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Electromagnetic or particle radiation

Subclass of:

257 - Active solid-state devices (e.g., transistors, solid-state diodes)

257414000 - RESPONSIVE TO NON-ELECTRICAL SIGNAL (E.G., CHEMICAL, STRESS, LIGHT, OR MAGNETIC FIELD SENSORS)

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Deeper subclasses:

Class / Patent application numberDescriptionNumber of patent applications / Date published
257431000 Light 1718
257429000 Charged or elementary particles 36
Entries
DocumentTitleDate
20130026586CROSS-LOOP ANTENNA - An antenna is provided. This antenna is contained within a package that is secured to an IC (which allows radiation to propagated away for a printed circuit board so as to reduce interference), and this antenna includes two loop antennas that are shorted to ground and that “overlap” and includes a “via wall.” With this configuration, circular polarization can be achieved by varying the relative phases of the input signals, and the “via wall” improves efficiency by reducing surface waves.01-31-2013
20090159998METHOD FOR MANUFACTURING SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICE - It is an object of the present invention to provide a method for manufacturing a semiconductor device, which is flexible and superiority in physical strength. As a method for manufacturing a semiconductor device, an element layer including a plurality of integrated circuits is formed over one surface of a substrate; a hole having curvature is formed in part of one surface side of the substrate; the substrate is thinned (for example, the other surface of the substrate is ground and polished); and the substrate is cut off so that a cross section of the substrate has curvature corresponding to a portion where the hole is formed; whereby a laminated body including an integrated circuit is formed. Further, a thickness of the substrate, which is polished, is 2 μm or more and 50 μm or less.06-25-2009
20130049146DETECTOR ELEMENT, RADIATION DETECTOR AND MEDICAL DEVICE CONTAINING THE DETECTOR ELEMENTS, AND METHOD FOR PRODUCING A DETECTOR ELEMENT - A detector element is disclosed with a semi-conductive converter element and metal contacts arranged thereon for at least one anode and at least one cathode, wherein at least one of the metal contacts comprises a contact layer made from a contact material based on precious metal and ruthenium as its mixed component. Moreover, an embodiment of the invention concerns a radiation detector with the detector element with a ruthenium-containing contact layer and, optionally, with an evaluation unit to read out a detector signal, as well as a medical device with the radiation detector. Furthermore, a method for the production of a detector element is described which includes the installation step of a contact material of at least one of the metal contacts on the converter element, wherein the contact material includes a precious metal base with ruthenium as its mixed component.02-28-2013
20130049145RADIATION DETECTOR AND A METHOD FOR PRODUCING A METALCARBON JUNCTION FOR A RADIATION DETECTOR - A radiation detector comprising a metal-carbon junction wherein a layer of carbon (02-28-2013
20130161772FLEXIBLE RADIATION DETECTORS - Disclosed is a flexible radiation detector including a substrate, a switching device on the substrate, an energy conversion layer on the switching device, a top electrode layer on the energy conversion layer, a first phosphor layer on the top electrode layer, and a second phosphor layer under the substrate.06-27-2013
20120235259SEMICONDUCTOR PACKAGE AND METHOD OF FABRICATING THE SAME - A semiconductor package and a method of fabricating the same. The semiconductor package includes: a substrate having a plurality of semiconductor components disposed thereon; an encapsulant covering the substrate and the semiconductor components; and a metal layer formed on the exposed surfaces of the encapsulant, wherein the encapsulant is formed with a trench for dividing into a plurality of package units on the substrate to allow each of the package units to have at least one of the semiconductor components, and the metal layer is formed in the trench to encompass the encapsulant on the periphery of the semiconductor components, thereby preventing interference of electromagnetic waves between the semiconductor components.09-20-2012
20130161773DETECTOR ELEMENT, RADIATION DETECTOR, MEDICAL DEVICE, AND METHOD FOR PRODUCING SUCH A DETECTOR ELEMENT - A detector element is disclosed, including a semiconducting converter element and a number of pixilated contacts arranged thereon. A radiation detector is also disclosed including such a detector element, along with a medical device having one or more such radiation detectors. Finally, a method for producing a detector element is disclosed, which includes forming pixelated contacts by way of a photolithographic process on the semiconducting converter element using a lithographic mask arranged on a converter element protective layer.06-27-2013
20100171190Electromagnetic Radiation Sensor and Metod of Manufacture - A method of forming a semiconductor sensor in one embodiment includes providing a substrate, forming a reflective layer on the substrate, forming a sacrificial layer on the reflective layer, forming an absorber layer with a thickness of less than about 50 nm on the sacrificial layer, forming an absorber in the absorber layer integrally with at least one suspension leg, and removing the sacrificial layer.07-08-2010
20090189231Electromagnectic wave detecting element - The present invention is to provide an electromagnetic wave detecting element that can prevent a decrease in light utilization efficiency at sensor portions. The sensor portions are provided so as to correspond to respective intersection portions of scan lines and signal lines, and have semiconductor layer that generate charges due to electromagnetic waves being irradiated, and at whose electromagnetic wave irradiation surface sides upper electrodes are formed, and at whose electromagnetic wave non-irradiation surface sides lower electrodes are formed. Bias voltage is supplied to the respective upper electrodes via respective contact holes by a common electrode line that is formed further toward an electromagnetic wave downstream side than the semiconductor layer.07-30-2009
20130099340SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICE, METHOD OF MANUFACTURING THEREOF, SIGNAL TRANSMISSION/RECEPTION METHOD USING SUCH SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICE, AND TESTER APPARATUS - A semiconductor device includes a substrate, a bonding pad provided above the substrate, a first signal transmitting/receiving portion provided above the substrate and below the bonding pad, and a transistor provided over the substrate. The transistor is connected to the first signal transmitting/receiving portion.04-25-2013
20110169115Wireless Communication Device for Remote Authenticity Verification of Semiconductor Chips, Multi-Chip Modules and Derivative Products - A semiconductor package includes a package body with a cavity housing a first integrated circuit die. A wireless tag including a wireless element and an antenna is embedded in the semiconductor package. In one embodiment, the antenna is embedded in the package body of the semiconductor package. In another embodiment, the antenna is formed on or in the first integrated circuit die housed in the semiconductor package. According to another aspect of the present invention, the semiconductor package may be mounted on a printed circuit board and a second antenna is formed on the printed circuit board in electrical connection to the antenna embedded in the semiconductor package.07-14-2011
20080283947RADIATION IMAGE DETECTOR - A thermal deformation preventing layer is located between a recording photoconductive layer, which contains a-Se as a principal constituent, and a crystallization preventing layer, which is constituted of an a-Se layer containing at least one kind of element selected from the group consisting of As, Sb, and Bi. The thermal deformation preventing layer is constituted of an a-Se layer containing at least one kind of specific substance selected from the group consisting of a metal fluoride, a metal oxide, SiO11-20-2008
20110186949SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICE AND METHOD FOR MANUFACTURING THE SAME - A semiconductor device capable of wireless communication, which has high reliability in terms of resistance to external force, in particular, pressing force and can prevent electrostatic discharge in an integrated circuit without preventing reception of an electric wave. The semiconductor device includes an on-chip antenna connected to the integrated circuit and a booster antenna which transmits a signal or power included in a received electric wave to the on-chip antenna without contact. In the semiconductor device, the integrated circuit and the on-chip antenna are interposed between a pair of structure bodies formed by impregnating a fiber body with a resin. One of the structure bodies is provided between the on-chip antenna and the booster antenna. A conductive film having a surface resistance value of approximately 1008-04-2011
20090127641SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICE - The invention provides a semiconductor device that power is stabilized by suppressing power consumption as much as possible. The semiconductor device of the invention includes a logic portion and a memory portion each including a plurality of transistors, a detecting portion for detecting one or both of operation frequencies of the logic portion and the memory portion, a Vth control for supplying a Vth control signal to one or both of the logic portion and the memory portion, and an antenna. Each of the plurality of transistors has a first gate electrode which is input with a logic signal, a second gate electrode which is input with the Vth control signal, and a semiconductor film such that the second gate electrode, the semiconductor film, and the first gate electrode are provided in this order from the bottom.05-21-2009
20090140359Semiconductor device, method of manufacturing the same, and signal transmitting/receiving method using the semiconductor device - A semiconductor device (06-04-2009
20090001488Cantilever with integral probe tip - In one embodiment, a metallic micro-cantilever, comprises a silicon substrate, at least one via plug extending from a surface of the silicon substrate, a metallic layer cantilevered from the at least one via plug, and a metallic probe tip extending from a surface of the metallic layer.01-01-2009
20090085133On Chip Antenna And Method Of Manufacturing The Same - An antenna with air-filled trench is integrated with a radio frequency (RF) circuit. The trench locates directly under the metal lines that made up the antenna and is formed by etching from the back side of the semiconductor substrate until all the substrate material in the trench is removed. The air-filled trench greatly reduces the losses due to the semiconductor substrate; therefore the performance of the antenna improves greatly. When the antenna is a large planar spiral inductor, the air-filled trench means the semiconductor substrate inside the spiral inductor is untouched; hence integrated circuit can be built inside the antenna and on that substrate. Therefore the RF integrated circuit has a smaller size. Air-filled trench can also be used to reduce the semiconductor substrate noise coupling between digital circuit block and analog/RF circuit block. This air-filled trench and the air-filled trench under the antenna are formed at the same time.04-02-2009
20090014821Method for producing conductor structures and applications thereof - This publication discloses a method for forming electrically conducting structures on a substrate. According to the method nanoparticles containing conducting or semiconducting material are applied on the substrate in a dense formation and a voltage is applied over the nanoparticles so as to at least locally increase the conductivity of the formation. According to the invention, the voltage is high enough to cause melting of the nanoparticles in a breakthrough-like manner. With the aid of the invention, small-linewidth structures can be created without high-precision lithography.01-15-2009
20120193739Direct Radiation Converter, Radiation Detector, Medical Apparatus And Method For Producing A Direct Radiation Converter - A direct radiation converter is disclosed which includes a radiation detection material having an anode side and a cathode side in which the radiation detection material has a doping profile running in the anode-side to cathode-side direction. A radiation detector is further disclosed having such a direct radiation converter and having an anode array and a cathode array, and optionally having evaluation electronics for reading out a detector signal, as well as a medical apparatus having such a radiation detector. Also described is a method for producing a direct radiation converter which includes incorporating into a radiation detection material a doping profile running in the anode-side to cathode-side direction.08-02-2012
20110024853SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICE AND MANUFACTURING METHOD THEREOF - The present invention provides a semiconductor device which is not easily damaged by external local pressure. The present invention further provides a manufacturing method of a highly-reliable semiconductor device, which is not destroyed by external local pressure, with a high yield. A structure body, in which high-strength fiber of an organic compound or an inorganic compound is impregnated with an organic resin, is provided over an element substrate having a semiconductor element formed using a single crystal semiconductor region, and heating and pressure bonding are performed, whereby a semiconductor device is manufactured, to which the element substrate and the structure body in which the high-strength fiber of an organic compound or an inorganic compound is impregnated with the organic resin are fixed together.02-03-2011
20120241888SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICE USING CLOSE PROXIMITY WIRELESS COMMUNICATION - The present invention provides a semiconductor device capable of changing the setting of the internal operation mode without increasing the number of terminals of the semiconductor device. The semiconductor device 09-27-2012
20110241143X-ray pixels including double photoconductors and x-ray detectors including the x-ray pixels - Example embodiments are directed to X-ray detectors including double photoconductors. According to example embodiments, the X-ray detector includes a first photoconductor on which X-rays are incident, and a second photoconductor on which X-rays transmitted through the first photoconductor are incident. The first photoconductor and the second photoconductor include a tandem structure. The first photoconductor is formed of silicon and absorbs X-rays in a low energy band, and the second photoconductor is formed of a material that absorbs X-rays in an energy band higher than the low energy band of the X-rays absorbed by silicon.10-06-2011
20110210412MEMORY ELEMENT, MEMORY DEVICE, AND SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICE - On object of the invention is to provide a nonvolatile memory device, in which data can be added to the memory device after a manufacturing process and forgery and the like by rewriting can be prevented, and a semiconductor device including the memory device. Another object of the invention is to provide a highly-reliable, inexpensive, and nonvolatile memory device and a semiconductor device including the memory device. A memory element includes a first conductive layer, a second conductive layer, a first insulating layer with a thickness of 0.1 nm or more and 4 nm or less being in contact with the first conductive layer, and an organic compound layer interposed between the first conductive layer, the first insulating layer, and the second conductive layer.09-01-2011
20090218646ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE DETECTING ELEMENT - The present invention is to provide an electromagnetic wave detecting element that can suppress a decrease in utilization efficiency of electromagnetic waves at sensor portions. An upper electrode of each of plural sensor portions, that are provided in correspondence with intersection portions of plural scan lines and plural signal lines disposed to intersect one another, is electrically connected to any other adjacent upper electrode. At each group of sensor portions whose upper electrodes are electrically connected, a common electrode line and the upper electrode of any sensor portion belonging to that group of sensor portions are connected by a contact pad via a contact hole formed in an insulating film and at a connection place of a number that is less than a number of sensor portions belonging to that group of sensor portions.09-03-2009
20110147868SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICE - In a multi-core semiconductor device, a data bus between CPUs or the like consumes a larger amount of power. By provision of a plurality of CPUs which transmit data by a backscattering method of a wireless signal, a router circuit which mediates data transmission and reception between the CPUs or the like, and a thread control circuit which has a thread scheduling function, a semiconductor device which consumes less power and has high arithmetic performance can be provided at low cost.06-23-2011
20110031571WIRELESS COMMUNICATION UNIT AND SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICE HAVING A POWER AMPLIFIER THEREFOR - A semiconductor package device comprises a radio frequency power transistor having an output port operably coupled to a single de-coupling capacitance located within the semiconductor package device. The single de-coupling capacitance is arranged to provide both high frequency decoupling and low frequency decoupling of signals output from the radio frequency power transistor.02-10-2011
20110095385SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICE, METHOD OF MANUFACTURING THE SAME, AND WIRELESS TRANSMISSION SYSTEM UTILIZING THE SAME - A device, and method for manufacturing the same, including a semiconductor package which allows transmission therethrough of a radio signal, a chip which generates the radio signal and a coupler adjacent the chip and effective to radiate the radio signal to outside of the semiconductor package.04-28-2011
20100090302RESONATOR - A method of making a resonator, preferably a nano-resonator, includes starting with a FINFET structure with a central bar, first and second electrodes connected to the central bar, and third and fourth electrodes on either side of the central bar and separated from the central bar by gate dielectric. The structure is formed on a buried oxide layer. The gate dielectric and buried oxide layer are then selectively etched away to provide a nano-resonator structure with a resonator element 04-15-2010
20110316105Monolithic Nuclear Event Detector and Method of Manufacture - A PIN diode-based monolithic Nuclear Event Detector and method of manufacturing same for use in detecting a desired level of gamma radiation, in which a PIN diode is integrated with signal processing circuitry, for example CMOS circuitry, in a single thin-film Silicon On Insulator (SOI) chip. The PIN diode is implemented in either a p-, intrinsic, or n-substrate layer. The signal processing circuitry is located in a thin semiconductor layer and is in electrical communication with the PIN diode. The PIN diode may be integrated with the signal processing circuitry onto a single chip, or may be fabricated stand alone using SOI methods according to the method of the invention.12-29-2011
20120313194SEMICONDUCTOR SWITCHING DEVICE AND METHOD OF MAKING THE SAME - A switching device including a first dielectric layer having a first top surface, two conductive features embedded in the first dielectric layer, each conductive feature having a second top surface that is substantially coplanar with the first top surface of the first dielectric layer, and a set of discrete islands of a low diffusion mobility metal between the two conductive features. The discrete islands of the low diffusion mobility metal may be either on the first top surface or embedded in the first dielectric layer. The electric conductivity across the two conductive features of the switching device increases when a prescribed voltage is applied to the two conductive features. A method of forming such a switching device is also provided.12-13-2012
20120313195SEMICONDUCTOR MOS ENTRANCE WINDOW FOR RADIATION DETECTORS - A semiconductor detector device, such as a PIN diode or silicon drift detector, including a substrate with an entrance window. The entrance window comprises a conductive layer, and an insulating layer disposed between the conductive layer and the substrate. The insulating layer and conductive layer cover a center portion of the surface of the substrate.12-13-2012
20110180889X-RAY DETECTOR - An X-ray detector includes a substrate; a gate line that is extended in a first direction on the substrate; a gate electrode that is extended from the gate line; a semiconductor layer that is positioned on the gate electrode; a source electrode and drain electrode that are positioned on the semiconductor layer; a lower electrode that is extended from the drain electrode; a photodiode that is positioned on the lower electrode; a first insulation layer that is positioned on the source electrode and the drain electrode and that includes a first opening that exposes the source electrode; and a data line that is extended in a second direction intersecting a first direction on the first insulation layer to intersect the gate line with the first insulation layer interposed between the data line and the gate line, and the data line being electrically connected to the source electrode through the first opening.07-28-2011
20090096046SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICE FOR RADIATION DETECTION - The invention provides a semiconductor device (04-16-2009
20120074512COMMUNICATION DEVICE - A communication device according to an embodiment includes an antenna transmitting/receiving a high frequency signal, a semiconductor chip having four corners and four sides processing the high frequency signal, and a substrate on which a first wiring connected to ground, a second wiring supplying power to the semiconductor chip, a third wiring connected to a protection element or circuit of the semiconductor chip, and fourth wirings transmitting a signal from the semiconductor chip are formed by plating, and the semiconductor chip is mounted.03-29-2012
20120223403INTEGRATED CIRCUIT WITH ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY ANOMALY DETECTION AND PROCESSING - An integrated circuit includes an antenna, a die manufactured from a semiconducting material, an RF energy collection and processing means disposed on or within said die and including at least a receiver and a processing means, an input configured to supply power to said RF energy collection and processing means and an output for operative communication by said RF energy collection and processing means. The integrated circuit is configurable and operable to provide at least one of electromagnetic emission anomaly detection, tamper detection, anti-tamper monitoring, degradation monitoring, health monitoring, counterfeit detection, software changes monitoring, firmware changes monitoring and monitoring of other RF energy anomalies.09-06-2012
20120187511INTEGRATED CIRCUIT PACKAGE ASSEMBLY INCLUDING WAVE GUIDE - Some embodiments herein relate to a transmitter. The transmitter includes an integrated circuit (IC) package including a first antenna configured to radiate a first electromagnetic signal therefrom. A printed circuit board (PCB) substrate includes a waveguide configured to receive the first electromagnetic signal and to generate a waveguide signal based thereon. A second antenna can be electrically coupled to the waveguide and can radiate a second electromagnetic signal that corresponds to the waveguide signal. Other devices and methods are also disclosed.07-26-2012
20130009262NEUTRON DETECTION USING GD-LOADED OXIDE AND NITRIDE HETEROJUNCTION DIODES - Solid state neutron detection utilizing gadolinium as a neutron absorber is described. The new class of narrow-gap neutron-absorbing semiconducting materials, including Gd-doped HfO01-10-2013
20130015544SEMICONDUCTOR PACKAGE AND METHOD OF MANUFACTURING THE SAMEAANM HAN; Myeong WooAACI HwaseongAACO KRAAGP HAN; Myeong Woo Hwaseong KRAANM Yoo; Do JaeAACI SuwonAACO KRAAGP Yoo; Do Jae Suwon KRAANM Lee; Jung AunAACI SuwonAACO KRAAGP Lee; Jung Aun Suwon KRAANM Yoon; Jung HoAACI AnyangAACO KRAAGP Yoon; Jung Ho Anyang KRAANM Park; Chul GyunAACI YonginAACO KRAAGP Park; Chul Gyun Yongin KR - There is provided a semiconductor package including: a substrate including a semiconductor chip mounted thereon; a protective layer covering the semiconductor chip; a metal pattern mounted on the protective layer; and a first connective member connecting the semiconductor chip and the metal pattern.01-17-2013
20080230859SAW DEVICES, PROCESSES FOR MAKING THEM, AND METHODS OF USE - The design, fabrication, post-processing and characterization of a novel SAW (Surface Acoustic Wave) based bio/chemical sensor in CMOS technology is introduced. The sensors are designed in AMI 1.5 μm 2 metal, 2 poly process. A unique maskless post processing sequence is designed and completed. The three post-processing steps are fully compatible with any CMOS technology. This allows any signal control/processing circuitry to be easily integrated on the same chip. ZnO is used as the piezoelectric material for the SAW generation. A thorough characterization and patterning optimization of the sputtered ZnO was carried out. The major novelties that are introduced in the SAW delay line features are: The embedded heater elements for temperature control, compensation and acoustic absorbers that are designed to eliminate edge reflections and minimize triple transit interference. Both of these attributes are designed by using the CMOS layers without disturbing the SAW performance.09-25-2008
20130126999RADIATION DETECTORS AND METHODS OF FABRICATING RADIATION DETECTORS - Radiation detectors and methods of fabricating radiation detectors are provided. One method includes mechanically polishing at least a first surface of a semiconductor wafer using a polishing sequence including a plurality of polishing steps. The method also includes growing a passivation oxide layer on a top of the polished first surface and depositing patterned metal contacts on a top of the passivation oxide layer. The method further includes applying a protecting layer on the patterned deposited metal contacts, etching a second surface of the semiconductor and applying a monolithic cathode electrode on the etched second surface of the semiconductor. The method additionally includes removing the protecting layer from the patterned metal contacts on the first surface, wherein the patterned metal contacts are formed from one of (i) reactive metals and (ii) stiff-rigid metals for producing inter-band energy-levels in the passivation oxide layer.05-23-2013
20130126998RADIATION DETECTORS AND METHODS OF FABRICATING RADIATION DETECTORS - Radiation detectors and methods of fabricating radiation detectors are provided. One method includes mechanically polishing at least a first surface of a semiconductor wafer using a polishing sequence including a plurality of polishing steps, wherein a last polishing step of the polishing sequence includes polishing with a slurry having a grain size smaller than about 0.1 μm to create a polished first surface. The method also includes applying (i) an encapsulation layer on a top of the polished first surface to seal the polished first surface and (ii) a photoresist layer on top of the encapsulation layer on the polished first surface. The method further includes creating undercuts of the encapsulation layer under the photoresist layer. The method additionally includes partially etching the polished first surface of the semiconductor via the openings in the photoresist layer and in the encapsulation layer to partially etch the semiconductor creating etched regions.05-23-2013
20130154039PRODUCTION METHOD OF RADIATION IMAGE DETECTOR AND RADIATION IMAGE DETECTOR - The present invention provides a production method of a radiation image detector, comprising a scintillator panel preparation step, a composite rigid plate preparation step of bonding a flexible polymer film to a rigid plate with an adhesive to prepare the composite rigid plate, a preparation step of a scintillator panel provided with a composite rigid plate of bonding the composite rigid plate to a scintillator panel to prepare the scintillator panel provided with a composite rigid plate, and a preparation step of a radiation image detection member of opposing the surface of the photoelectric conversion base plate in which the photoelectric conversion elements are disposed to the surface of the side of the scintillator layer of the scintillator panel provided with the composite rigid plate and bonding the photoelectric conversion base plate to the scintillator panel to prepare a radiation image detection member; whereby there arc provided a production method of a radiation image detector which can he easily produced and results in superior image uniformity, and a radiation image detector obtained by the method.06-20-2013
20110284978RADIATION CONVERTER COMPRISING A DIRECTLY CONVERTING SEMICONDUCTOR LAYER AND METHOD FOR PRODUCING SUCH A RADIATION CONVERTER - A radiation converter includes a directly converting semiconductor layer, wherein the semiconductor layer includes grains whose interfaces at least predominantly run parallel to a drift direction—constrained by an electric field—of electrons liberated in the semiconductor layer. in at least one embodiment, the charge carriers liberated by incident radiation quanta are accelerated in the electric field in the direction of the radiation incidence direction and on account of the columnar or pillar-like texture of the semiconductor layer, in comparison with the known radiation detectors, cross significantly fewer interfaces of the grains that are occupied by defect sites. This increases the charge carrier lifetime/mobility product in the direction of charge carrier transport. Consequently, it is possible to realize significantly thicker semiconductor layers for the counting and/or energy-selective detection of radiation quanta. This increases the absorptivity of the radiation converter which in turn makes it possible to reduce a radiation dose applied to the patient. at least one embodiment of the invention additionally relates to a method for producing such a radiation converter.11-24-2011

Patent applications in class Electromagnetic or particle radiation

Patent applications in all subclasses Electromagnetic or particle radiation