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Involving enzyme or micro-organism

Subclass of:

205 - Electrolysis: processes, compositions used therein, and methods of preparing the compositions

205775000 - ELECTROLYTIC ANALYSIS OR TESTING (PROCESS AND ELECTROLYTE COMPOSITION)

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Class / Patent application numberDescriptionNumber of patent applications / Date published
205778000 And using semipermeable membrane 15
Entries
DocumentTitleDate
20120199497ELECTROCHEMICAL-BASED ANALYTICAL TEST STRIP WITH DIFFUSION-CONTROLLING LAYER AND METHOD FOR DETERMINING AN ANALYTE USING SUCH AN TEST STRIP - An electrochemical-based analytical test strip for the determination of an analyte (such as glucose) in a bodily fluid sample (e.g., a whole blood sample) includes a substrate, at least one working electrode disposed on the substrate, a sample-soluble enzymatic reagent layer disposed above the working electrode, a diffusion-controlling layer (DCL) disposed between the at least one working electrode and the sample-soluble enzymatic reagent layer; and a sample-receiving chamber. In addition, the sample-soluble enzymatic reagent layer is configured and constituted for operable solubility in a bodily fluid sample applied to the electrochemical-based analytical test strip and received in the sample-receiving chamber and for electrochemical enzymatic reaction with an analyte in the bodily fluid sample. Moreover, the DCL is configured and constituted to provide a predetermined diffusion rate for a component (for example a mediator) of the electrochemical enzymatic reaction through the DCL that is less than the diffusion rate of the component through the bodily fluid sample and for operable hydration by the bodily fluid sample. A method for determining an analyte in a bodily fluid sample includes applying a bodily fluid sample to an electrochemical-based analytical test strip that includes a substrate, at least one working electrode disposed on the substrate, a sample-soluble enzymatic reagent layer disposed above the working electrode, a DCL disposed between the at least one working electrode and the sample-soluble enzymatic reagent layer; and a sample-receiving chamber defined in the electrochemical-based analytical test strip.08-09-2012
20100155263METHOD AND SYTEM FOR DETERMINING THE CONCENTRATION OF AN ANALYTE/ENZUME COMPLEX OR OF AN ANALYTE/ENZYME CONJUGATE, ESPECIALLY FOR THE ELECTROCHEMICAL DETECTION OF THE ANALYTE, AND CORRESPONDING MEASURING DEVICE - A method follow the change in concentration of a redox-active substance, whereby suitable potentials for a reduction process or an oxidation process are applied to the working electrode of a measuring device. The potential of the working electrode is pulsed and measuring phases and relaxation phases are alternately produced, the pulse lengths of measuring phase and relaxation phase being determined in a suitable manner. A rapid relaxation of the concentration gradient is electrochemically forced so that the measurement can be carried out on simple transducer arrays. A device for carrying out the method includes a transducer array in addition to a suitable potentiostat. The transducer array can be formed of a planar metal substrate on which at least one flexible insulator is disposed, the metal surface and the insulator surface being firmly linked. The transducer array can also be formed of silicone-based CMOS structures.06-24-2010
20130075277LACTATE SENSOR - A lactate sensor capable of accurately measuring a lactate concentration in a short period of time. The lactate sensor includes an insulating substrate, an electrode system including at least a working electrode and a counter electrode provided on the substrate, and a reagent layer provided on the electrode system. The reagent layer contains lactate oxidase, it mediator, and N-(2-acetamide)-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid.03-28-2013
20130075276Glucose Sensor - Provided is a glucose sensor that is capable of measuring a glucose concentration even in the case where 03-28-2013
20100116690Detection of Chiral Alcohols and Other Analytes - Various methods, compounds and apparatus for the detection of analytes are provided. In one aspect, the direct oxidation of an alcohol is detected electrochemically. In another aspect, a reaction of an analyte is detected, wherein the reaction is catalysed by an enzyme and a cofactor, and wherein the cofactor comprises a moiety which is capable of acting as an electron mediator. In a further aspect, a chiral analyte is detected by resolving a enantiomeric mixture of the analyte and subsequently detecting at least one of the resolved enantiomers electrochemically. The invention is particularly relevant to the detection of alcohols, especially chiral alcohols.05-13-2010
20130037421SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR DETERMINING A SUBSTANTIALLY HEMATOCRIT INDEPENDENT ANALYTE CONCENTRATION - A method and system is provided to allow for determination of substantially Hematocrit independent analyte concentration. In one example, an analyte measurement system is provided that includes a test strip and a test meter. The test strip includes a reference electrode and a working electrode, in which the working electrode is coated with a reagent layer. The test meter includes an electronic circuit and a signal processor. The electronic circuit applies a plurality of voltages to the reference electrode and the working electrode over respective durations. The signal processor is configured to determine a substantially hematocrit-independent concentration of the analyte from a plurality of current values as measured by the processor upon application of a plurality of test voltages to the reference and working electrodes over a plurality of durations interspersed with rest voltages lower than the test voltages being applied to the electrodes.02-14-2013
20100096277AMPEROMETRIC BIOSENSOR FOR HISTAMINE DETERMINATION - There is provided by this invention a simple and rapid amperometric biosensor for determining the level of histamine in seafood or fish. The biosensor combines the technology of screen-printing with immobilized diamine oxidase as the bioreceptor. IQ one embodiment of the present invention, the biosensor incorporates potassium hexacyanoferrate (III) as a mediator.04-22-2010
20090159463MICROFLUIDIC DEVICE COMPRISING ELECTROLYSIS DEVICE FOR CELL LYSIS AND METHOD FOR ELECTROCHEMICALLY LYSING CELLS USING THE SAME - Provided are a microfluidic device including an electrolysis device for cell lysis which includes an anode chamber, a cathode chamber and a separator, in which the separator is installed between the anode chamber and the cathode chamber, the anode chamber includes an inlet and an outlet for an anode chamber solution and an electrode, and the cathode chamber includes an inlet and an outlet for a cathode chamber solution and an electrode, and a method of electrochemically lysing cells using the same.06-25-2009
20090266718Correction of Oxygen Effect in Test Sensor Using Reagents - An electrochemical test sensor is adapted to measure glucose and correct for the oxygen effect in a fluid sample. The test sensor comprises a base, first and second working electrodes, and a counter electrode. The first working electrode includes glucose oxidase, a mediator and peroxidase. The second working electrode includes glucose oxidase and the mediator. The first working electrode, the second working electrode and the counter electrode are located on the base. In other embodiments, an electrochemical test sensor is adapted to measure cholesterol, lactate, pyruvate or xanthine and correct for the oxygen effect in a fluid sample.10-29-2009
20130026050Reagents for Electrochemical Test Strips - A dry reagent composition that includes an active redox enzyme that oxidizes an analyte as a specific substrate to produce an inactive reduced form of the enzyme; and a salt of ferricyanide provides improved performance in electrochemical test strips such as those used for detection of glucose. The salt of ferricyanide consists of ferricyanide and positively-charged counter ions, and the positively charged counter ions are selected such that the salt of ferricyanide is soluble in water, and such that the salt of ferricyanide or the crystalline phase of the salt of ferricyanide has a solubility in water and/or a lower E01-31-2013
20130081958COMPOSITION OF REDOX-REAGENTS FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL BIOSENSOR AND BIOSENSOR COMPRISING THE SAME - A composition of redox-reagent containing metal-containing complex and thionine or its derivative as electron transfer mediator for use in an electrochemical biosensor, and a biosensor containing the same are provided. With the increase in reaction rate between redox enzyme-thionine (or its derivative)-metal-containing complex in the composition of redox-reagent containing metal-containing complex and thionine or its derivative, glucose detection efficiency markedly increases, and the composition is hardly influenced from high humidity and interfering substances. Accordingly, the composition of redox-reagent is useful in fabricating an electrochemical biosensor for detecting glucose in blood.04-04-2013
20120181188DETERMINATION OF BLOOD GLUCOSE IN A SMALL VOLUME AND IN A SHORT TEST TIME USING A CHEMICAL COATING INCLUDING BINDERS AND VERY SHORT READ POTENTIALS - Analytes in a liquid sample are determined by methods utilizing sample volumes of less than about 1.0 μl and test times within about eight seconds. The methods are preferably performed using small test strips including a sample receiving chamber filled with the sample by capillary action.07-19-2012
20120181187DETERMINATION OF BLOOD GLUCOSE IN A SMALL VOLUME AND IN A SHORT TEST TIME - Analytes in a liquid sample are determined by methods utilizing sample volumes of less than about 1.0 μl and test times within about six seconds. The methods are preferably performed using small test strips including a sample receiving chamber filled with the sample by capillary action.07-19-2012
20120181186Enzyme Triggered Redox Altering Chemical Elimination (E-Trace) Immunoassay - Described are methods for detecting a target analyte in a test sample by providing a solid support comprising an electrode comprising: (i) a self-assembled monolayer (SAM), (ii) a covalently attached electroactive active moiety (EAM) comprising a transition metal complex comprising a self-immolative moiety and a peroxide sensitive moiety (PSM), wherein said EAM has a first E07-19-2012
20100006452Biosensor Apparatus and Methods of Use - Disclosed herein are methods and devices for detecting the presence of an analyte of interest. A biosensor device can include a reaction chamber and an electrochemical detection chamber. The reaction chamber can include at least one immobilized binding site and a probe conjugate adapted to bind to at least one of the target analyte and the immobilized binding site while the detection chamber can include electrodes for detecting an electrochemical reaction. If present, the target analyte in the fluid sample results in a change in the amount of probe conjugate bound in the reaction chamber, which can be detected electrochemically in the detection chamber.01-14-2010
20130098775Glucose biosensor with improved shelf life - A disposable biosensor having improved long term storage stability including a working electrode and a reference electrode formed on an insulating substrate and a dissolvable reagent layer composition disposed directly on the working electrode where the reagent layer composition contains a glucose-based enzyme, a reagent component selected from a phosphate buffer and a tris reagent, and a redox mediator.04-25-2013
20090301899SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR MEASURING AN ANALYTE IN A SAMPLE - Methods for calculating an analyte concentration of a sample are provided. In one exemplary embodiment the method includes steps that are directed toward accounting for inaccuracies that occur as a result of temperature variations in a sample, a meter, or the surrounding environment. In another exemplary embodiment the method includes steps that are directed toward determining whether an adequate sample is provided in a meter because insufficient samples can result in inaccuracies. The methods that are provided can be incorporated into a variety of mechanisms, but they are primarily directed toward glucose meters for blood samples and toward meters for controls solutions.12-10-2009
20100006451Biosensing device and method for detecting target biomolecules in a solution - A biosensing device for detecting a presence of target biomolecules is provided, including at least one working electrode having a systematic array of nano-electrode wires projecting vertically from an electrode pad. The nano-electrode wires all have a same shape and size and are distributed non-randomly over the electrode pad. Biosensor probes are attached to the nano-electrode wire, each including a bioreceptor selected to bind with a complementary target biomolecule to create a binding event, and an electrochemical transducer transducing this binding event into an electrical signal conducted by the corresponding nano-electrode wire. A biosensing method using such a device is provided, as well as a fabrication method thereof.01-14-2010
20120111739Dual Frequency Impedance Measurement of Hematocrit in Strips - This invention is a method for determining a hematocrit value. The steps include applying a first pulse of potential excitation at a first frequency to a test strip containing a fluid sample. The method also includes applying a second pulse at a second frequency that is higher than the first frequency. Based on first and second impedance measurements associated with each pulse, a hematocrit value may be determined. Also, a concentration of an analyte contained within the fluid sample may be determined based on the hematocrit value.05-10-2012
20090014339Oxidizable Species as an Internal Reference in Control Solutions for Biosensors - Testing of the performance of an electrochemical meter used to measure the presence of an analyte in a biological sample, particularly glucose in whole blood, includes introducing a control solution containing a predetermined amount of the analyte and a predetermined amount of an internal reference compound. The internal reference compound is selected such that it is oxidized at a potential greater than that used to oxidize the analyte, thereby making it possible to distinguish the control solution from a biological sample.01-15-2009
20090014338Structure, porous body, sensor, process of structure and detecting mehod for specimen - A new structure having mesopores is provided. The present invention provides a structure that has a plurality of mesopores wherein the structure has a dendritic framework and mesopores passing through the framework in the direction intersecting the longitudinal direction of the framework. The present invention also provides a porous material, a sensor and a method for detecting a specimen that take advantage of the new structure.01-15-2009
20130161204REAGENT COMPOSITION, SENSOR, SENSOR SYSTEM, AND SENSOR MANUFACTURE PROCESS - The present invention provides: a reagent composition having higher storage stability; a sensor involving the reagent composition; and others. According to the present invention, a specific heterocyclic compound is added to a reagent composition to improve the storage stability of the reagent composition and reduce the degree of fluctuation in current values in a sensor that utilizes reagent composition.06-27-2013
20110155586Nanogap chemical and biochemical sensors - Devices and methods are presented for electronic sensing of chemical and biochemical analytes. An electronic sensor having a at least two electrodes separated by a nanoscale gap wherein the separation between the first electrode and the second electrode forms a cavity capable of containing a fluid wherein two or more posts comprised of an insulating material extend into the cavity from the face of the first electrode to the face of the second electrode. Optionally, the cavity is closed with a bead. Devices according to embodiments of the invention are capable of detecting chemicals and biochemicals through redox cycling events. Additionally, devices and methods according to embodiments of the invention are adapted to identify and sequence nucleic acid molecules.06-30-2011
20110120889Detection Device of Screen-Printed Electrode With High Sensitivity - A detection device for detecting 05-26-2011
20090242425ANALYTE SENSOR - Systems and methods of use for continuous analyte measurement of a host's vascular system are provided. In some embodiments, a continuous glucose measurement system includes a vascular access device, a sensor and sensor electronics, the system being configured for insertion into communication with a host's circulatory system.10-01-2009
20120186996DETERMINATION OF BLOOD GLUCOSE IN A SMALL VOLUME AND IN A SHORT TEST TIME USING SHORT READ POTENTIALS - Analytes in a liquid sample are determined by methods utilizing sample volumes of less than about 1.0 μl and test times within about eight seconds. The methods are preferably performed using small test strips including a sample receiving chamber filled with the sample by capillary action.07-26-2012
20090120808Device for Detecting Methanol Concentration and the Method Thereof - A device for detecting methanol concentration in an alcohol-containing solution is disclosed. The device implements an electrochemical bio-detector based on a two-enzyme system to quickly, easily and accurately measure methanol concentration in an alcohol-containing solution at a relatively low cost. A method for detecting methanol concentration in a sample using the same device is also disclosed.05-14-2009
20090205977Method and system for detecting a target with a specific marker - A method for detecting a target with a specific marker includes: putting a specimen in a reactor, wherein the specimen contains a target with a specific marker, and the reactor has a plurality of biological probes arranged on the bottom; placing the reactor between a first electrode and a second electrode, wherein the area of the first electrode is different from the area of the second electrode; providing a power to the first electrode and the second electrode to generate an electric field for promoting the target to conjugate with the biological probes; and removing the specimen unconjugated with the biological probes. A system for detecting a target with a specific marker is also disclosed. The above-mentioned method and system is appropriate for massive and parallel detection with simpler operation and lower cost.08-20-2009
20100243479SENSOR FOR DETECTING STEM CELL DIFFERENTIATION BASED ON ELECTROCHEMICAL METHODS - This invention relates to a sensor for detecting a stem cell differentiation, including (a) an electrode; and (b) a substrate of an alkaline phosphatase. The phosphorylation or dephosphorylation of the substrate for an alkaline phosphatase as a stem cell undifferentiation marker which dephosphorylates its substrate may be measured using an electrical signal in the present sensor. Therefore, the sensor of the present invention enables to electrically detect a stem cell status in a high-throughput manner and to determine the stem cell differentiation.09-30-2010
20110284393ANALYTICAL TEST STRIP WITH AN ELECTRODE HAVING ELECTROCHEMICALLY ACTIVE AND INERT AREAS OF A PREDETERMINED SIZE AND DISTRIBUTION - An electrochemical-based analytical test strip for the determination of an analyte (e.g., glucose) in a bodily fluid sample (such as a whole blood sample) includes an electrically insulating base layer and a patterned conductor layer (for example, a gold patterned conductor layer) disposed over the electrically-insulating layer. The patterned conductor layer includes at least one electrode with the electrode having electrochemically inert areas and an electrochemically active area(s). Moreover, the electrochemically inert areas and electrochemically active area(s) are of a predetermined size and a predetermined distribution such that electrochemical response of the electrode during use of the electrochemical-based analytical test strip is essentially equivalent to a predetermined electrochemical response.11-24-2011
20110162978SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR DETERMINING A SUBSTANTIALLY HEMATOCRIT INDEPENDENT ANALYTE CONCENTRATION - A method and system is provided to allow for determination of substantially Hematocrit independent analyte concentration. In one example, an analyte measurement system is provided that includes a test strip and a test meter. The test strip includes a reference electrode and a working electrode, in which the working electrode is coated with a reagent layer. The test meter includes an electronic circuit and a signal processor. The electronic circuit applies a plurality of voltages to the reference electrode and the working electrode over respective durations. The signal processor is configured to determine a substantially hematocrit-independent concentration of the analyte from a plurality of current values as measured by the processor upon application of a plurality of test voltages to the reference and working electrodes over a plurality of durations interspersed with rest voltages lower than the test voltages being applied to the electrodes.07-07-2011
20110290668ANALYTICAL TEST STRIP WITH CROSSROADS EXPOSED ELECTRODE CONFIGURATION - An electrochemical-based analytical test strip for the determination of an analyte (such as glucose) in a bodily fluid sample (for example, whole blood) includes an electrically insulating base layer, a patterned conductor layer disposed over the electrically-insulating layer, and a patterned insulation layer, with an electrode exposure window therethrough, disposed over the patterned conductor layer. The patterned conductive layer of the electrochemical-based analytical test strip includes at least one working electrode and a counter/reference electrode. In addition, at least a portion of the electrode exposure window is configured to expose a working electrode exposed portion and a counter/reference electrode exposed portion, with the working electrode exposed portion being rectangular in shape and the counter/reference electrode exposed portion being one of a crossroads shape and an at least six-sided portion of a crossroads shape.12-01-2011
20110290670METHODS FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL ANALYSIS USING MATRIX COMPOSITIONS WITH ALKYLPHENAZINE QUATERNARY SALT AND A NITROSALINE - A chemistry matrix for use in determining the concentration of an analyte in a biological fluid includes a glucose dehydrogenase, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, an alkylphenazine quaternary salt, and/or a nitrosoaniline. The chemistry matrix is used with an electrochemical biosensor to determine the concentration of an analyte after a reaction occurs within the biosensor, at which time an analysis is completed to determine the concentration. A method of determining the concentration of an analyte using the chemistry matrix of glucose dehydrogenase, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, an alkylphenazine quaternary salt, and/or a nitrosoaniline is another aspect that is described. The method also further features test times of five seconds or less. Methods utilizing the new chemistry matrix can readily determine an analyte such as blood glucose at concentrations of from about 20-600 mg/dL at a pH of from about 6.5 to about 8.5.12-01-2011
20110290669Apparatus and Methods for Analyte Measurement and Immunoassay - The present invention relates to an apparatus for conducting a variety of assays for the determination of analytes in liquid samples, and relates to the methods for such assays. In particular, the invention relates to a single-use cartridge designed to be adaptable to a variety of real-time assay protocols, preferably assays for the determination of analytes in biological samples using immunosensors or other ligand/ligand receptor-based biosensor embodiments. The cartridge provides novel features for processing a metered portion of a sample, for precise and flexible control of the movement of a sample or second fluid within the cartridge, for the amending of solutions with additional compounds during an assay, and for the construction of immunosensors capable of adaptation to diverse analyte measurements. The disclosed device and methods of use enjoy substantial benefits over the prior art, including simplicity of use by an operator, rapid in situ determinations of one or more analytes, and single-use methodology that minimizes the risk of contamination of both operator and patient. The disclosed invention is adaptable to the point-of-care clinical diagnostic field, including use in accident sites, emergency rooms, surgery, nursing homes, intensive care units, and non-medical environments.12-01-2011
20100018870Small Volume In Vitro Sensor and Methods of Making - A sensor utilizing a non-leachable or diffusible redox mediator is described. The sensor includes a sample chamber to hold a sample in electrolytic contact with a working electrode, and in at least some instances, the sensor also contains a non-leachable or a diffusible second electron transfer agent. The sensor and/or the methods used produce a sensor signal in response to the analyte that can be distinguished from a background signal caused by the mediator. The invention can be used to determine the concentration of a biomolecule, such as glucose or lactate, in a biological fluid, such as blood or serum, using techniques such as coulometry, amperometry, and potentiometry. An enzyme capable of catalyzing the electrooxidation or electroreduction of the biomolecule is typically provided as a second electron transfer agent.01-28-2010
20110215002Sensing device and related methods - The present invention is generally directed to devices and methods for sensing a variety of biologically-related substances. In a device aspect, the present invention is directed to a multilayer device for sensing metal ions, biological molecules, or whole cells. The device comprises: a) one or more cavities that provide for the introduction of a sample to be analyzed and one or more channels that provide for exit of the sample, or one or more channels that provide for the introduction and exit of the sample; b) one or more single-walled carbon nanotubes presented to the one or more cavities or one or more channels; c) a plurality of electrodes electrically connected to the one or more single-walled carbon nanotubes; and, a reference gate electrode presented to the one or more cavities or one or more channels. In a method aspect, the present invention is directed to a method for sensing species such as a metal, biological cells, and one or more biological molecules using the device.09-08-2011
20090188812Cholesterol Sensor - A method for the determination of the amount of cholesterol in lipoproteins other than high density lipoproteins in a lipoprotein-containing sample, said method comprising (a) electrochemically determining the amount of cholesterol bound to high density lipoproteins in the sample, (b) electrochemically determining the total amount of cholesterol in the sample, and subtracting the result of (a) from the result of (b).07-30-2009
20090152127Biosensor Measurement Machine , Biosensor Measurement System and Biosensor Measurement Method - Provided are a biosensor chip measurement machine that can obtain accurate measurement results within a short period of time by employing only a tiny amount as a sample, and a measurement method therefor.06-18-2009
20100258453METHOD FOR ESTIMATING DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLE - The present invention relates to a method for estimating a distribution of a sample flowed from a first electrode toward a second electrode of an electrochemical test strip. A working voltage is provided between the first electrode and the second electrode for obtaining a first and a second currents, where a ratio of the first current to the second current is applied to estimate the distribution of the sample on the first and the second electrodes and an effectiveness of a measurement of a target analyte of the sample.10-14-2010
20090152129ELECTROCHEMICAL SYSTEM AND METHOD THEREOF - An embodiment of the invention provides an ultrasensitive and selective system and method for detecting reactants of the chemical reaction catalyzed by an oxidoreductase, such as glucose and ethanol, at a concentration level down to zepto molar (1006-18-2009
20090152128Test Sensor Reagent Having Cellulose Polymers - A test sensor reagent for measuring the concentration of analytes in body fluids includes cellulose polymers for improving the stability of the test sensor and reducing the total assay time. The test sensor reagent also includes an enzyme, an electron transfer mediator and a rheological additive.06-18-2009
20090145775Reagents and methods for detecting analytes - A reagent for detecting an analyte comprises a flavoprotein enzyme, a mediator such as a phenothiazine mediator, at least one surfactant, a polymer and a buffer. The reagent may be used with an electrochemical test sensor that includes a plurality of electrodes.06-11-2009
20100181210Point of Care Heparin Determination System - Methods and devices for point of care determination of heparin concentration in blood are described. Cartridges including protamine ion sensitive electrodes (ISEs) and reference electrodes and systems for automatically determining heparin concentration in the cartridges are provided. Some systems add blood to a protamine bolus sufficient to bind all heparin, leaving excess protamine. The excess protamine concentration can be determined by measuring the initial slope of the electrode potential rate of change, and comparing the slope to known protamine concentration slope values In some cartridges, an oscillating pressure source moves the blood-protamine mixture back and forth across the protamine ISE. Some systems also use a second blood sample having the heparin removed or degraded to create a blank reference sample. Protamine ISEs can include polyurethane polymer, DNNS ionophore, and NPOE plasticizer. The polyurethane may include hard segments and soft segments, where both hard and soft segments may include cyclic and straight chain aliphatic moieties having essentially no ester or ether groups. Some hard segments may include methylene diphenyl groups. Some reference electrodes have the same polymer, plasticizer, and ionophore as the measurement electrode, but with a different concentration of ionophore.07-22-2010
20100089771METHOD OF DETERMINING BASE SEQUENCE OF NUCLEIC ACID - To enable accurate analysis of a base sequence even in an electrophoretic pattern containing a degraded part. The base sequence of a nucleic acid is determined by conducting the following steps (A) to (C) in this order: (A) a basic peak extracting step wherein basic peaks are extracted from electrophoretic data involving the respective peaks of the four bases obtained by electrophoresing a sample nucleic acid; (B) a condition determining step wherein a basic peak at the search starting point, from which the search is started, and a standard peak-to-peak distance are determined based on the time-series data composed of the basic peaks extracted above; and (C) a base sequence determining step wherein peak-to-peak intervals are successively scanned forward and backward in the above-described time-series data starting from the basic peak at the search starting point and then the peak-to-peak distance is compared with the standard peak-to-peak distance as determined above so as to add an interpolation peak to a peak-missing area.04-15-2010
20080277291Small Volume In Vitro Analyte Sensor - A sensor designed to determine the amount and concentration of analyte in a sample having a volume of less than about 1 μL. The sensor has a working electrode coated with a non-leachable redox mediator. The redox mediator acts as an electron transfer agent between the analyte and the electrode. In addition, a second electron transfer agent, such as an enzyme, can be added to facilitate the electrooxidation or electroreduction of the analyte. The redox mediator is typically a redox compound bound to a polymer. The preferred redox mediators are air-oxidizable.11-13-2008
20080210573MULTIPLEXED ELECTROCHEMICAL DETECTION SYSTEM AND METHOD - Multiplexed analysis of molecular structures of samples. A plurality of sample wells is arranged on a substrate. A plurality of electrodes is fabricated on a first side of the substrate. The electrodes are disposed on the side of the substrate exposed to the sample wells. The electrodes include working electrodes, counter electrodes, and optionally include reference electrodes. At least two of the sample wells includes a plurality of working electrodes. The plurality of electrodes is configured to allow electrochemical analysis of the associated sample wells in a multiplexed fashion. The plurality of electrodes is electrically coupled to an interface to a sample analysis system. The interface to the sample analysis system can include contacts or connections. The sample analysis system controls a signal to the electrodes in a multiplexed fashion and performs the electrochemical analysis.09-04-2008
20080210574Method and apparatus for analyte measurement test time - A disposable biosensor test strip is provided that includes a plurality of penetrating members. Each penetrating member is associated with a capillary chamber that has a depth suitable for capillary flow of blood and holds a volume of less than about 1.0 μl of the blood sample. A working electrode and a counter or reference electrode are disposed within the capillary chamber. A reagent is proximal to or in contact with at least the working electrode. The reagent includes an enzyme and a mediator. The reagent reacts with glucose to produce an electroactive reaction product. A blood sample, containing glucose, is applied into the capillary chamber. The capillary chamber directs capillary flow of the blood sample into contact with the reagent to cause the blood sample to at least partially solubilize or hydrate the reagent. The blood sample is detected in the capillary chamber. The electroactive reaction product is electro-oxidized or electro-reduced at the working electrode. Within 10 seconds after detecting, a determination is made of glucose concentration and a readout of the measurement is provided. The glucose determination is made by correlating the electro-oxidized or electro-reduced electroactive reaction product to the concentration of glucose in the blood sample.09-04-2008
20130098777Single, Direct Detection Of Hemoglobin A1C Percentage Using Enzyme Triggered Redox Altering Chemical Elimination (E-Trace) Immunoassay - The disclosure also relates to novel compositions and methods for the single, direct detection of Hemoglobin A1c percentage in a sample, using conversion of functional groups attached to a transitional metal complex, resulting in quantifiable electrochemical signal at two unique potentials, E04-25-2013
20090288960Rapid Detection of Anti-Chromatin Autoantibodies in Human Serum using a Portable Electrochemical Biosensor - A rapid electrochemical flow-through sensor and method for detecting the presence of autoantibodies in a fluid sample such as blood is shown and described. The sensor may take either a single- or multi-plexed form. The sensor comprises a fluid inlet, a reaction region comprising immobilized autoantigens and an electrode assembly, and a fluid outlet.11-26-2009
20090283422Stochastic Sensing Through Covalent Interactions - A system and method for stochastic sensing in which the analyte covalently bonds to the sensor element or an adaptor element. If such bonding is irreversible, the bond may be broken by a chemical reagent. The sensor element may be a protein, such as the engineered P11-19-2009
20090294302Use of Alginate to Reduce Hematocrit Bias in Biosensors - Methods and devices for determining the concentration of a constituent in a body sample are provided. The body sample is introduced into a biosensor having a sample chamber and at least part of an electrode disposed therein. The biosensor also includes an alginate hydrogel substantially covering a portion of the sample chamber. The alginate hydrogel substantially includes an alginate polymer configured to reduce cellular migration.12-03-2009
20090166222ELECTRICAL NANOTRAPS FOR SPECTROSCOPICALLY CHARACTERIZING BIOMOLECULES WITHIN - A method that combines on-wire-lithography (OWL) nanogaps, an electric field concentrating technique, and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is disclosed for sensitive detection of analytes with small sample sizes in a chip format.07-02-2009
20080314766Electrically-active ferromagnetic particle conductimetric biosensor test kit - A membrane strip biosensor device (12-25-2008
20090166223BIOSENSOR ELECTRODE MEDIATORS FOR REGENERATION OF COFACTORS - The present invention is based on the discovery of NAD07-02-2009
20080302674Probe Unit, Apparatus for Identifying Nucleotide Region and Method of Identifying Nucleotide Region - A probe unit for identifying a target nucleotide region in a target nucleic acid, the unit being provided with an electrode, a probe bound to the electrode and recognizes the target nucleic acid, and a hole-transfer-inducing agent bound to the probe, wherein a nucleotide region corresponding to the target nucleotide region is located between the hole-transfer-inducing-agent-binding site and the electrode-binding end of the probe. A state of the target nucleotide region in the target nucleic acid can be identified by comparing electrochemical signal levels by energy-induced hole transfers before and after the hybridization of such a probe unit with the target nucleic acid.12-11-2008
20080277294Small Volume In Vitro Analyte Sensor - A sensor designed to determine the amount and concentration of analyte in a sample having a volume of less than about 1 μL. The sensor has a working electrode coated with a non-leachable redox mediator. The redox mediator acts as an electron transfer agent between the analyte and the electrode. In addition, a second electron transfer agent, such as an enzyme, can be added to facilitate the electrooxidation or electroreduction of the analyte. The redox mediator is typically a redox compound bound to a polymer. The preferred redox mediators are air-oxidizable.11-13-2008
20130118919METHOD FOR DETERMINING THE ELECTROCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF A TEST STRIP - This invention relates to a non-destructive means to determine electrochemical characteristics in biosensor test strips, including first applying a cyclic oxidative and reductive electric potential onto the inspection pads connecting to the reference electrode and working electrode, on which lies a drop of enzyme reagent solution, to homogenize the electrochemical characteristics of the biosensor test strips, and then applying an inspection electric potential within a short period of time over the inspection pads connecting to the reference electrode and working electrode to measure its electrical resistance to identify any abnormal biosensor test strips if present. Afterwards, embodiments of the present invention applies a reverse electric potential, having the same time interval as the inspection electric potential, onto the inspection pads connecting to the reference electrode and working electrode to prevent degradation on mediators such as potassium ferricyanide.05-16-2013
20100126882ELECTROCHEMICAL BIOSENSOR MEASURING SYSTEM - Disclosed herein is an electrochemical biosensor measuring device which comprises at least two photodiodes for emitting light beams at regular time intervals in a sequential manner, with the insertion of an electrochemical biosensor thereto, and a detector for sensing the emitted light beams, thereby identifying the production lot information recorded on a production lot information identification portion on the electrochemical biosensor. Thus, the device enjoys economic advantages of not requiring a high-priced optical filter in detecting the light absorbed through or reflected from the production identification information recorded in biosensor and a complicated software algorithm to recover the production lot information. Also, the measuring device automatically identifies the production lot information recorded on the biosensor, so that the frequency of inconvenience and error that occur when a user personally inputs the production lot information of the biosensor can be reduced, with the result that the measured values can be conveniently and accurately acquired.05-27-2010
20080277292Small Volume In Vitro Analyte Sensor - A sensor designed to determine the amount and concentration of analyte in a sample having a volume of less than about 1 μL. The sensor has a working electrode coated with a non-leachable redox mediator. The redox mediator acts as an electron transfer agent between the analyte and the electrode. In addition, a second electron transfer agent, such as an enzyme, can be added to facilitate the electrooxidation or electroreduction of the analyte. The redox mediator is typically a redox compound bound to a polymer. The preferred redox mediators are air-oxidizable.11-13-2008
20080277293Small Volume In Vitro Analyte Sensor - A sensor designed to determine the amount and concentration of analyte in a sample having a volume of less than about 1 μL. The sensor has a working electrode coated with a non-leachable redox mediator. The redox mediator acts as an electron transfer agent between the analyte and the electrode. In addition, a second electron transfer agent, such as an enzyme, can be added to facilitate the electrooxidation or electroreduction of the analyte. The redox mediator is typically a redox compound bound to a polymer. The preferred redox mediators are air-oxidizable.11-13-2008
20080272006Electrochemical Method of Detecting an Analyte - There is presently provided an electrochemical method of detecting an analyte in a sample involving use of electroactive compound Ru(PD)11-06-2008
20100140111METHOD AND ARRANGEMENT FOR ELECTRICALLY CONTACTING AN OBJECT SURROUNDED BY A MEMBRANE, USING AN ELECTRODE - Method and arrangement for making electrical contact with a membrane-enveloped object using an electrode06-10-2010
20090184004SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR MEASURING AN ANALYTE IN A SAMPLE - Methods of determining a corrected analyte concentration in view of some error source are provided herein. The methods can be utilized for the determination of various analytes and/or various sources of error. In one example, the method can be configured to determine a corrected glucose concentration in view of an extreme level of hematocrit found within the sample. In other embodiments, methods are provided for identifying various system errors and/or defects. For example, such errors can include partial-fill or double-fill situations, high track resistance, and/or sample leakage. Systems are also provided for determining a corrected analyte concentration and/or detecting some system error.07-23-2009
20090050491Method for distinguishing electrochemical sensors - A method for distinguishing between types of electrochemical test sensors in a meter is disclosed. The method comprises the acts of providing an electrochemical test sensor comprising an enzyme and a chemical additive, contacting the test sensor to the meter to form an electrical connection, applying a potential having a magnitude sufficient to initiate a redox reaction of the chemical additive, and determining which type of electrochemical test sensor is being used based on whether a predetermined signal has been generated after the potential has been applied. The meter is adapted to determine an analyte concentration in a fluid sample.02-26-2009
20090101523System and Methods for Determination of Analyte Concentration Using Time Resolved Amperometry - This invention is a method for determining a concentration of an analyte. The steps include applying a potential excitation to a fluid sample containing an analyte, and measuring a current associated with the potential excitation at a plurality of time-points. The method also includes calculating an analyte concentration based on the measured current and a calibration curve, wherein the calibration curve is selected from a plurality of calibration curves and each calibration curve is associated with a time-segment selected from a plurality of time-segments.04-23-2009
20090071846Continuous monitor sensor with covalently bound enzyme - The disclosure concerns a high efficiency electrochemical sensor with high signal yield for determining an analyte in a fluid medium comprising, at least one reference electrode, at least one working electrode having particles of an electrocatalyst in an electrode matrix, and an enzyme that is suitable for determining an analyte is selectively covalently bound to the particles of the electrocatalyst. The disclosure also describes a process for producing the electrochemical sensor and a method for determining an analyte in a fluid medium using the electrochemical sensor. have a high efficiency and thus achieve a high signal yield.03-19-2009
20090107852SELF-ACTUATING SIGNAL PRODUCING DETECTION DEVICES AND METHODS - An assay system is provided of great sensitivity and portability where the presence of a specific target in a sample, as well as its concentration (qualification and quantification) is detected by reason of a potential or voltage in a closed circuit, built up a redox reaction. The reaction is produced by binding a capture moiety to an enzymatic redox reaction partner, allowing the capture moiety to bind to any target in the sample. In a homogenous assay, the method further comprises washing any such bound target. The bound target may be immobilized through use of a second capture moiety. Substrate for the enzyme is then added. The action on the substrate by the enzyme generates electrons, creating a potential across an anode and cathode which may be separated by a membrane.04-30-2009
20110186445Biosensor - A biosensor for determining the concentration of an analyte in a biological sample. The biosensor comprises a support, a reference electrode or a counter electrode or both disposed on the support, a working electrode disposed on the support, the working electrode spaced apart from the other electrode or electrodes on the support, a covering layer defining a sample chamber over the electrodes, an aperture in the covering layer for receiving a sample, and at least one layer of mesh in the sample chamber between the covering layer and the electrodes. The at least one layer of mesh has coated thereon a silicone surfactant. Certain silicone surfactants are as effective as fluorinated surfactants with respect to performance of biosensors. These surfactants, when coated onto the mesh layer of the biosensor, are effective in facilitating the transport of aqueous test samples, such as blood, in the sample chamber.08-04-2011
20100200429METHOD FOR MEASURING SUBSTRATE CONCENTRATION AND DEVICE FOR THE SAME - The present invention provides a method for measuring a substrate concentration by accumulating an energy resulting from a reaction between a biocatalyst and a substrate recognized by the biocatalyst to a certain level; and using a dependency of an accumulation rate on the substrate concentration as an index; and a apparatus therefor. In particular, the present invention provides a method in which the measurement of the accumulation rate is carried out by measuring a frequency of an energy release in a certain amount of time when the energy accumulated in the capacitor reaches the certain level and is then released.08-12-2010
20100200428MICROFLUIDIC SENSOR COMPLEX STRUCTURE - Disclosed is a microfluidic sensor complex structure comprising a lower plate, a middle plate and an upper plate. A reference electrode, a working electrode and an electrode connection are formed on the lower plate. The middle plate comprises a microfluidic channel passage therein. The upper plate is overlaid on the middle plate so as to induce a capillary phenomenon on the microfluidic channel passage formed on in the middle plate. The microfluidic sensor complex structure allows the motion of a sample to be driven only by a capillary phenomenon, without additional operation, and allows an immune response, washing, and electrochemical analysis in one round once a sample is introduced thereinto. Hence, it requires only a short time period for measurement, is convenient to handle, and shows sensitivity and selectivity. Also, it can be produced on a mass scale because it can be formed of typical organic polymers using a simple method. Based on analytical electrochemistry, the microfluidic sensor complex structure can be used as a small-size sensor that can be applied to practice sites.08-12-2010
20100012522Small Volume In Vitro Sensor and Methods of Making - A sensor utilizing a non-leachable or diffusible redox mediator is described. The sensor includes a sample chamber to hold a sample in electrolytic contact with a working electrode, and in at least some instances, the sensor also contains a non-leachable or a diffusible second electron transfer agent. The sensor and/or the methods used produce a sensor signal in response to the analyte that can be distinguished from a background signal caused by the mediator. The invention can be used to determine the concentration of a biomolecule, such as glucose or lactate, in a biological fluid, such as blood or serum, using techniques such as coulometry, amperometry, and potentiometry. An enzyme capable of catalyzing the electrooxidation or electroreduction of the biomolecule is typically provided as a second electron transfer agent.01-21-2010
20120103834METHOD FOR DETERMINING THE CONCENTRATION OF AN ANALYTE IN A LIQUID SAMPLE USING SMALL VOLUME SAMPLES AND FAST TEST TIMES - Analytes in a liquid sample are determined by methods utilizing sample volumes of up to 1.0 μl and test times from about 4 to about 9 seconds after detection of the sample. The methods are preferably performed using small test strips including a sample receiving chamber filled with the sample by capillary action.05-03-2012
20120103833METHOD FOR DETERMINING THE CONCENTRATION OF AN ANALYTE IN A LIQUID SAMPLE USING SMALL VOLUME SAMPLES AND FAST TEST TIMES - Analytes in a liquid sample are determined by methods utilizing sample volumes of less than about 1.0 μl and test times within about nine seconds. The methods are preferably performed using small test strips including a sample receiving chamber filled with the sample by capillary action.05-03-2012
20100258452ELECTRODE FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL MEASUREMENT APPARATUS AND ELECTRODE FOR BIOSENSOR - An object of the present invention is to provide an electrode for an electrochemical measurement apparatus that is less susceptible to influence from interference substances as compared to conventional technology and an electrochemical measurement apparatus using such an electrode. A working electrode 10-14-2010
20100187131PLATFORM TECHNOLOGY FOR DETECTING MICROORGANISMS - An apparatus for detecting the presence of a microorganism in a microbial sample includes a first enclosable chamber for holding a first portion of a microbial sample. The first enclosable chamber holds the first portion of the microbial sample in a manner that allows a gaseous region to be formed therein thereby defining an interface between the gaseous region and the first portion. The apparatus of this embodiment further includes a first metabolic compound monitor in communication with the gaseous region. The first metabolic compound monitor provides a signal functionally dependent on metabolic compound concentration in the gaseous region wherein the signal allows identification of a metabolic compound rich state and metabolic compound depleted state such that at some point during a predetermined period of time a transition between the metabolic compound rich state and the metabolic compound depleted state occurs. The method executed by the apparatus is also provided.07-29-2010
20090078586Small Volume In Vitro Analyte Sensor - A sensor designed to determine the amount and concentration of analyte in a sample having a volume of less than about 1 μL. The sensor has a working electrode coated with a non-leachable redox mediator. The redox mediator acts as an electron transfer agent between the analyte and the electrode. In addition, a second electron transfer agent, such as an enzyme, can be added to facilitate the electrooxidation or electroreduction of the analyte. The redox mediator is typically a redox compound bound to a polymer. The preferred redox mediators are air-oxidizable.03-26-2009
20100213081APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR DETECTING PRESENCE OR DETERMINING BIOLOGICALLY SPECIFICALLY REACTIVE SUBSTANCE - This invention provides an apparatus for determining a biologically specifically reactive substance using the acceleration of a biologically specific reaction by pearl chaining of carrier particles. The apparatus can suppress the generation of heat caused by the pearl chaining to suppress the vaporization of a sample solution. The apparatus comprises a substrate comprising a pair of electrodes and a reaction field disposed between the pair of electrodes, voltage applying means for applying an alternating voltage to the pair of electrodes, and carrier particles which are disposed in the reaction field and undergo pearl chaining upon exposure of an alternating electric field applied to the reaction field by the alternating voltage. The apparatus is characterized in that the voltage applying means applies two or more alternating voltages different from each other in amplitude.08-26-2010
20100258451DETERMINATION OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE CONCENTRATIONS - For amperometric determination of the hydrogen peroxide concentration in a fluid sample, different electrical voltage steps are applied to the electrodes. In this process, at least one voltage is suitable for measuring the hydrogen peroxide concentration in the fluid sample, and at least one additional voltage is suitable for measuring the concentration of a substance in the fluid sample that acts as an interfering substance during measurement of the hydrogen peroxide concentration.10-14-2010
20100213080SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR THE ELECTROCHEMICAL MEASUREMENT OF AN ANALYTE EMPLOYING A REMOTE SENSOR - A remote measurement system measures the concentrations of analytes in fluid samples. The system includes a metering device that can receive signals from a test strip or alternatively interrogate the test strip to obtain information. The test strip includes an area for receiving a fluid sample and electrochemically producing a current response that is sensed within the fluid sample. The test strip also includes an antenna and a radio frequency signal circuit for transmitting a signal indicative of the current response of a fluid sample to be analyzed. The metering device receives the signal and can convert it into a readable display in some embodiments. Remote electrochemical analysis of a fluid sample is thereby obtained.08-26-2010
20100213082Self-Powered Analyte Sensor - Generally, embodiments of the invention relate to self-powered analyte determining devices (e.g., electrochemical analyte monitoring systems) that include a working electrode, a counter electrode, and an optional resistance value, where the working electrode includes analyte sensing components and the self-powered analyte determining device spontaneously passes a current directly proportional to analyte concentration in the absence of an external power source. Also provided are systems and methods of using the, for example electrochemical, analyte sensors in analyte monitoring.08-26-2010
20120138484Analyte Sensors Comprising Thickeners, Enzyme Stabilizers and Osmium Boronates - Embodiments of the present disclosure relate to analyte determining methods and devices (e.g., electrochemical analyte monitoring systems) that have improved uniformity of distribution and/or improved sensitivity and/or reduced sensitivity variation of the sensing layer by inclusion of a thickener and/or an enzyme stabilizer in the sensing layer. Embodiments of the present disclosure also relate to transition metal complexes having at least one pyridine boronic acid ligand are also described. Aspects of the disclosure include transition metal complexes chemically bonded to a polymer, such as a sensing layer polymer. The sensing layer is disposed on a working electrode of in vivo and/or in vitro analyte sensors, e.g., continuous and/or automatic in vivo monitoring using analyte sensors and/or test strips. Also provided are systems and methods of using the, for example electrochemical, analyte sensors in analyte monitoring.06-07-2012
20120193243Nanopore array structured devices for biosensing and energy Storage - The present invention provides a novel biosensing and measuring method. The biosensor of the present invention comprises an electrode having a nanopore structured and bio-communicationally active cyclodextrin attached thereto. The biosensor of the present invention has demonstrated robust analytical performance for direct glucose measurement without mediators, nor using native enzyme, nor using antibodies, which is especially beneficial in care diagnostic applications.08-02-2012
20100243477Analyte Sensor - Electrochemical sensors for measuring an analyte in a subject are described. More particularly, devices for measurement of an analyte incorporating a sensor comprising a hydrophilic polymer-enzyme composition covering an electroactive surface providing rapid and accurate analyte levels upon deployment are disclosed.09-30-2010
20100206749METHOD FOR CORRECTED ERRONEOUS RESULTS OF MEASUREMENT IN BIOSENSORS AND APPARATUS USING THE SAME - Disclosed herein is a method of correcting erroneous measurement results in a biosensor. The method includes the steps of: (a) applying a first voltage from a voltage generator 08-19-2010
20110056845INSULATED NANOGAP DEVICES AND METHODS OF USE THEREOF - The present invention provides a method to eliminate undesired parallel conductive paths of nanogap devices for aqueous sensing. The method involves the electrical insulation of an electrode pair, except for the nanogap region wherein electrical response is measured. The magnitude of undesired ionic current in a measurement is reduced by two orders of magnitude. The process to accomplish the present invention is self-aligned and avoids fabrication complexity. The invention has a great potential in nanogap device applications.03-10-2011
20100000880BIOSENSOR MEASUREMENT SYSTEM AND MEASUREMENT METHOD - There is provided a biosensor measurement system which can output a highly-precise measurement result even when an impact such as falling of the sensor occurs or the biosensor is an exposed sensor. An abnormal waveform detection electrode is provided in addition to electrodes for quantitative determination of a target substance. Therefore, when an impact is caused by such as falling of the sensor in a halt period where no voltage is applied in a voltage application algorithm, the abnormal waveform detection electrode can detect the impact. Further, also an exposed sensor can be detected by the abnormal waveform which is detected by the abnormal waveform detection electrode.01-07-2010
20100018868Small Volume In Vitro Analyte Sensor - A sensor designed to determine the amount and concentration of analyte in a sample having a volume of less than about 1 μL. The sensor has a working electrode coated with a non-leachable redox mediator. The redox mediator acts as an electron transfer agent between the analyte and the electrode. In addition, a second electron transfer agent, such as an enzyme, can be added to facilitate the electrooxidation or electroreduction of the analyte. The redox mediator is typically a redox compound bound to a polymer. The preferred redox mediators are air-oxidizable.01-28-2010
20100300896Redox Molecules And Methods Of Making The Same - A non-leaching mediator may include a compound having the general formula (I):12-02-2010
20110127171METHOD AND AN APPARATUS FOR DETERMINING NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE, AND A COMPUTER PROGRAM PRODUCT TO BE EXECUTED BY THE APPARATUS - A method for determining nucleotide sequence encompasses: injecting a solution containing a sample DNA into a chip cartridge provided with a detecting electrode, to which a probe DNA is immobilized; introducing an intercalator solution in the chip cartridge; obtaining a current-voltage characteristic curve by measuring a current in the solution due to an electrochemical reaction of the intercalator through the detecting electrode; obtaining a baseline by linearly approximating the current-voltage characteristic curve; obtaining a net current value by subtracting, from a peak current value of the current-voltage characteristic curve, a baseline current value obtained from the baseline at a peak voltage value defining the peak current value; and identifying a nucleotide sequence in the sample DNA, using the net current value.06-02-2011
20100243476METHOD FOR MEASURING HEMATOCRIT VALUE OF BLOOD SAMPLE, METHOD FOR MEASURING CONCENTRATION OF ANALYTE IN BLOOD SAMPLE, SENSOR CHIP AND SENSOR UNIT - Voltage is applied across a counter electrode and a working electrode, with which a blood sample is in contact, in such a state that an oxidant in a redox substance is not substantially in contact with a working electrode but is in contact with a counter electrode and a reductant is not substantially in contact with the counter electrode but is in contact with the working electrode, whereby the reductant and the oxidant are respectively oxidized and reduced to measure current produced upon the oxidation and reduction. According to the above constitution, while lowering the voltage applied across the working electrode and the counter electrode, the Hct value of the blood sample can be measured stably with a satisfactory detection sensitivity. This measurement can be carried out with a sensor chip comprising a working electrode (09-30-2010
20090065369CATALYTIC NANOCARBON ELECTRODES FOR BIOSENSORS - Embodiments of the present invention provide a method for detecting a composition comprising (a) providing a first composition which reacts with an oxidase to generate a second composition; (b) providing nitrogen-doped nanocarbons; and (c) detecting the first composition with the nanocarbons. Devices and systems containing such nitrogen-doped nanocarbons are also provided.03-12-2009
20090065368APPARATUS AND METHODS FOR ANALYTE MEASUREMENT AND IMMUNOASSAY - The present invention relates to an apparatus for conducting a variety of assays for the determination of analytes in liquid samples, and relates to the methods for such assays. In particular, the invention relates to a single-use cartridge designed to be adaptable to a variety of real-time assay protocols, preferably assays for the determination of analytes in biological samples using immunosensors or other ligand/ligand receptor-based biosensor embodiments. The cartridge provides novel features for processing a metered portion of a sample, for precise and flexible control of the movement of a sample or second fluid within the cartridge, for the amending of solutions with additional compounds during an assay, and for the construction of immunosensors capable of adaptation to diverse analyte measurements. The disclosed device and methods of use enjoy substantial benefits over the prior art, including simplicity of use by an operator, rapid in situ determinations of one or more analytes, and single-use methodology that minimizes the risk of contamination of both operator and patient. The disclosed invention is adaptable to the point-of-care clinical diagnostic field, including use in accident sites, emergency rooms, surgery, nursing homes, intensive care units, and non-medical environments.03-12-2009
20100133119NANOTUBE ELECTROCHEMISTRY - The invention relates to electrodes for electrochemical analysis comprising: —an insulating surface; —carbon nanotubes situated on the insulating surface at a density of at least 0.1 μm06-03-2010
20100133118ELECTROCHEMICAL METHODS OF DETECTING NUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDIZATION - In accordance with the present invention, there are provided systems for detecting hybridization of nucleic acids using electrochemical methods having improved sensitivity. Such systems include an electrode having a variably charged oligonucleotide probe and a redox probe. In some embodiments, the systems may further include a binding nexus having an immobilized reporter oligonucleotide probe, which hybridizes to a target nucleic acid sequence. The reporter oligonucleotide probe may be naturally charged, uncharged, or either partially negatively or positively charged. Further provided are methods for detecting the presence of a nucleic acid sequence of interest in a sample.06-03-2010
20100133117METHODS FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL DETECTION/QUANTIFICATION OF A NUCLEIC ACID - The invention provides methods and kits for the electrochemical detection and/or quantification of a target nucleic acid molecule by means of a detection electrode. In one method there is immobilized on the detection electrode a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) capture molecule, which has a nucleotide sequence that is at least partially complementary to at least a portion of the target nucleic acid molecule. The electrode is contacted with a solution expected to include the target nucleic acid molecule and the target nucleic acid molecule allowed to hybridize to the PNA, thereby allowing the formation of a complex between the PNA capture molecule and the target nucleic acid molecule. A polymerisable positively chargeable precursor is added, which associates to the complex formed between the PNA capture molecule and the target nucleic acid molecule. A suitable reactant molecule is added, initiating the polymerisation of the polymerisable positively chargeable precursor and the formation of an electroconductive polymer. An electrochemical measurement at the detection electrode is performed. In another method a nucleic acid capture molecule is immobilized on the electrode. In this method a polymerisable positively chargeable precursor, a suitable substrate molecule, and an enzyme attached to a detection probe nucleic acid molecule are used. The detection probe nucleic acid molecule is at least partially complementary to at least a portion of the target nucleic acid molecule. The detection probe hybridizes to a portion of the target nucleic acid that is different from the portion to which the capture nucleic acid molecule hybridises.06-03-2010
20100219084METHOD FOR DETERMINING HEMATOCRIT CORRECTED ANALYTE CONCENTRATIONS - Description is provided herein for an embodiment of a method determining a hematocrit-corrected glucose concentration. The exemplary method includes providing a test strip having a reference electrode and a working electrode, wherein the working electrode includes a plurality of microelectrodes and is coated with at least an enzyme and a mediator. The method can be achieved by: providing a test strip comprising a reference electrode and a working electrode formed with a plurality of microelectrodes and coated with a reagent layer; applying a fluid sample to the test strip for a reaction period; applying a test voltage between the reference electrode and the working electrode; measuring a test current as a function of time; measuring a steady state current value when the test current has reached an equilibrium; calculating a ratio of the test current to the steady state current value; plotting the ratio of the test current to the steady state current value as a function of the inverse square root of time; calculating an effective diffusion coefficient from the slope of the linearly regressed plot of the ratio of the test current to the steady state current value as a function of the inverse square root of time; and calculating a hematocrit-corrected concentration of analyte.09-02-2010
20090218236MEDIATOR-MODIFIED REDOX BIOMOLECULES FOR USE IN ELECTROCHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF ANALYTE - Compositions and methods for electrochemical detection of an analyte comprising a transition metal compound09-03-2009
20090321276FLEXIBLE GATE ELECTRODE DEVICE FOR BIO-SENSING - Briefly, disclosed is an apparatus and method for detecting an analyte wherein a flexible gate electrode may respond to mechanical stress and/or electrostatic changes induced by bonding of a biomolecular probe and an analyte.12-31-2009
20100032317Small Volume In Vitro Sensor and Methods of Making - A sensor utilizing a non-leachable or diffusible redox mediator is described. The sensor includes a sample chamber to hold a sample in electrolytic contact with a working electrode, and in at least some instances, the sensor also contains a non-leachable or a diffusible second electron transfer agent. The sensor and/or the methods used produce a sensor signal in response to the analyte that can be distinguished from a background signal caused by the mediator. The invention can be used to determine the concentration of a biomolecule, such as glucose or lactate, in a biological fluid, such as blood or serum, using techniques such as coulometry, amperometry, and potentiometry. An enzyme capable of catalyzing the electrooxidation or electroreduction of the biomolecule is typically provided as a second electron transfer agent.02-11-2010
20100065441CATIONIC POLYMER BASED WIRED ENZYME FORMULATIONS FOR USE IN ANALYTE SENSORS - Embodiments of the invention include analyte-responsive compositions and electrochemical analyte sensors having a sensing layer that includes an analyte-responsive enzyme and a cationic polymer. Also provided are systems and methods of making the sensors and using the electrochemical analyte sensors in analyte monitoring.03-18-2010
20110073494ANALYTE MEASURMENT METHOD AND SYSTEM - Described and illustrated herein are systems and exemplary methods of operating a multianalyte measurement system having a meter and a test strip. In one embodiment, the method may be achieved by applying a test voltage between a reference electrode and a first working electrode; measuring a first test current, a second test current and a third test current at the working electrode with the meter after a blood sample containing an analyte is applied to the test strip; estimating a hematocrit-corrected analyte concentration from the first, second and third test currents; and displaying the hematocrit-corrected analyte concentration.03-31-2011
20110073493Adhesive Composition for Use in an Immunosensor - An adhesive composition for use in devices and methods for measuring a presence or a concentration of a particular component, such as an antigen, in a sample, such as blood, are provided. In one exemplary embodiment of an adhesive composition, the composition includes an adhesive, water, a poloxamer, and an anticoagulant. The adhesive can include particular properties, such as being hydrophilic, pressure-sensitive, heat-activated, and/or water soluble. The adhesive is particularly useful because it can help improve the flow of sample a device. For example, when the device is an immunosensor, the adhesive can help prevent the blood from clotting in chambers of the immunosensor. This results in a more efficient and accurate determination of the concentration of the sample. Methods of making the composition and device in which the composition can be used are provided, as are methods of using the same.03-31-2011
20110073492Voltammetric Biological Sensor - A sensor and method sense and quantify microorganisms and other biological materials. The sensor and method use high device temperatures to pyrolize and/or thermolyze biological materials, then gas-phase voltammetry is used to analyze the pyrolysis or thermolysis products to detect and identify the source biological material. The sensor and method are capable of differentiating between biological agents, such as pollen, bacteria, fungi, and their spores and the state of an organism such as living, diseased, or non-living. The sensor and method may operate at temperatures sufficient to be self-cleaning and self-decontaminating or at non-elevated temperatures to detect and identify combinations of volatile metabolites to detect and identify their biological sources.03-31-2011
20110062033Implantable Electrochemical Biosensor System and Method - Correction for initial variation in thickness of a polymer layer and for changes in the coating thickness that occur after implantation of a biosensor and therefore provides substantial increase in the accuracy and lifetime of implantable sensors is done using a factor derived from the decay of potential.03-17-2011
20110031133Biosensor Having Improved Hematocrit and Oxygen Biases - The present invention provides reagent compositions, and analyte measuring devices and methods that utilize the reagent compositions.02-10-2011
20110024306METHOD AND DEVICE FOR ANALYZING LIPID COMPONENT CONTAINED IN SERUM - To provide a method of analyzing a lipid component in serum which comprises: a first total acid concentration measurement step of electrochemically measuring the total acid concentration in a serum-containing analyte solution in the presence of a water-soluble quinone derivative; a fatty acid production step of allowing a lipid component in the serum to react with one or more kinds of enzymes which specifically act on the lipid component to produce a fatty acid; a second total acid concentration measurement step of electrochemically measuring the total acid concentration in the serum-containing analyte solution in the presence of the water-soluble quinone derivative; and a lipid component concentration calculation step of calculating the serum concentration of the lipid component based on the total acid concentration measured in the first total acid concentration measurement step and the total acid concentration measured in the second total acid measurement step.02-03-2011
20110247944ELECTROCHEMICAL TEST SENSOR - An electrochemical test sensor for detecting the concentration of an analyte in a sample. The electrochemical test sensor comprises a base that provides a flow path for the fluid test sample having a counter electrode and a working electrode on its surface in electrical communication with a detector of electrical current. The electrochemical test sensor further includes a reagent layer directly located on the surface of the working electrode. The reagent layer includes an enzyme that is adapted to react with the analyte. The electrochemical test sensor further comprises a lid adapted to mate with the base and to assist in forming a capillary space with an opening for the introduction of the sample thereto. The capillary space is formed with a three-dimensional portion of the lid.10-13-2011
20100243478Small Volume In Vitro Analyte Sensor and Methods of Making - A sensor utilizing a non-leachable or diffusible redox mediator is described. The sensor includes a sample chamber to hold a sample in electrolytic contact with a working electrode, and in at least some instances, the sensor also contains a non-leachable or a diffusible second electron transfer agent. The sensor and/or the methods used produce a sensor signal in response to the analyte that can be distinguished from a background signal caused by the mediator. The invention can be used to determine the concentration of a biomolecule, such as glucose or lactate, in a biological fluid, such as blood or serum, using techniques such as coulometry, amperometry, and potentiometry. An enzyme capable of catalyzing the electrooxidation or electroreduction of the biomolecule is typically provided as a second electron transfer agent.09-30-2010
20090000959ANALYTE DETERMINATION METHODS AND DEVICES - The present invention provides methods and apparatuses for analyte detection.01-01-2009
20090000961Small Volume in Vitro Analyte Sensor - A sensor designed to determine the amount and concentration of analyte in a sample having a volume of less than about 1 μL. The sensor has a working electrode coated with a non-leachable redox mediator. The redox mediator acts as an electron transfer agent between the analyte and the electrode. In addition, a second electron transfer agent, such as an enzyme, can be added to facilitate the electrooxidation or electroreduction of the analyte. The redox mediator is typically a redox compound bound to a polymer. The preferred redox mediators are air-oxidizable.01-01-2009
20090000960Small Volume in Vitro Analyte Sensor - A sensor designed to determine the amount and concentration of analyte in a sample having a volume of less than about 1 μL. The sensor has a working electrode coated with a non-leachable redox mediator. The redox mediator acts as an electron transfer agent between the analyte and the electrode. In addition, a second electron transfer agent, such as an enzyme, can be added to facilitate the electrooxidation or electroreduction of the analyte. The redox mediator is typically a redox compound bound to a polymer. The preferred redox mediators are air-oxidizable.01-01-2009
20120199499ELECTRONIC METHODS FOR THE DETECTION OF ANALYTES - The present invention is directed to the detection of target analytes using electronic techniques, particularly AC techniques.08-09-2012
20120199498ELECTROCHEMICAL-BASED ANALYTICAL TEST STRIP WITH GRADED ENZYMATIC REAGENT LAYER AND RELATED METHODS - An electrochemical-based analytical test strip for the determination of an analyte (such as glucose) in a bodily fluid sample (e.g., a whole blood sample) includes an electrically-insulating substrate, at least one working electrode disposed on the electrically-insulating substrate and a graded enzymatic reagent layer disposed on the at least one working electrode. The graded enzymatic reagent layer includes an upper reaction grade that contains an enzyme. The graded enzymatic layer also has a lower spacer grade devoid of the enzyme, the lower spacer grade disposed between the upper reaction grade and the working electrode such that the upper reaction grade is spaced equidistant from the working electrode by the lower spacer grade by a predetermined distance during use of the electrochemical-based analytical test strip. In addition, the upper reaction grade is configured and constituted such that an enzymatic reaction between the enzyme and a bodily fluid sample applied to the electrochemical-based analytical test strip is localized in the upper reaction grade and the lower spacer grade has predetermined mass transport characteristics for a component of the enzymatic reaction that cause mass transport of the component through the lower spacer grade to the working electrode to be slower than mass transport of the analyte through the bodily fluid sample to the upper reaction grade. A method for determining an analyte (such as glucose) in a bodily fluid sample (for example, a whole blood sample) includes applying a bodily fluid sample to such an electrochemical-based analytical test strip.08-09-2012
20110162979Method and Apparatus for Forming of an Automated Sampling Device for the Detection of Salmonella Enterica Utilizing an Electrochemical Aptamer Biosensor - An aptamer-based solid-state electrochemical biosensor for label-free detection of 07-07-2011
20100320093Protease detection assay - The invention provides methods and compounds for detecting protease activity in a sample solution comprising contacting the sample solution with a protease substrate labeled with an electrochemically active marker, providing conditions under which any protease which may be present in the sample may degrade the protease substrate and electrochemically determining information relating to the electrochemically active marker.12-23-2010
20100282616Method of Calibrating an Analyte-Measurement Device, and Associated Methods, Devices and Systems - The invention relates to a method for calibrating an analyte-measurement device that is used to evaluate a concentration of analyte in bodily fluid at or from a measurement site in a body. The method involves measuring a concentration, or calibration concentration, of an analyte in blood from an “off-finger” calibration site, and calibrating the analyte-measurement device based on that calibration concentration. The invention also relates to a device, system, or kit for measuring a concentration of an analyte in a body, which employs a calibration device for adjusting analyte concentration measured in bodily fluid based on an analyte concentration measured in blood from an “off-finger” calibration site.11-11-2010
20110114511APPARATUS FOR DETECTING VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AND RELATED METHODS - Disclosed are apparatuses for detecting one or more volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The apparatuses include a primary electrode and a reference electrode. One or more particles are coupled to the primary electrode and the one or more particles are coupled to one or more enzymes that are capable of undergoing a redox reaction with at least one VOC. The apparatus is configured to measure current or voltage generated between the primary electrode and the reference electrode in response to the redox reaction. The apparatuses can detect a variety of VOCs, including VOCs associated with lung cancer. Also disclosed are biosensor systems including the apparatuses and methods of using the biosensor systems.05-19-2011
20090032411METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR DETECTING PHARMACOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES BY MEASURING MEMBRANE CURRENTS WITH EXTRACELLULAR SENSORS - The present invention relates to a bioelectronic device comprising a living cell which is in operative contact with an extracellular planar potential-sensitive electrode, e.g. a field effect transistor. The cell comprises first and second ion channel/receptor systems which are responsive to stimuli. The ion channels are selected such that the ion flux of the first ion channel is directed against the ion flux of the second ion channel. Thus, the device is suitable as a bioelectronic sensor. Further, the invention relates to a method for determining the response of the cell to a stimulus. The method is e.g. suitable for drug screening.02-05-2009
20110094896DUAL CHAMBER, MULTI-ANALYTE TEST STRIP WITH OPPOSING ELECTRODES - A dual chamber, multi-analyte test strip has a first insulating layer, a first electrically conductive layer, with a first working electrode, disposed on the first insulating layer and a first patterned spacer layer positioned above the first electrically conductive layer. The first patterned spacer layer has a first sample-receiving chamber, with first and second end openings, defined therein that overlies the first working electrode. The test strip also includes a first counter/reference electrode layer that is exposed to the first sample receiving chamber and is in an opposing relationship to the first working electrode. The test strip further includes a counter/reference insulating layer disposed over the first counter/reference electrode layer and a second counter/reference electrode layer disposed on the counter/reference substrate. Also included in the test strip is a second patterned spacer layer that is positioned above the second counter/reference electrode layer. The second patterned spacer layer has a second sample-receiving chamber, with first and second end openings, defined therein. The test strip additionally has a second electrically conductive layer, with a second working electrode, disposed above the second patterned spacer layer, a second insulating layer disposed above the second electrically conductive layer, a first analyte reagent layer disposed on the first working electrode within the first sample-receiving chamber; and a second analyte reagent layer disposed on the second working electrode within the second sample-receiving chamber. The second counter/reference electrode layer is exposed to the second sample receiving chamber and is in an opposing relationship to the second working electrode.04-28-2011
20100025264ELECTROCHEMICAL BIOSENSOR FOR DIRECT DETERMINATION OF PERCENTAGE OF GLYCATED HEMOGLOBIN - The invention provides electrochemical biosensors for direct determination of percentage of glycated hemoglobin in blood samples without the need of a separated measurement of total hemoglobin content in blood samples. The invention provides methods for using the electrochemical biosensors.02-04-2010
20100025263NANOPORE PARTICLE ANALYZER, METHOD OF PREPARATION AND USE THEREOF - Provided are the preparation, characterization, and application of a nanopore membrane device. The nanopore device comprises a thin membrane prepared from glass, fused silica, ceramics or quartz, containing one or more nanopores ranging from about 2 nm to about 500 nm. The nanopore is prepared by a template method using sharpened metal wires and the size of the pore opening can be controlled during fabrication by an electrical feedback circuit. The nanopore device is particularly useful for counting and analyzing nanoparticles of radius less than 400 nm.02-04-2010
20100018872Small Volume In Vitro Sensor and Methods of Making - A sensor utilizing a non-leachable or diffusible redox mediator is described. The sensor includes a sample chamber to hold a sample in electrolytic contact with a working electrode, and in at least some instances, the sensor also contains a non-leachable or a diffusible second electron transfer agent. The sensor and/or the methods used produce a sensor signal in response to the analyte that can be distinguished from a background signal caused by the mediator. The invention can be used to determine the concentration of a biomolecule, such as glucose or lactate, in a biological fluid, such as blood or serum, using techniques such as coulometry, amperometry, and potentiometry. An enzyme capable of catalyzing the electrooxidation or electroreduction of the biomolecule is typically provided as a second electron transfer agent.01-28-2010
20100018871Small Volume In Vitro Sensor and Methods of Making - A sensor utilizing a non-leachable or diffusible redox mediator is described. The sensor includes a sample chamber to hold a sample in electrolytic contact with a working electrode, and in at least some instances, the sensor also contains a non-leachable or a diffusible second electron transfer agent. The sensor and/or the methods used produce a sensor signal in response to the analyte that can be distinguished from a background signal caused by the mediator. The invention can be used to determine the concentration of a biomolecule, such as glucose or lactate, in a biological fluid, such as blood or serum, using techniques such as coulometry, amperometry, and potentiometry. An enzyme capable of catalyzing the electrooxidation or electroreduction of the biomolecule is typically provided as a second electron transfer agent.01-28-2010
20100018869Small Volume In Vitro Sensor and Methods of Making - A sensor utilizing a non-leachable or diffusible redox mediator is described. The sensor includes a sample chamber to hold a sample in electrolytic contact with a working electrode, and in at least some instances, the sensor also contains a non-leachable or a diffusible second electron transfer agent. The sensor and/or the methods used produce a sensor signal in response to the analyte that can be distinguished from a background signal caused by the mediator. The invention can be used to determine the concentration of a biomolecule, such as glucose or lactate, in a biological fluid, such as blood or serum, using techniques such as coulometry, amperometry, and potentiometry. An enzyme capable of catalyzing the electrooxidation or electroreduction of the biomolecule is typically provided as a second electron transfer agent.01-28-2010
20100018875Small Volume In Vitro Sensor and Methods of Making - A sensor utilizing a non-leachable or diffusible redox mediator is described. The sensor includes a sample chamber to hold a sample in electrolytic contact with a working electrode, and in at least some instances, the sensor also contains a non-leachable or a diffusible second electron transfer agent. The sensor and/or the methods used produce a sensor signal in response to the analyte that can be distinguished from a background signal caused by the mediator. The invention can be used to determine the concentration of a biomolecule, such as glucose or lactate, in a biological fluid, such as blood or serum, using techniques such as coulometry, amperometry, and potentiometry. An enzyme capable of catalyzing the electrooxidation or electroreduction of the biomolecule is typically provided as a second electron transfer agent.01-28-2010
20100018876ELECTROCHEMICAL METHOD TO MEASURE DNA ATTACHMENT TO AN ELECTRODE SURFACE IN THE PRESENCE OF MOLECULAR OXYGEN - The present disclosure provides methods and compositions for conducting an assay to detect a polynucleotide. In particular, ruthenium complexes having reduction potentials that do not coincide with the reduction potential of molecular oxygen are disclosed and amperometric techniques for their use are described. In preferred embodiments, the ruthenium complex is ruthenium (III) pentaamine pyridine and the polynucleotide that is detected is DNA. Further, techniques for enhancing detectable contrast between hybridized and unhybridized nucleic acids are disclosed. In particular, the use of elongated target strands as well as the use of uncharged probe strands are discussed.01-28-2010
20100018866ELECTROCHEMICAL SYSTEM FOR MEASURING A BIOLOGICAL COMPOUND BY AN ENZYME - The system includes an electronic measuring apparatus for receiving an electrochemical sensor including a substrate that carries the current collectors for connecting the measuring and reference electrodes to the measuring apparatus. The measuring electrode is coated with a reagent including at least the specific enzyme of the biological compound to be analysed in a body fluid. The measuring apparatus can impose at least two different temperatures to enable the signal from the compound to be analysed from those of other biological compounds interfering with the signal. Application to measuring glucose in the blood with glucose dehydrogenase as the enzyme, without interference with maltose.01-28-2010
20100018874Small Volume In Vitro Sensor and Methods of Making - A sensor utilizing a non-leachable or diffusible redox mediator is described. The sensor includes a sample chamber to hold a sample in electrolytic contact with a working electrode, and in at least some instances, the sensor also contains a non-leachable or a diffusible second electron transfer agent. The sensor and/or the methods used produce a sensor signal in response to the analyte that can be distinguished from a background signal caused by the mediator. The invention can be used to determine the concentration of a biomolecule, such as glucose or lactate, in a biological fluid, such as blood or serum, using techniques such as coulometry, amperometry, and potentiometry. An enzyme capable of catalyzing the electrooxidation or electroreduction of the biomolecule is typically provided as a second electron transfer agent.01-28-2010
20100018873Small Volume In Vitro Sensor and Methods of Making - A sensor utilizing a non-leachable or diffusible redox mediator is described. The sensor includes a sample chamber to hold a sample in electrolytic contact with a working electrode, and in at least some instances, the sensor also contains a non-leachable or a diffusible second electron transfer agent. The sensor and/or the methods used produce a sensor signal in response to the analyte that can be distinguished from a background signal caused by the mediator. The invention can be used to determine the concentration of a biomolecule, such as glucose or lactate, in a biological fluid, such as blood or serum, using techniques such as coulometry, amperometry, and potentiometry. An enzyme capable of catalyzing the electrooxidation or electroreduction of the biomolecule is typically provided as a second electron transfer agent.01-28-2010
20100018867Small Volume In Vitro Analyte Sensor - A sensor designed to determine the amount and concentration of analyte in a sample having a volume of less than about 1 μL. The sensor has a working electrode coated with a non-leachable redox mediator. The redox mediator acts as an electron transfer agent between the analyte and the electrode. In addition, a second electron transfer agent, such as an enzyme, can be added to facilitate the electrooxidation or electroreduction of the analyte. The redox mediator is typically a redox compound bound to a polymer. The preferred redox mediators are air-oxidizable.01-28-2010
20090026091Electrochemical Test Strip - An electrochemical test strip is formed from a first insulating substrate layer, a second substrate layer, and an intervening insulating spacer layer. An opening in the insulating spacer layer defines a test cell which is in contact with the inner surface of the first substrate on one side and the inner surface of the second substrate on the other side. The size of the test cell is determined by the area of substrate exposed and the thickness of the spacer layer. Working and counter electrodes appropriate for the analyte to be detected are disposed on the first insulating substrate in a location within the test cell. The working and counter electrodes are associated with conductive leads that allow The second substrate is conductive at least in a region facing the working and counter electrodes. No functional connection of this conductive surface of the second substrate to the meter is required. When a potential difference is applied between the working and counter electrodes, because of the presence of the conductive surface on the second substrate, the relevant diffusion length is not dependent on the distance between working and counter electrodes, but is instead dependent on the distance between the first and second substrates (i.e., on the thickness of the spacer layer). This means that shorter measurement times can be achieved without having to reduce the spacing of the working and counter electrodes.01-29-2009
20090095642TRANSITION METAL COMPLEXES WITH PYRIDYL-IMIDAZOLE LIGANDS - Enzyme-based electrochemical sensors comprising transition metal complexes of iron, cobalt, ruthenium, osmium, and vanadium are described. The transition metal complexes can be used as redox mediators and include substituted or unsubstituted pyridyl-imidazole ligands. Transition metal complexes attached to polymeric backbones are also described.04-16-2009
20090173640Electronic methods for the detection of analytes - The present invention is directed to the detection of target analytes using electronic techniques, particularly AC techniques.07-09-2009
20090173641AUTOMATED METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DETECTING ERRONEOUS SAMPLE COLLECTION IN CLINICAL ASSAYS - A method for identifying biological samples that are collected using the wrong anticoagulant for subsequent analytical testing. The method also provides for identification of certain analytical test results that are substantially or partly adversely affected.07-09-2009
20120037513DIAGNOSTIC MULTI-LAYER DRY PHASE TEST STRIP WITH INTEGRATED BIOSENSORS ("ELECTROSTRIP") - A diagnostic multi-layer dry phase test strip with integrated biosensors for use in measuring more than one analyte in a fluid sample includes a body having a port for introducing a fluid sample. Within the body is a spreader layer configured to evenly spread the fluid sample received through the port. The test strip further includes at least one enzyme reaction layer in fluidic communication with the spreader layer. The test strip also includes a first electrode layer in fluidic communication with the at least one enzyme reaction layer. The first electrode layer includes a set of electrodes for each of the at least one enzyme reaction layer. Each set of electrodes is capable of electrically interacting with the fluid sample.02-16-2012
20120037514Enzymatic Electrochemical Biosensor - An electrochemical sensor strip has a base and a first electrode and a second electrode on the base. An oxidoreductase enzyme and a mediator are on the first electrode, and a soluble redox species is on the second electrode. The soluble redox species may be an organotransition metal complex, a transition metal coordination complex, an electroactive organic molecule, or mixtures thereof.02-16-2012
20120305409Apparatus and Methods for Analyte Measurement and Immunoassay - The present invention relates to methods for measuring an amount of an analyte using an electrochemical assay in a conduit comprising a sensor, wherein said sensor comprises an electrode having a surface layer of immobilized antibody that binds said analyte, and a counter/reference electrode disposed within said conduit. A solution comprising a substrate for said enzyme and at least one air segment contacts the sensor to remove unbound analyte and labeled antibody from a region of the sensor. The disclosed invention is adaptable to the point-of-care clinical diagnostic field, including use in accident sites, emergency rooms, surgery, nursing homes, intensive care units, and non-medical environments.12-06-2012
20080302675POLYMER-BASED CARDIOVASCULAR BIOSENSORS, MANUFACTURE, AND USES THEREOF - A flexible, polymer-based biosensor deployable into the arterial system which can assess shear stress in the arterial geometry in the presence of time-varying component of blood flow. Also, a method of fabricating a biosensor which may be used for in vivo procedures, involving the sequential depositing onto a substrate of a silicon dioxide layer, a metal heating element on the silicon dioxide layer, and a biocompatible polymer on the heating element, followed by etching the polymer layer to provide holes to allow for electrode contact with the heating element. A second metal layer is then deposited to form electrodes, followed by a second biocompatible polymer layer to form the device structure and removing the fabricated biosensor from the substrate by etching the substrate. In addition, a method of determining intravascular shear stress by measuring the temperature, flow rate and pressure of a bodily fluid with a biocompatible biosensor is disclosed.12-11-2008
20120247976Non-Invasive Glucose Sensor - A non-invasive glucose sensor (10-04-2012
20120152763SENSOR AND CONCENTRATION MEASUREMENT METHOD - A reagent layer (06-21-2012
20110155587SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR DETECTING A SUBSTANCE IN LIQUID - A system for analyzing a liquid is provided. The system comprises: 06-30-2011
20110155585Systems, Devices, and Methods for Improving Accuracy of Biosensors Using Fill Time - Methods for determining a concentration of an analyte in a sample, and the devices and systems used in conjunction with the same, are provided herein. In one exemplary embodiment of a method for determining a concentration of an analyte in a sample, a sample including an analyte is provided in a sample analyzing device having a working and a counter electrode. An electric potential is applied between the electrodes and a fill time of the sample into the device is calculated. A concentration of the analyte in view of fill time can then be determined. Systems and devices that take advantage of the fill time to make analyte concentration determinations are also provided.06-30-2011
20110155584Systems, Devices, and Methods for Measuring Whole Blood Hematocrit Based on Initial Fill Velocity - Methods for determining the hematocrit of a blood sample, and devices and systems used in conjunction with the same. The hematocrit value can be determined on its own, and further, it can be further used to determine a concentration of an analyte in a sample. In one exemplary embodiment of a method for determining the hematocrit value in a blood sample, a volume of blood is provided in a sample analyzing device having a working and a counter electrode. An electric potential is applied between the electrodes and an initial fill velocity of the sample into the device is calculated. The hematocrit of the blood, as well as a concentration of an analyte in view of the initial fill velocity can then be determined. Systems and devices that take advantage of the use of an initial fill velocity to determine hematocrit levels and make analyte concentration determinations are also provided.06-30-2011
20120055812Biosensor - A biosensor comprises a space part for sucking and housing a sample formed of two upper and lower plates, the two plates being stuck together by an adhesive layer, the space part for sucking and housing the sample being constituted so as to be partially opened in the peripheral part and partially closed by the adhesive layer, and has a working electrode having at least glucose oxidase immobilized thereon and a counter electrode on the same plane of the plate.03-08-2012
20120055811Methods and Apparatus for Measuring Analytes Using Large Scale FET Arrays - Methods and apparatus relating to very large scale FET arrays for analyte measurements. ChemFET (e.g., ISFET) arrays may be fabricated using conventional CMOS processing techniques based on improved FET pixel and array designs that increase measurement sensitivity and accuracy, and at the same time facilitate significantly small pixel sizes and dense arrays. Improved array control techniques provide for rapid data acquisition from large and dense arrays. Such arrays may be employed to detect a presence and/or concentration changes of various analyte types in a wide variety of chemical and/or biological processes. In one example, chemFET arrays facilitate DNA sequencing techniques based on monitoring changes in hydrogen ion concentration (pH), changes in other analyte concentration, and/or binding events associated with chemical processes relating to DNA synthesis.03-08-2012
20090166221DNA analysis method and DNA analyzer - Disclosed is a DNA analysis method and a DNA analyzer whose signal intensity is not lowered even when a material at a higher density is measured. There is supplied dATP, dTTP, dGTP, or dCTP from a dATP solution vessel, a dTTP solution vessel, a dGTP solution vessel, or a dCTP solution vessel, and this causes an extension reaction of a double-stranded DNA immobilized to a bead, to yield pyrophosphoric acid. The pyrophosphoric acid is converted into a redox compound by the actions of a reagent and an enzyme contained in a reaction buffer in a reaction buffer vessel. The redox compound causes a variation in surface potential of a measuring electrode bearing an electrochemically active material immobilized thereto through an insulating molecule, and this variation causes a variation in drain current of a field-effect transistor electrically connected to the measuring electrode. Thus, the extension reaction is detected.07-02-2009
20120012472NOVEL CHEMISTRY USED IN BIOSENSORS - The invention relates to novel compositions of disubstituted bipyridyl osmium complexes useful for the synthesis of labeled proteins, nucleic acids, and for the modification of electrodes.01-19-2012
20120152764HEMOGLOBIN-DETECTING ELECTRODE TEST STRIP AND DEVICE COMPRISING THE SAME - A hemoglobin-detecting electrode test strip is provided, which includes an insulating substrate; an electrode system; an insulating layer that partially covers the electrode system so that one uncovered portion on the electrode system forms an electrochemical reaction region and another uncovered portion on the electrode system forms a conductive wire connecting region; and a reaction layer including an electron mediator and an anion surfactant and at least partially covering the electrochemical reaction region. A device for detecting hemoglobin is further provided, which includes the hemoglobin-detecting electrode test strip and an electrochemical sensor.06-21-2012
20120152762Crosslinked Adduct of Polyaniline and Polymer Acid Containing Redox Enzyme for Electrochemical Sensor - A polymer matrix that may coated on an electrode is created by co-crosslinking (1) an adduct of a polyaniline formed by templated oxidative polymerization on a polymer acid; (2) a water-soluble crosslinker; and (3) a redox enzyme. The polymer matrix may be hydrated, and the absorbed water may make it permeable to, for example, glucose. The polyaniline may be polyaniline itself or a substituted polyaniline; the water-soluble crosslinker may be poly(ethylene glycol)diglycidyl ether, and the redox enzyme may be glucose oxidase. The polymer matrix may be produced by co-crosslinking (1) an adduct of an electrically conductive polymer and a polymer acid; (2) a water-soluble crosslinker; and (3) a redox enzyme in a single step at an about neutral pH, curing by drying. After hydration, the crosslinked polymer matrix may form a 3-dimensional glucose-permeable bioelectrocatalyst, catalyzing the electrooxidation of glucose.06-21-2012
20130008804SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR MEASURING AN ANALYTE IN A SAMPLE - Methods for calculating an analyte concentration of a sample are provided. In one exemplary embodiment the method includes steps that are directed toward accounting for inaccuracies that occur as a result of temperature variations in a sample, a meter, or the surrounding environment. In another exemplary embodiment the method includes steps that are directed toward determining whether an adequate sample is provided in a meter because insufficient samples can result in inaccuracies. The methods that are provided can be incorporated into a variety of mechanisms, but they are primarily directed toward glucose meters for blood samples and toward meters for controls solutions.01-10-2013
20130008803Methods and Systems for Measurement of Tear Glucose Levels - A sensor system for determining glucose concentration in a tear fluid sample includes a working electrode including an immobilized glucose oxidase enzyme portion for reacting with glucose in the tear fluid sample, and a selectivity portion for enhancing the selectivity for glucose over electroactive interferent species in the tear fluid sample. Alternatively, a vessel for receiving the tear fluid sample may include the enzyme portion on an inner wall thereof. A reference electrode is disposed adjacent the working electrode, wherein the electrochemical reaction of the enzyme portion with glucose in the tear fluid sample generates a current related to the glucose concentration in the tear fluid sample.01-10-2013
20100096278METHODS AND MATERIALS FOR CONTROLLING THE ELECTROCHEMISTRY OF ANALYTE SENSORS - Embodiments of the invention provide electrochemical analyte sensors having elements designed to modulate their electrochemical reactions as well as methods for making and using such sensors.04-22-2010
20100096276MULTICOMPONENT ANALYSIS SENSOR AND METHOD OF MEASURING MULTIPLE COMPONENTS - A multicomponent analysis sensor for measuring two or more kinds of the subjects to be measured by using redox reactions, which is a multicomponent analysis sensor comprising a liquid sample inlet from which a liquid sample containing two or more kinds of the subjects to be measured is introduced, a first measurement chamber, a second measurement chamber, a first channel connecting the above-described liquid sample inlet to the above-described first measurement chamber and a second channel connecting the above-described first measurement chamber to the second measurement chamber, wherein the above-described first measurement chamber and the above-described second measurement chamber respectively have a working electrode and a counter electrode. A first reagent layer containing an enzyme and an electron transfer substance is provided in the first channel or the first chamber, while another reagent layer containing an enzyme is provided in the second channel or the second chamber.04-22-2010
20120181189Amperometric Creatinine Biosensor With Immobilized Enzyme-Polymer Composition And Systems Using Same, And Methods - An amperometric biosensor is provided for determination of creatinine in a sample fluid. The biosensor can be an enzyme-polymer composition having at least one redox polymer and a plurality of enzymes immobilized on an electrode surface. Methods of preparing the amperometric biosensor are included. In addition, methods and systems using the amperometric biosensor in measuring creatinine concentrations of a patient and treatments of a patient with monitoring of the progress of dialysis performed on the patient are also provided.07-19-2012
20120118761METHOD FOR ELECTRIC MEASUREMENT OF PEROXIDE USING CNT SENSOR - Disclosed is a method for measuring the concentration of a peroxide using a CNT sensor. The CNT sensor comprises a working electrode that is arranged on an insulating substrate, a monolayered carbon nano-tube that is contacted with the working electrode, a counter electrode, and a reference electrode. A sample is provided on the monolayered carbon nano-tube, and a potential difference is made between the working electrode and the counter electrode. In this manner, the concentration of the peroxide in the sample can be measured. The measurement method can be applied to clinical tests or the like.05-17-2012
20120125789ENZYME STABILIZATION IN ELECTROCHEMICAL SENSORS - The present invention relates to a composition for forming an electrode, an electrochemical sensor comprising the same, and a method for determining an analyte using the electrochemical sensor.05-24-2012
20100288650METHOD FOR MEASURING SUBSTRATE CONCENTRATION AND APPARATUS FOR MEASURING SUBSTRATE CONCENTRATION - This invention provides a substrate concentration measuring method for measuring a concentration of a substrate included in a specimen based on an output for measurement from an enzyme electrode when the enzyme electrode and the substrate are reacted with each other, the substrate concentration is calculated using an output for correction from the enzyme electrode obtained when a reference solution whose substrate concentration is known and the enzyme electrode are reacted with each other before or after the enzyme electrode and the substrate are reacted with each other. For example, the output for correction is measured by each specimen. In this method, the substrate concentration may be calculated using the output for correction for the specimen to be measured and an output for correction corresponding to the at least one other specimen and measured prior to the output for correction.11-18-2010
20120160708Nanostructured Biosensor Containing Neuropathy Target Esterase Activity - The present invention provides compositions, devices and methods for detecting esterase activity. The present invention also provides devices and methods of detecting esterase inhibitors, for example, organophosphates. In particular, the present invention provides a biosensor comprising Neuropathy Target Esterase (NTE) polypeptides. Further, the present invention relates to medicine, industrial chemistry, agriculture, and homeland security.06-28-2012
20100206746MULTI-LAYER PAD AND METHODS OF USING THE SAME - A multi-layer pad that is adapted to be used in determining an analyte concentration is disclosed. The multi-layer pad includes a first layer, a second layer, and a third layer. The first layer includes an enzyme wherein the enzyme is adapted to assist in determining the analyte concentration. The second layer is attached to a first surface of the first layer. The second layer is made of a skin-conforming material. The third layer is attached to a second surface of the first layer wherein the first layer is located between the second layer and the third layer. It is contemplated that the multi-layer pad may also be a two layer system.08-19-2010
20100206748Stress Measurement Kit and Stress Measurement Method - Provided is a stress measurement kit that is economical and that has good sensitivity. The stress measurement kit for measuring a stress level of a test subject includes: (A) a sensor chip including an electrically insulating substrate, and an electrode system that is placed on the electrically insulating substrate and that includes at least a working electrode and a counter electrode, wherein glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) and an electron mediator are immobilized on the working electrode; (B) a polysaccharide; and (C) a sensor body including an insertion hole into which the sensor chip is inserted, an electrical measurement means that is electrically connected to the electrode system of the sensor chip in a state where the sensor chip is inserted into the insertion hole, and a conversion means by which a current value or an electric quantity measured by the electrical measurement means is converted into an amylase activity value.08-19-2010
20100206750Rapid Analyte Measurement Assay - The present the invention provides methods, devices and systems for rapidly measuring analytes within a biological sample.08-19-2010
20100206747Test Sensors and Methods of Using Side Mounted Meter Contacts - An electrochemical test sensor includes a lid and a base. The base has a length and a width. The length of the base is greater than the width of the base. The base includes at least a working electrode, a counter electrode and at least three test-sensor contacts for electrically connecting to a meter. The at least three test-sensor contacts are spaced along the length of the base from each other. The base and the lid assist in forming a fluid chamber for receiving the fluid sample. The electrochemical test sensor further includes a reagent to assist in determining the concentration of the analyte in the fluid sample.08-19-2010
20120132542Methods Of Using An Electrochemical Biosensor - According to one embodiment of the present invention, an electrochemical sensor (05-31-2012
20120211372Systems and Methods for Enzymatic Oxygen Removal - Systems and methods for oxygen removal from aqueous solutions are presented in which a bi-enzymatic reaction sequence recycles and depletes oxygen to extinction, preferably using an oxidase and a catalase as biocatalysts and a carbohydrate as co-substrate. Contemplated systems and methods are particularly advantageous in conjunction with electrochemical reaction systems in which oxygen would adversely interfere with the reaction system.08-23-2012
20100051479Subcutaneous Glucose Electrode - A small diameter flexible electrode designed for subcutaneous in vivo amperometric monitoring of glucose is described. The electrode is designed to allow “one-point” in vivo calibration, i.e., to have zero output current at zero glucose concentration, even in the presence of other electroreactive species of serum or blood. The electrode is preferably three or four-layered, with the layers serially deposited within a recess upon the tip of a polyamide insulated gold wire. A first glucose concentration-to-current transducing layer is overcoated with an electrically insulating and glucose flux limiting layer (second layer) on which, optionally, an immobilized interference-eliminating horseradish peroxidase based film is deposited (third layer). An outer (fourth) layer is biocompatible.03-04-2010
20100012525Small Volume In Vitro Sensor and Methods of Making - A sensor utilizing a non-leachable or diffusible redox mediator is described. The sensor includes a sample chamber to hold a sample in electrolytic contact with a working electrode, and in at least some instances, the sensor also contains a non-leachable or a diffusible second electron transfer agent. The sensor and/or the methods used produce a sensor signal in response to the analyte that can be distinguished from a background signal caused by the mediator. The invention can be used to determine the concentration of a biomolecule, such as glucose or lactate, in a biological fluid, such as blood or serum, using techniques such as coulometry, amperometry, and potentiometry. An enzyme capable of catalyzing the electrooxidation or electroreduction of the biomolecule is typically provided as a second electron transfer agent.01-21-2010
20100012526Small Volume In Vitro Sensor and Methods of Making - A sensor utilizing a non-leachable or diffusible redox mediator is described. The sensor includes a sample chamber to hold a sample in electrolytic contact with a working electrode, and in at least some instances, the sensor also contains a non-leachable or a diffusible second electron transfer agent. The sensor and/or the methods used produce a sensor signal in response to the analyte that can be distinguished from a background signal caused by the mediator. The invention can be used to determine the concentration of a biomolecule, such as glucose or lactate, in a biological fluid, such as blood or serum, using techniques such as coulometry, amperometry, and potentiometry. An enzyme capable of catalyzing the electrooxidation or electroreduction of the biomolecule is typically provided as a second electron transfer agent.01-21-2010
20100012518Small Volume In Vitro Sensor and Methods of Making - A sensor utilizing a non-leachable or diffusible redox mediator is described. The sensor includes a sample chamber to hold a sample in electrolytic contact with a working electrode, and in at least some instances, the sensor also contains a non-leachable or a diffusible second electron transfer agent. The sensor and/or the methods used produce a sensor signal in response to the analyte that can be distinguished from a background signal caused by the mediator. The invention can be used to determine the concentration of a biomolecule, such as glucose or lactate, in a biological fluid, such as blood or serum, using techniques such as coulometry, amperometry, and potentiometry. An enzyme capable of catalyzing the electrooxidation or electroreduction of the biomolecule is typically provided as a second electron transfer agent.01-21-2010
20100012524Small Volume In Vitro Sensor and Methods of Making - A sensor utilizing a non-leachable or diffusible redox mediator is described. The sensor includes a sample chamber to hold a sample in electrolytic contact with a working electrode, and in at least some instances, the sensor also contains a non-leachable or a diffusible second electron transfer agent. The sensor and/or the methods used produce a sensor signal in response to the analyte that can be distinguished from a background signal caused by the mediator. The invention can be used to determine the concentration of a biomolecule, such as glucose or lactate, in a biological fluid, such as blood or serum, using techniques such as coulometry, amperometry, and potentiometry. An enzyme capable of catalyzing the electrooxidation or electroreduction of the biomolecule is typically provided as a second electron transfer agent.01-21-2010
20100012523Small Volume In Vitro Sensor and Methods of Making - A sensor utilizing a non-leachable or diffusible redox mediator is described. The sensor includes a sample chamber to hold a sample in electrolytic contact with a working electrode, and in at least some instances, the sensor also contains a non-leachable or a diffusible second electron transfer agent. The sensor and/or the methods used produce a sensor signal in response to the analyte that can be distinguished from a background signal caused by the mediator. The invention can be used to determine the concentration of a biomolecule, such as glucose or lactate, in a biological fluid, such as blood or serum, using techniques such as coulometry, amperometry, and potentiometry. An enzyme capable of catalyzing the electrooxidation or electroreduction of the biomolecule is typically provided as a second electron transfer agent.01-21-2010
20100012521Small Volume In Vitro Sensor and Methods of Making - A sensor utilizing a non-leachable or diffusible redox mediator is described. The sensor includes a sample chamber to hold a sample in electrolytic contact with a working electrode, and in at least some instances, the sensor also contains a non-leachable or a diffusible second electron transfer agent. The sensor and/or the methods used produce a sensor signal in response to the analyte that can be distinguished from a background signal caused by the mediator. The invention can be used to determine the concentration of a biomolecule, such as glucose or lactate, in a biological fluid, such as blood or serum, using techniques such as coulometry, amperometry, and potentiometry. An enzyme capable of catalyzing the electrooxidation or electroreduction of the biomolecule is typically provided as a second electron transfer agent.01-21-2010
20100012520Small Volume In Vitro Sensor and Methods of Making - A sensor utilizing a non-leachable or diffusible redox mediator is described. The sensor includes a sample chamber to hold a sample in electrolytic contact with a working electrode, and in at least some instances, the sensor also contains a non-leachable or a diffusible second electron transfer agent. The sensor and/or the methods used produce a sensor signal in response to the analyte that can be distinguished from a background signal caused by the mediator. The invention can be used to determine the concentration of a biomolecule, such as glucose or lactate, in a biological fluid, such as blood or serum, using techniques such as coulometry, amperometry, and potentiometry. An enzyme capable of catalyzing the electrooxidation or electroreduction of the biomolecule is typically provided as a second electron transfer agent.01-21-2010
20100012519Small Volume In Vitro Sensor and Methods of Making - A sensor utilizing a non-leachable or diffusible redox mediator is described. The sensor includes a sample chamber to hold a sample in electrolytic contact with a working electrode, and in at least some instances, the sensor also contains a non-leachable or a diffusible second electron transfer agent. The sensor and/or the methods used produce a sensor signal in response to the analyte that can be distinguished from a background signal caused by the mediator. The invention can be used to determine the concentration of a biomolecule, such as glucose or lactate, in a biological fluid, such as blood or serum, using techniques such as coulometry, amperometry, and potentiometry. An enzyme capable of catalyzing the electrooxidation or electroreduction of the biomolecule is typically provided as a second electron transfer agent.01-21-2010
20100012517Small Volume In Vitro Sensor and Methods of Making - A sensor utilizing a non-leachable or diffusible redox mediator is described. The sensor includes a sample chamber to hold a sample in electrolytic contact with a working electrode, and in at least some instances, the sensor also contains a non-leachable or a diffusible second electron transfer agent. The sensor and/or the methods used produce a sensor signal in response to the analyte that can be distinguished from a background signal caused by the mediator. The invention can be used to determine the concentration of a biomolecule, such as glucose or lactate, in a biological fluid, such as blood or serum, using techniques such as coulometry, amperometry, and potentiometry. An enzyme capable of catalyzing the electrooxidation or electroreduction of the biomolecule is typically provided as a second electron transfer agent.01-21-2010
20100012516Small Volume In Vitro Sensor and Methods of Making - A sensor utilizing a non-leachable or diffusible redox mediator is described. The sensor includes a sample chamber to hold a sample in electrolytic contact with a working electrode, and in at least some instances, the sensor also contains a non-leachable or a diffusible second electron transfer agent. The sensor and/or the methods used produce a sensor signal in response to the analyte that can be distinguished from a background signal caused by the mediator. The invention can be used to determine the concentration of a biomolecule, such as glucose or lactate, in a biological fluid, such as blood or serum, using techniques such as coulometry, amperometry, and potentiometry. An enzyme capable of catalyzing the electrooxidation or electroreduction of the biomolecule is typically provided as a second electron transfer agent.01-21-2010
20100012515Small Volume In Vitro Analyte Sensor - A sensor designed to determine the amount and concentration of analyte in a sample having a volume of less than about 1 μL. The sensor has a working electrode coated with a non-leachable redox mediator. The redox mediator acts as an electron transfer agent between the analyte and the electrode. In addition, a second electron transfer agent, such as an enzyme, can be added to facilitate the electrooxidation or electroreduction of the analyte. The redox mediator is typically a redox compound bound to a polymer. The preferred redox mediators are air-oxidizable.01-21-2010
20100012514Small Volume In Vitro Analyte Sensor - A sensor designed to determine the amount and concentration of analyte in a sample having a volume of less than about 1 μL. The sensor has a working electrode coated with a non-leachable redox mediator. The redox mediator acts as an electron transfer agent between the analyte and the electrode. In addition, a second electron transfer agent, such as an enzyme, can be added to facilitate the electrooxidation or electroreduction of the analyte. The redox mediator is typically a redox compound bound to a polymer. The preferred redox mediators are air-oxidizable.01-21-2010
20100012513Small Volume In Vitro Analyte Sensor - A sensor designed to determine the amount and concentration of analyte in a sample having a volume of less than about 1 μL. The sensor has a working electrode coated with a non-leachable redox mediator. The redox mediator acts as an electron transfer agent between the analyte and the electrode. In addition, a second electron transfer agent, such as an enzyme, can be added to facilitate the electrooxidation or electroreduction of the analyte. The redox mediator is typically a redox compound bound to a polymer. The preferred redox mediators are air-oxidizable.01-21-2010
20100012512Small Volume In Vitro Analyte Sensor - A sensor designed to determine the amount and concentration of analyte in a sample having a volume of less than about 1 μL. The sensor has a working electrode coated with a non-leachable redox mediator. The redox mediator acts as an electron transfer agent between the analyte and the electrode. In addition, a second electron transfer agent, such as an enzyme, can be added to facilitate the electrooxidation or electroreduction of the analyte. The redox mediator is typically a redox compound bound to a polymer. The preferred redox mediators are air-oxidizable.01-21-2010
20100012511Small Volume In Vitro Analyte Sensor - A sensor designed to determine the amount and concentration of analyte in a sample having a volume of less than about 1 μL. The sensor has a working electrode coated with a non-leachable redox mediator. The redox mediator acts as an electron transfer agent between the analyte and the electrode. In addition, a second electron transfer agent, such as an enzyme, can be added to facilitate the electrooxidation or electroreduction of the analyte. The redox mediator is typically a redox compound bound to a polymer. The preferred redox mediators are air-oxidizable.01-21-2010
20100012510Small Volume In Vitro Analyte Sensor - A sensor designed to determine the amount and concentration of analyte in a sample having a volume of less than about 1 μL. The sensor has a working electrode coated with a non-leachable redox mediator. The redox mediator acts as an electron transfer agent between the analyte and the electrode. In addition, a second electron transfer agent, such as an enzyme, can be added to facilitate the electrooxidation or electroreduction of the analyte. The redox mediator is typically a redox compound bound to a polymer. The preferred redox mediators are air-oxidizable.01-21-2010
20100012509Electrochemical Test Sensor With Light Guide - An electrochemical test sensor for detecting the analyte concentration of a fluid test sample includes a base, a dielectric layer, a reagent layer, a light guide area, and a lid. The base provides a flow path for the test sample having on its surface a counter electrode and a working electrode adapted to electrically communicate with a detector of electrical current. The dielectric layer forms a dielectric window therethrough. The reagent layer includes an enzyme that is adapted to react with the analyte. The lid is adapted to mate with the base and to assist in forming a capillary space with an opening for the introduction of the test sample thereto. The light guide area transmits light towards the capillary space.01-21-2010
20100270178Method And Apparatus For Rapid Electrochemical Analysis - Methods and apparatus for electrochemically determining an analyte concentration value in a physiological sample are disclosed. The methods include using a test strip in which two time-current transients are measured by a meter electrically connected to an electrochemical test strip. Integrative current values are derived from the time-current transients and used in the calculation of analyte concentration.10-28-2010
20100270177METHOD OF MEASURING BLOOD COMPONENT, SENSOR USED IN THE METHOD, AND MEASURING DEVICE - The present invention provides a method of measuring a component in blood, by which an amount of the component can be corrected accurately by measuring a hematocrit (Hct) value of the blood with high accuracy and high reliability and also provides a sensor used in the method. The sensor for measuring a component in blood has a first analysis portion and a second analysis portion. The first analysis portion has a first electrode system (10-28-2010
20100270176AUTOMATIC POSITIONING AND SENSING MICROELECTRODE ARRAYS - A microelectrode sensing device includes a substrate and an array of microelectrode sensors. Each sensor includes a first conductive layer that at least partially conducts electricity. The first conductive layer is formed above the substrate and patterned to include a recording electrode that measures electrical activities of target cells. Each sensor also includes a second conductive layer that at least partially conducts electricity. The second conductive layer is elevated above the first layer and patterned to include multiple positioning electrodes arranged to define a sensing region above the recording electrode. The positioning electrodes are designed to generate an electric field pattern in the sensing region to move and confine the target cells to a sub-region of the sensing region that at least partially overlaps the recording electrode.10-28-2010
20100270175Electrochemical biosensors based on NAD(P)-dependent dehydrogenase enzymes - A biosensor for measuring an analyte in a liquid sample includes a working electrode having a dispensed reagent thereon wherein the dispensed reagent contains an enzyme capable of catalyzing a reaction involving the analyte, a mediator that is considered an enzyme inhibitor, and an enzyme co-factor where the working electrode provides a stable and sensitive response even when the biosensor is stored at ambient conditions for a period of time selected from the group consisting of at least 3 months, 12 months and two years or.10-28-2010
20100270174BIOSENSOR CELL AND BIOSENSOR ARRAY - A biosensor cell (10-28-2010
20120228155ELECTROMAGNETIC DETECTION OF ANALYTES - Disclosed herein are functionalized electrodes and biosensors that can be used to detect biomolecules, such as a target analyte. In some embodiments, a functionalized electrode includes an electrically conducting surface, a first thiol compound and a second thiol compound. Also provided are kits and biosensor arrays including one or more disclosed functionalized electrodes and/or biosensors. Moreover, systems and methods for detecting biomolecules, such as a target analyte, with the disclosed functionalized electrodes and/or biosensors are also provided.09-13-2012
20120228156METHOD FOR DISTINGUISHING ELECTROCHEMICAL SENSORS - A method for distinguishing between types of electrochemical test sensors in a meter is disclosed. The method comprises the acts of providing an electrochemical test sensor comprising an enzyme and a chemical additive, contacting the test sensor to the meter to form an electrical connection, applying a potential having a magnitude sufficient to initiate a redox reaction of the chemical additive, and determining which type of electrochemical test sensor is being used based on whether a predetermined signal has been generated after the potential has been applied. The meter is adapted to determine an analyte concentration in a fluid sample.09-13-2012
20120261273ELECTRODE FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL DEVICE AND METHOD FOR DETECTING HYDROGEN PEROXIDE - An electrode for an electrochemical device includes a conductor and an active layer. The active layer is formed on the conductor and includes a polymer with a functional group represented by the following formula (A) or (B), and a carboxylated material containing a carboxylic acid group.10-18-2012
20100326844CHANNEL FOR CAPILLARY FLOW, BIOSENSOR DEVICE AND METHOD FOR FORMING AN OBJECT HAVING A CHANNEL FOR CAPILLARY FLOW - A channel is provided for conveying fluid by capillary action between a first end of the channel and a second end of the channel, in which the channel is fully enclosed within an object and the cross-section of the channel has a concave shape, encouraging capillary flow.12-30-2010
20100326843EXTRUDED ANALYTE SENSORS AND METHODS OF USING SAME - The present disclosure provides electrode structures and integrated electrode structures having one or more conductive materials coextruded with one or more dielectric materials. The disclosed electrode structures can be configured for use as analyte sensors. Also provided, are methods of making and using the electrode structures and integrated electrode structures described herein.12-30-2010
20100326842Extruded Electrode Structures and Methods of Using Same - The present disclosure provides electrode structures and integrated electrode structures having one or more conductive materials coextruded with one or more dielectric materials. The disclosed electrode structures can be configured for use as analyte sensors. Also provided, are methods of making and using the electrode structures and integrated electrode structures described herein.12-30-2010
20110005941METHODS FOR DETERMINING AN ANALYTE CONCENTRATION USING SIGNAL PROCESSING ALGORITHMS - A method for determining an analyte concentration in blood is described that reduces the effects of hematocrit using a test strip attached to a test meter. The test strip includes a working electrode and a reference electrode. The test meter applies a test voltage between the working electrode and the reference electrode. After a user applies a blood sample containing an analyte onto the test strip, the test meter measures a plurality of test currents for a test time interval.01-13-2011
20120318683Biosensors and Methods of Making - Devices and methods for determining the concentration of an analyte in a sample of liquid are provided.12-20-2012
20090134042POLYMERASE-IMMOBILIZED ELECTRODE - The present invention is to reduce a false signal in an apparatus for electrochemically decoding a base sequence of DNA, which false signal is caused by a phenomenon that even unreacted nucleotide 5′-triphosphate derivatives remaining in the solution are electrochemically converted on an electrode. The present invention provides a polymerase-immobilized electrode that comprises an electroconductive substrate and a polymerase unit immobilized on the surface of the electroconductive substrate, wherein the polymerase unit comprises a polymerase part, an anchor part and an electroconductive part, which are linked in an order of the polymerase part, the anchor part and the electroconductive part, or in an order of the polymerase part, the electroconductive part and the anchor part; and the polymerase unit is immobilized on the electroconductive substrate by the anchor part; wherein a free end of the electroconductive part, not immobilized on the electroconductive substrate, is located in the vicinity of an active site of the polymerase part.05-28-2009
20120325679Mediator-Stabilized Reagent Compositions for Use in Biosensor Electrodes - The claimed subject matter relates to the stabilization of 1,2-quinone mediators, especially those containing 1,10-phenanthroline quinone (PQ) and more especially transition metal complexes of PQ, in the presence of enzymes when contained in dry reagent layers for biosensor electrodes, through the use of various metal salts, particularly those of lithium.12-27-2012
20120325680INFORMATION ACQUISITION APPARATUS ON CONCENTRATION OF THIOREDOXINS IN SAMPLE, STRESS LEVEL INFORMATION ACQUISITION APPARATUS AND STRESS LEVEL JUDGING METHOD - The invention is to provide an information acquisition apparatus for acquiring information relating to at least one of an oxidized form concentration, a reduced form concentration and a ratio of the concentrations of thioredoxin, useful for judging a stress level, and a stress level information acquisition apparatus and a stress level judging method utilizing the same. A reaction by an enzyme or the like catalyzing an redox reaction of thioredoxins is used to measure at least one of an oxidized form concentration, a reduced form concentration and a concentration ratio of thioredoxins, and data of such measurement is used for judging the stress level of a subject person.12-27-2012
20120285837ANALYTICAL TEST STRIP WITH AN ELECTRODE HAVING ELECTROCHEMICALLY ACTIVE AND INERT AREAS OF A PREDETERMINED SIZE AND DISTRIBUTION - An electrochemical-based analytical test strip for the determination of an analyte (e.g., glucose) in a bodily fluid sample (such as a whole blood sample) includes an electrically insulating base layer and a patterned conductor layer (for example, a gold patterned conductor layer) disposed over the electrically-insulating layer. The patterned conductor layer includes at least one electrode with the electrode having electrochemically inert areas and an electrochemically active area(s). Moreover, the electrochemically inert areas and electrochemically active area(s) are of a predetermined size and a predetermined distribution such that electrochemical response of the electrode during use of the electrochemical-based analytical test strip is essentially equivalent to a predetermined electrochemical response.11-15-2012
20120138485ORGANELLE BIOELECTRODES AND METHODS OF MAKING AND USING THE SAME - A method for monitoring the metabolic state of an organelle in the presence of a potential organelle modulating agent is disclosed. A first organelle-modified bioelectrode is provided that is electrically coupled to a second electrode of opposite polarity in a circuit. The first bioelectrode is contacted with an aqueous carrier containing a biologically acceptable electrolyte and an effective amount of a potential organelle modulating agent and an effective amount of an organelle substrate. The substrate is reacted at the bioelectrode to form an ionic product that is released into the aqueous carrier-containing electrolyte to thereby provide a current at the second electrode when the circuit is closed. A metabolic flux data set is obtained during the reaction and is compared to a control metabolic flux data set obtained under the same conditions in the absence of the organelle modulating agent, thereby determining the metabolic state of the organelle.06-07-2012
20130008802METHOD FOR OPERATING A MEASUREMENT FOR A SAMPLE ON AN ELECTROCHEMICAL TEST STRIP - A method for operating a measurement for a sample on an electrochemical test strip including at least two electrodes is provided. The method includes steps of applying a first voltage between the two electrodes during an interference-removal period after an incubation period succeeding a moment when the sample is detected, and applying a second voltage between the two electrodes during a test period, wherein the first voltage is larger than the second voltage, the first voltage includes one of a first fixed voltage and a first set of plural pulse voltages, and the second voltage includes a second fixed voltage.01-10-2013
20130015078METHOD FOR MEASURING SUBSTRATE CONCENTRATION - The present invention provides a method for measuring a substrate concentration by accumulating an energy resulting from a reaction between a biocatalyst and a substrate recognized by the biocatalyst to a certain level; and using a dependency of an accumulation rate on the substrate concentration as an index; and a apparatus therefor. In particular, the present invention provides a method in which the measurement of the accumulation rate is carried out by measuring a frequency of an energy release in a certain amount of time when the energy accumulated in the capacitor reaches the certain level and is then released.01-17-2013
20130020208METHOD OF MEASURING QUANTITY OF SUBSTRATE - A method of measuring a quantity of a substrate contained in sample liquid is provided. This method can reduce measurement errors caused by a biosensor. The biosensor includes at least a pair of electrodes on an insulating board and is inserted into a measuring device which includes a supporting section for supporting detachably the biosensor, plural connecting terminals to be coupled to the respective electrodes, and a driving power supply which applies a voltage to the respective electrodes via the connecting terminals. One of the electrodes of the biosensor is connected to the first and second connecting terminals of the measuring device only when the biosensor is inserted into the measuring device in a given direction, and has a structure such that the electrode becomes conductive between the first and second connecting terminals due to a voltage application by the driving power supply.01-24-2013
20130168263GLUCOSE DEHYDROGENASE - Disclosed is a modified glucose dehydrogenases that has dramatically increased productivity in 07-04-2013
20080237063Nanopore structured electrochemical biosensors - The present invention provides a novel biosensor and measuring method. The novel biosensor of the present invention comprises an electrode having a nanopore structured and catalytically active cyclodextrin attached thereto. The biosensor of the present invention has demonstrated robust analytical performance for direct glucose measurement without mediators or without using native enzyme, which is especially beneficial in the hypoglycemia range.10-02-2008
20080237062Electrochemical biosensor and biosensor measuring device - An electrochemical biosensor and a biosensor measuring device. The electrochemical biosensor includes a plurality of electrodes, capillary sample cell portions, reaction reagent layers, electrode connection portions, and a production lot information identification portion. The production lot information identification portion is configured such that the production lot information is recorded thereon has one or more infrared absorption/reflection marks, which indicate information about differences between production lots through the printing and/or attachment of colored or colorless materials, having differences in absorbency or reflectivity of infrared rays, in conformity of a predetermined pattern or through the attachment of transparent films. The electrochemical biosensor measuring device includes a plurality of integrated photo-reflector sensing devices that emit and receive infrared rays to identify the production lot information recorded on the production lot information identification portion of the biosensor.10-02-2008
20080230399Fructosylamine Oxidase - A novel fructosylamine oxidase derived from yeast 09-25-2008
20080223733Analysis Apparatus and Analysis Method for Glycosylated Hemoglobin - Disclosed is a method for calculating a ratio of glycosylated hemoglobin with high accuracy by electrochemically detecting the concentration of fructosyl valine or fructosyl valyl-histidine in a sample. Also disclosed is an apparatus for assaying glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin simultaneously. Further disclosed are a method and an apparatus for removing hydrogen peroxide in a sample.09-18-2008
20130098776Method and Sensor Strip for Analysis of a Sample - A method for estimation of hematocrit of a sample having an analyte includes: bringing the sample into contact with a sensor strip including a reference electrode coated with a reference layer nonreactive to the analyte, and a working electrode coated with a working layer including a biorecognition element reactive to the analyte; applying a voltage between the reference and working electrodes, and recording information of a reaction current flowing through the sample within a time period of not greater than 5 seconds from beginning of application of the voltage; and estimating the hematocrit of the sample by analyzing the recorded information using a predetermined current-hematocrit function.04-25-2013
20130098778Concentration Determination in a Diffusion Barrier Layer - The present invention relates to improved electrochemical biosensor strips and methods for determining the concentration of an analyte in a sample. By selectively measuring a measurable species residing in a diffusion barrier layer, to the substantial exclusion of the measurable species residing exterior to the diffusion barrier layer, measurement errors introduced by sample constituents, such as red blood cells, and manufacturing variances may be reduced.04-25-2013
20130112573DEVICES AND METHODS FOR TESTING ANALYTES - A method and device are provided for measuring a level of a clinically relevant analyte (such as glucose) in a fluid (such as blood). The device includes a flow path for conducting said fluid through the device; a detection chamber arranged on said flow path; and detector means arranged to detect analyte levels in the fluid in said chamber, wherein: said detection chamber contains a predetermined amount of an analyte such that that analyte mixes with fluid in the detection chamber to form, at the detector means, a calibration sample of the fluid at a time after the arrival of the fluid in said detection chamber, and said detector means is arranged to detect a first analyte level of an unadulterated sample of the fluid at a first time which is before the formation of said calibration sample and to detect a second analyte level of said calibration sample at a second time which is after the formation of said calibration sample.05-09-2013
20130112572NOVEL CHEMISTRY USED IN BIOSENSORS - The invention relates to novel compositions of 1,3-disubstituted ferrocenes useful for the modification of electrodes.05-09-2013
20080197023Method Of Measuring the Number Of Bacteria, Device Of Measuring the Number Of Bacteria and Cell Used In the Device - A method of measuring the number of bacteria according to the present invention includes step (a) through step (d). First, in step (a), a to-be-measured sample (specimen) including a predetermined bacterial strain (such as 08-21-2008
20110233073BIOSENSOR FOR DETECTING ANTI-HIV ANTIBODIES - The present invention provides a biosensor that can detect anti-HIV antibodies in a biological sample, based on the combined use of a genetically modified, allosteric enzyme, and a matrix with microelectrode networks. One of the benefits of this biosensor is its high sensitivity, simplicity on the detection and portability.09-29-2011
20130180867SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR SINGLE-MOLECULE DETECTION USING NANOPORES - A system and method for detecting a single-molecule using an integrated circuit which includes at least one membrane having a nanopore located between first and second reservoirs and a low-noise preamplifier having an electrode formed on the surface thereof is provided. The method includes passing a target molecule through the nanopore, and measuring a current through the nanopore to detect the presence of a biomolecular entity, if any.07-18-2013
20110278179DNA analysis method and DNA analyzer - Disclosed is a DNA analysis method and a DNA analyzer whose signal intensity is not lowered even when a material at a higher density is measured. There is supplied dATP, dTTP, dGTP, or dCTP from a dATP solution vessel, a dTTP solution vessel, a dGTP solution vessel, or a dCTP solution vessel, and this causes an extension reaction of a double-stranded DNA immobilized to a bead, to yield pyrophosphoric acid. The pyrophosphoric acid is converted into a redox compound by the actions of a reagent and an enzyme contained in a reaction buffer in a reaction buffer vessel. The redox compound causes a variation in surface potential of a measuring electrode bearing an electrochemically active material immobilized thereto through an insulating molecule, and this variation causes a variation in drain current of a field-effect transistor electrically connected to the measuring electrode. Thus, the extension reaction is detected.11-17-2011
20110308970Biosensor - A biosensor comprises a space part for sucking and housing a sample formed of two upper and lower plates, the two plates being stuck together by an adhesive layer, the space part for sucking and housing the sample being constituted so as to be partially opened in the peripheral part and partially closed by the adhesive layer, and has a working electrode having at least glucose oxidase immobilized thereon and a counter electrode on the same plane of the plate.12-22-2011
20120018313NOVEL BIOTRACERS AND USES THEREOF FOR CONTROLLING FILTRATION PLANTS - The present invention relates to novel biotracers, to a method for preparing same, and to a method for detecting the biotracers and for monitoring filtration systems.01-26-2012
20120031773IMMUNOASSAY METHOD AND DEVICE WITH MAGNETICALLY SUSCEPTIBLE BEAD CAPTURE - The present invention provides apparatus and methods for the rapid determination of analytes in liquid samples by immunoassays incorporating magnetic capture of beads on a sensor capable of being used in the point-of-care diagnostic field.02-09-2012
20130199942ELECTROCHEMICAL-BASED ANALYTICAL TEST STRIP WITH FILL-SPEED CONFIGURED REAGENT LAYER - An electrochemical-based analytical test strip (“EBAT”) for the determination of an analyte in a bodily fluid sample includes an electrically insulating substrate layer with a distal end and a patterned conductor layer that is disposed over the electrically-insulating substrate layer and has a working electrode (“WE”) and a counter/reference electrode (“C/RE”). The EBAT also includes a patterned insulation layer with an electrode exposure window configured to expose a WE exposed portion and a C/RE exposed portion, an enzymatic reagent layer; and a patterned spacer layer. The patterned insulation layer and the patterned spacer layer define a sample receiving chamber with a sample-receiving opening (“SRO”) at the distal end of the electrically insulating substrate layer and that extends across the WE exposed portion and the C/RE exposed portion. Furthermore, the enzymatic reagent layer is disposed over the WE and C/RE exposed portions and extends no more than 400 μm toward the SRO.08-08-2013
20130199943ANALYTE MEASUREMENT METHOD AND SYSTEM WITH HEMATOCRIT COMPENSATION - Described and illustrated herein are systems and exemplary methods of operating an analyte measurement system having a meter and a test strip. In one embodiment, the method may be achieved by applying a first test voltage between a reference electrode and a second working electrode and applying a second test voltage between the reference electrode and a first working electrode; measuring a first test current, a second test current, a third test current and a fourth test current at the second working electrode after a blood sample containing an analyte is applied to the test strip; measuring a fifth test current at the first working electrode; estimating a hematocrit-corrected analyte concentration from the first, second, third, fourth and fifth test currents; and annunciating the hematocrit-corrected analyte concentration.08-08-2013
20120085660METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR DETECTING MOLECULAR INTERACTIONS USING FET ARRAYS - Methods and apparatuses relating to large scale FET arrays for analyte detection and measurement are provided. ChemFET (e.g., ISFET) arrays may be fabricated using conventional CMOS processing techniques based on improved FET pixel and array designs that increase measurement sensitivity and accuracy, and at the same time facilitate significantly small pixel sizes and dense arrays. Improved array control techniques provide for rapid data acquisition from large and dense arrays. Such arrays may be employed to detect a presence and/or concentration changes of various analyte types in a wide variety of chemical and/or biological processes.04-12-2012

Patent applications in class Involving enzyme or micro-organism

Patent applications in all subclasses Involving enzyme or micro-organism