Patent application title: IMAGE AND JEWELRY COMBINATION AND METHOD OF MAKING SAME
Jennifer Flatow (Los Angeles, CA, US)
JOOLZ HAYWORTH, LLC
IPC8 Class: AA44C2500FI
Class name: Jewelry miscellaneous
Publication date: 2013-11-28
Patent application number: 20130312458
An image-lens-combination is disclosed having an image bearing sheet, a
translucent or transparent acrylic lens, and a layer of cured
cyanoacrylate adhesive disposed between the image bearing sheet and the
acrylic lens and bonding them to each other. The cyanoacrylate adhesive
in its uncured state has a viscosity of at least about 25 centipoise.
1. An image-lens-combination comprising: an image bearing sheet, a
translucent acrylic lens, and a layer of cured cyanoacrylate adhesive
disposed between said image bearing sheet and said acrylic lens and
bonding them to each other, said cyanoacrylate adhesive having a
viscosity of at least about 25 centipoise in its uncured state.
2. The image-lens-combination of claim 1, said cyanoacrylate adhesive having a viscosity in the range of about 30 to about 100 centipoise in its uncured state.
3. The image-lens-combination of claim 2, said cyanoacrylate adhesive having a viscosity of about 50 centipoise in its uncured state.
4. The image-lens-combination of claim 1, said cyanoacrylate adhesive being a butyl cyanoacrylate adhesive.
5. The image-lens-combination of claim 1 wherein said acrylic lens is transparent.
6. The image-lens-combination of claim 1 wherein said image bearing sheet includes a clear coating over said image and facing said lens, with said image bearing sheet thus including said coating.
7. A method for making an image-lens-combination, said method comprising the steps of: disposing uncured cyanoacrylate adhesive having an viscosity of at least about 25 centipoise on to at least parts of a portion of a sheet bearing an image that is desired to be included in the image-lens-combination, pushing the base of an acrylic lens against said uncured cyanoacrylate adhesive until said uncured cyanoacrylate adhesive spreads substantially evenly between the base of said acrylic lens and said sheet, and allowing the cyanoacrylate adhesive to cure.
8. The method of claim 7, further comprising the step of using a mar shield to hold the lens while pressing the lens against said cyanoacrylate adhesive.
9. The method of claim 8 wherein said mar shield is at least one glove.
10. The method of claim 8, further comprising the step of cleaning the acrylic lens with a nitromethane-based debonder to remove any deposit on the lens from vapor produced during the curing of the cyanoacrylate adhesive.
11. The method of claim 10 further including the step of applying a distorted form of said image on to said sheet.
12. The method of claim 7 wherein said uncured cyanoacrylate adhesive has a viscosity in the range of about 30 to about 100 centipoise.
13. The method of claim 7 wherein said uncured cyanoacrylate adhesive has a viscosity of about 50 centipoise.
14. The method of claim 7 wherein said cyanoacrylate adhesive is a butyl cyanoacrylate adhesive.
15. The method of claim 7, further comprising the step of removing any portion of the sheet which extends beyond the base of the acrylic lens.
16. A method for making an image-lens-combination, said method comprising the steps of: disposing a clear coat over at least a portion of an image on an image bearing sheet, with the image bearing sheet thereafter including said coating; disposing uncured cyanoacrylate adhesive having an viscosity of at least about 25 centipoise on to at least parts of said image bearing sheet, pushing the base of an acrylic lens against said uncured cyanoacrylate adhesive until said uncured cyanoacrylate adhesive spreads substantially evenly between the base of said acrylic lens and at least a portion of said sheet, and allowing the cyanoacrylate adhesive to cure.
17. The method of claim 16, further comprising the step of using a mar shield to hold the lens while pressing the lens against said cyanoacrylate adhesive.
18. The method of claim 16, further comprising the step of cleaning the acrylic lens with a nitromethane-based debonder to remove any deposit on the lens from vapor produced during the curing of the cyanoacrylate adhesive.
19. The method of claim 16 wherein said uncured cyanoacrylate adhesive has a viscosity in the range of about 30 to about 100 centipoise.
20. The method of claim 16 wherein said uncured cyanoacrylate adhesive has a viscosity of about 50 centipoise.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
 1. Field of the Invention
 This invention relates to the field of image preservation and manufacture of jewelry, decorative items, keepsakes and novelties that incorporate images. In particular, the invention is an image on a sheet medium, such as paper or textile, bonded to a translucent jewelry piece or lens, preferably formed of acrylic resin, and the method of making same.
 2. Prior Art
 Conventional methods for fixing printed graphic images onto durable goods like jewelry and giftware usually involve using epoxy to coat the images and render them durable and water-resistant and suitable for extended wear and handling. (As used herein, the term "water-resistant" includes "water-proof.") Drawbacks to using epoxy are that the cure time is relatively long and components must be mixed in exact proportions with little room for error, otherwise a durable cure will not be achieved. Often, additional heat must be applied to epoxy-coated images to effect a durable cure.
 Prior art methods of transferring an image, such as a photographic or other pictorial work, to a hard, solid medium include that shown in U.S. Pat. No. 2,180,002 issued on Nov. 14, 1939 to Ford. It discloses a method of actinic printing of a negative on a bi-chromated gelatin film and reproducing of the photograph on a glass plate. After the film is developed, it is processed through the steps of molding, heating and hardening. A resin body is separated from the mold, and the design of the photograph is shown on the object in reverse reproduction.
 The prior art also includes U.S. Pat. No. 3,659,327 issued on May 2, 1972 to Berick et al. It discloses a process of reproducing a photograph on a article of jewelry, such as a metal charm. The outstanding lines of the object are provided in relief, and the background is infused enamel.
 U.S. Pat. No. 4,203,789 issued on May 20, 1980 to Delorne discloses a process for reproducing a painting on canvas, wood or similar surfaces. In that process, a copy of the original painting is used to project an image of the painting onto the colored surface. A hardenable paste is then applied to construct imitation relief portions according to the painting. The paste is allowed to harden, and then a flat copy of the paint is applied to the support. The relief portions of that painting show in the flat copy coincident with the imitation relief portions of the support formed by the paste. U.S. Pat. No. 5,547,817 issued on Aug. 29, 1996 to Okada et al. discloses an oxidizing agent for use in a field of silver halide photosensitive material. The oxidizing agent is used as a bleaching agent.
 Instead of using epoxy, cyanoacrylate adhesive is known in the art to work to bond an image-bearing sheet material to a translucent or transparent article. The resulting item will be referred to herein as an "image-lens-combination," regardless of the use of the item as jewelry, a clothing accessory, a framed picture, a decorative piece, a keepsake or otherwise.
 Typically, the translucent or transparent article would be formed of acrylic resin. Since the image is intended to be viewed through the translucent or transparent article, that article is referred to herein as a "lens" even though in some cases the translucent or transparent article does not change the convergence/divergence of light rays.
 The image-bearing sheet material has been formed of ordinary paper, textile or other material. However, for a more durable, water-resistant item, particularly if the item will be worn as jewelry or part of an article of clothing, the image is disposed on water-resistant paper, water-resistant film, water-resistant synthetic paper (such as polypropylene-based synthetic paper such as available from Yupo Corporation of Tokyo, Japan), textile or other material.
 Water-resistant paper and synthetic paper are currently sold by manufacturers using "WEATHERPROOF PAPER," "POWER PAPER," "NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC ADVENTURE PAPER," "YUPO" and "Rite in the Rain" trademarks among others. Some of these papers can be used in laser printers or inkjet printers.
 However, cyanoacrylate adhesive has been found to dissolve or otherwise mar images applied on paper by laser printers. So, while cyanoacrylate adhesive seems to have generally worked satisfactorily in connection with images applied as ink by inkjet printers such as those sold by Lexmark, Hewlett-Packard and Epson, testing of cyanoacrylate adhesive on an image applied as toner by a laser printer is suggested before employing a laser printer to produce items of this type.
 Cyanoacrylate adhesive, sometimes known as "instant glue" and commercially available under the trademarks "SUPER GLUE" and "KRAZY GLUE," among others, was found to be easier to work with than epoxy. In prior art attempts to make image-lens-combinations, cyanoacrylate adhesive having a viscosity of 5 centipoise had been used. While easier to use than epoxy such adhesive was itself nevertheless difficult to work with in connection with making image-lens-combinations, and satisfactory results were not obtained as frequently as desired.
 Cyanoacrylates generally are quick-setting materials which cure to clear, hard, glassy resins, useful as sealants, coatings, and particularly adhesives for bonding together a variety of substrates. See, e.g., H. W. Coover, D. W. Dreifus and J. T. O'Connor, "Cyanoacrylate Adhesives" in Handbook of Adhesives, 27, 463-77, I. Skeist, ed., Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, pub., 3rd ed. (1990).
 Cyanoacrylate adhesives are extensively utilized as cold-setting, single-liquid type instantaneous adhesives for metals, plastics, rubbers, woods, etc., because they rapidly polymerize and cure by the action of a minute amount of the adsorption water present on adherend surfaces to extremely tenaciously bond the adherends to each other in a short time period.
 Ordinarily, upon contact with substrate materials possessing a surface nucleophile, cyanoacrylate-containing compositions spontaneously polymerize to form a cured material. The cured material exhibits excellent adhesive properties to materials such as metals, plastics, elastomers, fabrics, woods, ceramics and the like. Cyanoacrylate-containing compositions are thus seen as a versatile class of single-component, ambient temperature curing adhesives.
 The predominant mechanism by which cyanoacrylate monomers undergo polymerization is an anionic one. Free-radical polymerization is also known to occur in this regard under prolonged exposure to heat or light of an appropriate wavelength. See e.g., Coover et al., supra. Ordinarily, however, free-radical stabilizers, such as quinones or hindered phenols, are included in cyanoacrylate-containing adhesive formulations to extend their shelf life. Thus, the extent of any free-radical polymerization of commercial cyanoacrylate-containing compositions is typically minimal and in fact is especially undesirable. However, minimal as it may be, free-radical polymerization does occur, with unwanted white, filmy deposits, sometimes referred to as "bloom," appearing on the surface of an acrylic lens to which the image-bearing sheet is adhered. Acetone has been known for clean-up after using cyanoacrylate adhesives. However, acetone has been found to react unfavorably with the acrylic portion of an image-lens-combination, specifically causing fogging of the acrylic and thus reducing the clarity of the image as seen through the acrylic lens.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
 The invention is an image-lens-combination having an image bearing sheet, a translucent or transparent acrylic lens, and a layer of cured cyanoacrylate adhesive disposed between the image bearing sheet and the acrylic lens and bonding them to each other. The cyanoacrylate adhesive in its uncured state has a viscosity of at least about 25 centipoise. The invention also includes a method of making an image-lens-combination, which method includes at least the following steps:
 !. Disposing uncured cyanoacrylate adhesive having an viscosity of at least about 25 centipoise on to at least parts of a portion of a sheet bearing the portion of an image that is desired to be included in the image-lens-combination.
 2. Pushing at least a portion of a surface of a translucent acrylic lens against the uncured cyanoacrylate adhesive until the uncured cyanoacrylate adhesive spreads substantially evenly between the base of the translucent acrylic lens and the above-mentioned portion of the sheet.
 3. Allowing the cyanoacrylate adhesive to cure.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
 FIG. 1 is a top plan view of the invention in a setting forming a pendant.
 FIG. 2 is a cross section of the pendant of FIG. 1 taken along line 2-2.
 FIG. 3 is a cross section of a pendant having a shorter lens than the lens shown in FIGS. 1, 2, 4 and 4.
 FIG. 4 is an end elevational view of the pendant of FIG. 1.
 FIG. 5 is a side elevational view of the pendant of FIG. 1.
 FIG. 6 is a top plan view of an image to be incorporated into the invention.
 FIG. 7 is a top plan view of a sheet with the image of FIG. 6 printed on it.
 FIG. 8 is an illustration of a step in the process of making the invention, with the lens shown about to be put on top the sheet of FIG. 7, which has uncured cyanoacrylate adhesive deposited on it.
 FIG. 9 is a top plan view of a lens atop the sheet and uncured cyanoacrylate adhesive of FIG. 8.
 FIG. 10 is a top plan view of the invention shown after the portion of the sheet which, in FIG. 9, is outside of the perimeter of the bottom of surface of the lens has been removed.
 FIG. 11 is an illustration of a step in the process of affixing the invention in a setting, with the invention shown about to be put on top of the base of the setting, which has adhesive positioned on it.
 FIG. 12 is a top plan view of a lens used in a second embodiment of the invention.
 FIG. 13 is an end elevational view of the lens of FIG. 12.
 FIG. 14 is an illustration of a step in the process of making a second embodiment of the invention, with the lens of FIGS. 12 and 13 shown about to be put on top of a sheet bearing the image of FIG. 6, which sheet has uncured cyanoacrylate adhesive deposited on it.
 FIG. 15 is a top plan view of the lens of FIGS. 12 and 13 atop the sheet and uncured cyanoacrylate adhesive of FIG. 14.
 FIG. 16 is a top plan view of the second embodiment of the invention shown after the portion of the sheet which, in FIG. 15, is outside of the perimeter of the base of the lens has been removed.
 FIG. 17 is an illustration of a step in the process of affixing the invention in a setting, with the second embodiment of the invention shown about to be put on top of the base of the setting, which has adhesive discs positioned on it.
 FIG. 18 is a top plan view of the second embodiment of the invention as part of a pendant.
 FIG. 19 is a cross section of the pendant of FIG. 18 taken along line 19-19.
 FIG. 20 is a front elevational view of a third embodiment of the invention.
 FIG. 21 is a rear elevational view of the third embodiment of the invention.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
 The preferred embodiments of the invention are illustrated in the attached drawings which are referred to herein. The same reference numeral will be used to identify identical elements throughout the drawings.
 The invention is a combination of an image bearing sheet, a layer of cyanoacrylate adhesive, wherein the cyanoacrylate adhesive had a starting viscosity of at least 25 centipoise, and a translucent (preferably, transparent) acrylic lens of any shape, size, dimension or profile, and a method for making same. In FIGS. 1-5, the invention 10, a combination of an image and acrylic lens (as noted above, sometimes referred to as an "image-lens-combination"), is shown affixed in a setting 22. The setting has a base 24, a peripheral wall 26 upstanding from the base's periphery, and a series of connection loops 28, which have one end connected to the setting's base and/or peripheral wall. The connection loops make the image-lens-combination and setting suitable to be used as a pendant. The connection loop distal from the setting's base is available to have a necklace or bracelet chain threaded through it, or to have a wall hook put through it so that the image-lens-combination and setting may be hung against a wall. The top of peripheral wall 26 may be formed with an inwardly curved lip 27. The setting may be metal or plastic.
 As is known in the jewelry and clothing accessory arts, the back of the setting (not shown) or its sides can be formed with fittings to provide alternate means for attaching the image-lens-combination/setting combination to necklaces or bracelets, or to allow the image-lens-combination/setting combination to be used as a pin, a part of a buckle or other embellishment.
 The image-lens-combination includes a translucent, and preferably transparent, acrylic lens 16, a portion of a sheet of material 12 bearing an image and, between the base 18 of the lens and the sheet, a layer of cyanoacrylate adhesive 14. In a preferred embodiment, a layer of transparent coating or lamination 23 is disposed between the cyanoacrylate adhesive layer and the image bearing sheet. (The dimensions of the features shown in the drawings are not drawn to scale. Instead, they are set forth so that they can be distinguished from each other in the drawings. For example, the sheet, cyanoacrylate adhesive layer and coating layer are illustrated as being much thicker than they would be in actuality.)
 Sheet 12 is paper, film, synthetic paper, or textile or any other sheet material capable of having an image printed on it. Preferably, sheet 12 is water-resistant paper or a synthetic paper. For example, HP® Premium Photo Paper (glossy or matte) and Shogun Best-Fit® Inkjet Glossy Photo Paper (from The Coronet Paper Co., Ltd. of Hong Kong) are reasonably water resistant and work well with inkjet printers. The particular material used will, of course, depend upon the material and equipment available and the quality desired. For simple, for at home uses, ordinary paper may suffice. For professional quality, a professional printing service using material such as the Yupo-brand synthetic paper could be used.
 Coating 23, when used, serves multiple purposes. One purpose is to provide a protective layer that prevents the ink or toner or any other substance used to create the image on the sheet from reacting with the cyanoacrylate adhesive. A coating is particularly useful when a non-inkjet printing process is used to place an image on a sheet, including but not limited to, offset printed images (newsprint, magazines, catalogs, photographs, and the like). For example, cyanoacrylate adhesive will dissolve toner particles on a laser-printed image and thus mar the image. A variety of coating methods can be used, including but not limited to: UV coating, overprint varnish, and lamination film. The clear coat layer 23 also serves the purpose of providing a blemish-free surface which the cyanoacrylate can adhere to for optimal clarity regardless of the method used to put the image on the sheet.
 As noted above, any of a variety of coating materials can be used, including but not limited to: UV coating, varnish, and lamination film. For home use, clear nail polish could be used. When images are applied to sheets by a professional printing service, the printing service would recommend an appropriate coating. Depending on the coating used, one may want to allow the cyanoacrylate adhesive to cure over a longer period of time. Also, cyanoacrylate adhesive may not adhere as permanently to some coatings as to others; that is, the cured cyanoacrylate adhesive may be mechanically removed from an adhered relationship with some coatings.
 The acrylic lens is preferably hemispherical in shape. Base 18 of the lens is substantially flat. In the preferred embodiment, the acrylic lens is not necessarily an actual hemisphere. Instead, it is hemispherical, meaning it has a "vertical" radius which may be longer than its "horizontal" radius. In addition, the acrylic lens could have its vertical and horizontal radii vary, and the lens could be a slice of the spherical body which is less than half of it, as shown in FIG. 3. (In FIG. 3 the acrylic lens is designated by the number 17.)
 The "base" of the lens should be thought of as that portion of the lens to which the image bearing sheet (including the coating, if one is used) is adhered by the layer of cyanoacrylate adhesive.
 The acrylic lens may be formed of a spherical shape, such as the sphere 54 used in image-lens-combination 52 shown in FIGS. 20 and 21. In such case the "base" of the lens would not be substantially flat, it would be curved and would be defined as the portion of the lens' surface which is bounded by perimeter 58. (In FIGS. 20 and 21, the image bearing sheet is designated by the numeral 56. In FIG. 20, which shows the image-lens-combination from the front, the image can be seen. In FIG. 21, which shows the image-lens-combination from the rear, the image is not seen. The layer of cyanoacrylate adhesive is not seen in FIGS. 20 and 21.)
 In transferring an image 30, such as shown in FIG. 6, to a sheet 12, the image should be sized so that it would correspond to the size of the base of the acrylic lens. Because the acrylic lens 16 illustrated in FIGS. 1-5 tends to magnify an image over which it is placed, when an image 30 is printed on sheet 12, the image, after it is sized to correspond to the size of base 18 of the lens, is also preferably subjected to a counter-distortion step; that is, it is reduced by about 10% horizontally and about 0% to 5% vertically. In FIG. 7, the image is reduced only horizontally. The counter-distortion step will depend upon the dimensions and curvature of the lens used and the visual effect desired. (The counter-distortion step may be conducted as part of the step of sizing the image.) Different reduction percentages would be used for acrylic lenses having a shape different from that of lens 16. Also, a completely symmetrical reduction of the image would still provide a pleasing result even though the lens may magnify the image differently along different axes. Of course, having no reduction of the image may also satisfy the artistic intent of the person making the image-lens-combination.
 As illustrated in FIG. 8, a layer of cyanoacrylate adhesive 14 is disposed over at least that portion of the image on sheet 12 which is desired to be part of the image-lens-combination. This is accomplished by disposing uncured cyanoacrylate adhesive on the portion of the image (or on the coating over the image if a coating is used) that is desired to be included in the image-lens-combination. A big glob of the uncured adhesive could be used, or one or more lines of the uncured adhesive could be used. In the preferred embodiment, one or more drops 15 of uncured cyanoacrylate adhesive are disposed over approximately the central area of the desired portion of the image. For a portion of the image about 30 mm by 40 mm (about 1.2 in. by 1.5 in.), three or four drops 15 are usually sufficient. The base 18 of acrylic lens 17 is then placed over and then pushed against the desired portion of the image on sheet 12 before the adhesive cures. (Typically, the image bearing sheet is on a table. If a spherical lens, such as lens 54 in FIGS. 20 and 21 is used, the image bearing sheet may be placed on the inner surface of a bowl.) The pressure on the drops causes the cyanoacrylate adhesive, still in uncured form, to evenly disperse. With sufficient, evenly applied pressure, the cyanoacrylate adhesive on the sheet flows together to form a cyanoacrylate adhesive layer 14. A small amount of the cyanoacrylate adhesive may flow onto sheet 12 beyond the perimeter of the lens' base. Typically, few, if any, air bubbles will remain between the base of the lens and the image-bearing sheet if the sheet and the base of the lens are substantially flat (or share substantially the same curvature). Even if the base portion of the lens has minor irregularities in it, the higher viscosity cyanoacrylate adhesive used in this invention reduces the likelihood that air bubbles will remain.
 With the acrylic lens 16 atop the image 30 on sheet 12, as shown in FIG. 9, the cyanoacrylate adhesive is allowed to cure. As a result, sheet 12, bearing image 30, is bonded to base 18.
 The speed at which the cyanoacrylate adhesive cures is a significant factor to take into consideration. It is preferred that the adhesive remain substantially uncured during the period of time starting when it is spread over a portion of the image on sheet 12 and extending through to the time that the lens has been positioned and even re-positioned atop the image. That is, while quick curing of the adhesive is desired, it is also preferred that there be an allowance of sufficient time for the position of the lens to be readjusted as necessary to capture the desired portion of the image, centered and angled as desired, under the lens in a manner pleasing to the person making the image-lens-combination (or anticipated as pleasing to the recipient of the image-lens-combination). So, while almost any commercially available cyanoacrylate adhesive would work (with lower viscosity adhesives curing faster than higher viscosity adhesives), cyanoacrylate adhesive prepared for plastic bonding and having a viscosity of at least about 25 centipoise in its uncured state provides optimal results because there is a much better opportunity to move the lens into a desired position before the cyanoacrylate adhesive cures to the point that the lens is permanently fixed in place relative to the image. The most preferred viscosity of the cyanoacrylate adhesive in its uncured state is in the range of about 30 to about 100 centipoise, with a viscosity of about 50 centipoise being the most preferred. Cyanoacrylate adhesive having at least a 25 centipoise viscosity allows for sufficient time for repositioning of the lens, with the adhesive being sufficiently thin to allowing for the adhesive to spread evenly. This results in the formation of a cyanoacrylate adhesive layer 14 with provides pleasing optical results.
 The use of a higher viscosity cyanoacrylate adhesive (i.e., of at least about 25 centipoise) provides another advantage over less viscous cyanoacrylate adhesive. Sometimes a "flat" base of a lens is not exactly flat. It may be a bit convex, a bit concave, and or it may have irregularities in its surface. The higher viscosity cyanoacrylate adhesive allows for the entire base to have cyanoacrylate adhesive between it and the image bearing sheet, with no air "bubbles" in crevices or the top of a concavity, and with no portions of the base ending up in direct contact with the image bearing sheet. The higher viscosity cyanoacrylate adhesive also can fill larger gaps or irregularities than lower viscosity cyanoacrylate adhesive.
 While even the higher viscosity cyanoacrylate adhesive will typically cure sufficiently within about 0.25 to 0.75 minute to fix the lens in place relative to the image on the image bearing sheet, it may be good practice to allow the cyanoacrylate adhesive to fully cure for about 5 to 30 hours before further handling of the image-lens-combination.
 As the adhesive cures and bonds the lens to the image bearing sheet, vapors escape from the adhesive. These vapors tend to leave a white deposit, or bloom, on the surface of the acrylic lens. This tends to mar the clarity of the lens and to expose any fingerprints left by the person making the image-lens-combination when that person was positioning the lens on the image-bearing sheet. To prevent fingerprints from appearing on the lens, a mar shield should be used for handling the lens at least up until the adhesive has completely cured. The mar shield could be almost any item that allows the lens to be gripped and which does not react with the vapors to leave marks on the lens. Examples of a mar shield include a cloth, tongs, forceps, a clamp and a vice grip. Another convenient mar shield is a glove or gloves worn by the person making the image-lens-combination. Vinyl gloves that are latex and powder free are preferred. Using gloves as the mar shield as compared to using a cloth, forceps and the like allows the person making the image-lens-combination to more adroitly manipulate the lens while having a less obstructed view of the image through the lens when the lens is being positioned over the cyanoacrylate adhesive and the image bearing sheet. Depending upon the number of image-lens-combinations being made during any one session, a person making the image-lens-combinations will develop techniques for speedy yet accurate disposition and maneuvering of the lens over the cyanoacrylate adhesive and image. For example, the person may choose to keep the cyanoacrylate adhesive dispensing bottle constantly in one hand while picking up, placing and maneuvering a sequence of lenses. Also, while, depending on the specific use, any of the octyl, methyl, ethyl or butyl cyanoacrylate adhesives could work provided that they are formulated into the appropriate viscosity, it is preferred that the butyl cyanoacrylate adhesive NI 50 from Adhesive Systems, Inc. of Frankfort, Ill. be used because of its low odor/low bloom characteristics.
 In addition, to remove the deposits left by the vapor on the lens after the adhesive has cured, a lint-free cloth (preferably silk, though polyester is another preferred cloth), wetted with a debonder, should be gently or lightly wiped over the surface of the lens, while of course staying away from the base of the lens (or risk marring the image). A nitromethane-based debonder is the preferred debonder for cleaning the lens. It removes the deposits, and most if not all fingerprints or other marks put on the lens during the assembly of the image-lens-combination, without fogging or otherwise marring the acrylic lens as acetone, a known cyanoacrylate adhesive solvent tends to do In addition, the nitromethane tends to make the acrylic lens appear to "shine."
 The portion of sheet 12 which extends out from the perimeter of the base of the lens should be cut away. Preferably, the cutting away would be done after the adhesive has cured and before the acrylic lens is cleaned with debonder. The cutting away could be done immediately after the lens is positioned on the sheet. It could even be done before the adhesive is applied to the image-bearing sheet. However, waiting until after the adhesive has completely cured will result in a more efficient process, and eliminates the risk that a lens will be moved relative to the image during the cutting step. Scissors could be used to accomplish the cutting. If large quantities of image-lens-combinations were being made, such as for commercial purposes, those having ordinary skill in the art would know that having an arbor punch press, fitted with a punch configured to accommodate the size and shape of a particular lens, could make the process more efficient.
 FIG. 10 illustrates a top view of the image-lens-combination 10. The image-lens-combination is shown in FIGS. 1-5 inserted in a pendant. Insertion of the image-lens-combination into setting 22 can be accomplished by methods known in the art.
 As noted above, wall 26 of the setting shown in FIGS. 1-5 and 11 has a lip 27 extending inward from its top. With a lens which is widest at its base, the lens can be snap-fit into the setting. As indicated in FIG. 11, the image-lens-combination is positioned over the setting, with sheet 12 portion of the image-lens-combination positioned closest to the setting's base 24. The image-lens-combination is then pushed toward the base of the setting, and, with enough pressure, the lip distorts so that the base of the image-lens-combination snaps into snug relationship against the base of the setting. The inwardly extending lip helps hold the lens in the setting, and may eliminate the need for any adhesive to be used to keep the image-lens-combination in the setting. The lip also helps conceal any roughness around the peripheral edge of lens's base left from uneven cutting of the portion of the sheet extending beyond the base's periphery. The image-lens-combination could be hand-pressed into a setting, or a rubber mallet could be used. If large quantities of image-lens-combinations were being put into settings, such as for commercial purposes, those having ordinary skill in the art would know that having an appropriately configured arbor setting press could make the process more efficient.
 However, not all settings used with the image lens need have an inwardly extending lip. In addition, it is sometimes preferred that the image-lens-combination be adhesively held in the setting. To accomplish this, as shown in FIG. 11, several double-sided adhesive discs 25, such as sold by Glue Dots International under the trademark "GLUE DOTS," are positioned on the top surface of pendant base 24 before the image-lens-combination is placed over the setting. Instead of double-sided adhesive discs, household cement or crafter's white glue could be used, and is preferred.
 Cyanoacrylate adhesive drops 15 could be used instead. If such drops are used, a glove should be worn at least on the hand holding the image-lens-combination, and cleaning with a debonder should be done as discussed above.
 Depending on the shape and size of the acrylic lens, the image-lens-combination may be used, with or without a setting, as paper weight or a framed picture or otherwise. As noted above, a water-resistant sheet of material is preferred, particularly when the image-lens-combination is used for jewelry or clothing accessories. For other uses, such as for a paper weight or framed picture, water resistance is not nearly as important a consideration and the sheet of material could be plain paper or textile. In this regard, pictures cut from magazines could be used, although, if a coating is not applied to the magazine picture, an area of the magazine picture which would not be covered by the lens should be tested to assure that the cyanoacrylate adhesive does not mar the image.
 As discussed above in connection with FIGS. 20 and 21, the acrylic lens may be other than hemispherically shaped. By way of further example, as shown in FIGS. 12-19, the lens may be a cubical lens 32. (In this embodiment, a coating has not been applied to the sheet after the image has been printed on it.) Since the cubical lens would not magnify the image, once the image is appropriately sized to fit the base of the lens, further reduction of the image in any direction would not be necessary to preserve the original appearance of the image. So, as shown in FIGS. 14-16, image-lens-combination 40 is made the same way as image-lens-combination 10 except that the counter-distortion step would usually be omitted. Image-lens-combination 40 would be affixed in setting 42, as shown in FIGS. 17-18, having a square base 44 and a peripheral wall 46 upstanding from the base, and connection loops 48 connected to the pendant base and/or peripheral wall, in the same way that the image-lens-combination 10 is embedded in setting 22. As noted above, a setting does not have to have an inwardly extending lip at the top of its peripheral wall. While setting 42 could have such a lip, it does not, and image-lens-combination 40 is retained in the setting by the adhesive (here double-sided adhesive discs 25) placed on the top surface of setting base 44. In addition, depending on the tightness of the fit between the setting's wall and the sides of the lens, friction may also hold the image-lens-combination in the setting.
 The invention includes the method of making an image-lens-combination including at least the following steps:
 !. Disposing uncured cyanoacrylate adhesive having a viscosity of at least about 25 centipoise on to at least parts of a portion of a sheet bearing the portion of an image that is desired to be included in the image-lens-combination.
 2. Pushing at least a portion of a surface of a translucent acrylic lens (i.e., as discussed above, this portion is referred to as the base of the lens even if the lens is spherical) against the uncured cyanoacrylate adhesive until the uncured cyanoacrylate adhesive spreads substantially evenly between the base of the translucent acrylic lens and the above-mentioned portion of the sheet.
 3. Allowing the cyanoacrylate adhesive to cure.
 The following additional steps are also part of the invention and any or all of them may be incorporated into the method:
 4. Using a mar shield to hold the lens while pressing the lens against the cyanoacrylate adhesive and/or while cleaning the acrylic lens.
 5. Cleaning the acrylic lens with a debonder to remove any deposit on the lens from vapor produced during the curing of the cyanoacrylate adhesive.
 6. Removing any portion of the sheet which extends beyond the base of the translucent acrylic lens.
 7. Applying the image on to a sheet of material.
 8. Applying a clear coating over the image bearing sheet before applying cyanoacrylate adhesive to it.
 9. Sizing the image so that it corresponds to the size of the base of the lens.
 10. Distorting the image to counter the distortion effects of the lens and/or to obtain other desired artistic results.
 11. Using at least one glove as the mar shield.
 12. Using a cloth material, preferably a lint-free cloth (and preferably silk or polyester), wetted with debonder.
 13. Using a nitromethane-based debonder as the debonder.
 14. Using a sheet of water-resistant material to bear the image.
 15. Using cyanoacrylate adhesive having a viscosity in the range of about 30 to about 100 centipoise, and preferably about 50 centipoise.
 16. Using cyanoacrylate adhesive prepared for plastic bonding.
 17. Using butyl cyanoacrylate adhesive.
 18. Using an acrylic lens which is substantially transparent.
 It will be understood that various changes of the details, materials, steps, arrangement of parts and uses which have been herein described and illustrated in order to explain the nature of the invention will occur to and may be made by those skilled in the art, and such changes are intended to be included within the scope of this invention.
Patent applications in class MISCELLANEOUS
Patent applications in all subclasses MISCELLANEOUS