Patent application title: PEAKPOWER ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL SYSTEM METHOD AND APPARATUS
Edward L. Davis (Tigard, OR, US)
IPC8 Class: AG05B1302FI
Class name: Mechanical control system hvac control specific thermally responsive controller
Publication date: 2013-11-28
Patent application number: 20130317656
An integrated Energy Management and/or Control System method and
apparatus that continually monitors power consumption on each piece of
equipment 2417 and performs detailed analyses of energy consumption
curves including derivatives and compares data to historical data on the
same equipment as well as going online and acquiring manufacturers specs
and comparing to that as well as the same model number equipment in the
same or other locations, in order to detect anomalies, abnormal energy
consumption or provide early warning of equipment failures.
1. A system for predicting a refrigeration device will go out of limits
when the temperature starts to rise, and/or the power usage pattern
increases by performing a derivative, or an integral in the background
will predict it will go out of limit long before it does.
2. A system for analyzing refrigeration data curves, when they begin integrating quickly toward a preset limit, the data will trigger an alarm proactively to prevent an undesirable result, such as losing energy or food spoilage.
3. A method of determining refrigeration efficiency by monitoring and analyzing a closed loop, including temperature versus power consumption, so that KWh going in matches BTUs coming out of a refrigeration system.
4. A Peak Power system for monitoring and analyzing refrigeration devices that works in conjunction with a circuit breaker, and not by replacing it.
5. A system for detecting thermostat overrides on refrigeration and HVAC units, based on the slope of the curve of the temperature, and/or the energy consumption curve to alert someone to disable the override.
CLAIM OF PRIORITY
 This divisional application is related to, and claims priority to provisional utility application entitled "PEAK POWER SYSTEM," filed on Aug. 11, 2008, having an application number of 61/087,963; and further is related to, and claims priority to provisional utility application entitled "SIDECAR FOR PEAK POWER SYSTEM," filed on Jan. 6, 2009, having an application number of 61/142,838; and further is related to, and claims priority to the non-provisional utility application entitled "PEAKPOWER ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL SYSTEM METHOD AND APPARATUS," filed on Aug. 10, 2009, having an application number of Ser. No. 12/538,767 (Attorney Docket No. 9159P004), the entire contents of which are incorporated herein by reference.
 A portion of the disclosure of this patent document contains material which is subject to copyright protection. The copyright owner has no objection to the facsimile reproduction by anyone of the patent document or the patent disclosure, as it appears in the Patent and Trademark Office patent file or records, but otherwise reserves all copyright rights whatsoever.
 1. Field of the Invention
 Embodiments of the present invention relate generally to Energy Management and Control Systems (EMCS).
 2. Description of the Related Art
 Conventional Energy Management and Control Systems are not totally integrated into the fabric of the control panels and wiring at the circuit level. Many times, clamp-on CT's are brought into a facility and the circuits are monitored for a few days to characterize typical energy usage, then all the equipment and instrumentation is removed before the "Fire Marshal" arrives. The conventional methods have such a "rats nest" of wiring and instrumentation hanging out of the panels that it would never pass the "Fire Marshal" inspection.
 Conventional Energy Management and Control Systems do not do first and second derivatives and utilize historical graphs and graphs of similar equipment to anticipate equipment abnormalities and potential failures.
 Conventional Energy Management and Control Systems are largely localized at a specific location. There is no means for comparing the energy consumption patterns of a piece of equipment at one location to the same or similar type of equipment at another location.
 Conventional Energy Management and Control Systems relays require continuous energy to hold them in certain positions. A Normally Open (NO) relay requires continuous energy to keep it closed. A Normally Closed (NC) relay requires continuous energy to keep it open.
 There is a need for a relay that doesn't waste energy that will hold in any position without consuming outside energy. The instant invention accomplishes all these goals, and thus, the present state of the art may therefore benefit from the PeakPower energy management and control systems, methods, and apparatuses as described herein.
BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
 It is an object of the present invention to provide a highly integrated, innocuous (almost invisible) energy management and control system hardware and software, which operates continuously 24/7/365 and may be monitored and controlled over the Internet from virtually anywhere in the world. It silently monitors and alerts humans only when there's a problem that it can't handle.
 Another object of the present invention is to provide virtually continuous, monitoring and analysis of energy consuming equipment and detecting early warning signs of increasing energy use or potential failure.
 Another object of the present invention is to be able to actively remotely control energy usage and thermostats via the internet, (e.g. in case someone leaves an air conditioner on after hours).
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
 The present invention may be better understood, and its numerous objects, features, and advantages made apparent to those skilled in the art by referencing the accompanying drawings.
 FIGS. 1a and 1b depict a prior art image of an existing three phase circuit breaker, specifically in which FIG. 1a is a Prior Art Circuit Breaker as front view 100 and further in which FIG. 1b is a Prior Art LFD Current Limiter 110.
 FIG. 2: The PeakPower System Components illustrates the components of the system including the PeakPower Central Server, PeakPower Gateway Cellular WAN Module, PeakPower Commander Device, Temperature-Pressure-Humidity Sensor, Gas Sensor, Liquid Sensor, Wireless Thermostat, Operational Software and various user terminals (Laptop, tablet, Cell Phone, etc.) depicted at the various elements 200 PeakPower commander in a clear enclosure, 210 standard off the shelf 3-phase breaker, 220 PeakPower Gateway cellular WAN module, 230 PeakPower main server, 240 PeakPower software, 250 computers, PDAs, cell phones, tablets for monitoring local or remote in which colors indicate level of alert, 260 sensor for gas usage sends data to gateway wired or wireless, uses battery or AC power, 270 sensor for water usage, sends data to gateway wired or wireless, uses battery or AC power, 280 Sensor for temperature, humidity and pressure, sends data to gateway wired or wireless, uses battery or AC power, and 290 wireless thermostat receives commands and sends status via gateway over Internet to server, uses battery or AC power.
 FIG. 3: PeakPower Commander in Clear Case Installed beside Circuit Breaker, shows how the PeakPower Commander Sensor and communications unit mounts next to an existing Circuit Breaker.
 FIG. 4: Photograph, PeakPower Commander Front View, shows the components and CT's on the front of the PeakPower Commander unit as depicted at elements 400 depicting Current Transformers (CTs).
 FIG. 5: The Current Transformer (CT) used as a standard current measuring device.
 FIG. 6: The CT used to extract power during the intervals when it's not measuring, so that it supplies power to the PeakPower Commander Device.
 FIG. 7: One or more of the CT's may be used for communications over the power line(s). This figure illustrates the Transmit mode.
 FIG. 8: One or more of the CT's may be used for communications over the power line(s), figure illustrates the Receive mode.
 FIG. 9: Voltage versus Current Zero Crossings at element 900 depicting Zero crossing for Voltage and Current that are 180 degrees out of phase, showing how the PeakPower commander communicates near zero crossings using the CT that it measures current with.
 FIG. 10: The PeakPower Commander Board Schematic, illustrating one of the preferred embodiments.
 FIG. 11 is a mechanical drawing of the preferred embodiment #2 of the Multi-Stable Relay according to the present invention.
 FIG. 12 is a bottom view of the preferred embodiment #2 of the Multi-Stable Relay.
 FIG. 13 is a side view of the preferred embodiment #2 of the Multi-Stable Relay.
 FIG. 14 is a photograph of the sub-GigaHertz wireless module used for local communications between Gateway and Sensors.
 FIG. 15 is the "PeakPower System--Power Monitoring Architecture". This is a high level diagram that doesn't include the entire host of monitoring devices (e.g. Temperature, Pressure, Humidity, Gas Flow, Liquid Flow, Thermostats etc.) This is just to give a high level communications overview to show how some of the key pieces of the system fit together and communicate in a power monitoring application.
 The following sets forth a detailed description of a mode for carrying out the invention. The description is intended to be illustrative of the invention and should not be taken to be limiting.
 The PeakPower Management and Control System is organized as a hierarchical system (see FIG. 15). It is comprised of a Central Server at the top which manages and controls several Gateways at several different locations.
 FIG. 15 illustrates a basic PeakPower System for a Power Monitoring application. This is a high level diagram of the key pieces for Power Monitoring. This includes a Gateway device at each location to gather and manage the data at that site and forward that data up to the main server(s) for further processing, analysis and closed loop control. This diagram doesn't include the entire host of monitoring devices (e.g. Temperature, Pressure, Humidity, Gas Flow, Liquid Flow, Thermostats etc.). Please refer to FIG. 2 for details. This is just a high level communications architecture overview to show how some of the key pieces of the system fit together and communicate in a power monitoring application. Note that equipment power usage characteristics and curves on a piece of equipment in Location 1 may be analyzed and correlated with the patterns observed on the same type equipment in Location 2 or Location n and adjusted for environmental conditions, to determine if it's outside a preset "corridor" of operation. If so, an ALERT or an ALARM will be set dependent on how far outside limits it is or how rapidly (derivative) it's proceeding to go out of limits.
 FIG. 2 is a system block diagram of the PeakPower Management and Control Apparatus that includes sensors, relays, acquisition, processing and analysis software and operational user interface. The sensors monitor power in the power lines, they also derive all the power required to drive the monitor module apparatus from the power lines they are monitoring. Said modules also communicate over said power lines all without making physical contact with said power lines.
 The Power Management and Control Software at element 240 performs statistical analysis on all signals including first and second derivatives and compares it to data acquired on previous dates and times as well as comparing it to manufacturers specs as well as data from the same model of equipment in other locations to detect early warning signs of potential failures or anomalies in the power used by this equipment versus other same or similar equipment in order to optimize energy use.
 The Power Management and Control User Interface shown replicated on the Computer, Cell Phone and PDA in element 250 uses a priority pop-up scheme to pop-up the most critical alert or alarm item out of the group currently being monitored to bring instant attention to it (Border colored Red is a Critical ALARM) (Border colored Yellow is a warning ALERT) (Border colored Green means it's within limits) and give the operator timely data to make critical decisions instantly. There is a set of Red, Yellow, Green indicators (like idiot lights) across the top (or bottom) of the screen where the overall status of all entities being monitors is viewable at a glance. The Red once always pop to the upper left corner and sound the buzzer.
 If multiple ALARMS occur they propagate to the right upper corner then the lower left corner then finally the lower right corner if four alarms occur before they can be corrected and return to green status. After the screen is full, the idiot lights at the top are used to manage further red and yellow ALARMS and ALERTS. As the ALARMS or ALERTS are corrected, they return to GREEN.
 Embodiments of the present disclosure describe a PeakPower System, which includes the Peak Power Commander Sensor Module. The Peak Power System provides local and/or remote control of various aspects of device operation (e.g., power, security, etc.) for commercial, industrial and/or residential applications. In some embodiments, the Peak Power System may monitor temperature and reset a thermostat, tum on/off an air conditioning or refrigeration unit, etc.
 The Peak Power System is described in detail in U.S. Provisional Application No. 611087,963, titled "Peak Power System" filed on Aug. 11,2008, the entire disclosure of which is hereby incorporated by reference.
 A Sidecar embodiment of the "Peak Power System" is described in detail in U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/142,838, titled "Sidecar for Peak Power System" filed on Jan. 6, 2009, the entire disclosure of which is hereby incorporated by reference. The "Sidecar" has since been renamed, "PeakPwr Commander", hereinafter referred to as "PeakPower CMDR".
 The present disclosure implements the Peak Power System's energy sensor through a PeakPower CMDR device that may be coupled, e.g., installed, beside a conventional circuit breaker such as, but not limited to, an Eaton (Cutler-Hammer) ED and FD type of circuit breaker, see, e.g., FIG. 1a. In other embodiments, the PeakPower CMDR may be configured to couple with other circuit breakers. The PeakPower CMDR is a somewhat similar form factor to the LFD Current Limiter shown in FIG. 1b. Although, the PeakPower CMDR makes no physical connection to any of the wires, except the wires pass directly through the hole(s) in the PeakPower CMDR (insulation and all in some cases) with no screws required, because the wire is not physically attached to the PeakPower CMDR.
 The PeakPower CMDR may have three phases and the board mounts in the case so that the wires go straight through the three current sensors and out the other side. There is no physical electrical connection or physical connection required. The sensing and communications are all done via current Transformers (CT's). Even the power to drive the PeakPower CMDR is extracted through these CT's. For instance, FIG. 6 depicts element 600, in which the CT is alternately switched (Using very low RDS ON FET's) to build up power to power the PeakPower Commander Module using Low Vf Schottky diodes and further in which The CT supplies power to the PeakPower Commander Device.
 The PeakPower CMDR may communicate through the wires it's monitoring or it may communicate through the Sub-GigaHertz wireless module that plugs onto the tear of the main board. Refer to FIG. 14 in which an RF Module (433 MHz or 900 MHz) is depicted having thereupon elements 1400 of a chip antenna, 1401 of a crystal oscillator, 1402 of a CC 1101 Transceiver, 1403 of a connector to connect to a main board or to a battery, and element 1404 of an MSP430 processor with a temperature sensor. Note, this module has a space to plug in the temperature and humidity sensors so that the same module can be used as the Temperature/Pressure/Humidity sensor, simply by connecting a battery to it and placing it in a separate enclosure.
 The pressure sensor is a Pegasus MPL115A MEMS type sensor (very tiny).
 Referring to FIG. 3, in this embodiment, there are three current transducers (CT) mounted on the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) in a row. The three Wires are momentarily disconnected from the breaker, then routed through the three CT's and back into the Breaker like they normally go, and the screws in the Breaker are used to secure the Wires as usual.
 FIGS. 3 and 4 show perspective views of a circuit breaker with the PeakPower CMDR coupled thereto in accordance with some embodiments. The housing of the PeakPower CMDR is shown as semitransparent in FIG. 3 and is not shown in FIG. 4.
 One key element of the PeakPower CMDR is the communications methodology. The PeakPower CMDR utilizes the Current Transformer(s) (CTs) for communications, obviating the need for physically connecting to the wire(s).
 A key novelty of this technique is that the current and voltage on the Wire(s) is 90 degrees out of phase. See FIG. 9 for an illustration of this relationship. In prior art techniques (e.g. X-I 0) the communications must occur at or near the Voltage zero crossing when the voltage in the line is at a low ebb. The PeakPower CMDR, however, is more flexible. Since it utilizes a "Current" Transformer to communicate, it can also transmit and receive when the Line Voltage is at or near its MAXIMUM, because that's when the Current is near zero. The PeakPower CMDR typically sends or receives high frequency pulses during a preset narrow window of time relative to a cycle (typically 50 Hz or 60 Hz). Also, the position of the pulse(s) within this window may be further interpreted to yield even more data bits per cycle.
 The liquid and gas flow meters in the preferred embodiment (FIG. 2) may use similar Doppler technology, or Magnetic-Inductive or Coriolis type sensor pickups. The small wall-wart attached to it contains the sub GigaHertz wireless module or it can optionally communicate via Power Line Controller (PLC). For instance, FIG. 5 depicts element 500, in which the Current Transformer (CT) measures current via the magnetic field generated when the current passes through it, and further in which the Current Transformer (CT) is used as a current measuring device.
 FIG. 10 illustrates a circuit schematic of the PeakPower CMDR as set forth at element PCB 123 of FIG. 10 depicting the PeakPower Commander Board Schematic, in accordance with some embodiments. This shows how the two CT's on the left (L1 and L2) are full wave rectified (when they are not being sampled) in order to extract power to power the device. They normally sample once every 15 to 30 seconds for only a few milliseconds.
 The instant invention solves the problems of prior art relays too. The Multi-Stable Relay consumes much less (near zero) energy. The only energy required is a minimal amount of energy (a pulse) to change the relay from one state to another.
 The Power Management and Control relays in FIGS. 11, 12 and 13 are novel requiring zero electrical energy to remain enabled or disabled, referred to as a Permanent Magnet Multi-pole, Multi-Throw Relay that has a magnetic detent at every throw position requiring no electrical energy to be applied to keep it closed or open as the case may be.
 This "Control" portion of this PEAKPOWER ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL SYSTEM is referred to as a Multi-Stable Magnetic Relay Multi-stable relay method and apparatus for switching electrical power with zero holding current. For instance, FIG. 7 depicts element 700, in which one or more of the CTs may be switched (e.g., using very low RDS ON FETs) to use it as a communications device for transmitting and receiving. FIG. 7 thus depicts one implementation for the transmit side of the PeakPower Commander Board. According to FIG. 7, one or more of the CTs may be used for communications over the power line(s) in transmit mode.
 This method and apparatus for switching power, requires no activation or hold current once it's switched to any state. Any detent state is held by permanent magnet force and requires zero current to hold the relay in any detent state position. For instance, FIG. 8 depicts element 800, in which one or more of the CTs may be switched (e.g., using very low RDS ON FETs) to use it as a communications device for transmitting and receiving. FIG. 8 thus depicts one implementation for the receive side of the PeakPower Commander Board. According to FIG. 8, one or more of the CTs may be used for communications over the power line(s) in receive mode.
 The Relay Preferred Embodiment #1 is as disclosed in the Provisional application A/N 61/087,963 filed 11 Aug. 2008 which is included in its entirety by reference.
 Preferred embodiment #2: This preferred embodiment is a simple form, a Single Pole Double Throw (SPDT) version in FIG. 11.
 The enclosure case at element 1100 is plastic and could be polycarbonate, ABS, acrylic, etc. There are five connector pins at element 1110 in this embodiment which make electrical contact to the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) usually via a connector socket that is soldered down onto the PCB when it's manufactured.
 FIG. 12 is a bottom view of the Multi-Stable Relay showing the five connector pins. These pins are typically fairly large in order to minimize losses when high currents are passing through. The Main Voltage/Current Input/Output Pin at element 1200 is where the main input current/voltage or output current/voltage either enters or exits. It's bi-directional.
 The Voltage/Current Input/Output Pin-1 at element 1210 is where one input current/voltage or one output current/voltage either enters or exits. This pin is also referred to as NOC-1 which means "Normally Open or Closed". This is to distinguish it from prior art which is either NO or NC. This pin is also bi-directional.
 The Voltage/Current Input/Output Pin-2 at element 1230 is where a second input current/voltage or one output current/voltage either enters or exits. This pin is also referred to as NOC-2. This pin is also bi-directional.
 The Control Pins, Control Pulse-1 at element 1220 and Control Pulse-2 at element 1240 are where the activation switching signal is applied.
 When element 1240 is held at Ground potential and a 20 msec 12 Volt pulse is applied to element 1220 the Relay goes to STATE 1 where MAIN at element 1200 is connected to element 1210. And it stays in that state consuming no detention until an opposite polarity pulse is received.
 For example, when element 1220 is held at Ground potential and a 20 msec 12 Volt pulse is applied to element 240 the Relay goes to STATE 2 where MAIN at element 1200 is connected to element 1230.
 And it stays in that state consuming no detention power until an opposite polarity pulse is received.
 In FIG. 3 In order to move the torsion beam conductor at element 1370 over to the left side and activate current flow between pins at elements 1200 and 1210, the control pin at element 1220 is momentarily switched to Ground and a 12 VDC pulse is applied to pin at element 1240 for 20 msec. The pulse goes through both inductor coils.
 The momentary magnetic field generated in the two coils pushes the magnet(s) to the left. Actually the Left Coil at element 1370 on the left attracts the north pole of the magnet(s) and element 1370 on the right repels the South pole so that the magnet "sticks" to the left ferromagnetic screw, causing the osculating contact at element 1310 to make solid contact with element 1300, the Voltage/Current Input/Output Pin-1 Static Contact and current flows with no further activation or detent current required. Elements 1310 Voltage/Current input/output NOC-1 Osculating contact, 1320 Reciprocating Magnet(s) Left and Right, 1330 screw or rivet made of slightly ferrous material detent to attract and hold reciprocating magnet(s) left and right, 1340 planar support bar, left and right, 1350 left to right support stiffener, 1360 Torsion beam electrical conductor main voltage/current input/output, 1380 voltage/current input/output-2 NOC-2 static contact, and 1390 voltage/current input/output-2 NOC-2 osculating contact are further depicted.
 In order to flip the Relay to Position 2 on the right simply reverse the process by momentarily holding pin at element 1240 to Ground and applying a 12 VDC pulse for 20 msec to the pin at element 1220.
 An alternative method for flipping the relay is to tie one of the Control pins to ground either one of elements 1220 or 1240 and pulse the other pin with +12 VDC then -12 VDC alternately to flip it back and forth.
 This Multi-Stable Relay at FIGS. 11, 12, 13 is one of the key elements in providing Control in this EMC System. They are normally equipped with a sub-GigaHertz wireless unit so that the Gateway at element 220 can turn them on and off based on normal preset cycles or problem conditions or due to commands received over the Internet.
 In FIG. 2, element 1290 is the Wireless Thermostat which is another one of the key control elements of this Energy Management and Control System. This Thermostat contains a subGigaHertz wireless Tx/Rx radio and is controlled directly through the wireless radio in the Gateway Module at element 220. The Gateway Module at element 220 is connected to the PeakPower Server at element 230 via the Internet (depicted via the lightning bolts) either wired or wirelessly via Cellular wireless (e.g. 3G) radio. So the end user or Energy Management person is able to change the thermostat from virtually anywhere in the world!
 While particular embodiments of the present invention have been shown and described, it will be recognized to those skilled in the art that, based upon the teachings herein, further changes and modifications may be made without departing from this invention and its broader aspects, and thus, the appended claims are to encompass within their scope all such changes and modifications as are within the true spirit and scope of this invention.
Patent applications in class Specific thermally responsive controller
Patent applications in all subclasses Specific thermally responsive controller