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With object or substance characteristic determination using conductivity effects

Subclass of:

324 - Electricity: measuring and testing

324600000 - IMPEDANCE, ADMITTANCE OR OTHER QUANTITIES REPRESENTATIVE OF ELECTRICAL STIMULUS/RESPONSE RELATIONSHIPS

324649000 - Lumped type parameters

324691000 - Using resistance or conductance measurement

Patent class list (only not empty are listed)

Deeper subclasses:

Class / Patent application numberDescriptionNumber of patent applications / Date published
324699000 To determine dimension (e.g., distance or thickness) 52
324694000 To determine water content 48
324698000 To determine oil qualities 16
324701000 Where the object moves while under test 2
20090167328FLUID MEASURING APPARATUS - The invention provides a fluid measuring apparatus, which includes a collector, a sensing circuit, and an electrochromic device electrically connected to the sensing circuit. When the concentration of a fluid flowing through the collector and between the sensing circuit varies, the color of the electrochromic device changes accordingly. Further, the electrochromic device includes an electrochromic material, and the sensing circuit includes a first electrode and a second electrode, wherein the first and the second electrodes are disposed in the collector and the electrochromic material is disposed on the first electrode. When the concentration of an electrolytic solution flowing between the first electrode and the second electrode varies, the color of the electrochromic material changes accordingly.07-02-2009
20130063168Nanopore Molecule Detection System And Molecule Detection Method Based On Potential Measurement Of Insulated Conductive Thin Layer - A particle detector includes: a conductive nanolayer; insulating nanolayers attached to both sides of the conductive nanolayer; a nanopore formed to penetrate the conductive nanolayer and the insulating nanolayers so as to provide a migration path for a sample particle; a power supply unit configured to apply an electric field between both ends of the nanopore so as to apply a potential to the conductive nanolayer; and an electric signal measuring unit electrically connected to the conductive nanolayer and configured to measure the potential change in the conductive nanolayer induced by the sample particle as the sample particle migrates through the nanopore. The particle detector is capable of detecting a particle with high signal-to-noise ratio and resolution, scanning a sample without mechanical motion of the conductive nanolayer and analyzing DNA base sequences.03-14-2013
324697000 For interface 2
20120217983HEAT SPREADER FLATNESS DETECTION - A heat spreader includes a plurality of sensors that indicate that the heat spreader is flat against and in thermal contact with a plurality of chips when the heat spreader is loaded upon a chip stack. One or more nodes within the sensors are connected by electric conductors. The resistances of the conductors may be compared to determine if the nodes within the sensors are relatively flat. Sensor flatness may be indicated to a higher level electronic device such as a visual display. The display may ultimately be viewed by a user to determine whether the heat spreader is flat and in thermal contact with the plurality of chips when the heat spreader is loaded upon the chip stack.08-30-2012
20100148807ORIENTATION DETECTION CIRCUIT AND ELECTRONIC DEVICE USING THE SAME - An orientation detection circuit is provided. The circuit includes a processor, a first resistor, a second resistor, a third resistor, and a vibration switch. The processor comprises a first input pin and a second input pin. The second resistor has a resistance value greater than that of the first resistor. The third resistor has a resistance value greater than that of the second resistor. The switch comprises a first terminal connected to a power source and a second terminal connected to the second input pin and connected to ground via the third resistor. The switch includes a third terminal connected to the first terminal via the second resistor, and a fourth terminal connected to the first input pin and connected to ground via the first resistor. The switch also includes a fifth terminal connected to the fourth terminal, and a conductive ball for contacting two or three of the terminals.06-17-2010
Entries
DocumentTitleDate
20130043893USE OF SPECIFIC RESISTIVITY MEASUREMENT FOR INDIRECT DETERMINATION OF THE PURITY OF SILANES AND GERMANES AND A CORRESPONDING PROCESS - The invention relates to a method for indirectly determining the purity of silanes and germanes using a device for measuring specific resistance. The invention further relates to a system for industrially producing and/or filling containers with silanes or germanes, including a quality control in which a device is used for measuring specific resistance.02-21-2013
20090128167METHOD FOR MEASURING AREA RESISTANCE OF MAGNETO-RESISTANCE EFFECT ELEMENT - A method for measuring an area resistance of a magneto-resistance effect element which includes an upper-barrier layer having a first sheet resistivity Rt, a barrier layer, and a lower-barrier layer having a second sheet resistivity Rb, includes a resistance measurement step, a sheet resistivity measurement step and a establishing step. The resistance measurement step is the step of measuring a resistance R of the magneto-resistance effect element by using predetermined terminals. The sheet resistivity measurement step measures the first sheet resistivity Rt and the second sheet resistivity Rb. The establishing step determines the area resistance RA of the magneto-resistance effect element using the first sheet resistivity Rt, the second sheet resistivity Rb, the resistance R and the intervals among the predetermined terminals.05-21-2009
20080258742Conductivity measurement device, its manufacture and use - The invention relates to a method of manufacturing a device for measuring conductivity of a liquid, in particular ultrapure water, of the kind comprising two conductivity measurement electrodes suitable for defining a cell constant enabling the measurement of the conductivity of the ultrapure liquid, characterized in that it consists of producing each of the electrodes by forming an electrode pattern from electrically conductive material on a substrate of insulating material.10-23-2008
20110193576ELECTRON RADIATION MONITORING SYSTEM TO PREVENT GOLD SPITTING AND RESIST CROSS-LINKING DURING EVAPORATION - Disclosed herein are systems and methods for in-situ measurement of impurities on metal slugs utilized in electron-beam metal evaporation/deposition systems, and for increasing the production yield of a semiconductor manufacturing processes utilizing electron-beam metal evaporation/deposition systems. A voltage and/or a current level on an electrode disposed in a deposition chamber of an electron-beam metal evaporation/deposition system is monitored and used to measure contamination of the metal slug. Should the voltage or current reach a certain level, to the deposition is completed and the system is inspected for contamination.08-11-2011
20100073016Electro-Mechanical Switches and Methods of Use Thereof - One aspect of the invention relates to an ultrathin micro-electromechanical chemical sensing device which uses swelling or straining of a reactive organic material for sensing. In certain embodiments, the device comprises a contact on-off switch chemical sensor. For example, the device can comprises a small gap separating two electrodes, wherein the gap can be closed as a result of the swelling or stressing of an organic polymer coating on one or both sides of the gap. In certain embodiments, the swelling or stressing is due to the organic polymer reacting with a target analyte.03-25-2010
20120182030Device for the Measurement of Electrical Properties of Fluids and Method for Measuring Said Electrical Properties07-19-2012
20130088247READOUT APPARATUS AND READOUT METHOD FOR SENSOR ARRAY - A readout apparatus and a readout method for a sensor array are provided. The readout apparatus includes a switching circuit, a control unit, a gain circuit and an offset compensating circuit. The control unit controls the switching circuit to perform a switching operation for selecting a target sensor from a plurality of sensors of the sensor array. The gain circuit selectively senses the target sensor according the switching operation of the switching circuit, and gains the sensing result to output a gained sensing value of the target sensor. The control unit further dynamically decides a compensating value according the switching operation. The offset compensating circuit adjusts the gained sensing value for outputting a compensated sensing value of the target sensor in accordance with the compensating value.04-11-2013
20130069675CONDUCTIVE FLUID LEAK DETECTOR - A conductive fluid leak detector having an enclosed and secure housing is disclosed. The housing as well as a pair of conductive fluid sensing probes that project through the housing are tamper-resistant. The detector is provided with a switch for activation of a wash down mode which allows cleaning of the environment where the detector is installed without triggering an alarm. Upon activating the switch, the detector is deactivated for a predetermined period of time. The conductive fluid leak detector is coupled to an external maintenance or alarm system. When not deactivated or in the wash down mode, the detector sends a signal to the external system when conductive fluid is detected by the sensing probes.03-21-2013
20100134124MISALIGNMENT DETECTION DEVICES - A misalignment detection device comprising a substrate, at least one integrated circuit (IC), and at least one detection unit is disclosed. The substrate comprises a first positioning pad and a second positioning pad adjacent to the first positioning pad. The integrated circuit is disposed on the substrate and comprises a first positioning bump and a second positioning bump adjacent to the first positioning bump. The first and second positioning bumps substantially correspond to the first and second positioning pads, respectively. The at least one detection unit is electrically coupled to the substrate, wherein the detection unit outputs a fault signal in response to a positioning shift occurring between the first and second positioning pads and the first and second positioning bumps.06-03-2010
20110012625ZINC OXIDE SULFUR SENSOR - Sulfur sensors are formed by coating a conductive substrate with ZnO microstructures that are reactive with sulfur in liquids, such as fuel, using MOCVD. The ZnO is changed to ZnS over time and causes the voltage across the sensors to change under a constant current by at least about 25%. The time required for such saturation to occur can then be correlated to a sulfur concentration in the liquid.01-20-2011
20090237095METHOD AND DEVICE FOR MEASURING POWDER PROPERTIES - An object of the present invention is to provide a method for measuring information relating to the impedance characteristics of a powder with high accuracy. To achieve such an object, the method for measuring powder properties according to the present invention includes a step in which the impedance characteristics of a powder are obtained by an alternating current impedance method, using a function setting a pressure applied to the powder or a density of the powder as a variable. From the obtained impedance characteristics, information relating to at least one of the components can be extracted, the components being a first component that is dependent on the variable, and a second component that is not dependent on the variable.09-24-2009
20090237094Method for evaluating magnetoresistive element - A method for evaluating a magnetoresistive element includes polarizing the magnetoresistive element in a first direction of a core width, and stepwise increasing a maximum magnetic field applied in a measurement and measuring a maximum value of resistance of the magnetoresistive element at each step. Measuring the maximum value includes applying a magnetic field in a second direction opposite to the first direction at each step and obtaining the maximum value of the resistance while changing the magnetic field from an initial magnetic field to the maximum magnetic field applied at each step.09-24-2009
20120235693Ceramic Crack Inspection - A method and apparatus for non-destructive inspection including detection, quantification, and location of a surface or subsurface crack in a body made of advanced technical ceramics. The method and apparatus can detect all cracks in a ceramic body, including microscopic cracks, with a high sensitivity, accuracy and reliability, by measuring changes in electrical resistances through a plurality pairs of electrodes affixed on surfaces of the ceramic body. The extent of the cracks can be quantified and expressed as numerical data, and the location of the cracks can be identified. An automated inspection process enables a convenient, real-time, cost-effective crack inspection.09-20-2012
20100295565AUTOMATED PHASE SEPARATION AND FUEL QUALITY SENSOR - A fluid characterization sensor comprising a plurality of sensor segments is disclosed. Each segment comprises two electrodes, spaced apart so the fluid in the corresponding interval of depth for that segment is positioned between them. Complex current or impedance is measured by exciting one electrode with an AC signal, and measuring the amplitude and phase of the current in the other electrode. After automatically measuring and accounting for pre-determined gain, offset, temperature, and other parasitic influences on the raw sensor signal, the complex electrical impedance of the fluid between the electrodes is calculated from the measured phase/amplitude and/or real/imaginary components of the received electrical current signal and/or the variation of the measured response with variation in excitation frequency. Comparison of measured results with results taken using known fluids identifies fluid properties. Alternatively, measured results are compared to predicted results using forward models describing expected results for different fluids or contaminants.11-25-2010
20110031988REDUCING SIGNAL DISTORTIONS - The invention relates to reducing signal distortions occurring when a potential is applied to an electrochemical cell. Electrochemical measurements are obtained in the presence of a specific chemical entity which is an aminoglycoside, an organic polyamine and/or a substance capable of raising the ionic strength of the sample.02-10-2011
20100188108LIQUID WATER SENSOR SIGNAL CONDITIONING CIRCUIT FOR USE IN PEM FUEL CELLS - A measurement circuit that has particular application for detecting a high impedance measurement signal from a liquid water sensor. The measurement circuit includes a high impedance resistance-to-frequency conversion circuit that is coupled to the sensor and receives a resistance signal therefrom. The resistance-to-frequency conversion circuit includes an oscillator that converts the resistance signal to a representative frequency. The measurement circuit also includes a frequency-to-voltage conversion circuit that receives the frequency signal from the resistance-to-frequency conversion circuit, and converts the frequency signal to a representative voltage that provides an indication of water on the sensor.07-29-2010
20110285413High Voltage Liquid Dielectric Test Vessel - A test vessel assembly (11-24-2011
20120098554METHOD AND DEVICE FOR MEASURING PERMITTIVITY AND/OR PERMEABILITY - The invention relates to a method for measuring the permittivity and/or perviousness of a sample of a nonconductive material, said method comprising: a) measuring (04-26-2012
20110291677METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DEFECT DETECTION - A system for detecting a defect in a membranous article (12-01-2011
20100033198ELECTRICAL DETECTION AND/OR QUANTIFICATION OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS - The present invention relates to a method and a device for the electrical detection and/or quantification of organophosphorus compounds present in gaseous form or in solution in a solvent.02-11-2010
20080238450METHOD FOR INSPECTING QUALITY OF CORE MATERIAL FOR ELECTROPHOTOGRAPHIC FERRITE CARRIER - An object of the present invention is to provide a quality inspection method for obtaining a specifying factor which can more reliably indicate powder characteristics of a core material for an electrophotographic ferrite carrier. To achieve the object, a method for inspecting the quality of a core material for an electrophotographic ferrite carrier adopts a method characterized in that the impedance of the core material for the electrophotographic ferrite carrier is measured by using an AC-resistance measurement method to obtain a Nyquist diagram (Cole-Cole plot) in which a real number impedance (Z′) is arranged in an X-axis and an imaginary number impedance (Z″) is arranged in a Y-axis and then the characteristics of the particles of the core material for the electrophotographic ferrite carrier is evaluated by using the Nyquist diagram (Cole-Cole plot). Here, the quality of a core material for the electrophotographic ferrite carrier is judged according to a predetermined equivalent circuit by using the value of the parameters one or two or more in combination selected from |Rs|, Rp10-02-2008
20090278556Carbon Nanostructure Electrode Based Sensors: Devices, Processes and Uses Thereof - Disclosed herein are methods of preparing and using doped MWNT electrodes, sensors and field-effect transistors. Devices incorporating doped MWNT electrodes, sensors and field-effect transistors are also disclosed. Also disclosed are devices comprising nanostructured electrodes and methods for measuring free chlorine in an aqueous environment. Also disclosed are diamond coated electrodes for use in electrochemical applications.11-12-2009
20090284271INSTRUMENT FOR MEASURING CONCENTRATION OF PARTICULATES IN FLUID, MEASURING METHOD, AND MEASURING PROGRAM - There are disclosed an instrument for measuring the concentration of particulates in a fluid, which is capable of determining the concentration of the particulates in the fluid with high accuracy. The instrument for measuring the concentration of the particulates in the fluid includes particulate collecting means, temperature measuring means, flow rate measuring means, impedance measuring means, time measuring means, constant determining means for determining an impedance change per unit time-particulate concentration constant from temperature and flow rate, impedance change per unit time computing means for computing the change of an impedance per unit time, and particulate concentration determining means for determining the concentration of the particulates from the change of the impedance per unit time computed by the impedance change per unit time computing means.11-19-2009
20090289642NON-DESTRUCTIVE METHOD FOR DETECTING ZONES WITH NON CONDUCTIVE MATERIALS IN A COMPOSITE PART - Non-destructive method for detecting zones with non-conductive materials, such as materials that include glass fibres, in a part made of a conductive composite, such as a composite whose reinforcing fibres are carbon fibres, provided with an organic coating, that comprises the following stages: a) providing a device for applying an electric potential on the surface of said part; b) determining the dielectric breakdown potential Pr corresponding to the thickness E of the coating; c) applying said dielectric breakdown potential Pr with said device to the part for the purpose of identifying those zones that have non-conductive materials when dielectric breakdown does not occur in them.11-26-2009
20090273356INSULATED SUBSTRATE IMPEDANCE TRANSDUCERS - The present invention provides an electronic transducer (11-05-2009
20090128168MULTIFUNCTIONAL CONDUCTING POLYMER STRUCTURES - The present invention includes the use of conducting polymers as sensors in distributed sensing systems, as sensors and operating elements in multifunctional devices, and for conducting-polymer based multifunctional sensing fabrics suitable for monitoring humidity, breath, heart rate, blood (location of wounds), blood pressure, skin temperature, weight and movement, in a wearable, electronic embedded sensor system, as examples. A fabric comprising conducting polyaniline fibers that can be used to distribute energy for resistive heating as well as for sensing the fabric temperature is described as an example of a multifunctional sensing fabric.05-21-2009
20120032693Crack detection in a semiconductor die and package - A method is provided in which an impedance is measured between a first of a plurality of seal ring contact pads and a ground contact pad coupled to a semiconductor substrate of a semiconductor device. The first impedance value is obtained from the measured impedance, and the first impedance value is compared with a reference impedance value to determine whether a structural defect is present in the semiconductor device based on whether the first impedance value is greater than the reference impedance value.02-09-2012
20100201383DETECTION DEVICE AND DETECTION SYSTEM USING THE SAME - A particle detection device (08-12-2010
20100264942Control Liquid Identifying Method and Analysis Device - Disclosed is a method of distinguishing between a specimen and a control solution in a system for analyzing a specific component within the specimen using an analysis tool. The distinguishing method includes a first step (S10-21-2010
20100264941Method and Device for the Operation of an Mox Gas Sensor - A method for operating an MOX gas sensor is provided for measuring a gas concentration present in the environment. The MOX sensor is heated by an electric current source, and an electric output quantity of the sensor representing a gas concentration being detected and analyzed is generated. The MOX sensor is discontinuously heated at discrete measuring times by the electric current source, and a measured value representing the gas concentration is generated from the electric output quantity of the sensor detected during the discrete measuring times. A device for operating the MOX gas sensor is additionally is provided.10-21-2010
20090091337CARBON FILM COMPOSITE, METHOD OF MANUFACTURING A CARBON FILM COMPOSITE AND SENSOR MADE THEREWITH - Manufacturing a carbon film composite including depositing a carbon film layer onto a substrate, depositing a catalyst suitable for catalyzing the growth of carbon nanotubes onto the carbon film layer and heating in the presence of a carbon-source gas in a substantially inert environment. A carbon film composite featuring a carbon film layer deposited onto a substrate. The carbon film layer has an active surface that is electrically sensitive to the presence of target chemicals. A chemical sensor featuring such a carbon film composite that also includes a first electrode and a second electrode in electrical contact with an active surface of the carbon film composite and a resistivity monitoring device connected to the first and second electrodes. A method of sensing a target chemical featuring exposing such a carbon film composite to a target chemical and recording a change in resistivity across the carbon film composite.04-09-2009
20130214802SUBMERGENCE DETECTING DEVICE - The submergence detecting device includes a submergence detecting terminal and a submergence judging device. The submergence detecting terminal is composed of at least two conductive sections disposed within a case. The submergence detecting terminal detects a submergence state by coming into contact with water that has infiltrated a predetermined area within the case. The submergence judging device is disposed within the case. At least a signal related to submergence detection is inputted into the submergence judging device from the submergence detecting terminal. The submergence judging device then judges whether or not submergence has occurred. The submergence detecting terminal is disposed in a position away from the submergence judging device in the downward direction.08-22-2013
20090134888Conductivity test jig, conductivity test apparatus having conductivity test jig, and a method of testing conductivity - The conductivity test jig includes: a jig main body; a holding member; a conductivity test unit; a conductivity member; an air cylinder; a jig main body; and a second air cylinder. The jig main body has a hole for receiving the connector. The holding member holds the connector in the hole. The conductivity test unit is detachably attached to the connector. When the conductivity test unit moves close to the connector, the conductivity member is electrically connected to the terminals of the connector. The air cylinder makes the conductivity test unit contact the connector, and removes the conductivity test unit from the connector. The push-out member is interposed between the connector and the jig main body in an insertion direction of the connector in the hole. The second air cylinder moves the push-out member in the insertion direction.05-28-2009
20090079445ISOLATED FUEL SENSOR - A fuel sensor includes a cylindrical, one-piece plastic body that has an inlet, an outlet and a fuel passage in between. The body further includes three sensing, thin-walled plate holders that extend from the cylindrical body into and across the fuel passage. Three parallel sensing plates are disposed in the holders for use in forming a pair of parallel plate devices. The thin-walled plate holders surrounding the plates provide isolation of the plates from contact with the fuel. The body also includes a cavity to house a printed circuit board (PCB), which includes signal processing circuitry. The PCB is also isolated from exposure to the fuel. The sensing plates have leads that extend into the cavity for connection to the PCB. An interface connector for connection to an engine controller is also provided. The sensor achieves isolation from exposure to fuel without the use of any coatings.03-26-2009
200900513723D fluid confined sample stream coulter flow cytometry - A microfluidic flow cytometry device includes a substrate and transverse electrodes formed on the substrate. An elastomer microfluidic focusing channel system formed on the substrate focuses a sample stream onto the floor of an outlet channel that is substantially wider and taller than cells or particles of interest and that has the transverse electrodes disposed in its floor upstream of an exit site. A step in the outlet channel upstream of the transverse electrodes vertically confines sample stream flow onto the floor of the outlet channel over the transverse electrodes. Buffer inlet channels introduce a buffer stream for horizontal focusing of the sample stream into the central region of the outlet channel at the transverse electrodes. A sample inlet channel is smaller in vertical height than the buffer inlet channels for introducing a sample stream such that the buffer vertically focuses the sample stream away from the top of the outlet channel. Sensitivity of detection is good enough to conduct both qualitative and quantitative analysis. Detection and analysis circuitry can be optimized to conduct analyze real and imaginary impedance at frequencies optimized toward tagged particles and or cells, and assays are possible.02-26-2009
20090051373GAS SENSOR CONTROL APPARATUS - A gas sensor control apparatus for controlling a gas sensor includes a resistance detection unit and a heater control unit. The resistance detection unit detects a resistance of an object cell of the gas sensor. When the resistance of the object cell is lower than a predetermined threshold, the heater control unit controls energization of a heater such that the resistance detected by the resistance detection unit is a first predetermined resistance. Subsequently, after elapse of a predetermined time, the heater control unit further controls energization of the heater in such a manner that the resistance detected by the resistance detection unit is a second predetermined resistance of a resistance value that is higher than that of the first predetermined resistance.02-26-2009
20090096470Systems and Methods for Measuring the Electrical Properties of a Microparticle - A method of measuring the electrical properties of a microparticle is provided, which can include multiple steps. Steps can include situating the microparticle within an array of electrodes submerged in a conductive medium so that the microparticle and electrodes are in electrical communication when the electrodes are energized, and delivering an electrical signal into the medium from one electrode to an immediately adjacent electrode. High frequency signals can be used to penetrate the microparticle boundary and characterize the same, and low frequency signals can be used to characterize the shape and orientation of the microparticle. Characterization can be carried out by measuring the impedance affecting the current using at least one of a remaining electrode in the array.04-16-2009
20090015273Test Patch System and Method - A test system for taking a sample of a constituent on a surface utilizing a fluid source includes a transition region having a capillary layer for delivering a fluid from said fluid source, an extraction region having a collection material in contact with said surface, and a collection region having a sensor reservoir therein for collecting the fluid for analysis.01-15-2009
20110140722OBJECT-SENSING DEVICE - Proposed is an object-sensing device including: a carrier base; at least one first conductive element disposed on a carrying surface of the carrier base; a cover capable of resting seamlessly on the carrying surface and provided therein with a receiving space; a resilient element received in the receiving space; at least one second conductive element disposed on a surface of the resilient element, wherein the surface of the resilient element faces the carrying surface, the at least one second conductive element corresponding in position to the at least one first conductive element; and a sensor electrically connected to the first conductive element and an end of the at least one second conductive element and configured to detect electrical contact between each of the first conductive elements and another end of the at least one second conductive element. The sensor generates a first signal upon affirmative determination and generates a second signal upon negative determination to thereby precisely determine whether an object is present on the carrying surface.06-16-2011
20090230979FULLERENE OR NANOTUBE, AND METHOD FOR PRODUCING FULLERENE OR NANOTUBE - Fullerenes are a novel material that has been expected to serve as a promising material in the construction of organic devices. However, the electric conductivity of fullerenes, which has been, reported heretofore spreads over a wide range including values corresponding to insulators as well as those corresponding to semiconductors. The present invention makes it possible to improve the conductivity of fullerenes highly reproducibly by heating the fullerenes at a specified temperature in an inert gas which is flowed under a specified condition, that is, by controlling the concentration of impurities, particularly oxygen and water adsorbed to the fullerenes.09-17-2009
20090315572Method and Apparatus for Estimating a Mechanical Property - An apparatus for estimating or supervising one or more internal mechanical properties of a metal alloy object with a known chemical composition based on the resistivity of the metal alloy object. The apparatus includes a device for measuring the resistivity of the metal alloy object, and a computation unit adapted to calculate the content of dissolved alloying elements in the metal alloy object based on the measured resistivity and the known chemical composition of the metal alloy, and based thereon to calculate at least one internal mechanical property of the metal alloy object.12-24-2009
20100188109ELECTRODE SYSTEMS AND THEIR USE IN THE CHARACTERIZATION OF MOLECULES - A method of characterizing a molecule comprises providing two electrodes (07-29-2010
20100182022PH MEASUREMENT SYSTEM USING GLASS PH SENSOR - A pH measurement system using a glass pH sensor includes a power supply applying a voltage to the glass pH sensor through a resistor; a detector detecting the output voltage of the glass pH sensor; and a calculator calculating the pH of a solution based on the detected output voltage. The resistor provides a resistance of at least ten times less than the equivalent internal resistance of the glass pH sensor. The pH measurement system can improve the response rate by reducing the time constant depending on the dynamic characteristics of the glass pH sensor, and it is possible to diagnose whether the pH measurement system is defective or not by calculating the equivalent internal resistance and the supply voltage of the glass pH sensor.07-22-2010
20110109331Method and System for Heater Signature Detection Diagnostics of a Particulate Matter Sensor - A diagnostic method and system is described for diagnosing an operating condition of a conductive particulate matter sensor. The sensor has a substrate with electrical resistance that varies with temperature and two electrodes on the substrate adapted to collect particulate matter between the electrodes, thereby establishing an electrically conductive path through collected particulate matter between the electrodes that can be detected by measuring electrical resistance between the electrodes, R05-12-2011
20110057671METHODS, SYSTEM AND DEVICE TO IDENTIFY A TYPE OF TEST STRIP - Various methods, devices and systems are described in which certain analyte test strip are identified for use in an analyte test meter or identified as unsuitable for use in the meter.03-10-2011
20090115434Sample Cell for Hand-Held Impedance Spectroscopy Device - Disclosed herein is a sample cell for use in conjunction with an impedance spectroscopy analysis device having two electrodes extending therefrom. The sample cell is attachable to and detachable from the analysis device and includes a housing having an input port for receiving a fluid sample to be tested. The sample cell also includes two spaced apart parallel plates within the housing and in contact with the fluid sample, wherein when the sample cell is attached to the analysis device, each of the two electrodes contacts a respective one of the plates such that an excitation signal can be provided from the analysis device via the electrodes and the plates to excite the fluid sample, and a response signal indicative of the fluid sample can be communicated via the plates and the electrodes to the analysis device.05-07-2009
20090115433Method for Locating Leaks In Pipes - Method for establishing and possibly locating leaks in pipelines (05-07-2009
20100219849Sensor for Detecting Organic Liquids - A sensor for detecting the presence of an organic liquid. The sensor includes an a elongate substrate having a first and second opposed surface, and a first sensor surface disposed on at least a portion of the first surface of the substrate and a second sensor surface disposed on at least a portion of the second surface of the substrate. The sensor also includes a bridging electrode electrically coupling the first and second sensor surfaces, a first electrode disposed on the first surface of the substrate and electrically coupled to the first sensor surface, and a second electrode disposed the second surface of the substrate and electrically coupled to the second sensor surface.09-02-2010
20110121845EARTH GROUND TESTER WITH REMOTE CONTROL - A testing device which may be used to conduct ground resistance and soil resistivity measurements. The testing device comprises both a main unit and a remote unit adapted to communicate with one another via a communication link. After setting the testing device up according to the desired measurement technique, the procedure may be carried out, and the resulting measurement values are subsequently displayed on the remote unit. This allows a single operator to perform measurements while standing directly adjacent to an electrode, which is, for example, placed at a large distance from the main unit and/or other electrodes. This relieves the operator from constantly having to walk back and forth placing electrodes in different positions, and also obviates the need to return to the main unit of the testing device to consult a display and/or change parameters or settings.05-26-2011
20110001498METHOD AND DEVICE FOR MONITORING A ZONE OF METAL - Method and device for monitoring a zone of a metal structure in terms of its electrical resistance in order to detect possible defects in the structure, by periodically passing current through the zone in different directions while measuring and recording voltage drops in a number of selected unit areas (a01-06-2011
20110109332ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTIC MEASURING SUBSTRATE - An electrical characteristic measuring substrate includes a plurality of laminated dielectric layers, front-surface coplanar lines disposed at a front surface of the substrate, back-surface coplanar electrodes disposed at a back surface thereof, and interlayer ground electrodes disposed between dielectric layers. First ends of the front-surface coplanar lines define a front-surface component mounting electrode, and first ends of the back-surface coplanar lines define a back-surface component mounting electrode. The front-surface component mounting electrode and the back-surface component mounting electrode have substantially the same pattern when viewed from the direction perpendicular to the front surface. Each of the front-surface component mounting electrode and the back-surface component mounting electrode has an electrode pattern asymmetric about a substantially central line of the front surface or about that of the back surface.05-12-2011
20110025351COMBINED ELECTRICAL AND OPTICAL SENSOR FOR FLUIDS - The present invention relates to a sensor for the detection of an analyte, comprising a fluid holder (02-03-2011
20110018563TEST DEVICE FOR MEASURING PERMEABILITY OF A BARRIER MATERIAL - A test device for measuring permeability of a barrier material. An exemplary device comprises a test card having a thin-film conductor-pattern formed thereon and an edge seal which seals the test card to the barrier material. Another exemplary embodiment is an electrical calcium test device comprising: a test card an impermeable spacer, an edge seal which seals the test card to the spacer and an edge seal which seals the spacer to the barrier material.01-27-2011
20110115505Method of Detecting Molecules - Method of detecting molecules, using a sensor having a membrane layer having parallel pores extending through the membrane layer and incorporating therein probe molecules that bind with corresponding target molecules when present in the pores, electrodes, and an ionic solution in contact with the electrodes and the pores, wherein the electrodes are energized to induce an electrical current in the solution through the pores, wherein the electrical current induces an electrical parameter in the electrodes that is indicative of a through-pore electrical impedance of the pores, wherein the through-pore electrical impedance is increased when there is probe-to-target molecule binding in the pores relative to when there is an absence of such binding.05-19-2011
20090033344Resistance measurement method and component inspection process - In a first step, two conductive plates such as two zinc galvanized (electroplated) steel plates with films formed on surfaces thereof, are prepared; a flexible conductive material is held between these two zinc galvanized (electroplated) steel plates. A spacer is also held between the two zinc galvanized (electroplated) steel plates to regulate the space therebetween and a measurement object such as a conductive cloth is held between the flexible conductive material and at least one of the zinc galvanized (electroplated) steel plates. In a second step, the electric resistance between the two zinc galvanized (electroplated) steel plates is measured while the flexible conductive material is held together with the measurement object between the two conductive plates.02-05-2009
20110210757APPARATUS AND METHOD TO MEASURE PROPERTIES OF POROUS MEDIA - A method to determine properties of a porous material, in which: a porous sample is prepared and sealed; first the sample is evacuated to near vacuum; then a non-wetting and electrically conducting fluid is passed through the sample at a known pressure and the volume of the fluid taken up by the sample is measured; then a small differential pressure is applied across the sample and the flow rate of the fluid through the sample is measured; and an alternating current is passed through the sample and the resistance across the sample is measured.09-01-2011
20110241709Apparatus and method for measuring activity of plating solution - Disclosed herein are an apparatus and a method for measuring activity of a plating solution. The apparatus for measuring activity of a plating solution may include: a plating bath containing the plating solution for plating a plating object; a first electrode which is impregnated in the plating solution and has a plated body to measure current that flows in the plating solution and on the surface of the body in accordance with applied signal voltage; a second electrode which is impregnated in the plating solution to induce current from the first electrode or discharge current to the first electrode; a third electrode which controls the signal voltage applied to the first electrode to be constantly maintained; an impedance measurement unit which calculates an impedance value from the current measured in the first electrode; and a processing unit which displays a change of the calculated impedance value depending on a time.10-06-2011
20090219040Sensor for Quantifying Widening Reduction Wear on a Surface - A wear sensor (09-03-2009
20110084713CHLORIDE DETECTION - A high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) capable of performing as a chlorine sensor is disclosed. In one implementation, a silver chloride layer can be provided on a gate region of the HEMT. In one application, the HEMTs can be used for the measurement and detection of chloride in bio-sensing applications. In another application, the HEMTs can be used for the detection of chloride in water for environmental and health applications.04-14-2011
20090315573Component with a detection structure for mechanical damage - A component made of electrically insulating material with a detection structure for mechanical damage such as cracks is disclosed. The detection structure is a conductor. The electrical properties of the detection structure are modified as more and more cracks are formed such that the component will be replaced in time before breaking. The electrical conductor is formed by particles that are in contact with each other and have a metallic surface such that an electrical conductor is created which is particularly sensitive to mechanical damage, thus rendering the detection structure highly sensitive. Furthermore, if the metallic surface is produced merely by cladding the particles while the inside of the particles is made of the same material as the component, a conductor featuring an adapted thermal expansion behavior is created for components that are subject to great thermal stress, e.g. heat shield panels.12-24-2009
20100039126NANOCHANNEL-BASED SENSOR SYSTEM FOR USE IN DETECTING CHEMICAL OR BIOLOGICAL SPECIES - A sensor system for detecting a chemical or biological species includes a sensing element and a bias and measurement circuit. The sensing element includes nanochannels, each having an outer surface functionalized to chemically interact with the species to create a corresponding surface potential, and each having a sufficiently small cross section to exhibit a shift of a differential conductance characteristic into a negative bias operating region by a shift amount dependent on the surface potential. The bias and measurement circuit applies a bias voltage across two ends of the nanochannels sufficiently negative to achieve a desired dependence of the differential conductance on the surface potential, wherein the dependence has a steeply sloped region of high amplification substantially greater than a reference amplification at a zero-bias condition, thus achieving relatively high signal-to-noise ratio. The bias and measurement circuit converts the measured differential conductance into a signal indicative of presence or activity of the species of interest.02-18-2010
20100039124Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Sensor Systems And Related Methods - A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) sensor including a substrate, two or more electrodes, a conductive layer applied to the substrate and a molecularly imprinted polymer layer applied to the conductive layer is disclosed herein The MIP sensor may form part of an MIP sensor system that can be used to detect and quantify target molecules.02-18-2010
20110248732IRREGULARITY DETECTION IN A STRUCTURE OF AN AIRCRAFT - A device, a system and a method for detecting an irregularity in a structure of an aircraft are proposed. The device includes a resonant circuit with a resonance frequency and a probe for tuning the resonance frequency of the resonant circuit. The resonant circuit and the probe are operatively connected in such a way that the probe changes the resonance frequency of the resonant circuit if the structure changes due to a formation of an irregularity.10-13-2011
20110248731APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR MEASUREMENT OF pH OVER A WIDE RANGE OF PRESSURE - A sensor for measuring the pH of a solution of the present invention comprises: (a) a tubular body portion constructed from a flexible electrically-insulating material, the tubular body portion having an interior passage; (b) a first reverse osmosis membrane disposed in the interior passage; (c) a second reverse osmosis membrane disposed in the interior passage; (d) a proton conducting membrane disposed between the first reverse osmosis membrane and the second reverse osmosis membrane in the interior passage; (e) a first electrode; and (f) a second electrode.10-13-2011
20110102002ELECTRODE AND SENSOR HAVING CARBON NANOSTRUCTURES - An active electrode structure is disclosed that includes fullerenes produced by a carbo-thermal carbide conversion of a conductive carbide without a metal catalyst. Also disclosed is an electrode that includes a fullerene covalently bonded to a conductive carbide, the fullerene being an aligned or non-aligned array. The carbide substrate having a surface coating of covalently bonded fullerenes is characterized in that the peak separation of a cyclic voltammogram for the conductive carbide having a surface layer of the fullerene is less than about 150 mV at a scan rate of 5 mV/s in a 4 mM ferricyanide, 1M KCl solution. The fullerene may include about 50% or less non-crystalline carbon and about 5% or less of a transition metal that interferes with the ability of the active electrode structure to transfer electrons or detect an analyte.05-05-2011
20110074451PARTICLE MEASURING APPARATUS - A particle measuring apparatus comprising: a detection device with an aperture through which pass particles contained in a particle suspension liquid, for detecting a signal generated when a particle passes through the aperture; and a detection device supporting part comprising an elastic body, for supporting the detection device through the elastic body is disclosed.03-31-2011
20110068812Method And Device For Measuring The Purity Of Ultrapure Water - This is a method for analyzing the purity of water at the outlet from a purification device. It comprises the following steps: a) sending the liquid at the outlet from the filter means (03-24-2011
20110043229QUANTUM TUNNELLING SENSOR DEVICE AND METHOD - A sensor device, method of fabricating the same, and a method of sensing a physical quantity. The sensor device comprises a substrate; a flexure member, one end of the flexure member being attached to the substrate, and a free end of the flexure member having an edge surface; a counter surface formed on the substrate such that the counter surface faces the edge surface of the flexure member and such that a separation distance between the counter surface and the edge surface remains substantially constant for movement of the edge surface as a result of flexure of the flexure member, each of the edge surface and the counter surface including one or more conductor layers disposed in a plane substantially perpendicular to a flexure direction of the flexure member; and means for applying an electrical potential difference between the conductors of the edge surface and the conductors of the counter surface for detecting a quantum tunnelling current therebetween.02-24-2011
20100097082APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR DETERMINING IN REAL TIME THE SUCCESS OF CONDUCTIVE COATING REMOVAL - An apparatus and method is provided for determining, using real-time data, whether a removal process has been effective in removing a conductive coating from a removal site on a substrate of an electric device. The method includes determination of conductivity between the removal site and the intact conductive coating which relates to the absence or presence of the conductive coating in the removal site. The presence of conductive coating in the removal site indicates incomplete removal and thus enables real time correction thereof.04-22-2010
20120200309CELL FOR BROADBAND DIELECTRIC SPECTROSCOPY - In one general aspect, an apparatus can include a block defining a temperature control channel therethrough and a defining a sample chamber. The apparatus can also include an electrode disposed inside of the block such that the sample chamber is fluidically isolated from the temperature control channel by the electrode. The electrode can be configured to receive a signal from an impedance analyzer during a dielectric spectroscopy experiment related to a sample included in the sample chamber.08-09-2012
20100283489Method for Determining the Heating Characteristic of a Glow Plug - A method for determining a heating characteristic of a glow plug, wherein pulse-width-modulated voltage pulses are applied to the glow plug and an electric variable is measured repeatedly during a voltage pulse with the heating characteristic of the glow plug determined by evaluating the difference of successive measurement results of this variable.11-11-2010
20100315105METHOD FOR SHIELDING A SUBSTRATE FROM ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE - A method for shielding a substrate from electromagnetic interference is provided including providing an electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding composition to the substrate. The EMI shielding composition comprises a reactive organic compound and a conductive filler that, during the cure of the organic compound, is capable of self-assembling into a heterogeneous structure comprised of a continuous, three-dimensional network of metal situated among (continuous or semi-continuous) polymer rich domains. The resulting composition has exceptionally high thermal and electrical conductivity.12-16-2010
20110254573METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR ANALYZING A CHEMICALLY-ACTIVE MATERIAL - A method of determining setting period of a chemically-active material is disclosed. The method comprises: continuously measuring an electrical property such as of the material to provide a time-dependence of the property, and using the time-dependence for defining a setting-start time and a setting-finish time. The setting-start time is defined as a time of onset of a fastest rise of the resistivity and the setting-finish time is defined as a time of local maximum of the resistivity.10-20-2011
20110163770ELECTRICAL NETWORK REPRESENTATION OF A DISTRIBUTED SYSTEM - A method for determining characteristics of a multi-material object is provided. The method includes producing a rotating electric field by providing an applied electrical signal set of individual electrical signal patterns to electrodes surrounding the multi-material object. The method also includes obtaining a measured electrical signal of electrical signals from the electrodes corresponding to each electrical signal pattern applied. An electrical network is determined based on the applied electrical signal set, the measured electrical signal set and an inverse of the applied electrical signal set. The method further includes determining the characteristics of the multi-material object by analyzing the electrical network.07-07-2011
20100117665PROCESS FOR MONITORING THE CURING REACTION OF A POLYMERIC MATRIX OF A COMPOSITE MATERIAL - The process for monitoring the curing reaction of a polymeric matrix, in which carbon nanotubes are dispersed whereby a composite material is formed, provides for: 05-13-2010
20110080182METHOD AND DEVICE FOR THE DETECTION AND/OR MEASUREMENT OF FOULING IN HEAT EXCHANGERS - The invention relates to a method for the detection and/or measurement of fouling in a heat exchanger, whereby the resistance value (R04-07-2011
20110095772DAMAGE SENSORS AND PROCESSING ARRANGEMENTS THEREFOR - A damage sensor, for example a crack gauge, a method of providing the same, and a method of sensing damage using the same, are described. The damage sensor comprises at least one direct write resistive element applied to an area of a substrate by a direct write process. Conductive tracks may be connected along two separated portions of the perimeter of the area of the direct write resistive element. The damage sensor may comprise plural direct write resistive elements, for example rectangular-shaped elements, each extending between and connected to two conducting tracks. In a further damage sensor, plural annular resistive elements are positioned in an annular arrangement with respect to each other. In all the damage sensors, the resistive elements may be applied around a hole in a substrate, or extending over a bonded edge between two substrates.04-28-2011
20100253370Systems and Methods for Integrated Electrochemical and Electrical Detection - An integrated sensing device is capable of detecting analytes using electrochemical (EC) and electrical (E) signals. The device introduces synergetic new capabilities and enhances the sensitivity and selectivity for real-time detection of an analyte in complex matrices, including the presence of high concentration of interferences in liquids and in gas phases.10-07-2010
20100194410SENSOR FOR SENSING AN ANALYTE AND COMBINATION OF THE SENSOR AND AN OPTICAL READER - A sensor array for detecting the content of a fluid sample comprises first and second electrodes having connections for a drive signal. The first electrode is coated with a layer of a first material having optical properties which change according to the electrical charge passing through it or the potential across it. Sensor sites are defined by islands of a second material such that the charge passing through or the potential across the second material, in response to the drive signal, varies according to the fluid sample composition.08-05-2010
20100194409METHOD OF ELECTRICALLY DETECTING A BIOLOGICAL ANALYTE MOLECULE - The invention provides a method of electrically detecting a biological analyte molecule by means of a pair of electrodes. The electrodes are arranged at a distance from one another within a sensing zone. A capture molecule, which has an affinity to the analyte molecule and which is capable of forming a complex with the analyte molecule, is immobilised on an immobilisation unit. The immobilisation unit is contacted with a solution suspected to comprise the analyte molecule. The analyte molecule is allowed to form a complex with the capture molecule. The invention also provides a probe defined by a nanoparticulate tag that comprises or consists of electrically conducting matter that is capable of chemically interacting with the analyte molecule. In the method of the invention the electrically conducting nanoparticulate tag is added. Thereby the electrically conducting nanoparticulate tag is allowed to associate to the complex formed between the capture molecule and the analyte molecule. The presence of the analyte molecule is determined based on an electrical characteristic, influenced by the electrically conducting nanoparticulate tag, of a region in the sensing zone.08-05-2010
20100039125METHOD AND SENSOR FOR DETERMINING THE PASSIVATING PROPERTIES OF A MIXTURE CONTAINING AT LEAST TWO COMPONENTS, WHICH ARE CEMENT AND WATER - A method for determining the passivating properties of a mixture (02-18-2010
20100019784Analyte Sensor with Insertion Monitor, and Methods - A sensor, and methods of making, for determining the concentration of an analyte, such as glucose or lactate, in a biological fluid such as blood or serum, using techniques such as coulometry, amperometry, and potentiometry. The sensor includes a working electrode and a counter electrode, and can include an insertion monitoring trace to determine correct positioning of the sensor in a connector.01-28-2010
20100019783METHOD, DETECTOR AND SYSTEM FOR MEASURING A SAMPLE CONCENTRATION - A method for measuring a concentration of a sample in a sample mixture, the method comprising bringing the sample mixture in contact with an organic semiconductor transistor, applying measurement signals to electrodes of the transistor for enabling measuring a drain current through the transistor, applying a refreshment signal to the gate electrode for counteracting effects imposed on the transistor during the measurement signal, measuring the drain current, applying an adaptation to at least one of said signals for stabilizing the drain current, and determining the concentration based on the adaptation.01-28-2010
20090027070ELECTROCHEMICAL IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY METHOD AND SYSTEM - A dual cell Electrochemical Impedance System (EIS) testing apparatus and method for measuring coating integrity on various substrates. The counter reference electrode is in a first cell in electrical contact with the coating. The working electrode is in a second cell in electrical contact with the coating instead of the substrate material acting as the working electrode. Voltage is applied at the working electrode at varying frequencies and current is measured at the combined reference/counter electrode. From the known voltage and the measured current, the impedance of the coating is calculated. Coatings on non-metallic substrates can be measured with this apparatus. In one embodiment, the EIS cells are in the form of vacuum cups containing an electrolyte gel for testing non-horizontal coatings in the field. Also, known current can be applied to the working electrode and voltage measured at the counter reference electrode can be used to calculate coating impedance.01-29-2009
20080278181OXIDATION-RESISTANT, LIGAND-CAPPED COPPER NANOPARTICLES AND METHODS FOR FABRICATING THEM - The present invention is directed toward oxidation-resistant, ligand-capped nanoparticles, each comprising one or more capping ligands on a copper-containing core. Methods of making and using these nanoparticles are also disclosed.11-13-2008
20080218184NANOPORE PLATFORMS FOR ION CHANNEL RECORDINGS AND SINGLE MOLECULE DETECTION AND ANALYSIS - Chemical modification of a glass and fused silica nanopore surfaces results in surface properties that are ideal for localized bilayer formation over a nanopore and subsequent ion channel recording. With no surface modification, one may form a bilayer supported on the glass capillary extending across the nanopore orifice. Changing the surface properties from that of bare glass to a moderately hydrophobic surface produces a lipid monolayer above the glass and spontaneously yields a bilayer across the nanopore orifice, effectively corralling a single protein ion channel in the lipid bilayer region spanning nanopore orifice. The bilayer structure over the modified nanopore is such that current can only flow through the protein ion channel. The protein ion channel is able to diffuse in the bilayer above the pore opening, but cannot leave this area to enter the lipid monolayer. The bilayer formed across the nanopore orifice exhibits high electrical breakdown voltage, is stable to mechanical vibrations, and is long lived. Resistance through the protein channel can be measured electrically and is exploited for stochastic single-molecule detection. Protein ion channels can be inserted and removed from the bilayer by adjusting transmembrane pressure, and adapter molecules can be electrostatically trapped in the ion channel by applying high transmembrane voltages.09-11-2008
20110062973Surface Gap Soot Sensor for Exhaust - A method and apparatus for sensing particulates within an exhaust flow are provided. The methods and apparatus utilize a soot sensor that includes opposed electrodes separated by an insulator. Preferably, a gap is formed between the electrodes and the insulator to prevent electrical current from flowing therebetween. The soot sensor, when positioned in an exhaust flow, will accumulate a layer of particulates on an outer surface thereof. As the layer of particulates increases the particulates will bridge the two electrodes permitting current flow. The sensor is configured with a proper geometry and potential difference between the electrodes to generate currents in the milli-amp range. Further, the sensor is configured to have a regenerative effect that causes the bridge to be broken when particles sees to impinge the soot sensor.03-17-2011
20090066348Apparatus and method for quantitative determination of target molecules - A nanoelectronic device for detecting target molecules is described. The device has an array of nanoscale wires serving as sensors of target molecules and electrical contacts, electrically contacting the nanowires at end regions of the nanoscale wires. The end regions are covered with an insulating material. The insulating material also defines a window region of the nanoscale wires, not covered by the insulating material. Probe molecules are located on the nanoscale wires along the window region. A microfluidic channel can also be provided, to allow flow of the target molecules. A method of fabricating the nanoelectronic device is also shown and described.03-12-2009
20120306513HIGH TEMPERATURE POSITION SENSOR - A position sensor comprises first and second stationary poles with first and second electrodes, and a reference pole positioned therebetween. The reference pole is coupled to a shaft, and includes a semi-metal via that forms a conducting path between the first and second electrodes. The shaft positions the reference pole between the first and second stationary poles, and a resistance of the conducting path varies with a position of the shaft.12-06-2012
20120306514TORSION ANGLE AND ROTATION ANGLE MEASUREMENT DEVICE - A torsion angle and rotation angle measurement device includes an input rotation disk, an output rotation disk, at least two torsion measuring modules and a rotation measuring module. The output rotation disk is coaxially and rotatably connected with the input rotation disk. At least two torsion measuring modules are disposed between the input rotation disk and the output rotation disk. Each torsion measuring module includes a rotary variable resistor and a torsion measuring arm. The rotary variable resistor is disposed on the output rotation disk. The torsion measuring arm is pivotally connected with the rotary variable resistor at a first end thereof, and is slidably connected with the input rotation disk at an second opposite end. When the input rotation disk rotates relative to the output rotation disk, the rotary variable resistor measures an angle indicating the input rotation disk rotating relative to the output rotation disk.12-06-2012
20090140754Method for determining a property of a fluid for a household device - Method for determining a property of a fluid for a household device, comprising the following steps: measurement of a physical variable of the fluid associated with the property of the fluid, in each case when a first parameter influencing the physical variable has one of at least two predetermined values, in order to obtain at least two measurement values for the said first parameter, and correlation of the at least two measurement values for the first parameter, in order to obtain a first value characterising the property of the fluid.06-04-2009
20100219850METHOD AND PROBE FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF PARTICLES IN A FLUID - Method for the measurement of particles in a fluid stream by measurement of the electric resistance of a measuring element as a function of the erosion of the measuring element caused by the particles. It is advantageous to use an alloy with a—in comparison with a temperature coefficient of the resistivity (specific electric resistance) of about 1.9*10̂−3 K̂−1 (Monel® 400 or a similar alloy)—considerably lower temperature coefficient of the resistivity. It also comprises a probe (09-02-2010
20120043980WEAR SENSOR - A wear sensor comprises an electric circuit supported on a substrate. The circuit comprises a plurality of discrete elements which are coupled in parallel with each other across conductive rails. The circuit is electrically connected with a measuring device. The measuring device measures an electrical characteristic of the circuit such as resistance. The sensor is disposed in or adjacent an object which is subject to wear and wears with the object. As the sensor wears, the elements are sequentially decoupled from the circuit thereby changing the characteristic measured by the device. This change provides an indication of the amount of wear of the object.02-23-2012
20100201384Structural Health Monitoring System/Method Using Electroactive Polymer Fibers - One or more electroactive polymer fibers are coupled to a structure. Electroactive responses of the fiber(s) are monitored. Load changes experienced by the structure cause changes in baseline responses of the fiber(s)08-12-2010
20120025853SOLID STATE SENSOR FOR METAL ION DETECTION AND TRAPPING IN SOLUTION - A device, apparatus and method for trapping metal ions and detecting metal ion contamination in a solution provide a semiconductor device formed on a semiconductor substrate and including an N-well formed over a P-type substrate and at least a contact portion of the N-well in electrical contact with the solution. When the semiconductor device is optically illuminated, a P/N junction is formed as a result of photovoltaic phenomena. Metal ions from the solution migrate to the contact area due to the voltage created at the P/N junction. The semiconductor device includes a conductive structure with conductive features separated by a gap and therefore in an initially electrically open state. When the ions migrate to the contact area, they precipitate, at least partially bridging the gap and creating conductance through the conductive structure. The conductance may be measured to determine the amount of metal ion contamination.02-02-2012
20090015272Self-healing composite material - A self-healing composite material comprising a fibre-reinforced polymeric matrix, wherein the polymeric matrix comprises a thermosetting polymer and a thermoplastic polymer.01-15-2009
20120105085DISPLAY DEVICE AND SYSTEM FOR INSPECTING BONDING RESISTANCE AND INSPECTING METHOD THEREOF - A system for inspecting bonding resistance of a display device includes a display panel, at least one circuit board, at least one driving chip and a testing board. The display panel includes at least one testing conductive line and connecting conductive lines. The circuit board is connected with the testing conductive line and the connecting conductive lines. The driving chip includes at least one testing pad and connecting pads, respectively electrically connected to the testing conductive line and the connecting conductive lines; at least one comparator connected to the testing pad; and at least one logic circuit connected to the comparator. The testing board is connected to the circuit board and provides a test signal to the testing pad through the circuit board and the testing conductive line. The test signal is compared with a reference signal in the comparator, and the logic circuit determines a comparing result.05-03-2012
20120105084HYDROCARBON VAPOR DETECTOR APPARATUS AND METHOD - A hydrocarbon vapor detection instrument includes a hydrocarbon vapor detector, with conductivity proportional to contiguous airborne concentration of hydrocarbon vapor. The instrument further includes electronic circuitry providing an electrical signal proportional to the vapor detector conductivity and to a switch-selected sensitivity setting. The instrument further includes indicators to signal recharging status while a power switch is off and an external power supply is recharging the battery, namely that the battery is partially or fully charged and if the battery temperature is excessive, to signal that operating power is on, to signal that a low battery condition exists, and to signal different concentrations of hydrocarbon vapor. For the last of these, indicator position on a housing corresponds to vapor concentration. The instrument further includes an audible indication of power-on status and vapor concentration, changing with vapor concentration.05-03-2012
20110089958DAMAGE-SENSING COMPOSITE STRUCTURES - A composite includes a matrix material and a unidirectional array of carbon nanotube-infused fibers disposed in a portion of the matrix material. An article includes this composite and a network of electrodes disposed about the periphery of the composite. The electrodes send and receive an electrical charge. Such an article is included in a system, along with sensing circuitry and a source for supplying current to the network of electrodes. Such a system is used in a method that includes subjecting the article to a load that causes a condition in the composite including strain, fatigue, damage, or cracks, and monitoring the location of the condition.04-21-2011
20100289510METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR DETECTION OF SOLID MATERIALS IN A PLASMA USING AN ELECTROMAGNETIC CIRCUIT - A method for solid material detection in a medium includes receiving an exhaust gas downstream with respect to a workpiece from which a photoresist material is removed. An electromagnetic circuit is configured to include the exhaust gas, the exhaust gas is excited with electromagnetic energy and an impedance value of the electromagnetic circuit is determined, wherein the impedance value corresponds to an amount of solid material within the exhaust gas.11-18-2010
20120212242Graphene-Based Sensor - Sensors containing Graphene with Extended Defects are described.08-23-2012
20120161796CO2 SENSING MATERIALS AND SENSORS INCORPORATING SAID MATERIALS - A gas-sensitive material is disclosed for detecting CO06-28-2012
20090058431ETCH RESISTANT GAS SENSOR - A gas sensor for sensing noxious chemical gases utilizes metal nitrides, metal oxynitrides, metal carbides or metal oxycarbides as the sensing material, which changes its conductivity when exposed to the analyte gas. The change in conductivity is measured for the sensor output.03-05-2009
20090058432Ultraviolet light monitoring system - An ultraviolet light monitoring system includes first and second electrodes, an evaluation subject film and a power source. The first and second electrodes are opposingly disposed and attract holes which are generated in accordance with irradiation of ultraviolet light. The evaluation subject film is formed in a vicinity of the first and second electrodes, and is a subject of evaluation of damage caused by the irradiation of ultraviolet light. The power source, at times of monitoring of the ultraviolet light, applies a predetermined bias to a series path formed by the first electrode, a gap between the first and second electrodes, and the second electrode.03-05-2009
20120074966Detector Responsive to Interactions of Varying Intensity - A detector comprising control circuitry and a sensor, responsive to interactions of varying intensities, comprising three layers. The first layer includes a first set of mutually connected electrically conducting elements and a second set of mutually connected electrically conducting elements. The third layer comprises an electrically conducting plane, and the second layer extends between the first and third layers. The electrical conductivity of the second layer varies in accordance with variations in the intensity of the interactions. In a first mode, the control circuit applies voltage between the first and third layers to generate a first current through the second layer, and provides a measurement of the first current. In a second mode, the control circuit applies voltage between the first and second sets of electrically conducting elements to generate a second current through the second layer, and provides a measurement of the second current.03-29-2012
20090021271Measuring the On-Resistance of a Transistor Load Path - Methods, and apparatuses for performing them, including applying a control signal to a control terminal of a transistor, to switch the transistor to an on-state such that the transistor carries a load current through a load-path of the transistor; measuring a voltage drop across the load-path of the transistor while the load current is passing through the load-path of the transistor, yielding a first measurement value; feeding a test current into the load-path of the transistor, such that the test current and the load current are combined; measuring a voltage drop across the load-path of the transistor while the combined test and load currents are passing through the load-path of the transistor, a second measurement value; and determining an on-resistance of the load-path of the transistor from a difference of the first and second measurement values.01-22-2009
20120262194THERMALLY ACTIVATED MAGNETIC AND RESISTIVE AGING - Examples of the present invention include apparatus and methods for monitoring aging of an item. A solid-state structure is located within, adjacent to, or otherwise proximate the item, the solid-state structure including nanostructures. The electrical resistance and/or magnetization of the solid-state structure is determined to determine the degree of aging of the item. In representative examples, the solid-state structure includes nanostructures of a metal, such as a ferromagnetic metal, within a non-magnetic matrix, such as a semimetal, semiconductor, or insulator.10-18-2012
20120229154METHOD FOR DISTINGUISHING, CLASSIFYING AND MEASURING SOFT AND HARD INCLUSIONS IN LIQUID METAL - The present invention is a method for distinguishing, classifying and measuring soft and hard inclusions in a liquid metal that includes obtaining a flow through cell disposed on a tube with a top to allow the liquid metal to flow through the flow through cell and into the tube. There is also a mounting and a vacuum system disposed on top of the tube to draw the liquid metal through the flow through cell and into the tube that utilizes a pair of electrodes set inside and outside of the tube to apply an electric current to the liquid metal passing through the flow through cell. An electric resistance change is then measured and an electric resistance pulse is applied to the liquid metal to measure deformed behavior of the inclusions. The resistance pulse method can be used with liquid droplets, steel slag, bubbles and other deformable inclusions.09-13-2012
20080297179MULTILAYER MANUFACTURING FOR CONDUCTIVITY SENSOR - A contacting-type conductivity sensor is provided. A first insulating layer has a proximal surface to contact a liquid sample, and an opposite, distal surface. A plurality of electrodes is disposed on the proximal surface of the first insulating layer. Each of a plurality of conductive vias is electrically coupled to a respective one of the plurality of electrodes, where each via defines a conductive path from the proximal surface to the distal surface of the first insulating layer. A plurality of traces is disposed adjacent the distal surface of the first insulating layer, and each of the plurality of traces is electrically coupled to a respective one of the plurality of conductive vias. A plurality of conductors is provided where each conductor is electrically coupled to a respective one of the plurality of traces. A cover layer is coupled to the first insulating layer.12-04-2008
20080297178DEVICE AND METHOD FOR DETECTING SULFUR DIOXIDE AT HIGH TEMPERATURES - The present invention relates to a method for selectively detecting and/or measuring gaseous SO12-04-2008
20110050258DEVICE FOR DETECTING SPACE OBJECTS - The present invention has the object of simplifying apparatus configuration and avoiding a requirement for calibration. The present invention achieves the above object by forming a detection sheet element that retains in a predetermined array pitch a plurality of conductive detection lines that are lead lines formed by etching or the like on a non-conductive thin film that can be exposed in a space environment. A detection circuit connected to each detection line of the detection sheet element is provided. When an object flying in space collides with the detection sheet body, since a detection line on the detection sheet element is ruptured, constant monitoring of the conductivity of the detection line by the detection circuit enables detection of the object flying in space that has collided with the detection sheet element when a detection line is ruptured. Furthermore a means of solution is adopted in which an effective diameter of a colliding object flying in space can be detected from the number of severed detection lines.03-03-2011
20100225337CHEMICAL SENSORS FOR DETECTING VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AND METHODS OF USE - The presently-disclosed subject matter provides sensors and methods for detecting volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by determining the conductivity of a chemiresistant film upon exposure to VOCs, including for example chemiresistant films comprised of surfactant-coated metal alloy nanoparticles.09-09-2010
20120081136COATING MONITOR FOR EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PROTECTIVE COATINGS - The coating monitoring system is based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The system consists of one or more compact and rugged mini-potentiostat modules coupled to one or more electrodes mounted on top of the paint coating of the structure being monitored. The electrodes and modules can be coated with a topcoat if desired. Alternatively, they may be mounted only temporarily to the structure for spot inspection. They periodically report to a laptop. Communications may be implemented using a wireless protocol. The units may be battery powered with an estimated battery lifetime of up to ten years, depending on the frequency of measurement and interrogation Alternative power supplies may be used to replace or supplement the battery to allow extended battery lifetime. Moisture, humidity, or other sensors may be incorporated into the coating monitor.04-05-2012
20120081135INSULATION MEASUREMENT APPARATUS - An insulation measurement apparatus includes a path including a first resistor, a capacitor electrically floated from a ground, and a second resistor between a positive to a negative electrode side of a power supply, a first switching element between the power supply positive electrode side and the capacitor, a second switching element between the capacitor and the power supply negative electrode side, a detection section detecting a charge voltage on the capacitor and determining a power supply insulation state, and a voltage setting section executing a power supply voltage measurement mode controlling the first and second switching elements to charge the capacitor for a predetermined time period, and an insulation voltage measurement mode charging a terminal of a positive or negative electrode side of the capacitor via a resistor between the power supply positive or negative electrode and the ground for a predetermined time period.04-05-2012
20120081134CORONA EFFLUENT SENSING DEVICE - The presently disclosed embodiments are directed to the detection and monitoring of corona effluent. The present embodiments pertain to a corona sensing device that employs a film of organic charge transporting material, as the active component in a corona effluent sensing device, that is disposed onto a patterned electrode bearing support member.04-05-2012
20120081133METHOD OF DETECTING IMPURITIES IN HIGH TEMPERATURE AQUEOUS SOLUTION AND APPARATUS OF DETECTING IMPURITIES FOR THE SAME - The present invention relates to a method of detecting impurities in a high-temperature aqueous solution and an apparatus of detecting impurities for the same. Specifically, the present invention provides a method of detecting impurities in a high-temperature aqueous solution comprising a reducing agent using an electrochemical water chemistry technology detecting the electrochemical current varied according to the degree in which the impurities in the high-temperature aqueous solution hinder the formation of an oxide film that is formed on a noble metal electrode, and an impurity detecting apparatus comprising a noble metal electrode, a counter electrode, and a device of applying the electrochemical potential and measuring the electrochemical current for the method of detecting impurities.04-05-2012
20100231244Method and apparatus for measuring the percentage of fat trim and the percentage of saleable yield on cattle and the like and on their carcasses - A method and apparatus for measuring the percentage of fat trim and of saleable yield of cattle and their carcasses including providing power to a transmitting circuit to transmit a signal to electrodes resulting in a potential difference across the electrodes causing a flow of current between the electrodes reflecting the impedance encountered and sending a signal reflecting such information to receiving circuits which pass that data to processing circuits which process that data with other external inputs to produce an output display reflecting an indication of the state of hydration of the animal, comprising: 09-16-2010
20100231243Electrode holder for use on cattle and the like and on their carcasses - An electrode holder comprising a deck member with handle supporting a pair of penetrating electrodes to which a hypodermic syringe or needles may be connected and which may act as electrodes in a BIA system and/or in connection with making other electrical measurements.09-16-2010
20100207646METHOD FOR DETERMINING DIFFUSION AND/OR TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS OF A MATERIAL - The invention relates to a method for the determination of diffusion coefficients and/or exchange coefficient of a material having electronic and ionic conductivity. The material is permeable to at least one gas. It is the object of the invention to provide a cost-effective, accurate method for the determination of the diffusion coefficient and of the surface exchange coefficient which can be carried out in a short time and can thus be used for a screening of materials, in particular for application in the field of permeation membranes. The procedure is followed in accordance with the invention such that a sample of the material is arranged in a measurement chamber and has an electric current passed through it for a determination of the electric resistance. In this respect, a gas mixture in which the respective gas is contained is conducted through the measurement chamber as a gas flow and the partial pressure of the respective gas in the gas mixture is changed periodically at regular intervals. The change in the electric resistance of the sample is measured and a diffusion coefficient and/or exchange coefficient of the material can be determined for the respective gas from the determined change in the electric resistance.08-19-2010
20120139564Method and Apparatus for Single Side Bilayer Formation - An apparatus for single-sided bilayer formation includes a first fluid chamber including a sidewall and a second fluid chamber extending through the sidewall. A barrier wall separates the first and second fluid chambers and includes a nanopore therein across which a planar lipid bilayer (PLB) is formed. In use, an electrolyte is added to the first and second fluid chambers and a lipid/organic solvent mixture is added to the first fluid chamber to form a lipid/organic solvent layer. The electrolyte level within the first fluid chamber is adjusted such that the lipid layer is raised above the barrier wall and a PLB is formed. Electrolyte levels may be adjusted manually or utilizing a fluid level regulator with or without feedback control. Optionally, the apparatus may be in the form of a nanopore array. The apparatus may be incorporated into an ion channel sensing system.06-07-2012
20080252305Device for analysing the composition of the contents of a receptacle including an analysis receptacle - The invention relates a device for analysing the composition of the contents of a receptacle, including: 10-16-2008
20080224719Diagnostic test device - A diagnostic test device comprising means for sampling a liquid biological sample, means for reacting the sample with at least one reagent to provide one or more visible indicia and an optical detector for detecting the presence of said one or more indicia, the device further comprising a releasable tether which is released by contact with the liquid sample, thereby to cause the optical detector to detect the said one or more indicia.09-18-2008
20080224718Battery ohmic resistance calculation system and method - An apparatus that estimates the ohmic resistances of N batteries includes voltage and current measurement modules that respectively measure the voltage and current of each of the N batteries. An ohmic resistance estimating module over N+1 time periods receives the voltage and current measurements of each of the N batteries and receives consecutive voltage and current measurements for one of the N batteries. N is a positive integer and the ohmic resistance estimating module estimates the ohmic resistance of the battery that is associated with the consecutive voltage and current measurements.09-18-2008
20130176042CIRCUIT FOR MEASURING INSULATION RESISTANCE - Provided is a circuit for measuring insulation resistance, including: a first operational amplifier that is connected with a positive terminal of a battery and a second operational amplifier; a second operational amplifier that is connected with a negative terminal of the battery and the first operational amplifier; a first switch that is connected between the positive terminal and a non-inverting terminal of the first operational amplifier; and a second switch that is connected between the negative terminal and an inverting terminal of the second operational amplifier, wherein the first operational amplifier and the second operational amplifier are connected with each other through a ground.07-11-2013
20130093442CASSETTE DETECTING DEVICE AND MEDIUM PROCESSING DEVICE USING THE SAME - A cassette detecting device and a medium processing device using the same are provided. The cassette detecting device comprises: a main board comprising a first input unit and detecting and outputting at least one of whether at least one cassette connected to the first input unit is mounted and its mounting position; and a plurality of cassettes storing a medium, comprising a second input unit connected to the main board, and determining the mounting position of a corresponding cassette according to a signal from the second input unit, each of the plurality of cassettes and the main board comprises a comparing unit for determining the mounting position of a cassette.04-18-2013
20130093441TESTING DEVICE FOR TESTING PLATES FOR ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS AND RELATIVE METHOD - A testing device (04-18-2013
20130141122MICROSENSOR FOR MERCURY - Methods and devices for detecting a concentration of one or more element in hydrocarbon and/or natural gas in an oil and gas field application. The device including a microstructure having a low thermal mass suspended within a channel, the microstructure includes a supporting layer and a insulating layer; a controllable thermal device in communication with the supporting layer of the microstructure, wherein the controllable thermal device is controllably heated to one or more release temperature of the one or more element; a sensing layer arranged on the insulating layer to absorb molecules of the one or more element from hydrocarbon and/or natural gas; a detecting and measuring resistance device in communication with the sensing layer for measuring the resistance changes caused by absorption of molecules of the one or more element onto the sensing layer at a first temperature and a second temperature, and storing the data on a processor.06-06-2013
20080197863LIQUID PROPERTIES SENSOR CIRCUIT - A sensor circuit is coupled to a sensing element for determining a property, such as a dielectric constant, of a fuel suitable where the dielectric constant is used in determining a concentration of ethanol in the gasoline/ethanol blended fuel. The circuit includes an excitation voltage signal generator, a synchronization trigger and a processing circuit configured to generate an output signal indicative of the fuel property (dielectric constant). The excitation voltage signal is applied to the sensing element to produce an induced current signal therethrough. The synchronization trigger is configured to generate a trigger signal when the excitation voltage signal crosses zero volts, at which time the real (resistive) component of the induced current signal is zero. The induced signal is therefore wholly representative of the imaginary component attributable to a capacitance of the sensing element in sensing relation with the fuel, which in turn is dependent on the dielectric constant (and thus ethanol concentration) of the fuel blend itself. The processing circuit is configured to sample the induced signal in response to the trigger signal and produce the output signal. The synchronization scheme provides for a simplified circuit arrangement since there is o need to decompose a signal combining real and imaginary components.08-21-2008
20100295566APPARATUS HAVING REDUCED NOISE AND METHOD OF USING THE APPARATUS FOR DETECTING IONIC MATERIALS - An apparatus and method for detecting ionic materials includes a sensing electrode which contacts a liquid sample and detects a sensing voltage corresponding to a surface potential which is changed by a concentration of ionic materials in the liquid sample, a first switching transistor having a first terminal connected to the sensing electrode and a second terminal connected to a first node, a second switching transistor having a first terminal connected to a reset voltage and a second terminal connected to the first node, and a sensing transistor having a gate connected to the first node.11-25-2010
20100308848METHODS FOR GAS SENSING WITH SINGLE-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES - Methods for gas sensing with single-walled carbon nanotubes are described. The methods comprise biasing at least one carbon nanotube and exposing to a gas environment to detect variation in temperature as an electrical response.12-09-2010
20120274342TRAUMA DETECTION SYSTEM - A trauma detecting body wear apparatus that may be configured with an outer conductive layer, and a medium layer proximate to the outer conductive layer. The medium layer may include an insulating material configured to prevent current flow to the outer layer. There may be an inner conductive layer configured with a penetration-resistant material, and the inner layer may also be configured with a conductive coating treatment, and may be further connected to an energized power source. The body wear apparatus may also include a transmitter configured to transmit a signal when current flows from the energized power source to the outer conductive layer.11-01-2012
20110234246STRUCTURAL DETERMINATION APPARATUS AND METHOD - According to a first aspect of the present invention there is provided apparatus arranged to determine an interface between two components, comprising: a reference electrode arranged to be connected to a constant voltage supply or ground; a measurement electrode, and a field generating device arranged to establish an electric field in at least one of the components; wherein the field generating device is configured to establish the electric field across the measurement electrode, and the apparatus is configured to measure a potential difference between the measurement electrode and the reference electrode, the potential difference between the measurement electrode and the reference electrode being indicative of the interface between the components.09-29-2011
20100315107ELECTRODE FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL MEASUREMENT APPARATUS AND ELECTRODE FOR BIOSENSORS - An object of this invention is to provide an inexpensive and highly durable electrode which is capable of causing hydrogen peroxide to generate a current output in the same manner as those of platinum or iridium. A working electrode (12-16-2010
20100315106Strip Connectors For Measurement Devices - Devices including strip connectors in measurement devices are provided. Also provided are systems, kits and methods.12-16-2010
20130181728COMPONENT FOR CONDUCTING OR RECEIVING A FLUID AND METHOD FOR TESTING THE COMPONENT - A component for conducting or receiving a fluid, in particular a component of a fluid-conducting line system of an industrial plant, especially of a line system of a tertiary cooling circuit of a nuclear power plant, includes a wall having a supporting structure made of a glass-fiber-reinforced plastic. Electrically insulating inner and outer protective layers are disposed on respective inner and outer surfaces of the supporting structure. An electrically conductive inner intermediate layer lies between the inner protective layer and the supporting structure and is provided with an electrical terminal. An electrically conductive outer intermediate layer lies between the outer protective layer and the supporting structure, is provided with an electrical terminal and is electrically insulated from the inner intermediate layer. A method for testing the component is also provided.07-18-2013
20130187672Electrical Resonance Detection of Particles and Analytes in Microfluidic Channels - A conductivity counter and method of determining conductivity of a fluid sample are disclosed. The counter is suitable for high-speed, accurate counting of discrete events or items, such as cancer cells, passing through a fluid sample cell. A variable frequency current source is used to supply an excitation current to a sample cell connected in parallel with an inductance or the electrical equivalence of an inductance. This configuration can be accurately modeled as a parallel RLC circuit when the system is operated at a stable frequency. The current source frequency is tuned to the resonance frequency of the equivalent RLC circuit, which effectively eliminates the capacitive and inductive components of the impedance, leaving only purely resistive components. The output signal is due to perturbations in the fluid sample, such as passing cancer cells.07-25-2013

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