratio of measured seismic scattered energy and modeled scattered energy based on the initial velocity model; and calculating the macro-velocity model by updating the initial velocity model with the velocity difference function. | 09-27-2012 |