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073 - Measuring and testing


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20090000362Nanotweezer And Scanning Probe Microscope Equipped With Nanotweezer - A nanotweezer (01-01-2009
20100037682BIOSENSOR BASED ON POLYMER CANTILEVERS - A microcantilever sensor includes a supporting substrate, a cantilever spring element at least partially disposed over the support substrate, a probe layer disposed over the first side of the cantilever spring element, and a piezoresistive transducer attached to the second side of the cantilever spring element. The cantilever spring element is characterized by having a first side and a second side and comprising a polymer having a Young's modulus less than about 100 Gpa. Sensing systems that incorporate the cantilever sensor of the invention include a detector in communication with the piezoresistive transducer to provide measurements of surface strain changes in the piezoresistive transducer.02-18-2010
20080257024SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPE - The invention provides a scanning probe microscope capable of performing highly accurate three-dimensional profile measurement in a state in which no sliding of the probe or deformation of the sample substantially occurs. The present invention realizes a highly accurate three-dimensional profile measurement using a scanning probe microscope, in which the method performs measurement to obtain an accurate three-dimensional profile without causing damage to the sample by having the probe contact the sample at the measurement point and then move to a next measurement point, wherein the probe is pulled up and retracted temporarily and then moved to the next measurement point where it is approximated to the sample again, the method comprises analyzing the signals of the contact force sensor so as to obtain the height of the probe at the time when the probe contacts the sample with zero contact force, so as to substantially eliminate errors caused by sliding of the probe and deformation of the sample caused by minute contact force.10-23-2008
20080257023SCANNING PROBE WITH CONSTANT SCANNING SPEED - A method for scanning a surface of a workpiece 10-23-2008
20080257022Factory-alignable compact cantilever probe - A scanner which includes a gradient index lens for passing and focusing beams from a radiation emitter to a cantilevered member reflective surface of a probe and from the reflective surface to a radiation detector. The lens also serves as a mechanical support for attachment of the radiation emitter and the radiation detector and is also attached to a support for the cantilevered member. The resulting fixed positions of the radiation emitter and the radiation detector relative to the reflective cantilevered member surface allows the scanner to be compact and factory focally alignable.10-23-2008
20090158828Scanning Probe Microscope - In the case of measuring a pattern having a steep side wall, a probe adheres to the side wall by the van der Waals forces acting between the probe and the side wall when approaching the pattern side wall, and an error occurs in a measured profile of the side wall portion. When a pattern having a groove width almost equal to a probe diameter is measured, the probe adheres to both side walls, the probe cannot reach the groove bottom, and the groove depth cannot be measured. When the probe adheres to a pattern side wall in measurements of a microscopic high-aspect ratio pattern using an elongated probe, the probe is caused to reach the side wall bottom by detecting the adhesion of the probe to the pattern side wall, and temporarily increasing a contact force between the probe and the sample. Also, by obtaining the data of the amount of torsion of a cantilever with the shape data of the pattern, a profile error of the side wall portion by the adhesion is corrected by the obtained data of the amount of torsion.06-25-2009
20100107745Off-axis imaging for indentation instruments - Modifications to the indenter probe tips and transducer, and proper selection of optics in an indentation system allow straight down or slightly angled optical viewing of the sample surface under the indentation tip by a microscope, by providing an optical path through the transducer from the sample surface under the tip to a microscope objective, thereby simplifying alignment of the tip to features on the sample.05-06-2010
20120180557SURFACE PROCESSING APPARATUS - The present invention relates to an apparatus 07-19-2012
20100005868High Resolution Surface Potential Microscope - A scanning probe system and method for using the same are disclosed. The system includes a probe that interacts with a specimen. The probe is caused to vibrate at a first frequency of the probe. A probe deflection signal indicative of an oscillation amplitude of the probe is generated and used to set the z-position probe position to maintain a property of the probe deflection signal at the first frequency at a predetermined value. A probe signal, having a DC and an AC component is applied between the specimen and the probe. The amplitude of a frequency component of the deflection signal at a mixing frequency of the first frequency and the second frequency is measured and used to generate an image or adjust the DC component.01-14-2010
20090095058WORK HANDLING MECHANISM AND WORK INSPECTION SYSTEM - In the present invention, through a provision of a relay stand including a first relaying point, a second relaying point and a plurality of work mounting bases, a discharge/feed process of works between the relay stand and the work feed container and the work accommodation container is performed at the first relaying point and a load/unload process of works between the relay stand and the plurality of work inspection machines is performed at the second relaying point.04-16-2009
20090000365AFM Tweezers, Method for Producing AFM Tweezers, and Scanning Probe Microscope - AFM tweezers includes: a first probe that comprises a triangular prism member having a ridge, a tip of which is usable as a probe tip in a scanning probe microscope; a second probe that comprises a triangular prism member provided so as to open/close with respect to the first probe. The first probe and the second probe are juxtaposed such that a predetermined peripheral surface of the triangular prism member of the first probe and a predetermined peripheral surface of the triangular prism member of the second probe face substantially in parallel to each other, and the first probe formed of a notch that prevents interference with a sample when the sample is scanned by the tip of the ridge.01-01-2009
20090013771Texture measuring apparatus and method - A texture measuring apparatus that measures surface information of an object includes: a probe coming into contact with the object while moving on a surface of the object; a first sensor unit, provided at the probe, for detecting a force acting on the probe in a direction perpendicular to a lengthwise direction of the probe; and a second sensor unit, provided at the rear of the probe, for detecting a force acting on the probe in the lengthwise direction of the probe. The apparatus further includes a third sensor unit, provided between the first sensor unit and the second sensor unit, for detecting variations in the forces acting on the probe.01-15-2009
20090013770Material property measurements using multiple frequency atomic force microscopy - Apparatus and techniques for extracting information carried in higher eigenmodes or harmonics of an oscillating cantilever or other oscillating sensors in atomic force microscopy and related MEMs work are described. Similar apparatus and techniques for extracting information using contact resonance with multiple excitation signals are also described.01-15-2009
20090007645PIEZOELECTRIC MICROCANTILEVERS AND USES IN ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY - The invention is direct to a piezoelectric microcantilever for static contact and dynamic noncontact atomic force microscopy which may be carried out in solution. The piezoelectric microcantilever, which includes a piezoelectric layer and a non-piezoelectric layer is capable of self actuation and detection. The piezoelectric layer may be constructed from a lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (Pb(Mg01-08-2009
20080295585Tweezer-Equipped Scanning Probe Microscope and Transfer Method - A tweezer-equipped scanning probe microscope comprises a first arm with a probing portion, a second arm that moves along an opening direction or a closing direction relative to the first arm, an electrostatic actuator that drives the second arm along the opening direction or the closing direction based upon an opening/closing drive voltage applied thereto, an amplifier that induces self-oscillation in the electrostatic actuator by using an electrically equivalent circuit accompanying the electrostatic actuator as a feedback circuit and causes the second arm to vibrate through the self-oscillation, and a vibration state detection unit that detects a change of vibration state of the second arm as the second arm contacts an object.12-04-2008
20080295583Surface Scanning Method - The invention relates to a dynamic-mode surface (12-04-2008
20110016956Surface texture measuring instrument - A surface texture measuring instrument includes a force sensor (01-27-2011
20090031793ASSESSMENT OF SURFACE ROUGHNESS OF OBJECTS - A method of assessing the surface roughness of an object includes directing gas supplied at a constant pressure through a control orifice and subsequently to a measurement nozzle adjacent to and spaced from a surface of the object, with subsequent escape of the gas to the atmosphere. The object is moved past the measurement nozzle and the resultant back pressure of the gas upstream of the measurement nozzle and downstream of the control nozzle is measured to provide a back pressure signal. The frequency content of the back pressure signal is examined to thereby obtain an assessment of the surface roughness of the object.02-05-2009
20110083497SURFACE TEXTURE MEASURING MACHINE AND A SURFACE TEXTURE MEASURING METHOD - A surface texture measuring machine includes: a stage, a contact-type detector having a stylus, an image probe, a relative movement mechanism and a controller. The controller includes: a center position calculating unit that, when the image probe enters position data of at least three points on a circular contour of a circular concave portion or a circular convex portion of an object, approximates the entered position data to a circle to obtain a center position of the circle; and a stylus setting unit that, after calculating the center position, operates the relative movement mechanism to position the stylus of the contact-type detector at the center position.04-14-2011
20110277543Apparatus Having a Roughness Measurement Sensor and Corresponding Methods - An apparatus having a roughness sensing system and a roughness measurement sensor, wherein a slide element and a probe tip come to operation, and method of use thereof. The slide element is arranged on an extreme end of a probe pin in the form of a scan-slide element. The probe tip is integrated into the probe pin, and the distance between the scan-slide element and the probe tip is predetermined. The roughness sensing system is a 1D-, 2D- or 3D-scanning system having a parallelogram configuration. The apparatus further has a serving device which enables moving the probe pin together with the scan-slide element and the probe tip jointly over a surface to be scanned.11-17-2011
20110061452Microcantilever with Reduced Second Harmonic While in Contact with a Surface and Nano Scale Infrared Spectrometer - Described herein are devices and methods for sensing pulsed forces. Some of the described devices and methods are also useful for measuring infrared absorbances and compiling spectral and chemical maps of surfaces. Also described are microcantilever having reduced harmonic frequencies when operating in contact mode. Some of the described microcantilevers comprise an internal resonator configured to vibrate substantially independent of friction between the microcantilever tip and a surface when the microcantilever operates in contact mode. A number of the described devices and methods are useful for monitoring pulsed forces with enhanced sensitivity.03-17-2011
20110283784METHOD FOR DETERMINING A TWIST STRUCTURE - Method for determining a twist structure in the surface roughness of a workpiece which is cylindrical at least in part includes that multiple sampling segments which extend in the axial direction of the workpiece and which are mutually spaced apart in the circumferential direction are carried out in a surface region of interest on the workpiece, and the value of at least one parameter of the twist structure is determined based on the measured values obtained using the sampling segments. An estimated value of at least one parameter of the twist structure is determined based on the measured values associated with a first sampling segment, the estimated value being corrected based on the measured values associated with at least one second sampling segment.11-24-2011
20090145209PROBE APPARATUS FOR MEASURING AN ELECTRON STATE ON A SAMPLE SURFACE - In a probe apparatus that intermittently irradiates a sample with excitation light to observe the sample while subjecting a cantilever including a probe arranged to face a surface of the sample to self-excited vibration at a predetermined frequency, the sample is irradiated with the excitation light at a predetermined timing when a distance between the probe and the sample is not greater than a predetermined distance.06-11-2009
20090056428CANTILEVER PROBE AND APPLICATIONS OF THE SAME - A method of fabricating a nanoscale cantilever probe. In one embodiment, the method includes the steps of forming a cantilever having a tip vertically extending from an end portion of the cantilever, where the tip has an apex portion having a size in a range of about 1-1000 nm, and selectively doping the cantilever with a dopant to define a first doping region in the tip and a second doping region in the rest of the cantilever, where the dopant concentration of the first doping region is substantially lower than that of the second doping region.03-05-2009
20110197665SURFACE TEXTURE MEASURING DEVICE - A surface texture measuring device includes a threshold value storage module configured to store a threshold input through an operation key, a stylus move distance detector configured to detect a move distance in the trace direction of the stylus, a cumulative move distance storage module configured to cumulatively store the move distance of the stylus detected by the stylus move distance detector; and. a notification module (controller) configured to make a comparison between the threshold value stored in the threshold value storage module and the cumulative move distance stored in the cumulative move distance storage module and notifying a user of replacement of the stylus when the cumulative move distance has exceeded the threshold value.08-18-2011
20080209988CANTILEVERS WITH INTEGRATED ACTUATORS FOR PROBE MICROSCOPY - An atomic force microscopy sensor includes a substrate, a cantilever beam and an electrostatic actuator. The cantilever beam has a proximal end and an opposite distal end. The proximal end is in a fixed relationship with the substrate and the cantilever beam is configured so that the distal end is in a moveable relationship with respect to the substrate. The electrostatic actuator includes a first electrode that is coupled to the cantilever beam adjacent to the proximal end and a spaced apart second electrode that is in a fixed relationship with the substrate. When an electrical potential is applied between the first electrode and the second electrode, the first electrode is drawn to the second electrode, thereby causing the distal end of the cantilever beam to move.09-04-2008
20080209989AFM FOR SIMULTANEOUS RECOGNITION OF MULTIPLE FACTORS - An atomic force microscope and a method for detecting interactions between a probe and two or more sensed agents on a scanned surface and determining the relative location of two or more sensed agents is provided. The microscope has a scanning probe with a tip that is sensitive to two or more sensed agents on said scanned surface; two or more sensing agents tethered to the tip of the probe; and a device for recording the displacement of said probe tip as a function of time, topographic images, and the spatial location of interactions between said probe and the two or more sensed agents on said surface.09-04-2008
20090288479STANDING WAVE FLUIDIC AND BIOLOGICAL TOOLS - The present invention provides standing wave fluidic and biological tools, including: at least one elongated fiber that has mesoscale (i.e. milliscale), microscale, nanoscale, or picoscale dimensions, the at least one elongated fiber having a first end and a second end; and an actuator coupled to the first end of the at least one elongated fiber, wherein the actuator is operable for applying oscillation cycles to the at least one elongated fiber in one or more directions, and wherein the actuator is operable for generating a standing wave in the at least one elongated fiber. These standing wave fluidic and biological tools are selectively disposed in a fluid to provide a function such as mixing the fluid, measuring the viscosity of the fluid, attracting particles in the fluid, shepherding particles in the fluid, providing propulsive force in the fluid, pumping the fluid, dispensing the fluid, sensing particles in the fluid, and detecting particles in the fluid, among others.11-26-2009
20080295584Resonant Difference-Frequency Atomic Force Ultrasonic Microscope - A scanning probe microscope and methodology called resonant difference-frequency atomic force ultrasonic microscopy (RDF-AFUM), employs an ultrasonic wave launched from the bottom of a sample while the cantilever of an atomic force microscope, driven at a frequency differing from the ultrasonic frequency by one of the contact resonance frequencies of the cantilever, engages the sample top surface. The nonlinear mixing of the oscillating cantilever and the ultrasonic wave in the region defined by the cantilever tip-sample surface interaction force generates difference-frequency oscillations at the cantilever contact resonance. The resonance-enhanced difference-frequency signals are used to create images of nanoscale near-surface and subsurface features.12-04-2008
20110203357Dynamic power control for nanoscale spectroscopy - Dynamic IR radiation power control for use in a nanoscale IR spectroscopy system based on an Atomic Force Microscope. During illumination from an IR source, an AFM probe tip interaction with a sample due to local IR sample absorption is monitored. The power of the illumination at the sample is dynamically decreased to minimize sample overheating in locations/wavelengths where absorption is high and increased in locations/wavelengths where absorption is low to maintain signal to noise.08-25-2011
20080245140System and method for improving the precision of nanoscale force and displacement measurements - An apparatus and method for improving the precision of nanoscale force and/or displacement measurements using electro micro metrology (EMM).10-09-2008
20080245141Digital Q Control for enhanced Measurement Capability in Cantilever-based Instruments - a digital system for controlling the quality factor in a resonant device. The resonant device can be any mechanically driven resonant device, but more particularly can be a device that includes a cantilever within its system, such as an atomic force microscope. The quality factor can be digitally controlled to avoid noise effect in the analog components. One of the controls can use a direct digital synthesizer implemented in a way that provides access to the output of the phase accumulator. That output is a number which usually drives eight lookup table to produce a cosine or sign output wave. The output wave is created, but the number is also adjusted to form a second number of the drives a second lookup table to create an adjustment factor. The adjustment factor is used to adjusts the output from the cosine table, to create an adjusted digital signal. The adjusted digital signal than drives a DA converter which produces an output drive for the cantilever.10-09-2008
20080245139SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPE AND MEASUREMENT METHOD OF SAME - A measurement method of a scanning probe microscope including a first approach operation adjusting an operation position of a fine positioning unit to near a maximum extension amount and ending the approach by coarse positioning, a first measurement operation making the probe scan the surface for measurement in a close probe state based on the first approach operation to obtain relief information of the sample surface, a positioning operation positioning the probe at a recessed part based on the relief information obtained by the first measurement operation, a second approach operation making the probe again approach the surface at a position determined by the positioning operation, adjusting an operation position of the Z-axis fine positioning device to close to a maximum extension amount, and ending the repeated approach, and a second measurement operation making the probe scan the surface for measurement in a close probe state based on the second approach operation to obtain relief information of the sample surface.10-09-2008
20090038382PROBE AND CANTILEVER - [Object of the Invention] To provide a probe 02-12-2009
20090165539GLIDE TEST HEADS USING HEATING ELEMENTS TO FORM A PLANAR DETECTION SURFACE - Glide test systems and associated methods are described. A glide test system includes a glide test head that is flown over the surface of a recording disk to detect asperities on the recording disk. The glide test head includes a detection pad on the trailing end of the head. Heating elements are fabricated proximate to the detection pad. The heating elements are independently controllable to control the amount of protrusion of different regions of the detection pad. The heating elements thus provide a way to substantially flatten the detection surface of the detection pad, and compensate for an uneven topography on a detection surface.07-02-2009
20080276696ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY OF SCANNING AND IMAGE PROCESSING - A topographic profile of a structure is generated using atomic force microscopy. The structure is scanned such that an area of interest of the structure is scanned at a higher resolution than portions of the structure outside of the area of interest. An profile of the structure is then generated based on the scan. To correct skew and tilt of the profile, a first feature of the profile is aligned with a first axis of a coordinate system. The profile is then manipulated to align a second feature of the profile with a second axis of the coordinate system.11-13-2008
20080276695NON-DESTRUCTIVE WAFER-SCALE SUB-SURFACE ULTRASONIC MICROSCOPY EMPLOYING NEAR FIELD AFM DETECTION - A method, and corresponding apparatus, of imaging sub-surface features at a plurality of locations on a sample includes coupling an ultrasonic wave into a sample at a first lateral position. The method then measures the amplitude and phase of ultrasonic energy near the sample with a tip of an atomic force microscope. Next, the method couples an ultrasonic wave into a sample at a second lateral position and the measuring step is repeated for the second lateral position. Overall, the present system and methods achieve high resolution sub-surface mapping of a wide range of samples, including silicon wafers. It is notable that when imaging wafers, backside contamination is minimized.11-13-2008
20080289404Molecule Measuring Device and Molecule Measuring Method - A molecule measuring apparatus capable of controlling the drawing directions of molecules always in a uniaxial direction in a measurement performed by extending and retracting the molecules on a substrate. In the apparatus, a cantilever (11-27-2008
20080307864Scan Type Probe Microscope - Provided is an atomic force microscope capable of increasing the phase detection speed of a cantilever vibration. The cantilever (12-18-2008
20080307865Three-Dimensional Nanoscale Metrology using FIRAT Probe - In accordance with an embodiment of the invention, there is a force sensor for a probe based instrument. The force sensor can comprise a detection surface and a flexible mechanical structure disposed a first distance above the detection surface so as to form a gap between the flexible mechanical structure and the detection surface, wherein the flexible mechanical structure is configured to deflect upon exposure to an external force, thereby changing the first distance over a selected portion of the gap, the change in distance at the selected portion orienting a probe tip of the force sensor for multi-directional measurement.12-18-2008
20100288033METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MEASURING SURFACE PROFILE OF SAMPLE - A method for measuring surface profile of a sample, wherein jumping of a probe can be constrained without applying strong force to the sample, and an apparatus employing such a method. Control operation consists of detection of displacement in a probe in the vertical direction on the top surface of a sample being measured by means of a sensor, calculation of velocity and acceleration of the probe in accordance with detection of the displacement in the probe, detection of jumping of the probe through real-time monitoring of at least either velocity or acceleration of the probe, and a control of the current delivered to a stylus pressure generator for the probe. Such a control operation is performed in a small amount of time, and a stylus pressure applied to the probe is increased only while the probe is in the air, while the stylus pressure applied to the probe is returned to an original pressure before the probe touches the sample again.11-18-2010
20080271522SAMPLE ANALYSIS USING CANTILEVER PROBE - A method and apparatus for analysis of a sample. The method includes an accessing operation for accessing a region of the sample via a tip of at least one probe mounted on a cantilever. A removing operation removes a sample material from the region that is accessed by the tip of the at least one probe mounted on the cantilever. A sensing operation senses a parameter associated to the removal of the sample material in the removing operation. The accessing, removing, and sensing operations are repeated to facilitate removal of at least one layer of the sample.11-06-2008
20090139315NON-DESTRUCTIVE AMBIENT DYNAMIC MODE AFM AMPLITUDE VERSUS DISTANCE CURVE ACQUISITION - A method, a system and a computer readable medium for dynamic mode AFM amplitude versus distance curve acquisition. In an embodiment, a constant force feedback mechanism is enabled prior to the first time an AFM probe tip contacts a sample. The feedback mechanism setpoint is iteratively reduced while at least phase and amplitude of the probe tip are recorded as a function of the relative z-height of a cantilever coupled to the probe tip. The feedback mechanism setpoint may be repeatedly swept between upper and lower bounds to average out drift between the cantilever and sample. Upon detecting a threshold, an absolute tip-to-sample distance is determined and correlated to the relative z-heights. The amplitude and phase data recorded prior to tip-sample contact is then determined as a function of absolute tip-to-sample distance.06-04-2009
20090139312DEFECT CLASSIFICATION UTILIZING DATA FROM A NON-VIBRATING CONTACT POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE SENSOR - A method and system for identifying and classifying non-uniformities on the surface of a semiconductor or in a semiconductor. The method and system involves scanning the wafer surface with a non-vibrating contact potential difference sensor to detect the locations of non-uniformities, extracting features characteristic of the non-uniformities, and applying a set of rules to these features to classify the type of each non-uniformity.06-04-2009
20090025464Surface-roughness/contour measuring apparatus - A surface-roughness/contour measuring apparatus (01-29-2009
20090139313Time-Tagged Data for Atomic Force Microscopy - A scanning probe microscope and method for using the same are disclosed. The scanning probe microscope includes a probe, an electromechanical actuator that moves the sample relative to the probe, an external interface, and a controller. The probe has a tip that moves in response to an interaction between the tip and a local characteristic of a sample. The external interface provides a connection between the scanning probe microscope and a device external to the scanning probe microscope. The controller records scanning probe microscope data measurements, each scanning probe microscope data measurement including a location of the probe in the three dimensions and a label that uniquely identifies that measurement and allows that measurement to be correlated with data generated by a device that is external to the scanning probe microscope. The unique label could include the time at which the data measurement was made.06-04-2009
20090049893Surface texture measuring device, surface texture measuring method and surface texture measuring program - A surface texture measuring device comprises a display control unit operative to display a drawing symbol entry screen having entry areas of drawing symbols. An entry acceptance unit is provided to accept the input of the drawing symbol into the entry area provided in the drawing symbol entry screen. An arithmetic unit is provided to calculate surface texture information that indicates a surface texture of an object to be measured, from the measurement result of surface displacements of the object, based on the drawing symbol accepted at the entry acceptance unit.02-26-2009
20110138895SURFACE TEXTURE MEASURING DEVICE - A surface texture measuring device includes a rotation driving device configured to rotate a measured substance, a roughness detector including a stylus provided displaceably at a tip of a detector main body and at least one skid provided at the tip of the detector main body and in the proximity of the stylus and outputting displacement of the stylus based on the skid as an electric signal, and a detector driving device configured to drive a detector holder. The detector holder includes a guide member driven by the detector driving device, a slide member configured to hold the roughness detector and provided slidably in a displacement direction of the stylus to the guide member, and an urging member configured to urge the slide member so that the skid always comes in contact with the measurement face of the measured substance.06-16-2011
20090100917ROCKING Y-SHAPED PROBE FOR CRITICAL DIMENSION ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY - Measuring surface profiles of structures on integrated circuits is difficult when feature sizes are less than 100 nanometers. Atomic force microscopy provides surface profile measurement capability on flat horizontal surfaces, but has difficulty with three-dimensional structures such as MOS transistor gates, contact and via holes, interconnect trenches and photoresist patterns. An atomic force microscopy probe with two atomically sharp tips configured to facilitate measurements of three-dimensional structures is disclosed. A method of making such measurements using the disclosed probe and a method of fabricating an IC encompassing the method are also claimed.04-23-2009
20090139314SYSTEM, METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR OBTAINING TRUE ROUGHNESS OF GRANULAR MEDIA - The true roughness of highly granular perpendicular media is measured by forming an inverse replica of the surface of the media. The invention enables AFM measurements of granular media valley depth to more consistently predict the corrosion performance of the media. A liquid resist is used to first replicate the media topography and form the inverse replica. The narrow valleys in the original media are precisely modeled as sharp peaks on the replica. The height of the peaks are readily measured with an AFM tip. The resulting image is a negative of the original surface.06-04-2009
20090241648Reducing Noise In Atomic Force Microscopy Measurements - Exchanging data between an Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) measuring device and an external controlling device using a wireless link. The wireless link replaces cables leading to the AFM measuring device and thereby mitigates mechanical noise vibrations. The controlling device can be an AFM controller, a PC workstation, a keyboard or a pointing device. A power supply and cables to provide power to the measuring device can be replaced with a battery power source to further mitigate mechanical noise. The AFM measuring device can reside in a vibration isolation chamber along with the power source and AFM controller to further isolate noise.10-01-2009
20100154521Determining a Repairing Form of a Defect at or Close to an Edge of a Substrate of a Photo Mask - Determining a repairing form of a defect at or close to an edge of a substrate. The defect may be scanned with a scanning probe microscope to determine a three-dimensional contour of the defect. The defect may be scanned with a scanning particle microscope to determine the shape of the at least one edge of the substrate. The repairing form of the defect may be determined from a combination of the three-dimensional contour and the shape of the at least one edge.06-24-2010
20090078032Method for assessing degradation of a coating on a component by measuring its surface roughness - A method of assessing the degradation of an oxide-forming coating on a component after a period of operational use of the component, said degradation of the coating being caused by depletion of the oxide-forming element within a remnant coating layer due to inter-diffusion of said element between the remnant coating and both an outer oxide layer and an inner, secondary diffusion layer, wherein a depletion parameter indicative of the depletion of the oxide-forming element in the remnant coating layer varies as a function of the surface roughness of the coated component, the method comprising the steps of: carrying out a non-destructive, quantitative measurement of the surface roughness of the component after said period of operational use; and, based on an estimation of the functional relationship between the surface roughness and the depletion parameter, using the result of said measurement of surface roughness to quantitatively assess the degradation of the coating.03-26-2009
20100212412METHOD OF DISPLAYING CONTOURS OF A SURFACE OF A BEARING - Contours of a surface of a bearing which extends about an axis are displayed on a grid. To visualize the contours, points on the surface are measured at a plurality of angular positions to determine the corresponding measured values. The measured values at each angular position are normalized to determine a normalized measurement datum corresponding to each angular position. The normalized measurement datum is subtracted from each of the measured values to determine a plurality of deviations of the corresponding points. Shades are assigned that correspond to a range of possible deviations. Each of the deviations are displayed as a data segment on a grid that represents the shape of the surface of the bearing. Each data segment is shaded on the grid to the corresponding shade to provide a topographical representation of the contours of the surface of the bearing.08-26-2010
20090249867Displacement Detector - A displacement detector capable of making a measurement in two directions of measurement 180 degrees different from each other without the need of a switching operation has been disclosed. This displacement detector comprises a contact arm 10-08-2009
20100206057SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR MEASURING SURFACE ENERGIES - An apparatus (08-19-2010
20100071447Production Method Of A Sensor Film - The present invention relates to a production method for producing a sensor film for measuring cracks of a material surface using the comparative vacuum measurement method. A gallery having a predetermined gallery course is milled along a surface of the sensor film using a milling apparatus. The sensor film comprises a plastic material.03-25-2010
20100064784PROBE TIP - To eliminate or otherwise reduce unintended movement of a probe tip of a probe assembly being held by a probe arm, the probe assembly includes one or more resilient members that compensate for the contraction or expansion of the probe arm in accordance with the coefficient of thermal expansion of the material from which the probe arm is made. Thus, the probe tip can remain in contact with a sample being measured at the desired location on the sample, during an automated full or wide scale temperature range sweep.03-18-2010
20100000307MEASURING INSTRUMENT - A surface texture measuring instrument includes a contact piece to be in contact with an object, a sensor driving mechanism that moves the contact piece along the surface of the object, a controller that controls the sensor mechanism, and a force sensor that detects a measuring force exerted on the contact piece when the contact piece is brought into contact with the object. The controller includes a target value output that outputs a target value of the measuring force, a feedback controller that performs feedback control of the sensor driving mechanism based on a deviation between the measuring force and the target value, and a feedback compensator provided on the feedback controller. The feedback compensator performs feedback compensation in accordance with the measuring force.01-07-2010
20090114002REDUCTION OF VORTEX INDUCED FORCES AND MOTION THROUGH SURFACE ROUGHNESS CONTROL - Roughness is added to the surface of a bluff body in a relative motion with respect to a fluid. The amount, size, and distribution of roughness on the body surface is controlled passively or actively to modify the flow around the body and subsequently the Vortex Induced Forces and Motion (VIFM). The added roughness, when designed and implemented appropriately, affects in a predetermined way the boundary layer, the separation of the boundary layer, the level of turbulence, the wake, the drag and lift forces, and consequently the Vortex Induced Motion (VIM), and the fluid-structure interaction. The goal of surface roughness control is to decrease/suppress Vortex Induced Forces and Motion. Suppression is required when fluid-structure interaction becomes destructive as in VIM of flexible cylinders or rigid cylinders on elastic support, such as underwater pipelines, marine risers, tubes in heat exchangers, nuclear fuel rods, cooling towers, SPAR offshore platforms.05-07-2009
20090114001ENHANCEMENT OF VORTEX INDUCED FORCES AND MOTION THROUGH SURFACE ROUGHNESS CONTROL - Roughness is added to the surface of a bluff body in a relative motion with respect to a fluid. The amount, size, and distribution of roughness on the body surface is controlled passively or actively to modify the flow around the body and subsequently the Vortex Induced Forces and Motion (VIFM). The added roughness, when designed and implemented appropriately, affects in a predetermined way the boundary layer, the separation of the boundary layer, the level of turbulence, the wake, the drag and lift forces, and consequently the Vortex Induced Motion (VIM), and the fluid-structure interaction. The goal of surface roughness control is to increase Vortex Induced Forces and Motion. Enhancement is needed in such applications as harnessing of clean and renewable energy from ocean/river currents using the ocean energy converter VIVACE (Vortex Induced Vibration for Aquatic Clean Energy).05-07-2009
20090038383PHOTOMASK DEFECT CORRECTION DEVICE AND PHOTOMASK DEFECT CORRECTION METHOD - Provided is a photomask defect correction method including: an observing step of scanning plurality of lines one after another while controlling a distance between the probe tip and a surface (02-12-2009
20080229812Scanning Probe Microscope - Implementations of the present invention relate to a scanning probe microscope, which includes a base frame to which a probe holder with a probe as well as a probe support are, or can be fixed. The probe and the sample mount can be moved relative to one another in order to obtain information about the surface of the sample by scanning a sample which is arranged on the sample mount. Furthermore, a reaction chamber can be attached to the base frame of the scanning probe microscope, with the sample mount arranged therein. The reaction chamber has an opening on its side facing the probe, through which the probe can enter the reaction chamber. The reaction chamber can enable treatment of the sample's surface by the specific influence of fluids within the reaction chamber when the reaction chamber is closed.09-25-2008
20090107222Scanning Probe Microscope with Improved Scanning Speed - A scanning probe microscope and method for using the same are disclosed. The scanning probe microscope includes a probe, an electro-mechanical actuator, and a controller. The probe has a tip that moves in response to an interaction between the tip and a local characteristic of a sample. The electro-mechanical actuator moves the sample relative to the probe tip in three dimensions. The controller maintains the probe tip in a fixed relationship with respect to the sample in one of the dimensions, and causes the electro-mechanical actuator to move the sample relative to the probe tip in the other two of the dimensions along a smooth path to generate an image of an object in the sample in an area sampled along the smooth path.04-30-2009
20090064772Atomic force gradient microscope and method of using this microscope - A scanning probe microscope in which the probe is oscillated at a frequency lower than its resonant frequency, a force sensor that is sensitive to the bending of the cantilever and minimally sensitive to the oscillation is used to measure tip-sample interaction force. The sensor signal is then converted to a force gradient signal by electronics. The gradient signal is kept constant by a feedback mechanism as the tip is scanned across the surface of a sample, and force and topographical information are mapped.03-12-2009
20090064771METHOD OF OPERATING AN ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPE IN TAPPING MODE WITH A REDUCED IMPACT FORCE - In a tapping mode Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) system, a probe is excited at an excitation frequency other than the probe's first natural frequency to produce a response signal manifesting a grazing bifurcation between “non-collision” and “collision” states of the AFM system, so that an additional characteristic frequency component is generated in the “collision” state. The magnitude of the additional characteristic frequency component is monitored in real time, and the probe-sample separation is adjusted to maintain the monitored magnitude at an optimal value to operate the AFM system at near-grazing conditions.03-12-2009
20100132442Measurement of Roughness of a Playing Surface06-03-2010
20090031792Probe Device for a Metrology Instrument and Method of Fabricating the Same - A method of producing a probe device for a metrology instrument such as an AFM includes providing a substrate having front and back surfaces and then forming an array of tip height structures on the first surface of the substrate, the structures having varying depths corresponding to selectable tip heights. The back surface of the substrate is etched until a thickness of the substrate substantially corresponds to a selected tip height, preferably by monitoring this etch visually and/or monitoring the etch rate. The tips are patterned from the front side of the wafer relative to fixed ends of the cantilevers, and then etched using an anisotropic etch. As a result, probe devices having sharp tips and short cantilevers exhibit fundamental resonant frequencies greater than 700 kHz or more.02-05-2009
20090320575SURFACE EVALUATION EMPLOYING ORTHOGONAL FORCE MEASUREMENT - A method for evaluating a performance of a substrate surface including applying a normal force with a probe to a surface of a substrate, the normal force being substantially perpendicular to the surface, and moving the probe across the surface to generate a force against and to scratch the surface, the force being substantially parallel to the surface and comprising a coaxial force along the scratch and an orthogonal force perpendicular to the scratch. The method further includes measuring a magnitude of the orthogonal force as the probe moves across the coating, and determining a fracture point of the surface by the probe based on changes in the magnitude of the orthogonal force.12-31-2009
20090031791TRIBOACOUSTIC PROBE - The invention relates to a sensor for the quantitative measurement of the feel of a surface, comprising a prehensile envelope, a hollow contact body for bringing into contact with the surface on a sensing zone, first acoustic detection elements to detect noises emitted by the hollow body on contact with the sensing zone, second mechanical detection elements embodied for measurement of the normal pressure or the normal pressure and the rubbing force exerted by the surface on the hollow body. The above is of application in the measurement of the triboacoustic properties of the skin or phanera, textiles, leather, plastic materials or any other material for which the an appreciation of the feel thereof is important.02-05-2009
20100058846Signal Coupling System For Scanning Microwave Microscope - A signal coupling system interposed between a scanning probe and a measurement instrument provides signal communication between the scanning probe and the measurement instrument. The signal coupling system has a pre-stressed shape when the scanning probe is in a neutral position. The pre-stressed shape is designated to provide a characteristic impedance of the signal coupling system that varies linearly as a function of displacement of the scanning probe from the neutral position when the scanning probe is displaced, relative to the neutral position, over a designated range of displacements.03-11-2010
20090025465Miniaturized Spring Element and Method for Producing the Spring Element - A miniaturized spring element is intended to be particularly suitable for use as a beam probe or cantilever for detecting atomic or molecular forces, in particular in an atomic force microscope, and, to this end, is intended to make it possible to detect its deflection in a particularly reliable manner and with high resolution. For this purpose, the spring element contains a basic body which is formed from a matrix containing embedded nanoparticles or defects. The spring element is produced using the principle of local deposition with focused energetic particles or electromagnetic waves or by pyrolytically induced deposition.01-29-2009
20090000363Materials and Methods for Identifying Biointeractive Nanostructures and/or Nanoparticles - Disclosed herein are surface force microscope probes comprising living cells adhered thereto, as well as methods of making same. Also disclosed is a system for high throughput screening of nanostructures having biological relevance through use of surface force microscope probes comprising living cells. Further disclosed are methods of screening for biointeractive nanostructures.01-01-2009
20090000364ELECTROCHEMICAL DEPOSITION PLATFORM FOR NANOSTRUCTURE FABRICATION - Probe-based methods are provided for formation of one or more nano-sized or micro-sized elongated structures such as wires or tubes. The structures extend at least partially upwards from the surface of a substrate, and may extend fully upward from the substrate surface. The structures are formed via a localized electrodeposition technique. The electrodeposition technique of the invention can also be used to make modified scanning probe microscopy probes having an elongated nanostructure at the tip or conductive nanoprobes. Apparatus suitable for use with the electrodeposition technique are also provided.01-01-2009
20080314131SAMPLE MANIPULATING APPARATUS - There is provided a sample manipulating apparatus 12-25-2008
20080307866Particle removing method, particle removing device, atomic force microscope, and charged particle beam apparatus - Small tweezers having a pair of arms openable and closable is moved closer to a sample and grips a particle attached on a surface of the sample and carries it onto an adhesion member to attach it thereto. The small tweezers are opened to release the particle and brought away from the adhesion member to leave the particle on the adhesion member. A particle removing device includes small tweezers having a pair of arms openable and closable; an opening/closing driving unit that drives the arm or arms to open/close the small tweezers; a stage mounting an adhesion member that attaches thereto a particle to withdraw the particle; and a moving mechanism that moves the small tweezers between the sample and the adhesion member mounted on the stage. Also, an atomic force microscope and a charged ion beam apparatus that include the particle removing device are disclosed.12-18-2008
20090114000NANOPROBE TIP FOR ADVANCED SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPY COMPRISING A LAYERED PROBE MATERIAL PATTERNED BY LITHOGRAPHY AND/OR FIB TECHNIQUES - By forming an appropriate material layer, such as a metal-containing material, on a appropriate substrate and patterning the material layer to obtain a cantilever portion and a tip portion, a specifically designed nano-probe may be provided. In some illustrative aspects, additionally, a three-dimensional template structure may be provided prior to the deposition of the probe material, thereby enabling the definition of sophisticated tip portions on the basis of lithography, wherein, alternatively or additionally, other material removal processes with high spatial resolution, such as FIB techniques, may be used for defining nano-probes, which may be used for electric interaction, highly resolved temperature measurements and the like. Thus, sophisticated measurement techniques may be established for advanced thermal scanning, strain measurement techniques and the like, in which a thermal and/or electrical interaction with the surface under consideration is required. These techniques may be advantageously used for failure localization and local analysis during the fabrication of advanced integrated circuits.05-07-2009
20110041593MATERIAL MEASURES FOR USE IN EVALUATING PERFORMANCE OF MEASURING INSTRUMENT FOR MEASURING SURFACE TEXTURE - A material measure for use in evaluating the performance of a measuring instrument for measuring surface texture includes: a measurement area having a plurality of grooves in a predetermined direction. With the configuration, each of the grooves has a simple cross-sectional shape at a cross-section along the predetermined direction; and a length of the cross-sectional shape in the predetermined direction is different for the predetermined number of adjacent grooves in the predetermined direction.02-24-2011
20110005307Surface texture measuring instrument - A surface texture measuring instrument includes a force sensor (01-13-2011
20110162444LEVER-TYPE DETECTOR, STYLUS, AND AUTOMATIC STYLUS EXCHANGER - A lever-type detector, a stylus, and an automatic stylus exchanger allow styluses of different types to be exchanged automatically and reduce the burden of exchanging the styluses of different types for the lever-type detector. An approximately U-shaped notch is formed in a seating plate provided for a stylus body. In order to attach a stylus to a stylus holder, the longitudinal direction of the stylus body is set in a direction orthogonal to the central axis of a shaft body of the stylus holder, and the seating plate is moved in the direction orthogonal to the central axis of the shaft body. Then, the notch guides the shaft body to the center of gravity of the whole stylus on the seating plate. With the shaft body guided to the center of gravity by the notch, a flat swinging member holds the seating plate detachably.07-07-2011
20100116038FEEDBACK- ENHANCED THERMO-ELECTRIC TOPOGRAPHY SENSING - A method is provided for determining the topography of an object. A micro-cantilever with a scanning tip is provided. The micro-cantilever includes a thermal sensor. A biased voltage is applied across the thermal sensor. A resistance change of the thermal sensor is then identified. The bias voltage is then modulated, based on the resistance change to enhance the bandwidth and the sensitivity of the thermal sensor. Responsive to the scanning tip traversing a topographical variation on an object, the thermal sensor is vertically displaced with respect to the object, which induces a temperature change of the thermal sensor. A subsequent electrical resistance change of the thermal sensor is then identified, the subsequent electrical resistance change corresponding to a subsequent temperature change. The position of the object relative to the thermal sensor is then identified based on a difference between the initial electrical resistance and the subsequent electrical resistance. The topography of the object can then be determined based on the position of the object relative to the thermal sensor.05-13-2010
20120227476SURFACE TEXTURE MEASURING APPARATUS - A surface texture measuring apparatus includes a stylus displacement detector having a measurement arm which is able to swing, a pair of styli provided at a tip of the measurement arm, and a detection unit configured to detect swing amounts of the measurement arm, a stage configured to mount the subject of measurement thereon, and a relative movement mechanism configured to cause a relative movement between the detector and the stage. The apparatus includes a posture switching mechanism configured to switch a posture of the measurement arm between a posture in which the measurement arm is urged in one swing direction and a posture in which the measurement arm is urged in the other swing direction, and a speed control mechanism configured to control a switching speed of posture switching of the measurement arm to a preset speed when the posture of the measurement arm is switched by the posture switching mechanism.09-13-2012
20120279287Transferable Probe Tips - Transferable probe tips including a metallic probe, a delamination layer covering a portion of the metallic probe, and a bonding alloy, wherein the bonding alloy contacts the metallic probe at a portion of the probe that is not covered by the delamination layer are provided herein. Also, techniques for creating a transferable probe tip are provided, including etching a handler substrate to form one or more via arrays, depositing a delamination layer in each via array, depositing one or more metals in each via array to form a probe tip structure, and depositing a bonding alloy on a portion of the probe tip structure that is not covered by the delamination layer. Additionally, techniques for transferring transferable probe tips are provided, including removing a handler substrate from a probe tip structure, and transferring the probe tip structure via flip-chip joining the probe tip structure to a target probe head substrate.11-08-2012
20080236260APPARATUS, METHOD AND PROGRAM FOR MEASURING SURFACE TEXTURE - An apparatus for measuring surface texture causes a probe to trace a surface of a workpiece to detect contact between a tip provided on the tip of the probe and the surface of the workpiece and measures surface texture of the workpiece. The apparatus for measuring surface texture includes: a path division unit dividing a path along which the tip is moved into a plurality of sections between the starting point and the ending point of the path; a moving velocity calculation unit calculating a moving velocity of the tip in sequence from the starting point to the ending point for each of the plurality of sections, based on the path information for each of the plurality of sections; and a stylus movement control unit moving the tip in a section for which a moving velocity has been calculated at the moving velocity calculation unit.10-02-2008
20080236259Method of Control of Probe Scan and Apparatus for Controlling Probe Scan of Scanning Probe Microscope - A scanning probe microscope provided with a cantilever 10-02-2008
20080229813Phase Feedback AFM and Control Method Therefor - A phase feedback AFM (atomic force microscope) and method for the phase feedback AFM. A cantilever is driven to oscillate at a constant frequency close to the resonance frequency of the cantilever by a driving signal. The distance between the probe and the sample is controlled such that the phase difference between the driving signal and a cantilever deflection signal indicating deflections of the cantilever is kept constant. The phase feedback AFM has an amplifier-controller for receiving the cantilever deflection signal, the output from an oscillator for driving the cantilever into oscillation, and a signal representing a reference amplitude of oscillation of the cantilever. The phase feedback AFM further includes a feedback circuit which receives the output from the amplifier-controller which controls the cantilever deflection signal to a preset amplitude.09-25-2008
20080223120Higher Harmonics Atomic Force Microscope - The invention concerns a microscopic system with atomic force, comprising a probe tip placed on one end of a lever arm (09-18-2008
20080223122SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPE - A scanning probe microscope, capable of performing shape measurement not affected by electrostatic charge distribution of a sample, which: monitors an electrostatic charge state by detecting a change in a flexure or vibrating state of a cantilever due to electrostatic charges in synchronization with scanning during measurement with relative scanning between the probe and the sample, and makes potential adjustment so as to cancel an influence of electrostatic charge distribution, thus preventing damage of the probe or the sample due to discharge and achieving reduction in measurement errors due to electrostatic charge distribution.09-18-2008
20080223121APTAMER PROBE FOR LOCATING MOLECULES AND METHOD OF USE - An atomic force microscope and a method for detecting interactions between a probe and at least one sensed agent on a scanned surface is provided. The microscope has a scanning probe with a tip that is sensitive to a property of said scanned surface; a nucleic acid aptamer tethered to the tip of the probe; and a device for simultaneously recording the displacement of said probe tip as a function of time, topographic images, and the spatial location of interactions between said probe and the at least one sensed agent on said surface.09-18-2008
20080223119Fast-Scanning SPM Scanner and Method of Operating Same - A high-bandwidth SPM tip scanner is provided that additionally includes an objective that is vertically movable within the scan head to increase the depth of focus for the sensing light beam. Movable optics also are preferably provided to permit targeting of the sensing light beam on the SPM's probe and to permit the sensing light beam to track the probe during scanning. The targeting and tracking permit the impingement of a small sensing light beam spot on the probe under direct visual inspection of focused illumination beam of an optical microscope integrated into the SPM and, as a result, permits the use of a relatively small cantilever with a commensurately small resonant frequency. A high-bandwidth tip scanner constructed in this fashion has a fundamental resonant frequency greater than greater than 500 Hz and a sensing light beam spot minor diameter of less than 10 μm. Images can be scanned on large samples having a largest dimension exceeding 7 mm with a resolution of less than 1 Angstrom and while scanning at rates exceeding 30 Hz.09-18-2008
20080223118SCANNING PROBE APPARATUS WITH IN-SITU MEASUREMENT PROBE TIP CLEANING CAPABILITY - A scanning probe apparatus includes a measurement probe tip and an auxiliary probe tip that is movably positionable with respect to the measurement probe tip. The measurement probe tip and the auxiliary probe tip may be positioned juxtaposed, so that an electrical discharge may be effected between the measurement probe tip and auxiliary probe tip to remove a contaminant from the measurement probe tip. The auxiliary probe tip may be integral with a sample support plate within the scanning probe apparatus.09-18-2008
20080223117Scanning probe microscope and sample observation method using the same and device manufacturing method - The present invention provides a method of using an accurate three-dimensional shape without damaging a sample by making a probe contact the sample only at a measuring point, lifting and retracting the probe when moving to the next measuring point and making the probe approach the sample after moving to the next measuring point, wherein high frequency/minute amplitude cantilever excitation and vibration detection are performed and further horizontal direction excitation or vertical/horizontal double direction excitation are performed to improve the sensitivity of contacting force detection on a slope of steep inclination. The method uses unit for inclining the probe in accordance with the inclination of a measurement target and a structure capable of absorbing or adjusting the orientation of the light detecting the condition of contact between the probe and sample after reflection on the cantilever, which varies a great deal depending on the inclination of the probe.09-18-2008
20080216565PROBE TIPS - Probe tips comprising tips and coatings are described. The tips and coatings may be selected to provide various probe-tip features, including, but not limited to, high reproducibility, high reliability, low cost, ultra-sharpness, high conductivity and/or simultaneous critical dimension imaging and sidewall roughness analysis.09-11-2008
20080202222MULTI-DIMENSIONAL STANDING WAVE PROBE FOR MICROSCALE AND NANOSCALE MEASUREMENT, MANIPULATION, AND SURFACE MODIFICATION - The present invention provides a multi-dimensional standing wave probe for microscale and nanoscale measurement, manipulation, and surface modification, including: a filament having a first free end and a second end that is attached to at least one actuator to apply oscillation cycles to the filament; wherein the oscillation of the filament during at least one complete cycle of oscillation of the actuator causes the free end to move in a multi-dimensional envelope, producing a defined virtual probe tip at the free end, wherein a shape of the virtual probe tip is defined by both a characteristic shape of the oscillation of the free end and a geometry of the filament. Optionally, the actuator includes a monolithic crystal actuator. Preferably, the monolithic crystal actuator includes a crystal having zero grain boundaries. The monolithic crystal actuator also includes a plurality of thin flexure structures. The monolithic crystal actuator further includes a plurality of metallic electrodes disposed on inside or outside surfaces, or a combination thereof, of the plurality of thin flexure structures.08-28-2008
20080202221Methods and apparatus for nanolapping - A lapping system for lapping portions of a workpiece. The lapping system includes, a lap that is defined by a surface. Portions of the surface are a lapping surface. The lapping surface has a coating that enhances material removal from a workpiece in a lapping process. The lapping system further includes, a scanning probe microscope having a tip and a substrate. The scanning probe microscope controls lapping motion of the lap and workpiece.08-28-2008

Patent applications in class Roughness