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By changing physical characteristics (e.g., shape, size or contours) of an optical element

Subclass of:

359 - Optical: systems and elements

359237000 - OPTICAL MODULATOR

359238000 - Light wave temporal modulation (e.g., frequency, amplitude, etc.)

Patent class list (only not empty are listed)

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Class / Patent application numberDescriptionNumber of patent applications / Date published
359296000 Changing position or orientation of suspended particles 487
359291000 Shape or contour of light control surface altered 239
359297000 Light control surface formed or destroyed 12
Entries
DocumentTitleDate
20090195854REFLECTIVE SPATIAL LIGHT MODULATOR HAVING DUAL LAYER ELECTRODES AND METHOD OF FABRICATING SAME - A reflective spatial light modulator device features two pairs of electrodes formed on different metallization layers. Elevation of the upper electrode pair reduces its distance from the overlying reflecting surface, thereby requiring a smaller applied voltage to generate an equivalent electrostatic attractive force for altering or maintaining physical orientation of the reflecting surface relative to incident light. In one embodiment, the reduced distance between the electrode and reflecting surface allows operation at lower voltages, reducing the possibility of breakdown and avoiding the need for complex device designs to eliminate such breakdown. In another embodiment, the reduced distance between the electrode and the reflecting surface allows the use of stiffer hinges for the reflecting surface, thereby increasing the speed of device operation. Other embodiments can employ both reduced voltage operation and the use of stiffer hinge structures.08-06-2009
20110194168ELECTROWETTING DISPLAY DEVICE - The display device comprises a plurality of electrowetting elements. Each element comprises walls on a support plate for confining a first fluid to the space of the element. The walls of the electrowetting element cover a wall region of the support plate and the walls enclose a display region of the support plate. Each electrowetting element comprises an electrode arranged on the support plate, the electrodes of the electrowetting elements being coupled to reflective, strip-shaped signal lines, also arranged on the support plate. A first area of the signal lines is arranged in the wall region and a second area of the signal lines is arranged in the display region, where the first area is smaller than the second area.08-11-2011
20110194167MULTI-SEGMENTED DISPLAYS - A display comprises a block of optically transparent materials. Patterns are etched within the block. The patterns may be selectively illuminated by light directed into sides of the block. Barriers divide the block or layers within the block into segments. Patterns in different segments and/or in different layers of the block may be independently illuminated. In some embodiments the block is made up of a number of sheets of optically transmissive material. The block may permit viewing of display elements or other objects or things located behind the block. Patterns may be configured to scatter preferentially light of specific polarizations. Displays may be applied in a wide variety of applications including in vehicles, as displays on electronic devices and the like.08-11-2011
20130077152DISPLAY DEVICE HAVING MULTI-COLOURED DISPLAY ELEMENTS - The invention relates to a display apparatus having at least one electronically controllable display element that comprises: at least one nonpolar and at least two electrically conductive or polar liquids; a fluidically sealed volume having a visible sub-volume and at least two holding volumes connected fluidically to the visible sub-volume; and at least one voltage source that is applied to a first electrode arrangement; the visible sub-volume being of planar embodiment so that when the first electrode arrangement is in the zero-voltage state, the electrically conductive or polar liquids are drawn into the respective holding volume; and the display element furthermore comprising mechanical and/or electrical means for selectably retaining in their holding volumes those electrically conductive or polar liquids which are not intended to be moved into the visible sub-volume by an impingement of voltage on the first electrode arrangement.03-28-2013
20130077151POLARIZATION SCRAMBLING BASED ON CASCADED OPTICAL POLARIZATION DEVICES HAVING MODULATED OPTICAL RETARDATION - Techniques and devices use cascaded optical polarization devices having modulated optical retardation to control optical polarization of light and can be configured for polarization scrambling. Uniform rate scrambling and quasi-uniform rate scrambling modes are provided in described devices and rate-additive designs based on multiple cascaded devices are also disclosed to achieve high-speed scrambling.03-28-2013
20090122384CAPACITIVE MEMS DEVICE WITH PROGRAMMABLE OFFSET VOLTAGE CONTROL - A capacitive MEMS device is formed having a material between electrodes that traps and retains charges. The material can be realized in several configurations. It can be a multilayer dielectric stack with regions of different band gap energies or band energy levels. The dielectric materials can be trappy itself, i.e. when defects or trap sites are pre-fabricated in the material. Another configuration involves a thin layer of a conductive material with the energy level in the forbidden gap of the dielectric layer. The device may be programmed (i.e. offset and threshold voltages pre-set) by a method making advantageous use of charge storage in the material, wherein the interferometric modulator is pre-charged in such a way that the hysteresis curve shifts, and the actuation voltage threshold of the modulator is significantly lowered. During programming phase, charge transfer between the electrodes and the materials can be performed by applying voltage to the electrodes (i.e. applying electrical field across the material) or by UV-illumination and injection of electrical charges over the energy barrier. The interferometric modulator may then be retained in an actuated state with a significantly lower actuation voltage, thereby saving power.05-14-2009
20090161196SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR SPECKLE REDUCTION FROM A COHERENT LIGHT SOURCE IN A PROJECTION DEVICE - Embodiments of the present invention are directed to a system and method for reducing speckle phenomenon caused by a coherent light source. Particular embodiments of the present invention are directed to a system and method for temporally varying the interference pattern generated by a coherent light source to homogenize the speckle pattern so that the speckle phenomenon is less observable. In accordance with an exemplary embodiment, an oscillating refractive element may be disposed within an optical system to create a temporally variable phase shift in the lights rays emanating from a coherent light source to eliminate static interference patterns on a light receiving element, reducing the speckle phenomenon.06-25-2009
20100073756PATTERNED POLARIZATION-SENSITIVE OPTICAL ELEMENTS AND DEVICES USING THE SAME - In general, in one aspect, the invention features an apparatus that includes a plurality of optical elements arranged to form an image of an object. The elements include a first element comprising one or more regions of a polarizing material, the regions being shaped as one or more visual features, a polarizer, and a mounting assembly including a first mount for the first element and a second mount for the polarizer. At least the first or second mount is rotatable with respect to an optical axis between a first orientation and a second orientation. In the first orientation, the visual features are visible in the image of the object and, in the second orientation, the visual features are not visible in the image of the object.03-25-2010
20100039694SPATIAL LIGHT MODULATOR (SLM)-BASED OPTICAL ATTENUATOR - A method and apparatus are provided for attenuating an optical beam. The method includes selecting a level of attenuation to be applied to the optical beam. A pattern of on-state and off-state pixels in a two dimensional spatial light modulator (SLM) is selected such that the pattern will modulate the optical beam to provide the selected level of attenuation. Finally, the optical beam is directed onto the SLM while tile pixels are arranged in the selected pattern. The pattern is periodic along a first axis and symmetric along a second axis along which an intensity distribution of die optical beam extends.02-18-2010
20100103497Optoelectronic Device - An optoelectronic device for projecting a first beam (04-29-2010
20100097685Display device, method of manufacturing display device and electronic apparatus - A display device comprises a microcapsule-containing layer including a plurality of microcapsules. A variation of the outer diameters of the microcapsules can be defined by an average value and a CV value. Each of the microcapsules is comprised of: a shell having an inner surface; contact particles electrically charged and provided within the shell in an contact state that the contact particles are in contact with the inner surface of the shell; and a scattering body for scattering light; or a colored particles having a different hue from the hue of the contact particles. The display device further comprises a pair of electrodes that when an electrical voltage is applied to between the pair of electrodes, electrical fields to act on the contact particles are generated. The average value of the outer diameters of the microcapsules is in the range of 20 to 60 μm, and the CV value of the outer diameters of the microcapsules is 20% or less. In a case where the electrical voltage is applied to between the pair of electrodes, the contact particles are moved along the inner surface of the shell while maintaining the contact state with the inner surface of the shell.04-22-2010
20120262774ELECTRO-WETTING DISPLAY - An electro-wetting display includes a first substrate, a second substrate which faces the first substrate, and a fluid layer between the first and second substrates. The first substrate includes a plurality of gate lines, a plurality of data lines, and a plurality of pixels connected to the gate lines and the data lines. A fluid layer includes a first fluid layer having a color and a second fluid layer which is transparent. Each pixel includes a switching device, a pixel electrode in connection with the switching device, and a spacing electrode. The switching device is connected to an i-th gate line of the gate lines and a j-th data line of the data lines. The spacing electrode is adjacent to a side of the pixel electrode and in connection with a (i−1)th gate line of the gate lines.10-18-2012
20100027100Display with controlled formation of bubbles - The invention relates to a display apparatus including a first substrate supporting an array of light modulators, a second substrate separated from the first substrate by a gap, a fluid substantially filling the gap, sealing material joining the first substrate to the second substrate, and a bubble trapping region within a space enclosed by the sealing material for substantially constraining a location of a bubble trapped within the gap. In some embodiments, the bubble trapping region extends along a majority of a side of at least one of the substrates. In some embodiments, the fluid has a viscosity less than 70 centipoise.02-04-2010
20130027764Tunable Detection System - A tunable bandwidth selector is disclosed. The tunable bandwidth selector may include a plurality of spaced apart electron sheets which selectively separate a first bandwidth from an input spectrum.01-31-2013
20100067093MIRROR SYSTEM FOR A VEHICLE AND METHOD OF OPERATING SAID MIRROR SYSTEM - The present invention is directed to a mirror system for a vehicle, said mirror system having a viewing surface for being operable as a mirror, said mirror system comprising a specular reflective surface and means for controlling an amount of light transmitted between said specular reflective surface and said viewing surface, said means for controlling said amount of light transmitted comprising at least one transmission control element and control means for controlling said transmission control element, characterised in that said transmission control element is an electrowetting element. The present invention is further directed to a method of operating said mirror system.03-18-2010
20120182595PHOTONIC MEMS AND STRUCTURES - An interference modulator (IMod) incorporates anti-reflection coatings and/or micro-fabricated supplemental lighting sources. An efficient drive scheme is provided for matrix addressed arrays of IMods or other micromechanical devices. An improved color scheme provides greater flexibility. Electronic hardware can be field reconfigured to accommodate different display formats and/or application functions. An IMod's electromechanical behavior can be decoupled from its optical behavior. An improved actuation means is provided, some one of which may be hidden from view. An IMod or IMod array is fabricated and used in conjunction with a MEMS switch or switch array. An IMod can be used for optical switching and modulation. Some IMods incorporate 2-D and 3-D photonic structures. A variety of applications for modulation of light are discussed. A MEMS manufacturing and packaging approach is provided based on continuous web fed process. IMods can be used as test structures for evaluation of residual stress in deposited materials.07-19-2012
20120182594Microelectromechanical System (MEMS) Device, Method of Operating The Same, and Method of Forming the Same - A microelectromechanical system (MEMS) device, method of operating the MEMS device, and a method of forming the MEMS device are provided. The MEMS device includes a positioning mechanism and a locking mechanism. The positioning mechanism includes a first arm structure having a first surface and a second surface; a second arm structure having a first surface and a second surface; wherein the first surface of the first arm structure faces the first surface of the second arm structure. The positioning mechanism also includes a first actuator disposed adjacent to the second surface of the first arm structure facing away from the second arm structure; and a second actuator disposed adjacent to the second surface of the second arm structure facing away from the first arm structure. The locking mechanism includes a first pair of locking elements arranged such that each locking element is disposed at two opposite side surfaces of the first arm structure between the first and second surfaces of the first arm structure; and a second pair of locking elements arranged such that each locking element is disposed at two opposite side surfaces of the second arm structure between the first and second surfaces of the second arm structure. The first and second pairs of locking elements are configured to engage with and disengage from the first and second arm structures respectively.07-19-2012
20130050802ELECTROWETTING DEVICE AND METHOD OF MANUFACTURING THE SAME - In one embodiment, the electrowetting device includes a first medium; a second medium that is not mixed with the first medium and has a refractive index different from a refractive index of the first medium; an upper electrode that adjusts an angle of a boundary surface between the first medium and the second medium; and a barrier wall that has a side surface surrounding the first and second mediums, allows the upper electrode to be disposed on a portion of the side surface, and has irregular widths.02-28-2013
20130050801ELECTROWETTING DISPLAY APPARATUS - An electrowetting display apparatus includes an array substrate, an opposite substrate, and an electrowetting layer. The array substrate includes a base substrate having a plurality of pixel areas and a plurality of pixel electrodes respectively arranged in each of the pixel areas. The pixel electrodes in each pixel area are spaced apart from each other at regular intervals and each have an island pattern shape.02-28-2013
20130050799Single-Pass Imaging System Using Spatial Light Modulator Anamorphic Projection Optics - A single-pass imaging system for a printing apparatus capable of 1200 dpi or greater that includes a homogenous light generator for generating homogenous light from high energy IR lasers, a spatial light modulator including light modulating elements arranged in a two-dimensional array, and an anamorphic optical system. The light modulating elements are disposed such that each modulating element receives an associated homogenous light portion, and is individually adjustable between an “on” modulated state and an “off” modulated state, whereby in the “on” modulated state each modulating element modulates its received homogenous light portion such that an associated modulated light portion is directed onto a corresponding region of the anamorphic optical system. In the second modulated state, the associated homogenous light portion is prevented (e.g., blocked) from passing to the anamorphic optical system. The anamorphic optical system then anamorphically concentrates the modulated light portions to form a scan line image.02-28-2013
20130050800MULTIPLE LINE SINGLE-PASS IMAGING USING SPATIAL LIGHT MODULATOR AND ANAMORPHIC PROJECTION OPTICS - Two substantially one-dimensional scan line images are simultaneously generated by modulating a two-dimensional homogenous light field using a spatial light modulator having light modulating elements arranged in a plurality of rows and a plurality of columns. An upper group of modulating elements are configured using a first scan line image data group, and a lower group of modulating elements are configured using a second scan line image data group. The homogenous light source is then pulsed (toggled) to direct the two-dimensional homogenous light field onto the spatial light modulator. The resulting two-dimensional modulated light field is directed through an anamorphic optical system, which images and concentrates the modulated light on an imaging surface such that two parallel one-dimensional scan line images are simultaneously formed on the imaging surface.02-28-2013
20090303570Tunable cavity resonator and method for fabricating same - An example tunable cavity resonator for filtering radiation in the optical and IR wavelengths and an example method for fabricating same. The example resonator includes a pair of reflectors, one in fixed relationship to a substrate and the other formed upon a suspended moveable membrane disposed a cavity length from the one reflector. The resonator also includes a pair of spaced apart electrodes either constituted by the reflectors or juxtaposed therewith, which are electrostatically operable to move the membrane and other reflector relative to the one reflector.12-10-2009
20090303569SELF-TILTED MICROMIRROR DEVICE - A self-tilted micromirror device of the present invention comprises a plurality of micro-structures including a substrate, at least one stiction plate configured to be attracted to the substrate by adhesion force, a top plate coupled to the stiction plate elastically and configured to have at least one motion when the stiction plate is attracted to the substrate, and at least one pivot structure disposed between the substrate and the top plate and configured to provide a tilting point or area for the motion of the top plate. The motion of the top plate is determined by the geometry of the micro-structures of the self-tilted micromirror device.12-10-2009
20090040590MEMS DEVICE AND INTERCONNECTS FOR SAME - A microelectromechanical systems device having an electrical interconnect between circuitry outside the device and at least one of an electrode and a movable layer within the device. A layer of the electrical interconnect is formed directly under, over, or between a partially reflective layer and a transparent layer of the device. The layer of the electrical interconnect preferably comprises nickel.02-12-2009
20130057941ELECTROWETTING DISPLAY DEVICE - A method for making a support plate for an electrowetting device includes providing the support plate with a hydrophobic layer; arranging a pattern of hydrophilic material on the hydrophobic layer; and removing a surface layer of the hydrophobic layer by a solvent. The electrowetting device may include a support plate with a hydrophobic layer having a thickness, and a pattern of hydrophilic material arranged on a first area of the hydrophobic layer, the thickness of the hydrophobic layer being larger within the first area than outside the first area.03-07-2013
20130057940SURFACTANT AND METHOD OF MANUFACTURING AN ELECTROWETTING DISPLAY DEVICE USING THE SAME - A surfactant includes a hydrophobic functional group, a hydrophilic functional group and a linker disposed between the hydrophobic functional group and the hydrophilic functional group, and the linker is connected to the hydrophobic functional group and the hydrophilic functional group. The linker has a cleavable bond with a bond energy lower than a bond energy of a bond included in the hydrophilic functional group and a bond included in the hydrophobic functional group.03-07-2013
20110013255Electrowetting Device - An electrowetting device includes: a substrate having a non-hydrophobic insulating layer; a surrounding wall formed on an upper surface of the insulating layer; a microchamber surrounded by an inner surface of the surrounding wall and formed over the upper surface of the insulating layer; a hydrophobic coating layer that is applied to the inner surface of the surrounding wall and the upper surface of the insulating layer and that covers a seam between the inner surface and the upper surface; and a liquid disposed in the microchamber and on the hydrophobic coating layer.01-20-2011
20090237772OPTICAL ELEMENT, OPTICAL DEVICE, AND DISPLAY DEVICE - An optical element includes a plurality of first beam bodies arranged in a first direction on a first plane and being parallel to each other, and second beam bodies placed between adjacent ones of the first beam bodies and provided parallel to the first beam bodies. The first beam body has side surfaces which face the second beam bodies adjacent thereto and are sloped so that the width in the first direction gradually decreases to the upward direction perpendicular to the first plane, the second beam body has side surfaces which face the first beam bodies adjacent thereto and are sloped so that the width in the first direction gradually increases to the upward direction perpendicular to the first plane, and as viewed in the first direction, the spacing between the first beam body and the second beam body is variable.09-24-2009
20090231670DISPLAY ELEMENTS - A device comprises one or more dielectric layers, one side of the layer or layers being conductive. A hydrophobic layer is provided on the other side of the dielectric layer. First and second fluids are located on the surface of the hydrophobic layer, the fluids being immiscible with each other. The first fluid comprises at least one ionic liquid. The conductive layer and first fluid are arranged such that they can be electrically connected.09-17-2009
20090231668Mirror device with an anti-stiction layer - A micromirror device includes an elastic hinge for supporting a mirror on a substrate, and an address electrode for deflecting the mirror. The device further includes a protective layer and an oriented monolayer laid to cover a stopper also functioning as an address electrode provided below the mirror and between the mirror and the substrate.09-17-2009
20090231667Mirror device with an anti-stiction layer - A micromirror device includes an elastic hinge for supporting a mirror on a substrate, and an address electrode for deflecting the mirror. The device further includes a protective layer and an oriented monolayer laid to cover a stopper also functioning as an address electrode provided below the mirror and between the mirror and the substrate.09-17-2009
20090231666Microelectromechanical device with thermal expansion balancing layer or stiffening layer - An interferometric modulating device is provided with a thermal expansion balancing layer on a side of the movable flexible layer opposite the movable reflector such that when temperature changes the distance between the movable reflector and the optical stack does not change significantly, thereby leading to stable color. Additionally, an interferometric modulating device is provided with a stiffening layer between the movable flexible layer and the movable reflector and at least one hollow void exists on the surface where the movable reflector and the stiffening layer contact each other so that the movable reflector is more rigid to bending, thereby reducing the temperature sensitivity of the movable reflector.09-17-2009
20120113498Control Of Array Of Two-Dimensional Imaging Elements In Light Modulating Displays - Light emitting elements in an illumination unit of a display may be blanked during updates of pixels of a spatial light modulator (SLM). Updates of pixels in different segments of the SLM may be coordinated with blanking of corresponding segments of the illumination unit. Updating of segments of a light source (05-10-2012
20130188238INK CONTAINING HETEROCYCLIC AZO DYE, AND DYE FOR USE IN SAID INK - The invention relates to an ink which comprises: a low-polarity solvent having a relative permittivity of 3 or less at a measuring frequency of 1 kHz; and a specific heterocyclic azo dye.07-25-2013
20100172012SYSTEM AND METHOD OF REDUCING COLOR SHIFT IN A DISPLAY - A system and method of reducing color shift in a display includes an interferometric modulator display configured to reflect light from at least one light source and through at least one converging optical element in an optical path from the light source to a viewer via the display. In one embodiment, the converging optical element comprises a diffractive optical element.07-08-2010
20090195855MECHANICAL LIGHT MODULATORS WITH STRESSED BEAMS - The invention relates to a spatial light modulator including a substrate having a surface and a modulation assembly coupled to the substrate including a modulation element and a compliant beam. The modulation assembly is configured to limit the bending of the compliant beam towards an opposing surface that would otherwise be caused by inherent stresses within the compliant beam. The invention also relates to a method of manufacturing a spatial light modulator including the steps of forming and releasing a modulation assembly that has a modulation element and a compliant beam formed in a pre-release position to have an intended inherent stress state. As a result of the stress state in the compliant beam, upon release of the compliant beam, the compliant beam bends into a rest position which is different than the pre-release position, where the rest position is based in part on the intended inherent stress state.08-06-2009
20090040592Unique Method for Manufacturing a Digital Micromirror Device and a Method of Manufacturing a Projection Display System Using the Same - The present invention provides a method for manufacturing a digital micromirror device and a method for manufacturing a projection display system. The method for manufacturing the digital micromirror device, without limitation, may include providing a material stack, the material stack including a spacer layer having one or more openings therein and located over control circuitry located on or in a semiconductor substrate, a layer of hinge material located over the spacer layer and within the one or more openings, and a layer of hinge support material located over the layer of hinge material and within the one or more openings. The method may further include patterning the layer of hinge support material using photoresist, patterning the layer of hinge material using the patterned layer of hinge support material as a hardmask, and removing the patterned layer of hinge support material from over an upper surface of the patterned layer of hinge material.02-12-2009
20090080057COLOR WHEEL - A color wheel for use in a DLP projector includes a rotating disk, a color filter, a sensor, and a processor. The rotating disk has two end surfaces, a circumferential side surface extending between the two end surfaces, and a timing mark arranged on the side surface thereof. The color filter is mounted on an end surface of the rotating disk for jointly rotating with the rotating disk. The sensor faces toward the side surface of the rotating disk and is configured for determine a position of the timing mark relative to the color filter. The sensor has a casing defining a light inlet for receiving light reflected from the rotating portion. A shield is disposed around the light inlet of the sensor for preventing stray light coming into the sensor. The processor is electrically connected to the sensor for regarding the color index position of the color filter.03-26-2009
20090310208METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PROVIDING BACK-LIGHTING IN A DISPLAY DEVICE - Methods and apparatus for providing lighting in a display are provided. In one embodiment, a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) is provided that includes a transparent substrate and a plurality of interferometric modulators. The interferometric modulators include an optical stack coupled to the transparent substrate, a reflective layer over the optical stack, and one or more posts to support the reflective layer and to provide a path for light from a backlight for lighting the display.12-17-2009
20100014146ENCAPSULATION METHODS FOR INTERFEROMETRIC MODULATOR AND MEMS DEVICES - Methods and devices used for the encapsulation of MEMS devices, such as an interferometric modulator, are disclosed. Encapsulation is provided to MEMS devices to protect the devices from such environmental hazards as moisture and mechanical shock. In addition to the encapsulation layer providing protection from environmental hazards, the encapsulation layer is additionally planarized so as to function as a substrate for additional circuit elements formed above the encapsulation layer.01-21-2010
20110026094Pixel Based Gobo Record Control Format - A special record format used for commanding light pattern shapes and addressable light pattern shape generator. The command format includes a first part which commands a specified gobo and second parts which command the characteristics of that hobo. The gobo is formed by making a default gobo based on the type and modifying that default gobo to fit the characteristics.02-03-2011
20090080059Spatial light modulator - The present invention provides a spatial light modulator, comprising: a plurality of pixel units configured as a pixel array wherein each of the pixel units further comprises a memory circuit. The spatial light modulator further includes a bit line for transmitting a data signal to the memory circuit. The spatial light modulator further includes a word line for selecting and writing the data signal to the selected memory circuit. The spatial light modulator further includes a plate line for controlling the memory; and an address decoder for selecting the plate line, wherein the address decoder comprises an address judgment unit constituted by a plurality of first judgment units and further includes a second judgment unit for changing an output from the second judgment unit depending on a result generated by the first judgment unit.03-26-2009
20120099175REDUCTION OF THE DYNAMIC DEFORMATION OF TRANSLATIONAL MIRRORS USING INERTIAL MASSES - A micromechanical mirror arrangement comprising a mirror plate (04-26-2012
20120099174METHOD OF FABRICATING MEMS DEVICES (SUCH AS IMod) COMPRISING USING A GAS PHASE ETCHANT TO REMOVE A LAYER - Improvements in an interferometric modulator that cavity defined by two walls.04-26-2012
20120105936MICROMIRROR UNIT AND METHOD OF MAKING THE SAME - A method is provided for making a micromirror unit which includes a frame, a mirror forming base, and bridges connecting the frame to the mirror forming base. The method includes the following steps. First, a first mask pattern is formed on a substrate for masking portions of the substrate which are processed into the frame and the mirror forming base. Then, a second mask pattern is formed on the substrate for masking portions of the substrate which are processed into the bridges. Then, the substrate is subjected to a first etching process with the first and the second mask patterns present as masking means. Then, the second mask pattern is removed selectively. Then, the substrate is subjected to a second etching process with the first mask pattern present as masking means. Finally, the first mask pattern is removed.05-03-2012
20110286073DUAL DISPLAY - A dual display is disclosed, including a first substrate and a second substrate comprising a plurality of pixels, wherein each pixel comprises a plurality of subpixels. The first substrate comprises a reflective region and a transmissive region for each subpixel, and a first color fluid is movable by an electric field on the reflective region and the transmissive region of a first subpixel, wherein when the first color fluid covers the transmissive region, the dual display provides a first viewing side at the first substrate side under a transmissive mode, and when the first color fluid covers the reflective region or covers the reflective region and the transmissive region, the dual display provides a second viewing side at the second substrate side under a reflective mode.11-24-2011
20110286072METHOD AND STRUCTURE CAPABLE OF CHANGING COLOR SATURATION - Various embodiments include an interferometric modulator device configured to provide improved saturation. In some embodiments, saturation is improved by optically matching the impedance of two materials with different refractive indices using a multilayer having a refractive index gradient. In various embodiments, the thickness one or more of the layers in the multilayer are selected to provide increased saturation. Accordingly, in various embodiments the multilayer having a refractive index gradient helps to narrow the resonance of a pixel such that the band of wavelengths that are reflected from the pixel is smaller. In turn, a device including a combination of red, green and blue pixels may expand the spectrum of colors that are reflected by the device in operation. Additionally, there may be better contrast between whites and blacks, as darker blacks with less hue are produced.11-24-2011
20110292489HUMAN-READABLE, BI-STATE ENVIRONMENTAL SENSORS BASED ON MICRO-MECHANICAL MEMBRANES - An environmental sensing device includes an interferometric modulator which permanently actuates, in a visually-detectable manner, in response to being exposed to a predetermined environmental threshold or condition. The device can include a reactive layer, coating, or proof mass disposed on a movable member of the interferometric modulator. The reactive layer, coating, or proof mass can expand, contract, bend, or otherwise move when exposed to a predefined chemical, level of humidity, temperature threshold, type of radiation, and/or level of mechanical shock, causing the interferometric modulator to collapse and permanently indicate such exposure.12-01-2011
20090103164Spacers for maintaining display apparatus alignment - The invention relates to methods and apparatus for forming a display apparatus. According to one aspect of the invention, the display apparatus includes a first substrate having an aperture layer formed thereon, a light guide for guiding light towards the aperture layer, a plurality of MEMS light modulators for modulating light passing through the aperture layer from the light guide, and a spacer substantially surrounding the light guide for keeping the light guide and the first substrate a predetermined distance apart from one another, thereby forming a gap between the first substrate and the light guide. Alternatively or in addition, the first substrate may have a control matrix formed thereon.04-23-2009
20090168144ELECTROWETTING DISPLAY DEVICES AND FABRICATION METHODS THEREOF - Electrowetting display devices and fabrication methods thereof are presented. The electrowetting display device includes a first substrate and a second substrate with a polar fluid layer and a non-polar fluid layer insolvable to each other and interposed between the first and second substrates. A first transparent electrode is disposed on the first substrate. A second electrode is disposed on the second substrate. A dielectric layer is disposed on the second electrode. A hydrophilic partition wall structure is directly disposed on the dielectric layer defining a plurality of pixel regions. A layer of low surface energy material is disposed on the dielectric layer within each of the pixel region.07-02-2009
20100033798ELECTROWETTING DISPLAY DEVICE - An electrowetting display device includes a first and a second transparent substrates, multiple partition walls, a polar liquid, a non-polar liquid, and a phosphor layer. The non-polar liquid is opaque and immiscible with the polar liquid. The phosphor layer is formed on at least one of the first and the second transparent substrates. The phosphor layer comprises a first part that transforms the short-wavelength light into red light, a second part that transforms the short-wavelength light into green light, and a third part that transforms the short-wavelength light into blue light or allows the short-wavelength light to pass therethrough without transformation. Each of the first, the second, and the third parts is corresponding to one pixel unit.02-11-2010
20110216391Security Element - The invention relates to a security element including at least one display element for non-resettable visible display of information, wherein said display element comprises a first and a second volume which are fluidically connected via at least one duct, and only one electrically controllable electrode which is associated to one of said volumes and is configured, when charged with an electric voltage, to vary the surface tension of a liquid which is present in said associated volume, wherein said liquid comprises at least an electrically conducting and/or polar and a non-polar fraction, and at least said electrically conducting fraction being completely and in a stable manner provided in that of both volumes which is not associated with an electrode and wherein said electrically conducting and/or polar fraction may be moved irreversibly and at least partly due to a single charging of the electrode into the volume which is associated with an electrode.09-08-2011
20090201566DEVICE HAVING A CONDUCTIVE LIGHT ABSORBING MASK AND METHOD FOR FABRICATING SAME - A system and method for an optical component that masks non-active portions of a display and provides an electrical path for one or more display circuits. In one embodiment an optical device includes a substrate, a plurality of optical elements on the substrate, each optical element having an optical characteristic which changes in response to a voltage applied to the optical element, and a light-absorbing, electrically-conductive optical mask disposed on the substrate and offset from the plurality of optical elements, the optical mask electrically coupled to one or more of the optical elements to provide electrical paths for applying voltages to the optical elements. In another embodiment, a method of providing an electrical signal to optical elements of a display comprises electrically coupling an electrically-conductive light-absorbing mask to one or more optical elements, and applying a voltage to the mask to activate the one or more optical elements.08-13-2009
20110170164TUNABLE THIN-FILM FILTER - An optical filter is provided, including a first plurality and second plurality of alternating first and second material layers, where the first plurality of layers is at a first angle to incident light and has a cut-on edge, and the second plurality of layers is at a second angle to the incident light and a cut-off edge; where polarization splitting of the first plurality of layers at the cut-on edge and polarization splitting of the second plurality of layers at the cut-off edge do not exceed approximately 1 percent for any first and second angle between approximately 0 and 40 degrees; and the s-stopband wavelength of the second plurality of layers is approximately less than or equal to the cut-on edge wavelength, which is less than the cut-off edge wavelength, which is approximately less than or equal to the s-stopband wavelength of the first plurality of layers.07-14-2011
20080291524Mirror device - A mirror device comprises: an electrode placed on a substrate; a hinge which is connected to the electrode and which has a flat part at an end part on a side opposite to the electrode; and a mirror placed on the flat part, wherein a protrusion part formed on the flat part is placed between the flat part and the mirror.11-27-2008
20100085625ELECTROMECHANICAL DEVICE WITH OPTICAL FUNCTION SEPARATED FROM MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL FUNCTION - In certain embodiments, a microelectromechanical (MEMS) device comprises a substrate having a top surface, a movable element over the substrate, and an actuation electrode disposed laterally from the reflective surface. The movable element comprises a deformable layer and a reflective element mechanically coupled to the deformable layer. The reflective element includes a reflective surface. The movable element is responsive to a voltage difference applied between the actuation electrode and the movable element by moving in a direction generally perpendicular to the top surface of the substrate.04-08-2010
20100079847MULTI-THICKNESS LAYERS FOR MEMS AND MASK-SAVING SEQUENCE FOR SAME - In various embodiments described herein, methods for forming a plurality of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices on a substrate are described. The MEMS devices comprise x number of different sacrificial or mechanical structures with x number of different sacrificial structure thicknesses or mechanical structure stiffnesses and wherein the x number of sacrificial or mechanical structures are formed by x-1 depositions and x-1 masks.04-01-2010
20090052008OPTICAL MODULATOR - A micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems (MOEMS) electro optical modulator (02-26-2009
20110267678Variable Spectral Filter Apparatus - A variable spectral filter apparatus has a filter support rotatable about a single axis of rotation and has at least first and second transmissive spectral filters, each spectral filter having a filter width defined by its first and second edges, wherein the filter width is orthogonal to the axis. The first edges of the filters are equidistant from the axis of rotation when the filter support is rotated to any angle. The plane of each of the spectral filters is parallel to the axis. Rotational positions of the filter support about the axis of rotation, over a first 60 degree range of angles, define, between the first and second edges of at least the first spectral filter, an undeviated filtered light path of at least half the filter width that extends orthogonally with respect to the axis. A rotational actuator is energizable to rotate the filter support about the axis.11-03-2011
20130215492ELECTROWETTING DEVICES ON FLAT AND FLEXIBLE PAPER SUBSTRATES - Electro wetting devices and methods. The electro wetting device 08-22-2013
20090046348Imaging Apparatus for Influencing Impinging Light - An imaging apparatus for influencing impinging light comprising an optical element and an actuator for deforming the optical element is proposed. The optical element has a surface facing the impinging light and the actuator (02-19-2009
20120268805TRI WAVELENGTH DIFFRACTION MODULATOR AND A METHOD FOR MODULATION - The present invention relates to a tri wavelength diffraction modulator (TWDM) and a method of tri wavelength diffraction modulation. The tri wavelength diffraction modulator includes: a stationary substrate with a bottom electrode plate formed on top of the stationary substrate; a first electrode plate comprising a first suspended beam suspended in parallel above the stationary substrate and a first connection anchored onto the stationary substrate; and a second electrode plate comprising a second suspended beam suspended in parallel above the first electrode plate and a second connection anchored onto the stationary substrate. The diffraction modulator and the method for diffraction modulation are suitable to projection system.10-25-2012
20120268804ACTIVE MATRIX DEVICE AND METHOD OF DRIVING THE SAME - An electrowetting on dielectric (EWOD) device which includes a plurality of array elements configured to manipulate one or more droplets of fluid on an array, each of the array elements including a corresponding array element driver circuit, wherein each array element driver circuit includes: a top substrate electrode and a first drive electrode between which the one or more droplets may be positioned, the top substrate electrode being formed on a top substrate, and the first drive electrode being formed on a lower substrate; and circuitry configured to selectively provide drive voltages to the first drive electrode to move the one or more droplets among the plurality of array elements, and wherein at least one of the plurality of array elements includes: a heater element also formed on the lower substrate and configured to heat the one or more droplets when positioned between the top substrate electrode and the first drive electrode of the at least one array element; and circuitry configured to control the heater element.10-25-2012
20090201565DEVICES AND METHODS FOR ENHANCING BRIGHTNESS OF DISPLAYS USING ANGLE CONVERSION LAYERS - Various embodiments of the present invention relate to enhancing the brightness of displays that employ illumination systems. In some embodiments, the illumination systems include light guides, diffractive microstructure, and light-turning features. The diffractive microstructure may be configured to receive ambient light at a first angle and produce diffracted light at a second angle greater than the first angle and greater than the critical angle for of light guide. The light is thereby guided within the light guide. The light-turning features may be configured to turn the light guided within the light guide out of a light guide and onto, for example, a spatial light modulator at near normal incidence.08-13-2009
20090284823METHOD OF OPERATING A MICROMECHANICAL DEVICE THAT CONTAINS ANTI-STICTION GAS-PHASE LUBRICANT - One embodiment of an micromechanical device includes a first contact surface, a moveable component having a second contact surface, and a coating of liquid or solid lubricant on at least one of the contact surfaces, where the second contact surface interacts with the first contact surface during device operation, and a gas-phase lubricant is disposed between the first contact surface and the second contact surface, where the gas-phase lubricant is adapted to increase the usable lifetime of the liquid or solid lubricant coating on the contact surfaces. One advantage of the disclosed device is that a gas-phase lubricant has a high diffusion rate and, therefore, is self-replenishing, meaning that it can quickly move back into a contact region after being physically displaced from the region by the contacting surfaces of the device during operation. Consequently, the gas-phase lubricant used with conventional solid or liquid lubricants is more reliable than solid or liquid lubricants used alone in preventing stiction-related device failures.11-19-2009
20110170168ELECTROMECHANICAL DEVICE WITH OPTICAL FUNCTION SEPARATED FROM MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL FUNCTION - In certain embodiments, a microelectromechanical (MEMS) device includes a movable element over the substrate and an actuation electrode. The movable element includes an electrically conductive deformable layer and a reflective element mechanically coupled to the deformable layer. The reflective element includes a reflective surface. The actuation electrode is under at least a portion of the deformable layer and is disposed laterally from the reflective surface. The movable element is responsive to a voltage difference applied between the actuation electrode and the movable element by moving towards the actuation electrode.07-14-2011
20110170167METHOD FOR MODULATING LIGHT WITH MULTIPLE ELECTRODES - Improvements in an interferometric modulator that has a cavity defined by two walls.07-14-2011
20110170166DEVICE FOR MODULATING LIGHT WITH MULTIPLE ELECTRODES - Improvements in an interferometric modulator that has a cavity defined by two walls.07-14-2011
20110170165FLUID DISPLAY DEVICE HAVING A CENTRAL RESERVOIR - The invention relates to a display device based on the use of fluids for visualizing information. In order to ensure simple exchangeability of fluids, the invention provides a central fluid reservoir which may be utilized in combination with a fluid display device of any desired design. For this purpose, the central fluid reservoir is coupled to the fluid display elements, which can be refilled with the colored fluid.07-14-2011
20090273823METHOD OF MANUFACTURING MEMS DEVICES PROVIDING AIR GAP CONTROL - Methods and apparatus are provided for controlling a depth of a cavity between two layers of a light modulating device. A method of making a light modulating device includes providing a substrate, forming a sacrificial layer over at least a portion of the substrate, forming a reflective layer over at least a portion of the sacrificial layer, and forming one or more flexure controllers over the substrate, the flexure controllers configured so as to operably support the reflective layer and to form cavities, upon removal of the sacrificial layer, of a depth measurably different than the thickness of the sacrificial layer, wherein the depth is measured perpendicular to the substrate.11-05-2009
20090262412METHOD OF FABRICATING INTERFEROMETRIC DEVICES USING LIFT-OFF PROCESSING TECHNIQUES - Embodiments of the present disclosure include a method of fabricating interferometric devices using lift-off processing techniques. Use of lift-off processing in the fabrication of various layers of interferometric modulators, such as an optical stack or a flex layer, advantageously avoids individualized chemistries associated with the plurality of materials associated with each layer thereof. Moreover, use of lift-off processing allows much greater selection in both materials and facilities available for fabrication of interferometric modulators.10-22-2009
20090279162PHOTONIC MEMS AND STRUCTURES - An optical device includes a non-transparent substrate. The optical device further includes a first optical layer which is at least partially transmissive and at least partially reflective to incident light. The optical device further includes a second optical layer which is at least partially reflective to incident light. The second optical layer is spaced from the first optical layer. At least one of the first optical layer and the second optical layer is movable between a first position at a first distance from the first optical layer and a second position at a second distance from the first optical layer. Movement of the at least one of the first optical layer and the second optical layer between the first and second positions modulates the reflectivity of the device.11-12-2009
20090207473DEVICE HAVING POWER GENERATING BLACK MASK AND METHOD OF FABRICATING THE SAME - A power generating black mask comprising an anti-reflection layer deposited over a substrate, a first electrode layer deposited over the anti-reflection layer, a semi-conductor layer deposited over the first electrode layer and a second electrode layer deposited over the semi-conductor layer.08-20-2009
20100134869OPTICAL DEVICE WITH A PAIR OF DIFFRACTIVE OPTICAL ELEMENTS - The present invention provides an optical device comprising a pair of specifically designed plate-like diffractive optical elements successively arranged in parallel to each other.,. Placing the two diffractive optical elements in succession and in parallel to each other in a certain distance, the combination optically corresponds to a single diffractive optical element, and it can perform similar tasks, acting as a lens, an axicon, a phase shifter, or a spiral phase plate. If one of the diffractive optical elements is rotated with respect to the other around a common central axis, the property of the optical device, like the focal length, the refractive power, helical index, or phase shift changes continuously.06-03-2010
20110199667METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR LIGHTING A DISPLAY DEVICE - Methods and apparatus for providing lighting in a display are provided. In one embodiment, a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) is provided that includes a transparent substrate and a plurality of interferometric modulators. The interferometric modulators include an optical stack coupled to the transparent substrate, a reflective layer over the optical stack, and one or more posts to support the reflective layer and to provide a path for light from a backlight for lighting the display.08-18-2011
20110205615MEMS DEVICES WITH MULTI-COMPONENT SACRIFICIAL LAYERS - Methods of forming a protective coating on one or more surfaces of a microelectromechanical device are disclosed comprising the steps of forming a composite layer of a sacrificial material and a protective material, and selectively etching the sacrificial material to form a protective coating. The protective coatings of the invention preferably improve one or more aspects of the performance of the microelectromechanical devices in which they are incorporated. Also disclosed are microelectromechanical devices formed by methods of the invention, and visual display devices incorporating such devices.08-25-2011
20100060972METHOD AND CIRCUIT FOR ENCODING MULTI-LEVEL PULSE AMPLITUDE MODULATED SIGNALS USING INTEGRATED OPTOELECTRONIC DEVICES - Methods and systems for encoding multi-level pulse amplitude modulated signals using integrated optoelectronics are disclosed and may include generating a multi-level, amplitude-modulated optical signal utilizing an optical modulator driven by two or more electrical input signals. The optical modulator may include optical modulator elements coupled in series and configured into groups. The number of optical modular elements and groups may configure the number of levels in the multi-level amplitude modulated optical signal. Unit drivers may be coupled to each of the groups. The electrical input signals may be synchronized before communicating them to the unit drivers utilizing flip-flops. Phase addition may be synchronized utilizing one or more electrical delay lines. The optical modulator may be integrated on a single substrate, which may include one of: silicon, gallium arsenide, germanium, indium gallium arsenide, polymers, or indium phosphide. The optical modulator may include a Mach-Zehnder interferometer or one or more ring modulators.03-11-2010
20080231936Display system comprising a mirror device with micromirrors controlled to operate in intermediate oscillating state - A display system includes a spatial light modulator for displaying a image by the modulation state of a plurality of micromirrors, and a control device for controlling the spatial light modulator. The control device includes a data conversion device for converting the digital image data into non-binary data, and a modulation-control device for generating a modulation control signal for micromirrors depending on the non-binary data, and controlling the spatial light modulator. The modulation state of the micromirrors by the modulation control signal includes modulation by oscillation of the micromirrors. The modulation control signal controls amplitude of the oscillation to be smaller than the maximum amplitude of the micromirrors in the modulation by the oscillation of the micromirrors. The oscillation having smaller amplitude than the maximum amplitude of the micromirrors is repeated by the modulation control signal in an optional time duration or frequency.09-25-2008
20100014147PRODUCTION METHOD FOR A MICROMECHNICAL COMPONENT, AND A MICROMECHANICAL COMPONENT - A production method for a micromechanical component and a micromechanical component apparatus are provided encompassing the steps of: forming a housing having an incident light window, forming a multitude of optically active surfaces on a wafer, subdividing the wafer into a multitude of chips having at least one optically active surface in each case, which surface is designed in such a way that, at least in a deactivated operating mode of the chip, the optically active surface is situated in an initial position with respect to the chip, and affixing at least one of the chips inside the housing, the optically active surface of the chip in its initial position being aligned at an angle of inclination that is not equal to 0° and not equal to 180° with respect to the incident light window.01-21-2010
20080310008METHOD OF PATTERNING MECHANICAL LAYER FOR MEMS STRUCTURES - A method of making a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) device is disclosed. The method includes forming a stationary layer over a substrate. A sacrificial layer is formed over the stationary layer. The sacrificial layer is formed of a first material. A mechanical layer is formed over the sacrificial layer. A hard mask layer is formed over the mechanical layer. The hard mask layer is formed of a second material. The first and second materials are etchable by a single etchant which is substantially selective for etching the first and second materials relative to the mechanical layer. The hard mask layer is patterned after forming the hard mask layer. Subsequently, the mechanical layer is etched through the patterned hard mask layer. The patterned hard mask layer is removed simultaneously with the sacrificial layer after etching the mechanical layer.12-18-2008
20080285111Mirror device - A mirror device, comprising: a mirror; an electrode which is placed on a substrate and on which surface a cavity is formed; and a hinge placed between the mirror and electrode, wherein the hinge is connected to the cavity of the electrode.11-20-2008
20080239454Mirror device - A spatial light modulator supported on a device substrate includes a plurality of light modulation elements to modulate a light emitted from a light source. The spatial light modulator and the device substrate further comprises a cyclic structure on a surface of the spatial light modulator and/or the device substrate for preventing a reflection of the incident light from the cyclic structure. In an exemplary embodiment the cyclic structure includes cyclic structural elements having a distance between two cyclic elements shorter than the wavelength of an incident light for preventing a reflection of the incident light from the cyclic structure.10-02-2008
20100309540METHOD AND DEVICE FOR PROVIDING ILLUMINATION TO INTERFEROMETRIC MODULATORS - An Interferometric Modulator (IMod) is a microelectromechanical device for modulating light using interference. The colors of these devices may be determined in a spatial fashion, and their inherent color shift may be compensated for using several optical compensation mechanisms. Brightness, addressing, and driving of IMods may be accomplished in a variety of ways with appropriate packaging, and peripheral electronics which can be attached and/or fabricated using one of many techniques. The devices may be used in both embedded and directly perceived applications, the latter providing multiple viewing modes as well as a multitude of product concepts ranging in size from microscopic to architectural in scope.12-09-2010
20100265563ELECTROMECHANICAL DEVICE CONFIGURED TO MINIMIZE STRESS-RELATED DEFORMATION AND METHODS FOR FABRICATING SAME - Embodiments of MEMS devices include a movable layer supported by overlying support structures, and may also include underlying support structures. In one embodiment, the residual stresses within the overlying support structures and the movable layer are substantially equal. In another embodiment, the residual stresses within the overlying support structures and the underlying support structures are substantially equal. In certain embodiments, substantially equal residual stresses are be obtained through the use of layers made from the same materials having the same thicknesses. In further embodiments, substantially equal residual stresses are obtained through the use of support structures and/or movable layers which are mirror images of one another.10-21-2010
20090180171Projection apparatus using micromirror device - A projection apparatus comprising a micromirror device for reflecting and modulating a light emitted from a light source to project a display an image on a display screen. The projection apparatus further includes a projection optical system comprises an adjustable aperture for adjusting an aperture ratio to control an amount of output light reflected from the micromirror device to the image display screen.07-16-2009
20100271687DISPLAY ELEMENT AND ELECTRONIC PAPER - There are provided a display element and electronic paper. The display element includes a structure having a cylindrical shape and including a void inside, and at least two display regions formed on a side face of the structure and colored with different colors. The use of the display element for electronic paper can improve a response rate while lowering driving voltage, and can improve a contrast ratio by increasing a packing fraction.10-28-2010
20090190201MICROMIRROR DEVICE - A micromirror device includes a first member, a second member, joining members joining the first and second members, and a spacer placed between the first and second members. The spacer includes a first surface in surface contact with the first member, a second surface parallel to the first surface and in surface contact with the second member, at least one first through hole, and second through holes, the first and second through holes extending between the first and second surfaces. The joining members include at least one first joining member accommodated in the first through hole and second joining members accommodated in the second through holes. The first through hole restrains movement of the first joining member in any direction parallel to the first and second surfaces. The second through holes allow movement of the second joining members in at least one direction parallel to the first and second surfaces.07-30-2009
20090086305MEMS SWITCH WITH SET AND LATCH ELECTRODES - A MEMS device is electrically actuated with a voltage placed across a first electrode and a moveable material. The device may be maintained in an actuated state by latch electrodes that are separate from the first electrode.04-02-2009
20090128885Spatial light modulator and mirror array device - The present invention provides a spatial light modulator, comprising: a plurality of mirror elements; a plurality of address electrodes for controlling the movement of each of the mirror elements; and first and second control circuits for generating a voltage in the address electrode, wherein the second control circuit applies a voltage to the address electrode when the mirror element is in a moving state.05-21-2009
20090128884Spatial light modulator implemented with a mirror array device - The present invention provides a spatial light modulator, comprising: a plurality of row lines each connected to a plurality of memory circuits; and a plurality of word lines and a plurality of plate lines connected to the memory circuits for selecting and controlling sets of the memory circuits connected to the selected row lines at pre-designated times for each of the row lines.05-21-2009
20090128883Display apparatus using pulsed light source - The present invention provides a display apparatus, comprising: a light source; at least one spatial light modulator for modulating a luminous flux emitted from the light source; and controller for processing video image information, which is input, and controlling the light source and the spatial light modulator, wherein the controller controls the light source and the spatial light modulator so as to perform pulse emission of the light source during a period shorter than a period in which the spatial light modulator is controlled under a modulation state and also controls the light source so as to modulate the pulse emission during a period shorter than a period in which the spatial light modulator is controlled under a modulation state.05-21-2009
20120069421OPTICAL FILTER AND LIGHT SPLITTING METHOD OF THE OPTICAL FILTER - An optical filter and a light splitter includes a beam incidence portion, a programmable Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) grating, a beam receiving portion, and a drive and control module. Relative positions of the beam incidence portion, the programmable MEMS grating, and the beam receiving portion are fixed and are configured so that the beam receiving portion is located in an emergence direction of the multi-wavelength beam after the multi-wavelength beam is incident onto the programmable MEMS grating from the beam incidence portion so that the beam receiving portion is capable of receiving a beam with a specific wavelength. The optical filter is capable of freely and conveniently selecting the beams with a specific wavelength, and meanwhile, the optical filter has the advantages of a small size, and being easily controlled and integrated.03-22-2012
20130120825HEADS-UP DISPLAY SYSTEM UTILIZING CONTROLLED REFLECTIONS FROM A DASHBOARD SURFACE - A heads-up display system is configured for use in a vehicle. The system includes a standard vehicle window (i.e. no special coatings), an image projector, and a vehicle dashboard equipped with a faceted reflective surface. The image projector is configured to project an image onto the faceted reflective surface. The faceted reflective surface is configured to reflect the image from the image projector onto a window surface of the standard vehicle window. The window surface is oriented to reflect the image from the faceted reflective surface toward an occupant. The faceted reflective surface may be disposed within a plurality of troughs separated by a plurality of diffuse reflecting partitions. The plurality of troughs may be configured to shield the occupant from extraneous reflections. The faceted reflective surface may include a plurality of electrically controlled facets. The plurality of electrically controlled reflective facets may be an array of electrowetting cells.05-16-2013
20130120826IN-BAND SIGNALING IN OPTICAL CROSS-CONNECT SWITCH USING FREQUENCY MODULATION - In a multiple-axis free-space-coupled single-mode fiber-optic transmission system, such as an optical cross-connect switch, a method and apparatus are provided for the closed loop attenuation of optical beam power signals employed to align and cause dithering via MEMS mirrors which are manipulated to impose on the optical beam frequency modulation and, in particular, a time-varying set of induced mirror angles that yield a desired time history of optical power level that is modulated according to a digital code in the frequency modulation pattern.05-16-2013
20090185257Mirror device having vertical hinge - The present invention provides a mirror device, comprising: a substrate; a mirror disposed approximately in parallel to the substrate above the substrate; and a hinge supported on and extended approximately perpendicularly from the substrate for supporting the mirror, wherein the hinge is connected to the mirror with a first edge part of the hinge buried in the mirror.07-23-2009
20090141334ELECTRONIC DEVICE HOUSING HAVING TUNABLE METALLIC APPEARANCE - An electronic device (06-04-2009
20090080058Devices and methods for enhancing color shift of interferometric modulators - The color reflected by an interferometric modulator may vary as a function of the angle of view. A range of colors are thus viewable by rotating the interferometric modulator relative to an observer. By placing a textured layer between an observer and an interferometric modulator, a pattern which includes the range of colors may be viewed by the observer, and the range of colors may thus be viewable from a single viewing angle.03-26-2009
20110141546TUNABLE NANOWIRE RESONANT CAVITY FOR OPTICAL MODULATION - A resonant cavity with tunable nanowire. The resonant cavity includes a substrate. The substrate is coupleable to an optical resonator structure. The resonant cavity also includes a plurality of nanowires formed on the substrate. The plurality of nanowires is actuated in response to an application of energy.06-16-2011
20110141545TRI WAVELENGTH INTERFERENCE MODULATOR AND A METHOD FOR MODULATION - The present invention relates to a tri wavelength interference modulator (TWIM) and a method of tri wavelength interference modulation. The tri wavelength interference modulator includes: a stationary substrate with a bottom electrode plate formed on top of the stationary substrate; a first electrode plate comprising a first suspended beam suspended in parallel above the stationary substrate and a first connection electrically connected onto the stationary substrate; and a second electrode plate comprising a second suspended beam suspended in parallel above the first electrode plate and a second connection electrically connected onto the stationary substrate. The inference modulator and the method for inference modulation are suitable to projection system.06-16-2011
20090097099MICRO MIRROR AND MICRO MIRROR ARRAY USING THE SAME - Disclosed are a micro mirror and a micro mirror array using the same. The micro mirror includes: an insulation substrate; an address electrode formed on the insulation substrate; a charging unit electrically insulated from the address electrode; and a reflecting body rotatably provided on the insulation to reflect incident light and spaced apart from the address electrode and the charging unit04-16-2009
20090168143Bi-stable projection screen - A bi-stable projection screen includes a light diffusion unit and a bi-stable display unit stacked together. The bi-stable display unit, when actuated, selectively operates in a first mode or a second mode. When operating in the first mode (e.g., a transmission mode or a reflection mode), the bi-stable display unit receives a projection light from a front projection or a rear projection, and emits the projection light after modulation. When operating in the second mode (a non-transmission mode or a non-reflection mode), the bi-stable display unit is a pattern to become a part of a scene. The light diffusion unit receives and diffuses the modulated projection light to be perceived by human eyes.07-02-2009
20090103168METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR LOW RANGE BIT DEPTH ENHANCEMENT FOR MEMS DISPLAY ARCHITECTURES - A light modulator device includes a first electrical conduit, a second electrical conduit electrically isolated from the first conduit, a first display element, and a second display element. The first display element is in an actuated state when a voltage difference between the first conduit and the second conduit has a magnitude greater than a first actuation voltage and is in a released state when the voltage difference has a magnitude less than a first release voltage. The second display element is in an actuated state when the voltage difference has a magnitude greater than a second actuation voltage and is in a released state when the voltage difference has a magnitude less than a second release voltage. Either the actuation voltages are substantially equal and the release voltages are different, or the actuation voltages are different and the release voltages are substantially equal.04-23-2009
20090103167OPTICAL INTERFERENCE DISPLAY PANEL - An optical interference display panel is disclosed that has a substrate, an optical interference reflection structure, and an opaque protection structure. The optical interference reflection structure has many color-changeable pixels and is formed on the substrate. The opaque protection structure is adhered and fixed onto the substrate with an adhesive and encloses the optical interference reflection structure between the substrate and the opaque protection structure. The opaque protection structure blocks and/or absorbs light, and light is thus not emitted outward by passing through defects in the optical interference reflection structure Moreover, the opaque protection structure and the adhesive also prevent the optical interference reflection structure from being damaged by an external environment.04-23-2009
20090231669Projection display system with varying light source - The present invention provides a projection apparatus, comprising: a light source for emitting illumination light; at least one spatial light modulator with a plurality of movable mirrors corresponding to pixels to be displayed, for performing a modulation of the illumination light through operation of the movable mirrors; a light source control unit performing a modulation control of the light source; and a spatial light modulator control unit generating, from an input image signal, a control signal for driving the spatial light modulator, wherein: the light source control unit adjusts a pulse emission frequency of an emission pulse of the illumination light emitted from the light source while corresponding to an oscillation frequency of the movable mirrors.09-17-2009
20090219604PHOTONIC MEMS AND STRUCTURES - An interference modulator (Imod) incorporates anti-reflection coatings and/or micro-fabricated supplemental lighting sources. An efficient drive scheme is provided for matrix addressed arrays of IMods or other micromechanical devices. An improved color scheme provides greater flexibility. Electronic hardware can be field reconfigured to accommodate different display formats and/or application functions. An IMod's electromechanical behavior can be decoupled from its optical behavior. An improved actuation means is provided, some one of which may be hidden from view. An IMod or IMod array is fabricated and used in conjunction with a MEMS switch or switch array. An IMod can be used for optical switching and modulation. Some IMods incorporate 2-D and 3-D photonic structures. A variety of applications for the modulation of light are discussed. A MEMS manufacturing and packaging approach is provided based on a continuous web fed process. IMods can be used as test structures for the evaluation of residual stress in deposited materials.09-03-2009
20090244686MICROELECTROMECHANICAL DEVICE WITH SPACING LAYER - An interferometric modulating device is provided with a spacing layer positioned between the fixed reflector and the electrode. The spacing layer prevents shorting between the movable reflector and the electrode and provides a filtering cavity to improve color saturation.10-01-2009
20120105935APPARATUS FOR DISPLAYING INFORMATION - The invention relates to an apparatus for displaying information by way of at least one fluid. For this purpose, the apparatus comprises at least one display element having two volumes, wherein the first volume is disposed between a transparent cover layer and a non-transparent intermediate layer and the second volume is disposed between the intermediate layer and a final layer such that only the content of the upper volume is visible. The display according to the invention further comprises at least one fluidic transition, by way of which the fluid can be transported between the two volumes. The apparatus according to the invention has an optimized space requirement, solves the problem of uneven saturation over the surface of a display element, and is additionally not sensitive to mechanical interference.05-03-2012
20090257109METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR PACKAGING A MEMS DEVICE - A MEMS-based display device is described, wherein an array of interferometric modulators are configured to reflect light through a transparent substrate. The transparent substrate is sealed to a backplate and the backplate can contain electronic circuitry for controlling the array of interferometric modulators. The backplate can provide physical support for device components, such as electronic components which can be used to control the state of the display. The backplate can also be utilized as a primary structural support for the device.10-15-2009
20090257108LIGHT WITH BI-DIRECTIONAL PROPAGATION - Devices for providing illumination to a display and method for manufacturing the same. In one embodiment, a display device includes a reflective display and turning features for turning light propagating from opposite directions in a light guide to the reflective display.10-15-2009
20090316252Fluidic Multi Color Display - The apparatus claimed by the invention uses as the display medium colors in the form of colored fluids which are transported by means of transport in a system of compartments within a fluidic chain, whereby they are visible from the direction of an observer only through a single one these compartments (image compartment). Depending on the position of the individual colored fluids, a different color impression is received by the observer. The invention thereby teaches the presence of a fluidic chain in a subpixel and the combination of a plurality of these subpixels in a pixel. The display claimed by the invention consists of a plurality of pixels. With the use of eight colors in connection with an optically created color mixing effect, a color space can be displayed which is sufficient at least for the display of the information typically used on advertising signs.12-24-2009
20100149621DISPLAY DEVICE FOR IMPROVING IMAGE CONTRAST - A light valve unit may include a first conductive layer and a second conductive layer disposed on opposite sides of each other with respect to a plurality of cells in which at least some of the cells include a first material and a second material. The first material may have a lower light transmissivity property than the second material and a position of the first material within a corresponding cell may be changeable responsive to application of an electric field between the first and second conductive layers. The second conductive layer may include at least two electrodes and a gap defined between the two electrodes. A portion of the light valve unit adjacent to the gap may be configured to have a transmissivity that is substantially less than transmissivity of a portion of the light valve unit adjacent to cells across which the electric field is applied, but greater than or equal to transmissivity of a portion of the light valve unit adjacent to cells across which the electric field is not applied.06-17-2010
20100182675METHODS OF FABRICATING MEMS WITH SPACERS BETWEEN PLATES AND DEVICES FORMED BY SAME - Methods of fabricating a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) device with spacers between plates and MEMS devices formed by the same are disclosed. In one embodiment, a MEMS device is fabricated by laminating a front substrate and a carrier, each of which has components preformed thereon. The front substrate is provided with stationary electrodes formed thereover. A carrier including movable electrodes formed thereover is attached to the front substrate. The carrier of some embodiments is released after transferring the movable electrodes to the front substrate. In other embodiments, the carrier stays over the front substrate, and serves as a backplate for the MEMS device. Features are formed by deposition and patterning, by embossing, or by patterning and etching. Spacers are provided between the front substrate and the backplate to maintain a gap therebetween. The methods not only reduce the manufacturing costs, but also provide a higher yield. The resulting MEMS devices can trap smaller volumes between laminated substrates and are less susceptible to pressure variations and moisture leakage.07-22-2010
20100188729Ceramic Header Method and System - A ceramic header configured to form a portion of an electronic device package includes a mounting portion configured to provide a mounting surface for an electronic device. In addition, the ceramic header includes one or more conductive input-output connectors operable to provide electrical connections from a first surface of the ceramic header to a second surface of the ceramic header. The ceramic header also includes one or more thermally polished surfaces.07-29-2010
20100002284METHOD OF MODULATING RESONANT FREQUENCY OF TORSIONAL MEMS DEVICE - A method of modulating resonant frequency of a torsional MEMS device is provided. A torsional MEMS device is provided and a resonant frequency test is performed to measure a raw frequency of the torsional MEMS device. If the raw resonant frequency of the torsional MEMS device is greater than a standard resonant frequency, at least one mass increaser is bonded to the torsional MEMS device. Therefore, the raw resonant frequency is reduced as much as the standard resonant frequency.01-07-2010
20100188728OPTICAL MODULE - An optical module 07-29-2010
20130215491ELECTROWETTING DISPLAY DEVICE AND MANUFACTURING METHOD THEREOF - An electrowetting display device includes: a lower substrate, a pixel electrode disposed on the lower substrate, a lower water-repellent layer disposed on the pixel electrode, a plurality of partitions disposed on the lower water-repellent layer and an oil layer disposed on the lower water-repellent layer between the partitions, and wherein the partitions include a side wall having a reverse taper structure.08-22-2013
20100225990MICRO THIN-FILM STRUCTURE, MEMS SWITCH EMPLOYING SUCH A MICRO THIN-FILM, AND METHOD OF FABRICATING THEM - A micro thin-film structure, a micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS) switch, and methods of fabricating them. The micro thin-film structure includes at least two thin-films having different properties and laminated in sequence to form an upper layer and a lower layer, wherein an interface between the upper and lower layers is formed to be oriented to at least two directions. The micro thin film structure, and method of forming, may be applied to a movable electrode of an MEMS switch. The thin-film structure may be formed by forming through-holes in the lower layer, and depositing the upper layer in the form of being engaged in the through-holes. Alternatively, the thin-film structure may be made by forming prominence and depression parts on the top side of the lower layer and then depositing the upper layer on the top side of the lower layer having the prominence and depression parts.09-09-2010
20120194896DISPLAY WITH INTEGRATED PHOTOVOLTAICS - A display with patterned photovoltaic (PV) material integrated on the front side and/or back side of the display is disclosed. Light may reach PV material situated behind a display through fully or partially transmissive features or gaps within the display. Display-generated light may also reach PV material behind a display. A patterned PV material situated in front of a display may collect both ambient light as well as display-generated light.08-02-2012
20100225991MICRO THIN-FILM STRUCTURE, MEMS SWITCH EMPLOYING SUCH A MICRO THIN-FILM, AND METHOD OF FABRICATING THEM - A micro thin-film structure, a micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS) switch, and methods of fabricating them. The micro thin-film structure includes at least two thin-films having different properties and laminated in sequence to form an upper layer and a lower layer, wherein an interface between the upper and lower layers is formed to be oriented to at least two directions. The micro thin film structure, and method of forming, may be applied to a movable electrode of an MEMS switch. The thin-film structure may be formed by forming through-holes in the lower layer, and depositing the upper layer in the form of being engaged in the through-holes. Alternatively, the thin-film structure may be made by forming prominence and depression parts on the top side of the lower layer and then depositing the upper layer on the top side of the lower layer having the prominence and depression parts.09-09-2010
20100238537CAPACITIVE MEMS DEVICE WITH PROGRAMMABLE OFFSET VOLTAGE CONTROL - A capacitive MEMS device is formed having a material between electrodes that traps and retains charges. The material can be realized in several configurations. It can be a multilayer dielectric stack with regions of different band gap energies or band energy levels. The dielectric materials can be trappy itself, i.e. when defects or trap sites are pre-fabricated in the material. Another configuration involves a thin layer of a conductive material with the energy level in the forbidden gap of the dielectric layer. The device may be programmed (i.e. offset and threshold voltages pre-set) by a method making advantageous use of charge storage in the material, wherein the interferometric modulator is pre-charged in such a way that the hysteresis curve shifts, and the actuation voltage threshold of the modulator is significantly lowered. During programming phase, charge transfer between the electrodes and the materials can be performed by applying voltage to the electrodes (i.e. applying electrical field across the material) or by UV-illumination and injection of electrical charges over the energy barrier. The interferometric modulator may then be retained in an actuated state with a significantly lower actuation voltage, thereby saving power.09-23-2010
20110058246Laminated Micromirror Package - A system and method of aligning a micromirror array to the micromirror package and the micromirror package to a display system. One embodiment provides a method of forming and utilizing a package that exposes regions of an alignment reference plane. The device within the package is mounted on the reference plane such that the exposed regions allow precise alignment with the device in a direction perpendicular to the reference plane. Alignment surfaces formed in a display system or other system contact the reference plane at the exposed regions to position the packaged device relative to other components of the system. One embodiment of the package 03-10-2011
20110058245ELECTROWETTING PIXEL STRUCTURE - An electrowetting pixel structure includes a substrate, a hydrophobic dielectric layer, a non-polar liquid, a polar liquid, at least one electrode, and at least one contact hole. The hydrophobic dielectric layer is formed on the substrate, the non-polar liquid covers one surface of the hydrophobic dielectric layer, and the polar liquid is provided on the hydrophobic dielectric layer where the non-polar liquid and the polar liquid are immiscible. The electrode is formed on the substrate and divides the substrate into an electrode section and a non-electrode section. When a voltage is applied to the electrowetting pixel structure, the non-polar liquid contracts on the hydrophobic dielectric layer and is confined to an area substantially overlapping the non-electrode section. The contact hole is formed on the substrate at a position away from the non-electrode section of the electrowetting pixel structure.03-10-2011
20100208328Electrofluidic Devices, Visual Displays, And Methods For Making And Operating Such Elecrofluidic Devices - Electrofluidic devices, visual displays formed from the electrofluidic devices, and methods for making and operating such electrofluidic devices Each electrofluidic device has a fluid vessel with first and second regions that contain an electrically conductive polar fluid and a non-polar fluid The polar and/or the non-polar fluids are externally visible external through a viewable area of the second region A voltage source is electrically connected to a capacitor having a hydrophobic surface that contacts the polar fluid and provides a first principal radius of curvature of the polar fluid that is convex and smaller than a second principal radius of curvature of the polar fluid in the first region The voltage source applies an electromechanical force to the polar fluid, thereby transferring the polar fluid from the first region to the second region and causing a spectral property of light transferred through the viewable area to change08-19-2010
20090040591Electrowetting Display and Methods for Manufacturing the Same - An electrowetting display comprises a first substrate and a second substrate. A plurality of first conductive electrodes is formed over the first substrate. A second conductive layer is formed over the second substrate and spaced apart from the plurality of the first conductive electrodes. A plurality of cells is formed over the first conductive electrodes. Each cell is formed between one of the first conductive electrodes and the second conductive layer. Each two adjacent cells being separated by a partition. At least two cells include a first material and a second material over the first material. The at least two cells have two different colors. A shape of the first material is capable of being changed upon a change of an electrical field between the first conductive electrode and the second conductive layer.02-12-2009
20090323165METHOD FOR PACKAGING A DISPLAY DEVICE AND THE DEVICE OBTAINED THEREOF - A method for packaging a display device and the device obtained thereof are disclosed. In one aspect, the method comprises providing a substrate. The method further comprises manufacturing an array of display elements on a back side of the substrate, the array comprising a plurality of posts between the display elements connecting electrodes of the display elements. The method further comprises providing a back plate. The method further comprises sealing the back plate to the back side of the substrate, wherein one or more posts are in contact with the back plate after sealing the back plate to the back side of the substrate.12-31-2009
20090213449MEMS DISPLAY - A displaying apparatus that includes a plurality of electromechanical system elements arranged in rows. The electromechanical system elements of each of the rows are further arranged in subrows. The subrows of each row are electrically connected. Certain of the electromechanical system elements have a hysteresis stability window that is nested with another hysteresis stability window of certain others of the electromechanical system elements. A method of manufacturing a displaying apparatus that includes forming a plurality of electromechanical system elements arranged in rows. The electromechanical system elements of each of the rows are further arranged in subrows. The subrows of each row are electrically connected. Certain of the electromechanical system elements have a hysteresis stability window that is nested with another hysteresis stability window of certain others of the electromechanical system elements.08-27-2009
20090109516Modulation of electromagnetic radiation with electrically controllable composite material - An apparatus and related methods for modulating an electromagnetic radiation beam are described. A composite material is positioned in the path of the radiation beam, the composite material comprising a plurality of commonly oriented metallic first lines spaced apart by less than a wavelength of the radiation beam and a plurality of commonly oriented metallic second lines also spaced apart by less than that wavelength. The second lines are positioned in a crossing arrangement with the first lines, a crosspoint location being defined where each first line crosses each second line. An electrically programmable impedance memory element is positioned at each crosspoint location and is electrically coupled between the first and second lines corresponding to that crosspoint location, each impedance memory element having an electrically programmed state. The composite material modulates the radiation beam according to the electrically programmed states of the impedance memory elements.04-30-2009
20090109518IMAGING APPARATUS WITH A PLURALITY OF SHUTTER ELEMENTS - An apparatus for imaging an object comprises a plurality of shutter elements (04-30-2009
20100296150DISPLAY DEVICE BASED ON ELECTROWETTING EFFECT - In a reflective a display device based on layer break up or layer displacement having at least two different states, in which one of the fluids (11-25-2010
20090103165Display with Integrated Photovoltaics - A display with patterned photovoltaic (PV) material integrated on the front side and/or back side of the display is disclosed. Light may reach PV material situated behind a display through fully or partially transmissive features or gaps within the display. Display-generated light may also reach PV material behind a display. A patterned PV material situated in front of a display may collect both ambient light as well as display-generated light.04-23-2009
20110128607Display system for higher grayscale with a varying light source - The present invention provides a projection apparatus that includes: 06-02-2011
20090103166ADJUSTABLY TRANSMISSIVE MEMS-BASED DEVICES - Modulator devices are selectably adjustable between at least two states, wherein the transmission and/or reflection of particular wavelengths of light are modified. Certain modulator devices are substantially uniformly adjustable over a wide range of wavelengths, including visible and infrared wavelengths. Other modulator devices are adjustable over visible wavelengths without significantly affecting infrared wavelengths. In addition, the modulator devices may be used in conjunction with fixed thin film reflective structures.04-23-2009
20110007379MEMS Array Substrate and Display Device Using the same - A micro electromechanical system (MEMS) array substrate includes a substrate, a plurality of first signal lines, a plurality of second signal lines, a plurality of MEMS switches and a plurality of pixel electrodes. The first signal lines are disposed on the substrate in parallel with one another as well as the second signal lines. The second signal lines intersect with the first signal lines, such that a plurality of pixel regions is defined on the substrate. Each MEMS switch is located at corresponding one of the intersections between the first signal lines and the second signal lines. Each pixel electrode is configured in corresponding one of the pixel regions and electrically connected with the corresponding MEMS switch Compare to thin film transistor, since the operation performance of the MEMS switches would not affected by carrier mobility and on-off current ratio, display performance of the display device can be easily improved. In addition, a display device using the MEMS array substrate is also provided.01-13-2011
20090141335Display device - Display device is based on layer break up or layer displacement having at least two different states, in which one of the fluids, e.g., oil in a first state, adjoins at least a first support plate and, in the second state, the other fluid at least partly adjoins the first support plate. In one embodiment, a picture element corresponds to a substantially closed space and, in the first state, the other fluid layer substantially completely adjoins both support plates and is divided in two sub-layers. This makes it possible, on the one hand, to use lower voltages to make displacement occur. On the other hand, this opens the opportunity to color displays.06-04-2009
20100165441LAYER COMPOSITION OF AN ELECTROWETTING SYSTEM - A layer composition of an electrowetting system with a first electrode layer, an insulator layer on the first electrode layer, and a fluid layer over the insulator layer, wherein the fluid layer comprises at least two immiscible fluids which, under the influence of an applied voltage, reversibly change their wetting behavior of a surface allocated to the insulator layer, wherein the insulator layer being at least in part built of a material with a permittivity of ε07-01-2010
20110109956Plasmonic Device Tuned Using Physical Modulation - A plasmonic display device is provided that uses physical modulation mechanisms. The device is made from an electrically conductive bottom electrode and a first dielectric layer overlying the bottom electrode. The first dielectric layer is a piezoelectric material having an index of expansion responsive to an electric field. An electrically conductive top electrode overlies the first dielectric layer. A first plasmonic layer, including a plurality of discrete plasmonic particles, is interposed between the top and bottom electrodes and in contact with the first dielectric layer. In one aspect, the plasmonic particles are an expandable polymer material covered with a metal coating having a size responsive to an electric field.05-12-2011
20110026095DEVICES AND METHODS FOR ENHANCING COLOR SHIFT OF INTERFEROMETRIC MODULATORS - The color reflected by an interferometric modulator may vary as a function of the angle of view. A range of colors are thus viewable by rotating the interferometric modulator relative to an observer. By placing a textured layer between an observer and an interferometric modulator, a pattern which includes the range of colors may be viewed by the observer, and the range of colors may thus be viewable from a single viewing angle.02-03-2011
20110019261TUNABLE DETECTION SYSTEM - A tunable bandwidth selector is disclosed. The tunable bandwidth selector may include a plurality of spaced apart electron sheets which selectively separate a first bandwidth from an input spectrum.01-27-2011
20100172013SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR DISPLAY DEVICE WITH REINFORCING SUBSTANCE - A package structure and method of packaging an interferometric modulator with a reinforcing substance to help support the integrity of the package. In some embodiments the reinforcing substance is a desiccant integrated into the backplate or the transparent substrate.07-08-2010
20110043889METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR PROVIDING BRIGHTNESS CONTROL IN AN INTERFEROMETRIC MODULATOR (IMOD) DISPLAY - Methods and systems for providing brightness control in an interferometric modulator (IMOD) display are provided. In one embodiment, an interferometric modulator display pixel is provided that includes a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) interferometric modulator having an associated first color spectrum, and a color absorber located substantially in front of the interferometric modulator display pixel, in which the color absorber has an associated second color spectrum. The microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) interferometric modulator is operable to shift the first color spectrum relative to the second color spectrum to control a visual brightness of the interferometric modulator display pixel independent of a color of the interferometric modulator display pixel.02-24-2011
20110116156DEVICE HAVING A CONDUCTIVE LIGHT ABSORBING MASK AND METHOD FOR FABRICATING SAME - A system and method for an optical component that masks non-active portions of a display and provides an electrical path for one or more display circuits. In one embodiment an optical device includes a substrate, a plurality of optical elements on the substrate, each optical element having an optical characteristic which changes in response to a voltage applied to the optical element, and a light-absorbing, electrically-conductive optical mask disposed on the substrate and offset from the plurality of optical elements, the optical mask electrically coupled to one or more of the optical elements to provide electrical paths for applying voltages to the optical elements. In another embodiment, a method of providing an electrical signal to optical elements of a display comprises electrically coupling an electrically-conductive light-absorbing mask to one or more optical elements, and applying a voltage to the mask to activate the one or more optical elements.05-19-2011
20090034052Methods and apparatus for actuating displays - This invention relates to display apparatuses having an array of light modulators for transmissively displaying an image and a reflective aperture layer defining a plurality of apertures, for reflecting light not passing through apertures in the reflective aperture layer away from the array. The reflective aperture layer is formed on a first substrate and positioned adjacent the array. The image is formed by modulating light passing through the apertures in the reflective aperture layer. A light guide, separated from the first substrate by a gap, may guide light towards the reflective aperture layer. A layer of low-refractive index material may be positioned on a side of the reflective aperture layer opposite the array.02-05-2009
20090034051Tunable Photonic Crystal Device - This application describes a tunable photonic crystal device based on the electrical actuation of photonic crystal films. This device displays non-bleachable structural color, reflecting narrow bands of wavelengths tuned throughout the entire visible spectrum by expansion and contraction of the photonic crystal lattice02-05-2009
20090034050FRESNEL ANTENNA - A Fresnel antenna includes a plurality of Fresnel elements spaced to selectively attenuate electromagnetic waves having a predetermined wavelength, selected wavelengths, or range of wavelengths, and to concentrate electromagnetic waves having a predetermined wavelength, selected wavelengths, or range of wavelengths other than the attenuated wavelengths.02-05-2009
20110242638PHOTONIC STRUCTURES AND PHOTONIC DEVICES - Photonic structures and photonic devices are provided. A photonic structure includes a three-dimensional photonic crystal and an actuator. The three-dimensional photonic crystal comprises an elastomeric, auxetic material and configured to provide a predetermined optical bandgap. The actuator is coupled to the three-dimensional photonic crystal and is configured to compress the three-dimensional photonic crystal. When the actuator compresses the three-dimensional photonic crystal, the three-dimensional photonic crystal shifts from reflecting light in a first wavelength range to light in a second wavelength range.10-06-2011
20090323168ELECTROMECHANICAL DEVICES AND METHODS OF FABRICATING SAME - In one embodiment, the invention provides a method for fabricating a microelectromechanical systems device. The method comprises fabricating a first layer comprising a film having a characteristic electromechanical response, and a characteristic optical response, wherein the characteristic optical response is desirable and the characteristic electromechanical response is undesirable; and modifying the characteristic electromechanical response of the first layer by at least reducing charge build up thereon during activation of the micro electromechanical systems device.12-31-2009
20090323166BACKLIGHT DISPLAYS - A transmissive backlit display is disclosed. In one aspect, the backlit display comprises a backlight and an array of transmissive interferometric modulators. Each interferometric modulator comprises a fixed and moving dielectric mirror stack. The interferometric modulators cause light within the desired wavelength range to be transmitted while reflecting at least a portion of the remaining light.12-31-2009
20110242639METHOD FOR ACCOMPLISHING HIGH-SPEED INTENSITY VARIATION OF A POLARIZED OUTPUT LASER BEAM - A method of accomplishing high-speed intensity variation of a polarized output laser beam includes securing an angle of light incidence sensitive optical element to a galvanometer system that provides high-speed transitioning of the angle of light incidence sensitive optical element between different angular positions. The high-speed transitioning provided by the galvanometer system varies an angle of incidence between an input laser beam and the angle of light incidence sensitive optical element to thereby provide high-speed variation of an intensity of a polarized output laser beam produced by the angle of light incidence sensitive optical element.10-06-2011
20090323167Optical attenuator - An optical attenuator includes a first reflection portion reflecting a light incoming from an optical input portion in a direction different from incoming axis, a second reflection portion reflecting the light from the first reflection portion, an optical output portion outputting the light that is reflected by the first reflection portion after being reflected by the second reflection portion, and an optical-intensity-attenuation filter that is arranged on an optical path between the first reflection portion and the second reflection portion, optical transmittance being shifted in stages according to a position thereof. The first reflection portion is capable of turning to shift an incoming position at the optical-intensity-attenuation filter.12-31-2009
20100039695METHODS FOR MEASUREMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF INTERFEROMETRIC MODULATORS - Various methods are described to characterize interferometric modulators or similar devices. Measured voltages across interferometric modulators may be used to characterize transition voltages of the interferometric modulators. Measured currents may be analyzed by integration of measured current to provide an indication of a dynamic response of the interferometric modulator. Frequency analysis may be used to provide an indication of a hysteresis window of the interferometric modulator or mechanical properties of the interferometric modulator. Capacitance may be determined through signal correlation, and spread-spectrum analysis may be used to minimize the effect of noise or interference on measurements of various interferometric modulator parameters.02-18-2010
20120243071ELECTRO-WETTING DISPLAY DEVICE - An electro-wetting display device is provided. The device includes a first substrate and a second substrate disposed opposite thereto. A plurality of first electrodes and a plurality of corresponding second electrodes are disposed on the first substrate and face the second substrate. A barrier layer is between the plurality of first electrodes and the plurality of second electrodes, such that the plurality of first electrodes is electrically insulated from the plurality of second electrodes. A plurality of ribs is on the first substrate to form a plurality of pixel regions. A polar liquid and a non-polar liquid are between the first and second substrates. The barrier layer is between the polar liquid and at least one of the plurality of first electrodes and the plurality of second electrodes, and the non-polar liquid is in direct contact with the barrier layer in each pixel region.09-27-2012
20110176196METHODS AND DEVICES FOR PRESSURE DETECTION - Methods and devices for detecting pressure applied to a device are described herein. In one embodiment, the device comprises a first layer and a second layer positioned below the first layer. The first layer and the second layer form a cavity. The device further comprises a plurality of display elements disposed in the cavity. The device further comprises a sensor configured to measure the relative movement between the first layer and the second layer. In another embodiment, the device may detect sound waves.07-21-2011
20090086304DIFFRACTION-TYPE OPTICAL MODULATOR AND DISPLAY APPARATUS INCLUDING THE SAME - Disclosed are a diffraction-type optical modulator and a display apparatus including the same. The diffraction-type optical modulator includes: a board; a lower mirror formed on the board; an upper mirror located apart from the lower mirror by a predetermined gap, having a hole, separated into at least two ridges by the hole, and movable up and down; and, an actuator moving the upper mirror in accordance with a driving signal and changing the separation distance, whereas a part of incident light beam reflects from the upper mirror, the rest of the incident light beam passes through the hole and reflects from the lower mirror, and then passes through the hole. A contrast ratio can be maximized by using the relation between the width of the hole and the ridge of an upper mirror, the ridge being measured in parallel with the direction of distribution of diffraction gratings.04-02-2009
20110069371SEMI-TRANSPARENT/TRANSFLECTIVE LIGHTED INTERFEROMETRIC DEVICES - In certain embodiments, a device is provided that utilizes both interferometrically reflected light and transmitted light. Light incident on the device is interferometrically reflected from a plurality of layers of the device to emit light in a first direction, the interferometrically reflected light having a first color. Light from a light source is transmitted through the plurality of layers of the device to emit from the device in the first direction, the transmitted light having a second color.03-24-2011
20110249315MECHANICAL LAYER AND METHODS OF FORMING THE SAME - This disclosure provides mechanical layers and methods of forming the same. In one aspect, an electromechanical systems device includes a substrate and a mechanical layer having an actuated position and a relaxed position. The mechanical layer is spaced from the substrate to define a collapsible gap. The gap is in a collapsed condition when the mechanical layer is in the actuated position and in a non-collapsed condition when the mechanical layer is in the relaxed position. The mechanical layer includes a reflective layer, a conductive layer, and a supporting layer. The supporting layer is positioned between the reflective layer and the conductive layer and is configured to support the mechanical layer.10-13-2011
20080247028METHOD AND DEVICE FOR MULTISTATE INTERFEROMETRIC LIGHT MODULATION - A multi-state light modulator comprises a first reflector. A first electrode is positioned at a distance from the first reflector. A second reflector is positioned between the first reflector and the first electrode. The second reflector is movable between an undriven position, a first driven position, and a second driven position, each having a corresponding distance from the first reflector. In one embodiment, the three positions correspond to reflecting white light, being non-reflective, and reflecting a selected color of light. Another embodiment is a method of making the light modulator. Another embodiment is a display including the light modulator.10-09-2008
20090213450SUPPORT STRUCTURES FOR ELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS AND METHODS OF FABRICATING THE SAME - A method of making an interferometric modulator element includes forming at least two posts, such as posts formed from spin-on glass, on a substrate. In alternate embodiments, the posts may be formed after certain layers of the modulator elements have been deposited on the substrate. An interferometric modulator element includes at least two spin-on glass support posts located on the substrate. In alternate embodiments, the support posts may be located over certain layers of the modulator element, rather than on the substrate. A method of making an interferometric modulator element includes forming a rigid cap over a support post. An interferometric modulator element includes support posts having rigid cap members.08-27-2009
20110051224LOW TEMPERATURE AMORPHOUS SILICON SACRIFICIAL LAYER FOR CONTROLLED ADHESION IN MEMS DEVICES - Methods of fabricating an electromechanical systems device that mitigate permanent adhesion, or stiction, of the moveable components of the device are provided. The methods provide an amorphous silicon sacrificial layer with improved and reproducible surface roughness. The amorphous silicon sacrificial layers further exhibit excellent adhesion to common materials used in electromechanical systems devices.03-03-2011
20080316576Method and Device for Polarization Conversion Using Quantum Dots - A novel and efficient method for polarization conversion, particularly from linear polarization to circular polarization, and, importantly, vice versa, is obtained using shapeanisotropic self-assembled quantum dots, which, having the advantage of extremely small size (nanometer scale), may be readily incorporated into photonic crystals and/or other optical components. Such devices also have the advantage of working in the absence of an applied magnetic field. Such devices also, when a voltage bias is applied, can be used to manipulate electron spin by manipulating light polarization in the same circuit, and vice versa. This permits a high degree of control for either or both of these in spintronics and/or optical devices, the biased quantum dot being used as a nanometer scale electro-optic modulator. Components utilizing the method and/or devices may be used as part of highly compact optical computing networks and/or spintronics systems for e.g., information processing, quantum computation, holography, and data recording.12-25-2008
20100321761ELECTRICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF INTERFEROMETRIC MODULATORS - Disclosed herein are methods and systems for testing the electrical characteristics of reflective displays, including interferometric modulator displays. In one embodiment, a controlled voltage is applied to conductive leads in the display and the resulting current is measured. The voltage may be controlled so as to ensure that interferometric modulators do not actuate during the resistance measurements. Also disclosed are methods for conditioning interferometric modulator display by applying a voltage waveform that causes actuation of interferometric modulators in the display.12-23-2010
20100321760DISPLAY DEVICE - A display device comprising picture elements, which are constituted by electrowetting elements having at least one first fluid and a second fluid immiscible with each other within a space between a first support plate and a second support plate, the second fluid being electro-conductive or polar. The first fluid in each element is at the side of the first support plate confined by element walls, and the second fluid is shared by a plurality of picture elements, characterised by a preventer for preventing first fluid portions from being expelled from its confinement when forces other than electrowetting forces are exerted on this fluid.12-23-2010
20080204853SPATIAL LIGHT MODULATOR - A spatial light modulator system includes an optically addressable spatial light modulator (OASLM) and an electrical addressable spatial light modulator (EASLM) arranged to transmit light onto the OASLM. A first controller is configured to address the EASLM with both a positive image and a negative image. A second controller is configured to apply a first bipolar voltage pulse to the OASLM associated with reception of the positive image and apply a second bipolar voltage pulse to the OASLM associated with reception of the negative image.08-28-2008
20110134504Micro-Electro-Mechanical System Tiltable Lens - A tiltable micro-electro-mechanical (MEMS) system lens comprises a microscopic lens located on a front surface of a semiconductor-on-insulator (SOI) substrate and a semiconductor rim surrounding the periphery of the microscopic lens. Two horizontal semiconductor beams located at different heights are provided within a top semiconductor layer. The microscopic lens may be tilted by applying an electrical bias between the lens rim and one of the two semiconductor beams, thereby altering the path of an optical beam through the microscopic lens. An array of tiltable microscopic lenses may be employed to form a composite lens having a variable focal length may be formed. A design structure for such a tiltable MEMS lens is also provided.06-09-2011
20110080632METHOD OF MAKING A LIGHT MODULATING DISPLAY DEVICE AND ASSOCIATED TRANSISTOR CIRCUITRY AND STRUCTURES THEREOF - An Interferometric Modulator (IMod) is a microelectromechanical device for modulating light using interference. The colors of these devices may be determined in a spatial fashion, and their inherent color shift may be compensated for using several optical compensation mechanisms. Brightness, addressing, and driving of IMods may be accomplished in a variety of ways with appropriate packaging, and peripheral electronics which can be attached and/or fabricated using one of many techniques. The devices may be used in both embedded and directly perceived applications, the latter providing multiple viewing modes as well as a multitude of product concepts ranging in size from microscopic to architectural in scope.04-07-2011
20100110526METHOD AND DEVICE FOR MULTISTATE INTERFEROMETRIC LIGHT MODULATION - A multi-state light modulator comprises a first reflector 05-06-2010
20100214642METHOD AND DEVICE FOR MODULATING LIGHT WITH OPTICAL COMPENSATION - An interferometric modulator (Imod) cavity has a reflector and an induced absorber. A direct view reflective flat panel display may include an array of the modulators. Adjacent spacers of different thicknesses are fabricated on a substrate by a lift-off technique used to pattern the spacers which are deposited separately, each deposition providing a different thickness of spacer. Or a patterned photoresist may be used to allow for an etching process to selectively etch back the thickness of a spacer which was deposited in a single deposition. A full-color static graphical image may be formed of combined patterns of interferometric modulator cavities. Each cavity includes a reflector, and an induced absorber, the induced absorber including a spacer having a thickness that defines a color associated with the cavity.08-26-2010
20110181940DEVICE FOR FLUIDIC DISPLAY AND CORRESPONDING METHOD - The invention relates to a display, for using liquids to display information and a corresponding method. According to the invention, said display comprises a number of display elements with cavities, at least one display liquid for displaying information and at least one liquid reservoir for providing the at least one display liquid, characterised in that each display element further comprises a dosing device, by means of which display liquid from the liquid reservoir may be dosed into and out of the display element. The dosing device thus permits a precise dosing of defined display liquid volumes into or out of the display element. The method in which said dosing device finds use is used for precisely repeated dosing of defined volumes of display liquid.07-28-2011
20100165442MEMS DEVICES WITH MULTI-COMPONENT SACRIFICIAL LAYERS - Methods of forming a protective coating on one or more surfaces of a microelectromechanical device are disclosed comprising the steps of forming a composite layer of a sacrificial material and a protective material, and selectively etching the sacrificial material to form a protective coating. The protective coatings of the invention preferably improve one or more aspects of the performance of the microelectromechanical devices in which they are incorporated. Also disclosed are microelectromechanical devices formed by methods of the invention, and visual display devices incorporating such devices.07-01-2010
20110261431MICROMECHANICAL ELEMENT - A micromechanical element includes a plate-shaped micromechanical functional element, an inner frame and an outer frame. Thereby, a curvature of a main face of the plate-shaped micromechanical functional element is variable. The inner frame encloses the plate-shaped micromechanical functional element along an edge of the main face and is connected to the plate-shaped micromechanical functional element via a plurality of connecting pieces. The outer frame is connected to the inner frame via at least two holding elements. The inner frame is connected to the plate-shaped micromechanical functional element and the outer frame, such that a first angle between the main face of the plate-shaped micromechanical functional element and a main face of the inner frame is smaller than a second angle between a main face of the outer frame and the main face of the inner frame, when the main face of the plate-shaped micromechanical functional element is in a bent state.10-27-2011
20110188109ELECTROMECHANICAL DEVICE WITH OPTICAL FUNCTION SEPARATED FROM MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL FUNCTION - A microelectromechanical (MEMS) device includes a substrate, a movable element over the substrate, and an actuation electrode above the movable element. The movable element includes a deformable layer and a reflective element. The deformable layer is spaced from the reflective element.08-04-2011
20100020383THERMAL ACTUATOR FOR AN INFRARED SENSOR - In one embodiment, an infrared (IR) sensor has a flexible beam connected between two anchors supported on a substrate. The beam is mechanically coupled to a plate that has an IR-absorbing layer and is adapted to transfer the IR-induced heat to the beam. The heat transfer causes the beam to deform and move the plate with respect to the substrate. The motion of the plate is detected electrically or optically to quantify the amount of IR radiation received by the plate. The beam, anchors, and plate are formed from a planar layer of material that is supported at a specified offset distance from the substrate. During fabrication, certain portions of the planar layer are removed to define the beam, anchors, and plate.01-28-2010
20100245974Multi-Fiber Section Tunable Optical Filter - A tunable optical filter is formed by the longitudinal alignment of two opposing end sections of single-mode optical fibers. On at least one of the end sections is a collimator fiber section which is formed from a section of a graded-index, multimode optical fiber which is an odd number of quarter pitches long. The collimator fiber section has an angled end surface which joined to the reciprocally angled end surface of the at least one single-mode optical fiber end section. Piezoelectric material controls the separation between the first and second single-mode optical fiber end sections and sets the wavelengths of optical signals carried through the first and second single-mode optical fiber end sections.09-30-2010
20090109515ENCAPSULATED SPATIAL LIGHT MODULATOR HAVING LARGE ACTIVE AREA - A die for spatial light modulation includes a substrate having a top surface having a length less than 15 mm and a width less than 11 mm, a spacer wall on the top surface of the substrate, a transparent encapsulation cover on the spacer wall, wherein the spacer wall and the encapsulation cover define a cavity over the substrate, a spatial light modulator on the substrate and within the cavity, and an opaque aperture layer on a surface of the encapsulation cover. The aperture layer includes an opening exposing the transparent window to allow the spatial light modulator to receive a light beam from outside of the cavity or send a light beam outside of the cavity. The spacer wall has a thickness equal to or less than 0.5 millimeters.04-30-2009
20100220380ELECTROWETTING ELEMENTS AND OPTICAL DISPLAY DEVICES - The present invention relates to reducing backflow in an electrowetting element for modifying a radiation beam characteristic. The electrowetting element comprises a first and a second fluid which are immiscible with each other and are switchable between a first configuration and a second configuration by application of a voltage across at least one of the first and second fluids. There is a tendency for backflow of the second fluid from the first configuration to the second configuration when the second fluid is switched to be provided in the first configuration. The electrowetting element comprises a backflow reducer arranged for reducing the backflow of the second fluid from the first configuration to the second configuration when the second fluid is switched to be provided in the first configuration.09-02-2010
20100302615ELECTROWETTING DISPLAY HAVING CONTROLLED FLUID MOTION - An electrowetting display device comprises a plurality of picture elements (12-02-2010
20110317246DISPLAY DEVICE HAVING AN ELECTRODE PARTIALLY COVERING A PICTURE ELEMENT - An optical switch, e.g. a display cell based on layer displacement or layer break up having at least two different states, in which one of the fluids e.g. oil in a first state adjoins at least a first support plate and in the second state the other fluid at least partly adjoins the first support plate. Part of an otherwise homogeneous electrode is removed to realize oil motion control.12-29-2011
20110317245SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR FALSE-COLOR SENSING AND DISPLAY - A system and method for determining humidity based on determination of an offset voltage shift are disclosed. In one embodiment, a system for determining humidity comprises an electromechanical device comprising a first layer, a second layer, and a dielectric between the two layers, wherein the dielectric is spaced apart from at least one of the first and second layers in an unactuated state of the electromechanical device, and wherein the dielectric contacts both the first and second layers in an actuated state of the electromechanical device, a voltage source configured to apply, between the first and second layers, one or more voltages, and a processor configured to control the voltage source, to determine an offset voltage shift based on the applied voltages, and to determine information regarding humidity about the device based on the offset voltage shift.12-29-2011
20120044562ACTUATION AND CALIBRATION OF CHARGE NEUTRAL ELECTRODE - This disclosure provides systems, methods, and devices for actuating, charging and calibrating the charge on a movable electrode in electronic devices. The electronic device can include a first electrode, a second electrode spaced apart from the first electrode by a gap, at least one electrical contact, and an electrically neutral movable third electrode disposed between the first electrode and the second electrode. The third electrode can be charged by applying a charging actuation voltage across the first electrode and the second electrode to produce an electric field in the gap. Under the electric field, the electrically neutral third electrode can move towards the first electrode from a first position to a second position where it connects with the electrical contact. Once in contact with the electrical contact, an electric charge on the third electrode can be changed when the third electrode is in the second position. When a mechanical restorative force on the third electrode exceeds the force of the electric field on the third electrode, the third electrode moves to a third position.02-23-2012
20120062979DIGITAL BINARY MEMS WAVEFRONT CONTROL - A phase screen, i.e., an opto-electronic device that can convert a distorted incoming optical wavefront into a plane wave or, conversely, transform a plane wave into a prescribed varying output wavefront. Binary all-digital MEMS interferometer configurations that can be used to create controlled and arbitrary optical wavefront using only 0,1 amplitude changes followed by differential propagation distances to convert these amplitude variations into controllable and/or continuous phase variations. Clustered pixel notions, such as Floyd-Steinberg, Stucki or other algorithms useful in digital half-tone printing, are simultaneously employed to create controllable grey-level variations as well as continuous phase variations. Desired grey-levels can be obtained wherein each pixel is formed by, e.g., a 3×3 or 5×5 cluster of mirrors. Both the filling-in of the outputs of the binary mirror (0,1) and the grey-levels are accomplished simply by spatial averaging over a short propagation distance.03-15-2012
20120002266METHOD AND DEVICE FOR PACKAGING A SUBSTRATE - A package structure and method of packaging for an interferometric modulator. A thin film material is deposited over an interferometric modulator and transparent substrate to encapsulate the interferometric modulator. A gap or cavity between the interferometric modulator and the thin film provides a space in which mechanical parts of the interferometric modulator may move. The gap is created by removal of a sacrificial layer that is deposited over the interferometric modulator.01-05-2012
20120002265METHOD AND DEVICE FOR COMPENSATING FOR COLOR SHIFT AS A FUNCTION OF ANGLE OF VIEW - In one embodiment of the invention, a display is provided and includes a plurality of interferometric display elements. The display further includes at least one diffuser. Optical properties of the diffuser are selected to reduce color shift of the display when viewed from at least one angle.01-05-2012
20110063712DISPLAY DEVICE WITH AT LEAST ONE MOVABLE STOP ELEMENT - In certain embodiments, a device is provided including a substrate and a plurality of supports over the substrate. The device may further include a mechanical layer having a movable portion and a stationary portion. The stationary portion may disposed over the supports. In certain embodiments, the device further includes a reflective surface positioned over the substrate and mechanically coupled to the movable portion. The device of certain embodiments further includes at least one movable stop element displaced from and mechanically coupled to the movable portion. In certain embodiments, the at least a portion of the stop element may be positioned over the stationary portion.03-17-2011
20120057217DISPLAY - A display including a pixel array substrate, an opposite substrate and a fluid medium is provided. The pixel array substrate includes a first substrate including pixel regions and pixel structures disposed in the pixel regions. Each pixel region includes a distribution region of pixel electrode and a non-electrode region. A pixel electrode of the pixel structure is disposed in the distribution region of pixel electrode and has at least one slit extending from the non-electrode region toward the distribution region of pixel electrode. The opposite substrate includes a second substrate and a common electrode disposed on the second substrate and contacting a polar fluid. The fluid medium includes the polar fluid and a non-polar fluid and flows between the pixel array substrate and the opposite substrate. The non-polar fluid is contracted toward the non-electrode region when a voltage difference is generated between the pixel and the common electrodes.03-08-2012
20120013967ELASTOMERIC DEVICE FOR TUNABLE IMAGING - An optical micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) structure is provided. The structure includes an elastomer membrane, a plurality of polymer fibers attached to the elastomer membrane, an array of detectors operatively connected to the plurality of polymer fibers at a first end of the plurality of polymer fibers, and a microlens array operatively connected to the plurality of polymer fibers at a second end of the plurality of polymer fibers. A method of manufacturing an optical MEMS structure is provided. The method includes forming a hollow PDMS chamber in which PDMS fibers extend from top to bottom using a lost wax molding process.01-19-2012
20120057216MULTICOMPONENT SACRIFICIAL STRUCTURE - A MEMS comprising a sacrificial structure, which comprises a faster etching portion and a slower etching portion, exhibits reduced damage to structural features when in forming a cavity in the MEMS by etching away the sacrificial structure. The differential etching rates mechanically decouple structural layers, thereby reducing stresses in the device during the etching process. Methods and systems are also provided.03-08-2012
20110019262DISPLAY DEVICE - A display device includes a display element including a plurality of first sub-pixels, a color filter element stacked on the display element, and including a plurality of second sub-pixels arranged to overlap the respective first sub-pixels, and a light source emitting white light toward the color filter element and the display element. The display device performs display with light from the light source transmitted through the first sub-pixels and the second sub-pixels. Each of the second sub-pixels of the color filter element includes a color region of which area is changed by electrowetting.01-27-2011
20120154896COLORED CONDUCTIVE FLUIDS FOR ELECTROWETTING AND ELECTROFLUIDIC TECHNOLOGIES - Colored conductive fluids for electrowetting or electrofluidic devices, and the devices themselves, are disclosed. The colored conductive fluid includes a polar solvent and a colorant selected from a pigment and/or a dye. The polar solvent has (a) a dynamic viscosity of 0.1 cP to 1000 cP at 25° C., (b) a surface tension of 25 dynes/cm to 90 dynes/cm at 25° C., and (c) an electrowetting relative response of 20% to 80%. The colored conductive fluid itself can have an electrical conductivity from 0.1 μS/cm to 3,000 μS/cm and can have no greater than 500 total ppm of monatomic ions with ionic radii smaller than 2.0 Å and polyatomic ions with ionic radii smaller than 1.45 Å. The colored conductive fluid should not cause electrical breakdown of a dielectric in the device in which it is employed. An agent for controlling electrical conductivity can optionally be added to the colored conductive fluid.06-21-2012
20120026576DEVICES AND METHODS FOR ENHANCING BRIGHTNESS OF DISPLAYS USING ANGLE CONVERSION LAYERS - Various embodiments of the present invention relate to enhancing the brightness of displays that employ illumination systems. In some embodiments, the illumination systems include light guides, diffractive microstructure, and light-turning features. The diffractive microstructure may be configured to receive ambient light at a first angle and produce diffracted light at a second angle greater than the first angle and greater than the critical angle for of light guide. The light is thereby guided within the light guide. The light-turning features may be configured to turn the light guided within the light guide out of a light guide and onto, for example, a spatial light modulator at near normal incidence.02-02-2012
20120026575OPTICAL IMAGING SYSTEM - An optical imaging system including an imaging lens and a spatial light modulator is provided. The imaging system has an aperture stop position. The spatial light modulator is disposed at the aperture stop position of the imaging system to serve as a pupil of the imaging lens. The spatial light modulator is adapted to modulate the light transmission rate of the spatial light modulator to change an amplitude and a phase of a light intensity of the pupil.02-02-2012
20110013256MEMS DEVICE AND METHOD OF MANUFACTURING THE SAME - A MEMS device includes a mirror substrate (01-20-2011
20130010348ELECTROWETTING DISPLAY DEVICE - The present invention relates to a method for making an electrowetting display device comprising a plurality of picture elements and a first support plate and a second support plate. Each picture element comprises a space between the first support plate and the second support plate. The method comprises the steps of: providing the first support plate with an electrode structure; arranging an insulating layer on the electrode structure, the insulating layer having a thickness and a hydropobic surface facing the space; temporarily applying an electric field across the thickness of the insulating layer to reduce permanently the hydrophobicity of a predetermined area of the surface. The invention further relates to an electrowetting display device and a use of an area of reduced hydrophobicity in an electrowetting device.01-10-2013
20120105934ELECTRO-WETTING DISPLAY DEVICE AND NON-POLAR COLOR SOLUTION THEREOF - An electro-wetting display device and a non-polar color solution thereof are provided. The electro-wetting device includes a first substrate, a second substrate, a polar solution layer and a non-polar color solution layer. The first substrate is opposite to the second substrate. The polar solution layer is disposed between the first substrate and the second substrate. The non-polar color solution layer is disposed between the first substrate and the polar solution layer and includes at least one non-polar solvent, at least one dye and at least one improvement agent. The improvement agent is dissolved in the non-polar solvent, and the improvement agent is not dissolved in the polar solution layer.05-03-2012
20120062978METHOD FOR OPERATING A MICROMIRROR DEVICE WITH ELECTROMECHANICAL PULSE WIDTH MODULATION - A method of operating by pulse width modulation a micromirror device is disclosed. In one aspect, the method includes providing a micromirror device having a micromirror element electrostatically deflectable around a rotation axis between a first and second position. The micromirror element is controllable by applying voltage signals to a first and second electrode on one side of the rotation axis and a third and fourth electrode on the other side. The method includes associating an intermediate value of intensity to the micromirror element during a time frame, the intensity being between a first value corresponding to the first position and a second value corresponding to the second position. The method includes switching the micromirror element between the first and second position. The intermediate value corresponds to the ratio of periods in the time frame in which the micromirror element is in the first or second position.03-15-2012
20100253995Complex-Valued Spatial Light Modulator - In a pixilated spatial light modulator having a mesh-based modulator element per pixel, a real location-dependent amplitude and a location-dependent phase can be adjusted independently of each other for modulating a coherent wavefront using complex values. A complex-valued spatial light modulator includes a regularly constructed pixel array, wherein each pixel comprises a controllable reflective line mesh. The modulation of the amplitude and phase take place independently of each other in each modulator element, by relative motions of the self-supporting line mesh relative to a base plate. The line meshes are suspended and supported such that both the distance between the base plate and the line mesh (normal adjustment for amplitude modulation) and the lateral displacement of the line mesh in the mesh plane itself (phase modulation) are modified by a system controller. The reflected light is thus modulated independently of each other.10-07-2010
20090109517DISPLAY DEVICE - A display device includes a first electrode, a second electrode facing the first electrode, a first layer of material disposed between the first electrode and the second electrode, a second layer of material disposed on the first layer of material, and a light source unit emitting blue light incident to the first electrode toward the second electrode. At least one color converting member receives the blue light and generate light having a wavelength different from the wavelength of the blue light. The second layer of material is positioned on the second electrode and is movable along with the second electrode by an attraction force between the first electrode and the second electrode.04-30-2009
20090135463MOVEABLE MICRO-ELECTROMECHANICAL DEVICE - A MEMS device is provided. The MEMS device may include a first plate, a second plate and a third plate. The MEMS device may also include a first power supply configured to provide a voltage to the first plate and a second power supply configured apply a voltage to the second plate. In some embodiments, a third power supply may provide a voltage to the third plate.05-28-2009
20120300283DISPLAY DEVICE AND METHOD FOR MANUFACTURING THE SAME - A cut which penetrates a resin layer is formed in the resin layer such that the cut surrounds a third upper surface. A film is formed such that the film covers the whole resin layer except for a bottom surface of the resin layer inside the cut and at least a portion of the resin layer is exposed outside the cut. The resin layer which is wholly covered with the film is left inside the cut, and the whole resin layer continuously formed with a surface exposed from the film is removed outside the cut. A bump is formed by the resin layer and the film inside the cut, and a shutter and at least a portion of a drive part are formed by the film outside the cut in a state where these parts are floated from a first substrate.11-29-2012
20110090554STICTION MITIGATION WITH INTEGRATED MECH MICRO-CANTILEVERS THROUGH VERTICAL STRESS GRADIENT CONTROL - The present disclosure relates to the mitigation of stiction in MEMS devices. In some embodiments, a MEMS device may be provided with one or more restoration features that provide an assisting mechanical force for mitigating stiction. The restoration feature may be implemented as one or more deflectable elements, where the deflectable elements may have various configurations or shapes, such as a chevron, cross, and the like. For example, the restoration feature can be a cantilever that deflects when at least one component comes into contact or proximity with another component. Multiple restoration features also may be employed and placed strategically within the MEMS device to maximize their effectiveness in mitigating stiction.04-21-2011
20100290102ENCAPSULATED ELECTROMECHANICAL DEVICES - Encapsulation is provided to electromechanical devices to protect the devices from such environmental hazards as moisture and mechanical shock. In addition to the encapsulation layer providing protection from environmental hazards, the encapsulation layer is additionally planarized so as to function as a substrate for additional circuit elements formed above the encapsulation layer.11-18-2010
20100245975DISPLAY DEVICE HAVING AN ARRAY OF SPATIAL LIGHT MODULATORS WITH INTEGRATED COLOR FILTERS - By selectively placing color filters with different transmittance spectrums on an array of modulator elements each having the same reflectance spectrum, a resultant reflectance spectrum for each modulator element and it's respective color filter is created. In one embodiment, the modulator elements in an array are manufactured by the same process so that each modulator element has a reflectance spectrum that includes multiple reflectivity lines. Color filters corresponding to multiple colors, such as red, green, and blue, for example, may be selectively associated with these modulator elements in order to filter out a desired wavelength range for each modulator element and provide a multiple color array. Because the modulator elements are manufactured by the same process, each of the modulator elements is substantially the same and common voltage levels may be used to activate and deactivate selected modulation.09-30-2010
20120127556METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR PACKAGING A DISPLAY - A package structure and method of packaging for an interferometric modulator. A transparent substrate having an interferometric modulator formed thereon is provided. A backplane is joined to the transparent substrate with a seal where the interferometric modulator is exposed to the surrounding environment through an opening in either the backplane or the seal. The opening is sealed after the transparent substrate and backplane are joined and after any desired desiccant, release material, and/or self-aligning monolayer is introduced into the package structure.05-24-2012
20120127555METHOD OF MANUFACTURING AN OPTICAL DISPLAY - A method for manufacturing an electrowetting device provides a first fluid on a surface of a substrate. The method includes the steps of immersing part of the substrate in a second fluid, the second fluid being immiscible with the first fluid, and a surface of the second fluid forming a gutter along the surface of the substrate; providing a quantity of the first fluid in the gutter; and moving the gutter along the surface of the substrate, the surface of the substrate and a horizontal plane forming an angle between 100 degrees and 170 degrees. Also disclosed is an apparatus for performing the method.05-24-2012
20100208327Pattern generator - The present invention relates to an apparatus for creating a pattern on a workpiece sensitive to radiation, such as a photomask a display panel or a microoptical device. The apparatus may include a source for emitting light flashes, a spatial modulator having modulating elements (pixels), adapted to being illuminated by the radiation, and a projection system creating an image of the modulator on the workpiece. It may further include an electronic data processing and delivery system receiving a digital description of the pattern to be written, converting the pattern to modulator signals, and feeding the signals to the modulator. An electronic control system may be provided to control a trigger signal to compensate for flash-to-flash time jitter in the light source.08-19-2010
20110181941RAPID PROTOTYPING APPARATUS AND METHOD OF RAPID PROTOTYPING - The invention relates to a method of illuminating at least one rapid prototyping medium (RPM) wherein the illuminating is performed by at least two simultaneous individually modulated light beams (IMLB) projected onto the rapid prototyping medium (RPM) and wherein the rapid prototyping medium is illuminated with light beams (IMLB) having at least two different wavelength contents (WLC07-28-2011
20100067092COLOUR DISPLAY DEVICE - A colour display device (03-18-2010
20090059345MEMS DEVICES WITH PROTECTIVE COATINGS - A microelectromechanical devices with protective coatings on one or more surfaces of the micromechanical device is disclosed. The micromechanical device includes a substrate. The micromechanical device further includes a mirror positioned over the substrate. The mirror can be at least partially reflective to incident light. The micromechanical device further includes an optical layer positioned over the substrate and spaced from the mirror. The optical layer can be at least partially transmissive to incident light. The micromechanical device can further include a protective coating. The optical layer and the mirror define a cavity and the protective coating overlies surfaces of the microelectromechanical device exposed to the cavity.03-05-2009
20090059344MICROMIRROR DEVICE - A micromirror device (03-05-2009
20120170101ELECTROFLUIDIC DISPLAY DEVICE AND DRIVING METHOD THEREOF - An electrofluidic display device including a first structure layer and a second structure layer is provided. The first structure layer includes a first substrate. A trench structure layer is disposed on the first substrate and has a trench surrounding an indent groove of a second substrate. A first electrode layer is disposed on the first substrate. A first hydrophobic layer is disposed on the first electrode layer. The second structure layer having the second substrate is located aside the first substrate with a gap. A groove structure layer is disposed on the second substrate. The groove structure has the indent groove surrounded by the trench. A second electrode layer is disposed on the groove structure layer. A second hydrophobic layer is disposed on the second electrode layer. Polar fluid is disposed in the indent groove. Non-polar fluid is disposed in the gap between the first and second substrates.07-05-2012
20110102879WINDOW BLIND WITH ILLUMINATED LAMELLAE - The invention relates to a window blind (05-05-2011
20100007939METHOD OF PROJECTING IMAGE WITH TUNABLE INDIVIDUALLY-ADDRESSABLE FABRY-PEROT FILTERS - A projection system includes a display apparatus comprising a plurality of tunable Fabry-Perot filters, each of the filters being configured for shifting between a state in which the filter transmits radiation in a bandwidth in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum and a state in which the filter transmits radiation in a bandwidth outside the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum. An illuminator provides light to the plurality of Fabry-Perot filters. A control system receives image data and controls the display apparatus to project an image onto an associated display surface. The control system includes a modulator which provides wavelength modulation signals to the plurality of Fabry-Perot filters to modulate a color of pixels in the image and causes selected ones of the Fabry-Perot filters to shift into the bandwidth outside the visible range to modulate the brightness of pixels in the image.01-14-2010
20090316251DYNAMIC VARIABLE SHAPE OPTICAL ELEMENT - Systems and methods according to one or more embodiments are disclosed to provide a dynamic variable shape optical element for wavefront correction. In an embodiment, a variable shape optical element assembly includes an optical element having a front surface and a back surface with specified curvature characteristics. The variable shape optical element assembly also includes back knife edges having a designated shape disposed on the back surface of the optical element and front knife edges having a designated shape disposed on the front surface of the optical element. The variable shape optical element assembly further includes a mechanical arrangement adapted to apply a dynamic mechanical force to create the specified curvature characteristics.12-24-2009
20090021823OPTICAL SYSTEMS EMPLOYING COMPLIANT ELECTROACTIVE MATERIALS - The present invention provides optical systems, devices and methods which utilize one or more electroactive films to adjust an optical parameter of the optical device/system.01-22-2009
20120081777ELECTROFLUIDIC IMAGING FILM, DEVICES, AND DISPLAYS, AND METHODS OF MAKING AND USING THE SAME - A device and method of making and using the same. The device includes first and second substrates that are spaced to define a fluid space. Polar and non-polar fluids occupy the fluid space. A first electrode, with a dielectric layer, is positioned on the first substrate and electrically coupled to at least one voltage source, which is configured to supply an electrical bias to the first electrode. The fluid space includes at least one fluid splitting structure that is configured to facilitate the movement of the non-polar fluid into a portion of the polar fluid. Fluid splitting structure assisted movement of the non-polar fluid splits the polar fluid.04-05-2012
20110038028Optical Imaging Lens systems and components - A variable optical system comprises a variable optical assembly including a plurality of deformable layers, selectively operable to vary at least one of: an optical property of at least one of the layers, a physical property of at least one of the layers, and an optical performance of the assembly, while maintaining a constant mass in each layer, wherein each layer has an optical function. A constant volume may be maintained in each layer depending on the material used in each layer. Arrangements employing various combinations of materials forming the optical assembly and other optical systems and components are disclosed.02-17-2011
20110038027METHOD AND DEVICE FOR MODULATING LIGHT WITH SEMICONDUCTOR SUBSTRATE - Light in the visible spectrum is modulated using an array of modulation elements, and control circuitry connected to the array for controlling each of the modulation elements independently, each of the modulation elements having a surface which is caused to exhibit a predetermined impedance characteristic to particular frequencies of light. The amplitude of light delivered by each of the modulation elements is controlled independently by pulse code modulation. Each modulation element has a deformable portion held under tensile stress, and the control circuitry controls the deformation of the deformable portion. Each deformable element has a deformation mechanism and an optical portion, the deformation mechanism and the optical portion independently imparting to the element respectively a controlled deformation characteristic and a controlled modulation characteristic. The deformable modulation element may be a non-metal. The elements are made by forming a sandwich of two layers and a sacrificial layer between them, the sacrificial layer having a thickness related to the final cavity dimension, and using water or an oxygen based plasma to remove the sacrificial layer.02-17-2011
20080285112Mirror device - A mirror device comprises: an electrode which is covered with a protective film made of a material containing a semiconductor material and is placed on a substrate; a mirror placed above the electrode; and an electrically conductive hinge placed between the mirror and the electrode, wherein an opening part is formed in a part of the protective film, and the hinge penetrates the protective film in the opening part thereof.11-20-2008
20120320445SWITCHABLE TRANSPARENT ELECTROWETTING DISPLAY DEVICE - An electrowetting display device includes an electrowetting display panel and an illumination unit. The electrowetting display panel includes two or more different optical color-converting liquid layers and a plurality of light-shielding liquid layers. The two or more different optical color-converting liquid layers are able to convert the light source generated by the illumination unit into light beams having two or more different colors of desired grey scales. The light-shielding liquid layers can be driven to change the transmittance of display regions so as to implement switch between transparent display mode, non-transparent display mode and semi-transparent display mode.12-20-2012
20110222140DEVICE HAVING POWER GENERATING BLACK MASK AND METHOD OF FABRICATING THE SAME - A power generating black mask comprising an anti-reflection layer deposited over a substrate, a first electrode layer deposited over the anti-reflection layer, a semi-conductor layer deposited over the first electrode layer and a second electrode layer deposited over the semi-conductor layer.09-15-2011
20110235156METHODS AND DEVICES FOR PRESSURE DETECTION - Methods and devices for detecting pressure applied to a device are described herein. In one embodiment, the device comprises a first layer and a second layer positioned below the first layer. The first layer and the second layer form a cavity. The device further comprises a plurality of display elements disposed in the cavity. The device further comprises a sensor configured to measure the relative movement between the first layer and the second layer. In another embodiment, the device may detect sound waves.09-29-2011
20100232006Method for mixing colors in a display unit - Disclosed is a method for mixing colors in a display unit with pixels that are arranged like a raster. According to said method, each pixel is provided with at least three color mirrors which are disposed behind or next to each other and are formed by transparent receptacles whose interiors are connected to reservoirs via ducts, while a colored liquid, e.g. a red liquid, as well as a fully transparent medium that is immiscible with colored liquid can be moved into the color mirrors and the reservoirs thereof, the fully transparent medium having the effect of making the color of the background in the color mirror appear white, for example. According to the invention, color is mixed by alternately moving the colored liquid and the fully transparent medium into the color mirrors in a rapid sequence, the time fraction during which the colored liquid or the fully transparent medium is located in the color mirror being controllable. In addition, the three colored liquids of the color mirrors of a pixel can be mixed so as to be successively and alternately moved into the color mirrors thereof in a rapid sequence, the time fraction during which the respective color is located in the color mirror being controllable.09-16-2010
20110255143ANALOG INTERFEROMETRIC MODULATOR - Methods and devices for calibrating and controlling the actuation of an analog interferometric modulator configured to have a plurality of actuation states. Devices and methods for calibrating an analog interferometric modulator to respond in linear relation to an applied voltage.10-20-2011
20120327501LASER PROCESSING SYSTEM - In a laser processing system 12-27-2012
20120327500DISPLAY - A display includes at least one electronically controllable pixel which has at least one color level which is formed by a flat container, the interior of which is connected to a color reservoir. The content of the color reservoir can be pressurized by electronic control of an actuating drive, which acts on a movable wall of the color reservoir in such a way that colorant liquid moves from the color reservoir into the color level, and, by reducing the pressure in the color reservoir, the colored liquid is transported back into the color reservoir and a transparent fluid moves into the color level. A wall of the color reservoir faces away from the color level and at least partially forms the movable wall. An actuator of the actuating drive causes the displacement of the movable wall and moves in a plane parallel to the plane of the color reservoir.12-27-2012
20120092749DEVICES AND METHODS FOR ENHANCING COLOR SHIFT OF INTERFEROMETRIC MODULATORS - The color reflected by an interferometric modulator may vary as a function of the angle of view. A range of colors are thus viewable by rotating the interferometric modulator relative to an observer. By placing a textured layer between an observer and an interferometric modulator, a pattern which includes the range of colors may be viewed by the observer, and the range of colors may thus be viewable from a single viewing angle.04-19-2012
20120092747DISPLAY HAVING AN EMBEDDED MICROLENS ARRAY - The present disclosure provides methods, systems, and apparatus for directing incident light toward central regions of interferometric modulator displays. In one aspect, a display includes an array of microlenses embedded in a substrate adjacent a first surface of the substrate. An array of light modulators can be disposed over the first surface of the substrate. A light modulator can be disposed over a corresponding microlens. The microlenses can converge or concentrate incident light onto central regions of the corresponding light modulators. The microlenses may include single-element lenses, compound lenses, and/or graded-index lenses. Various methods of manufacturing such displays are also disclosed.04-19-2012
20110157679METHODS FOR MANUFACTURING COLD SEAL FLUID-FILLED DISPLAY APPARATUS - This methods and devices described herein relate to displays and methods of manufacturing cold seal fluid-filled displays, including MEMS. The fluid substantially surrounds the moving components of the MEMS display to reduce the effects of stiction and to improve the optical and electromechanical performance of the display. The invention relates to a method for sealing a MEMS display at a lower temperature such that a vapor bubble does not formforms only at temperatures about 15° C. to about 20° C. below the seal temperature. In some embodiments, the MEMS display apparatus includes a first substrate, a second substrate separated from the first substrate by a gap and supporting an array of light modulators, a fluid substantially filling the gap, a plurality of spacers within the gap, and a sealing material joining the first substrate to the second substrate.06-30-2011
20110157678ELECTROWETTING DISPLAY AND PIXEL ARRAY SUBSTRATE THEREOF AND ELECTROWETTING DISPLAY PIXEL STRUCTURE THEREOF - An electrowetting display, a pixel array substrate thereof, and an electrowetting display pixel structure thereof are provided. The electrowetting display pixel structure is disposed on a substrate. The electrowetting display pixel structure includes a pixel electrode, an insulating layer and a hydrophobic layer. The pixel electrode is covered with the insulating layer, and the insulating layer is covered with the hydrophobic layer. The hydrophobic layer has at least one flow guiding area, and a flowing path of a fluid medium is determined by a layout of the flow guiding area.06-30-2011
20110157677ELECTROWETTING DISPLAY AND PIXEL ARRAY SUBSTRATE THEREOF AND ELECTROWETTING DISPLAY PIXEL STRUCTURE THEREOF - An electrowetting display, a pixel array substrate thereof, and an electrowetting display pixel structure thereof are provided. The electrowetting display pixel structure is disposed on a substrate. The electrowetting display pixel structure includes a pixel electrode, a hydrophobic insulating layer and a wall. The pixel electrode is covered by the hydrophobic insulating layer. The wall is disposed on the hydrophobic insulating layer. The wall has a first side surface, a second side surface and at least one opening penetrating the first side surface and the second side surface. The opening is used for fluid medium to flow therethrough.06-30-2011
20110157676MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEM SUBSTRATE AND DISPLAY APPARATUS HAVING THE SAME - A microelectromechanical system substrate includes a first substrate and an optical gate that is disposed on the first substrate and configured to move to at least two different positions. The optical gate comprises a color filter and a light absorbing section. A display apparatus includes a first substrate; a second substrate that faces the first substrate; an optical gate disposed on the first substrate, configured to move to at least two different positions, and comprising a color filter and a light absorbing section; and a light shielding layer that contacts the second substrate.06-30-2011
20110157675OPTICAL SYSTEMS EMPLOYING COMPLIANT ELECTROACTIVE MATERIALS - The present invention provides optical systems, devices and methods which utilize one or more electroactive films to adjust an optical parameter of the optical device/system.06-30-2011
20130021661DISPLAY APPARATUS AND METHOD OF DRIVING THE SAME - A transflective display apparatus includes a first electrode and a second electrode, which face each other and are separated from one another by a pixel electrode. In addition, a preparation voltage is applied to the first electrode or the second electrode before applying a driving voltage to the pixel electrode.01-24-2013
20120243070DISPLAY USING A TRANSREFLECTIVE ELECTROWETTING LAYER - A display for displaying images that includes a transreflective electrowetting layer operable to a transparent-state where light passes through the transreflective electrowetting layer and a reflective-state where light is reflected by the transreflective electrowetting layer; a non-reflective layer underlying the transreflective electrowetting layer; and an emissive layer proximate to the transreflective electrowetting layer. The display combines light emitting elements such as OLED's with transreflective electrowetting elements to provide a display that can operate in high ambient light conditions without undesirably high power dissipation by the OLED's, and can operate under low ambient light or no ambient light conditions.09-27-2012
20130176610Electromechanical billboard - An electromechanical image display includes a box-structure of cups arranged in a row and column matrix. A non-rotatable axle for each column in the matrix passes through each of the cups in a column. The axle holds display elements which are rotatable on the axle. At least one electric-field-generating conducting plate in each cup is connected to an electrical source. A display element for each cup is a parallelepiped having six faces with a tunnel through the geometric centers of two of the six faces to permit its installation on the axle. The display element is an electret, or contains one or more electrets, that rotationally responds to the electric field of the electric-field-generating conducting plate.07-11-2013
20100085626APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR REDUCING SLIPPAGE BETWEEN STRUCTURES IN AN INTERFEROMETRIC MODULATOR - A support structure within an interferometric modulator device may contact various other structures within the device. Increased bond strengths between the support structure and the other structures may be achieved in various ways, such as by providing roughened surfaces and/or adhesive materials at the interfaces between the support structures and the other structures. In an embodiment, increased adhesion is achieved between a support structure and a substrate layer. In another embodiment, increased adhesion is achieved between a support structure and a moveable layer. Increased adhesion may reduce undesirable slippage between the support structures and the other structures to which they are attached within the interferometric modulator.04-08-2010
20130135706ORNAMENTAL DISPLAY DEVICE - An ornamental display device having at least one interferometric modulator, a signal receiver configured to receive an external signal and a processor configured to control the display based on the external signal is disclosed. In one aspect, the external signal is emitted from a controller. In another aspect, the external signal is emitted from a computer.05-30-2013
20130135705SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND METHODS FOR DRIVING AN ANALOG INTERFEROMETRIC MODULATOR - This disclosure provides systems, methods and apparatus, including computer programs encoded on computer storage media, for accurately positioning a movable conductive layer of a reflective display element. In one aspect, an initial position of the movable conductive layer with respect to at least one or more fixed conductive layers is sensed. A charging voltage may be determined based at least in part on the initial position. The charging voltage may be applied to the movable conductive layer.05-30-2013
20130114122OPTICALLY VARIABLE DEVICES, THEIR PRODUCTION AND USE - Security documents often incorporate optically variable devices to prevent or hinder counterfeiters. Disclosed herein are layered optically variable devices such as colour-shift foils that employ a piezoelectric layer, and methods for their production and use. Such devices afford new techniques for a user of a security document to check quickly and easily whether the security document is a legitimate document or a counterfeit copy by placing an electrical potential difference across the security document.05-09-2013
20130100519MODULATING THICKNESS OF COLORED FLUID IN COLOR DISPLAY - An embodiment is a display unit. The display unit includes a substrate layer, a layer of colored fluid on the substrate layer, and a transparent actuator element on the layer of the colored fluid. The layer of colored fluid has a thickness and a color. The transparent actuator element modulates the thickness of the colored fluid upon activated by a force such that the colored fluid is changed from a first state to a second state or vice versa. The modulated thickness provides a variable optical density of the colored fluid.04-25-2013
20130100518TUNING MOVABLE LAYER STIFFNESS WITH FEATURES IN THE MOVABLE LAYER - This disclosure provides systems, methods and apparatus for an electromechanical systems device. In one aspect, an electromechanical systems device may include a substrate and a movable layer positioned apart from the substrate. The movable layer and the substrate may define a cavity. The movable layer may be movable to increase the size of the cavity or to decrease the size of the cavity. The movable layer also may include a first anchor point attaching the movable layer to the substrate and a first feature associated with the first anchor point. The first feature may include a protrusion of the movable layer into or out from the cavity.04-25-2013
20130114121MATCHING LAYER THIN-FILMS FOR AN ELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS REFLECTIVE DISPLAY DEVICE - This disclosure provides systems, methods and apparatus for an electromechanical systems reflective display device. In one aspect, an electromechanical systems display device includes a reflective layer and an absorber layer. The absorber layer is spaced apart from the reflective layer to define a cavity between the absorber layer and the reflective layer. The absorber layer is capable of transmitting light into the cavity, absorbing light, and reflecting light, and includes a metal layer. A plurality of matching layers are on a surface of the absorber layer facing away from the cavity, the plurality of matching layers including a first matching layer disposed on the absorber layer and a second matching layer disposed on the first matching layer.05-09-2013
20130128336SPECTRUM-MODULATED SMART WINDOWS - Methods, systems, devices and/or apparatuses are provided that selectively reflect the infrared spectrum independent of other regions of the solar spectrum in order to actively manage solar heat gain across surfaces such as windows, skylights, roofs, siding and the like.05-23-2013
20130128335DUAL-MODE ELECTROWETTING DISPLAY DEVICE - An electrowetting display device that features dual-mode operation. The display device can operate in either a low-power consumption bistable mode, or a higher-power consumption fast switching (video-rate) mode.05-23-2013
20130128337OPTICAL ELEMENT, OPTICAL ELEMENT ARRAY, DISPLAY DEVICE, AND ELECTRONIC APPARATUS - An optical element includes: a first electrode and a second electrode that are arranged opposite each other, in which the first electrode allows part of incident light to pass therethrough and reflects another part of the incident light, and the second electrode reflects light that has passed through the first electrode; a first dielectric film and a second dielectric film covering the first electrode and the second electrode, respectively; and a first medium and a second medium each interposed and sealed in a space containing a cavity portion between the first dielectric film and the second dielectric film, in which the first medium and the second medium have refractive indices different from one another, and one of the first medium and the second medium is a polar liquid.05-23-2013
20130141775ELECTROWETTING DISPLAY PANEL AND THE MANUFACTURING METHOD THEREOF - Embodiments of the present disclosure provide an electrowetting display panel and the manufacturing method thereof The electrowetting display panel comprises: a first glass substrate; a second glass substrate provided opposite to the first glass substrate; a cavity provided between the first glass substrate and the second glass substrate; a colored conductive liquid filled into the cavity; and a reflecting conductive element provided on the surface of the first glass substrate facing away from the second glass substrate, and corresponding to the cavity, wherein the reflecting conductive element is used for controlling the light transmissivity of the colored conductive liquid within the cavity according to the voltage applied to the reflecting conductive element and reflecting the light passing through the colored conductive liquid toward the second glass substrate.06-06-2013
20110273759LIGHT CONTROL DEVICE AND LIGHT CONTROL METHOD - A light control device 11-10-2011
20130148187WINDSHIELD WITH FLUORESCENT ELECTROWETTING DISPLAY - A windshield assembly that includes a fluorescent electrowetting cell and an opaque electrowetting cell overlying a windshield and configured so the opaque electrowetting cell cooperates with the fluorescent electrowetting cell to contrast an image displayed by the fluorescent electrowetting cell with respect to a field of view beyond the windshield assembly. The ability to contrast the image makes the image easier to see when bright sunlight is present.06-13-2013
20110235157Display device comprising display elements without backflow ducts - The invention relates to a display device having at least one electronically controllable display element comprising at least one non-polar and at least two electrically conducting or polar liquids, a fluidically closed volume having a visible subvolume, a further subvolume and at least two storage volumes connected to said subvolumes, as well as a voltage source connected to a first electrode array. It is provided thereby that each of said electrically conducting or polar liquids assumes a volume which is dimensioned such that, independent of application of voltage to the electrode array, always a fluidically tight closure for non-polar liquid between the respective storage volume and either the visible or the further subvolume is formed.09-29-2011
20110235155MECHANICAL LAYER AND METHODS OF SHAPING THE SAME - A method of shaping a mechanical layer is disclosed. In one embodiment, the method comprises depositing a support layer, a sacrificial layer and a mechanical layer over a substrate, and forming a support post from the support layer. A kink is formed adjacent to the support post in the mechanical layer. The kink comprises a rising edge and a falling edge, and the kink can be configured to control the shaping and curvature of the mechanical layer upon removal of the sacrificial layer.09-29-2011
20110235154REFLECTIVE DISPLAY USING CALIBRATION DATA FOR ELECTROSTATICALLY MAINTAINING PARALLEL RELATIONSHIP OF ADJUSTABLE-DEPTH CAVITY COMPONENT - Interferometric modulators include a movable mirror that is actuated by voltage applied to a plurality of electrodes relative to at least one other electrode, to define a cavity relative to a partially reflective mirror formed by a top plate. The depth of the cavity determines a bandwidth of light that is modulated by internal reflections within the cavity and which interferes with light that is reflected from a partially reflective mirror on the top plate, producing a desired reflected color of light for the modulator. Variations in manufacturing and material characteristics can cause the movable mirror to tilt relative to the partially reflective mirror, which degrades the modulation accuracy. To compensate, different voltages can be applied to the plurality of electrodes. The voltage can be determined at time of manufacture and stored in non-volatile memory, for use when the modulator is actuated during use.09-29-2011
20110235158Multi-colored display device - The invention relates to a display device having at least one electrically controllable display element comprising a first and at least one further liquid, a plurality of fluidically closed volumes and at least one voltage source which is connected to an electrode array, wherein said volumes include flat visible subvolumes which stacked upon another along their shortest dimension, having associated second subvolumes which pass through those flat visible subvolumes which are underlying that flat visible subvolume which is associated with the respective second subvolume.09-29-2011
20100296149OPTICAL APPARATUS - Optical apparatus for a display device. The optical apparatus comprises a cavity, and a first fluid (11-25-2010
20100020382SPACER FOR MEMS DEVICE - An improved spacer in an apparatus comprising a MEMS device that is packaged between a substrate and cover plate, where the improved spacer protects traces running on the substrate and under the spacer. The improved spacer reduces the amount of force or pressure on the traces or wires, which reduces line out damage when an array of packaged MEMS devices are separated by pressure or force into one packaged MEMS device. In one embodiment, the improved spacer comprises a softer, deformable, elastic, or malleable material that does not crush the traces. This softer material can be an elastic polymeric spacer. In another embodiment, the improved spacer can protect these traces by having a shape with a smaller contact surface which minimizes the amount of traces being affected. This surface can be a sphere or a ball.01-28-2010
20120275010SCULPTURAL IMAGING WITH OPTICAL TILES - Structures for representing images comprise a plurality of tile elements which, when illuminated by a light source, each direct an amount of light toward an observer at a viewing location dependent on their orientation angles. The orientation angles of each tile element may be selected based on a characteristic of a corresponding pixel of an image, such that the observer sees a representation of that image created by the varying amount of light directed to the viewing location by the tile elements.11-01-2012
20120275009METHOD FOR MAKING ELECTROWETTING DISPLAY DEVICE - The present invention relates to a method of making an electrowetting display device having a plurality of picture elements, each picture element being defined by walls surrounding a display region, the plurality of picture elements covering a first area of a support plate. The method comprises the steps of: applying a hydrophobic layer covering at least the first area; lowering the hydrophobicity of the hydrophobic layer over a second area substantially outside the display regions; forming the walls on the hydrophobic layer over the first area. The present invention further relates to an electrowetting display device.11-01-2012
20100315696ANALOG INTERFEROMETRIC MODULATOR - Methods and devices for calibrating and controlling the actuation of an analog interferometric modulator configured to have a plurality of actuation states. Devices and methods for calibrating an analog interferometric modulator to respond in linear relation to an applied voltage.12-16-2010
20100315695MICROELECTROMECHANICAL DEVICE WITH RESTORING ELECTRODE - Light in the visible spectrum is modulated using an array of modulation elements, and control circuitry connected to the array for controlling each of the modulation elements independently, each of the modulation elements having a surface which is caused to exhibit a predetermined impedance characteristic to particular frequencies of light. The amplitude of light delivered by each of the modulation elements is controlled independently by pulse code modulation. Each modulation element has a deformable portion held under tensile stress, and the control circuitry controls the deformation of the deformable portion. Each deformable element has a deformation mechanism and an optical portion, the deformation mechanism and the optical portion independently imparting to the element respectively a controlled deformation characteristic and a controlled modulation characteristic. The deformable modulation element may be a non-metal. The elements are made by forming a sandwich of two layers and a sacrificial layer between them, the sacrificial layer having a thickness related to the final cavity dimension, and using chemical (e.g., water) or a plasma based etch process to remove the sacrificial layer.12-16-2010
20120281269ELECTRO-WETTING DISPLAY DEVICE AND DRIVING METHOD THEREOF - An electro-wetting display device includes a light guide plate having a light incident surface and a light output surface, a light source, a transparent electrode, a dielectric layer, a transparent non-polar solution layer, a counter substrate, a light emitting material layer, a counter electrode layer and a transparent polar solution layer. The light source is disposed near the light incident surface. The transparent electrode layer is disposed on the light output surface. The dielectric layer covers the transparent electrode layer and has refractive index n1. The transparent non-polar solution layer is disposed on the dielectric layer and has refractive index n2, and n2≧n1. The counter substrate is disposed above the transparent non-polar solution layer. The light emitting material layer and the counter electrode are disposed on the counter substrate. The transparent polar solution layer is disposed between the counter substrate and the light guide plate.11-08-2012
20130155486INK COMPOSITION USED IN ELECTROWETTING DISPLAY DEVICE AND ELECTROWETTING DISPLAY DEVICE EMPLOYING THE SAME - Disclosed is an ink composition used in an electrowetting display device and an electrowetting display device employing the same. The ink composition used in the electrowetting display device includes a non-polar solvent and a modified hydrophobic pigment, wherein the modified hydrophobic pigment has a structure represented by Formula (I), of06-20-2013
20130155487LIGHT MODULATOR PIXEL UNIT AND MANUFACTURING METHOD THEREOF - A light modulator pixel unit and the manufacturing method thereof are provided. The pixel unit includes a top electrode formed on a substrate, a movable electrode and a bottom electrode. Under the control of a control circuit, the position of the movable electrode would deflect. When the movable electrode is positioned in a first position, a first light is diffracted on the top electrode; when the movable electrode is positioned in a second position, a second light is diffracted on the top electrode; when the movable electrode is positioned in a third position, a third light is diffracted on the top electrode. The said first light, second light and third light are lights of three primary colors. The light modulator pixel unit of the present invention can modulate lights of three colors and is applicable in the field of micro-display system.06-20-2013
20130182309ELECTROWETTING DISPLAY APPARATUS AND METHOD OF MANUFACTURING THE SAME - An electrowetting display apparatus includes a first base substrate, a second base substrate which faces the first base substrate, a first electrode on the first base substrate, and a second electrode on the second base substrate, where the second electrode faces the first electrode. A barrier wall is on the first electrode, where the barrier wall defines a storage area. A surface of the first electrode and the barrier wall is overlapped by a barrier layer. In addition, a water-repellent layer is on the barrier layer which is in the storage area. First and second fluids are in the storage area, the first fluid is separate from the second fluid, and the first fluid or the second fluid has a polarity.07-18-2013
20130182310DISPLAY DEVICE - A display device comprising picture elements, which are constituted by electrowetting elements having at least one first fluid and a second fluid immiscible with each other within a space between a first support plate and a second support plate, the second fluid being electro-conductive or polar. The first fluid in each element is at the side of the first support plate confined by element walls, and the second fluid is shared by a plurality of picture elements, characterised by a preventer for preventing first fluid portions from being expelled from its confinement when forces other than electrowetting forces are exerted on this fluid.07-18-2013
20130194653ANALOG IMOD HAVING A COLOR NOTCH FILTER - This disclosure provides systems, methods and apparatus related to an electromechanical display device. In one aspect, an analog interferometric modulator (AIMOD) includes a reflective display pixel having a movable reflective layer and a stationary absorber layer, the reflective layer and absorber layer defining a cavity therebetween. A color notch filter may be employed to produce an improved white state. In some implementations, the color notch filter is positioned on a side of the substrate opposite the absorber layer. In some other implementations, the color notch filter is positioned between the substrate and the movable reflective layer.08-01-2013
20130201547ELECTROWETTING DEVICE - An electrowetting device includes: a lower substrate and an upper substrate which face each other; a first electrode on the lower substrate; an insulating layer on the first electrode; a second electrode on the upper substrate; and a first fluid and a second fluid between the upper substrate and the lower substrate. The first fluid includes a solvent, a dye and a scattering enhancer.08-08-2013
20120300282Apparatus and Associated Methods - In one or more embodiments described herein, there is provided an apparatus including a support layer, a plurality of pixels, and a switch. The pixels are formed using an arrangement of respective liquid-phobic elements disposed on the support layer. The arrangement of the liquid-phobic elements is configured so as to be able to provide, when interacting with a liquid on the support layer, one or more associated plastron regions to provide a first pixel optical state. The switch is configured to be able to selectively modify one or more of said associated plastron regions to provide a second pixel optical state.11-29-2012
20120086998DIFFUSION BARRIER LAYER FOR MEMS DEVICES - Described herein is the use of a diffusion barrier layer between metallic layers in MEMS devices. The diffusion barrier layer prevents mixing of the two metals, which can alter desired physical characteristics and complicate processing. In one example, the diffusion barrier layer may be used as part of a movable reflective structure in interferometric modulators.04-12-2012
20130208336ELECTRO-WETTING DISPLAY DEVICE - An electro-wetting display device including a backlight module, an opposite substrate, a polar fluid and a non-polar fluid is provided. The backlight module is used to provide a light. The opposite substrate is located above the backlight module. The opposite substrate includes an opposite electrode and a first dielectric layer. The first dielectric layer substantially covers the opposite electrode. The polar fluid is located between the backlight module and the opposite substrate. The non-polar fluid is located between the backlight module and the opposite substrate.08-15-2013
20120092748RADIATION EMITTING ELEMENT AND A METHOD OF PROVIDING IT - A radiation emitting element comprising a radiation transmissive element having a first refractive index, a first surface, a second, opposite surface, a radiation emitter adapted to emit radiation of a predetermined wavelength into the radiation transmissive element, and a plurality of radiation controlling elements, wherein each radiation controlling element comprises: a first liquid having a second refractive index, a second fluid having a third refractive index being lower than the second refractive index, the second refractive index being closer to the first refractive index than the third refractive index, means for altering a shape of the first liquid between two modes wherein: • in a first mode, the first liquid being in contact with the first surface at a first surface part, and an interface between the first liquid and the second fluid, at the first surface part, is not parallel to the first surface part and • in a second mode, a surface of the second fluid, at the first surface part, is at least substantially parallel to the shape of the first surface part, wherein the first liquid has a transmittance of at least 10% at the predetermined wavelength.04-19-2012
20130208337ELECTROWETTING DISPLAY DEVICE AND MANUFACTURING METHOD THEREOF - The present inventive concept relates to an electrowetting display device including a lyophobic colloid material and a polymer resin such as an organic layer or a polyimide (PI), and a lyophobic layer including a supporting layer supporting the lyophobic colloid material and using a photoreactive fluorine-based surfactant for a fluorine-based material to be positioned above and for a hardened photoreactive material layer to be positioned below through exposure in a single step without separately performing a hydrophilic treatment and then a water-repellent treatment, thereby reducing the number of processes, the manufacturing time, and the cost.08-15-2013

Patent applications in class By changing physical characteristics (e.g., shape, size or contours) of an optical element

Patent applications in all subclasses By changing physical characteristics (e.g., shape, size or contours) of an optical element