Patent application title: PEPTIDES FOR THE REGULATION OF NEUROTRANSMITTER SEQUESTRATION AND RELEASE
Nirit Lev (Ramat-Gan, IL)
Ramot At Tel-Aviv University Ltd. (Tel-Aviv, IL)
Daniel Offen (Kfar Haroe, IL)
Daniel Offen (Kfar Haroe, IL)
Eldad Melamed (Tel-Aviv, IL)
Eldad Melamed (Tel-Aviv, IL)
Ramot At Tel Aviv University Ltd.
IPC8 Class: AC07K706FI
Publication date: 2013-05-16
Patent application number: 20130123187
A method of selecting an agent comprising a neuroprotecting activity is
disclosed. The method comprises: (a) introducing a plurality of agents
into a plurality of cells; and (b) analyzing Vesicular Monoamine
Transporter 2 (VMAT2) transcription in the cells; and (c) identifying an
agent of the plurality of agents capable of up-regulating DJ-1-dependent
VMAT2 transcription in the cells, thereby selecting the agent comprising
the neuroprotecting activity.
1. A method of selecting an agent comprising a neuroprotecting activity,
the method comprising: (a) introducing a plurality of agents into a
plurality of cells; (b) analyzing Vesicular Monoamine Transporter 2
(VMAT2) transcription in said cells; and (c) identifying an agent of the
plurality of agents capable of up-regulating DJ-1-dependent VMAT2
transcription in said cells, thereby selecting the agent comprising the
2. The method of claim 1, wherein the agent is a peptide agent.
3. The method of claim 1, wherein the agent is a small molecule.
4. The method of claim 2, wherein said peptide agent comprises a DJ-1 sequence.
5. The method of claim 1, wherein said cell is a neuronal cell.
6. The method of claim 5, wherein said neuronal cell is a neuroblastoma cell.
7. The method of claim 1, wherein said analyzing is effected by determining an interaction between the agent and a promoter region of a Vesicular Monoamine Transporter 2 (VMAT2) polynucleotide.
8. The method of claim 1, wherein said analyzing is effected by a transcription assay.
9. The method of claim 8, wherein said transcription assay is a reporter based assay.
10. The method of claim 7, wherein said promoter region of VMAT2 is endogenous to said cell.
11. The method of claim 7, wherein said promoter region of VMAT2 is exogenous to said cell.
12. The method of claim 11, wherein said promoter region is transcriptionally linked to a detectable polypeptide.
13. An agent identified according to the method of claim 1.
14. The agent of claim 13, being a peptide agent.
15. An isolated peptide or peptide mimetic thereof, comprising an amino acid sequence which regulates VMAT2 transcription, the peptide being no more than 30 amino acids in length.
16. An isolated peptide comprising an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs: 1-6, 17-526 and 527.
17. An isolated polynucleotide comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding the peptide of claim 14.
18. An isolated polynucleotide comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding the peptide of claim 16.
19. A method of treating a neurodegenerative disorder, the method comprising administering to an individual in need thereof a therapeutically effective amount of the isolated peptide of claim 16, thereby treating the neurodegenerative disorder.
20. A method of treating a neurodegenerative disorder, the method comprising administering to an individual in need thereof a therapeutically effective amount of the isolated polynucleotide of claim 18, thereby treating the neurodegenerative disorder.
21. A method of increasing viability of neuronal cells, the method comprising contacting the neuronal cells with an agent selected according to the method of claim 1, thereby increasing viability of the neuronal cells.
22. A method of selecting an agent comprising a neurotoxic activity, the method comprising: (a) introducing agents into a cell; (b) analyzing Vesicular Monoamine Transporter 2 (VMAT2) transcription in said cell; and (c) identifying the agent capable of down-regulating DJ-1-dependent VMAT2 transcription in said cell, thereby selecting the agent comprising the neurotoxic activity.
23. A method of decreasing viability of neuronal cells, the method comprising contacting the neuronal cells with an agent selected according to the method of claim 22, thereby decreasing viability of the neuronal cells.
 This application is a divisional of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/450,076 filed on Nov. 24, 2009, which is a National Phase of PCT Patent Application No. PCT/IL2008/000336 having International Filing Date of Mar. 12, 2008, which claims the benefit of priority of U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 60/906,226 filed on Mar. 12, 2007. The contents of the above applications are all incorporated herein by reference.
FIELD AND BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
 The present invention relates to novel agents such as peptides useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.
 Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multifactorial disease caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Although most patients suffering from PD have a sporadic disease, several genetic causes have been identified in recent years. An increasing number of genes that cause inherited forms of PD have provided the opportunity for new insights into the mechanisms at the basis of the disease. These genes include alpha-synuclein, parkin, PINK1, dardarin (LRRK2), and DJ-1.
 DJ-1 deletions and point mutations have been found worldwide, and loss of functional protein was shown to cause autosomal recessive PD. DJ-1 encodes a small 189 amino acid protein that is ubiquitously expressed and highly conserved throughout diverse species. DJ-1 is widely distributed and is highly expressed in the brain and extra cerebral tissues. The high expression of DJ-1 in the central nervous system (CNS) is not confined to a single anatomical or functional system. Within the substantia nigra, however, DJ-1 is localized in both neuronal and glial cells, suggesting a distinct role in this area.
 Accumulating data suggests that DJ-1 plays an important role in the oxidative stress response, but the exact mechanism of action is unknown [Kim, 2005, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 102, 5215-5220; Choi, 2006, J. Biol. Chem. 281, 10816-10824]. DJ-1 has several isoforms with different isoelectric points (pI). This pI shift is caused by the oxidation of cysteine and methionine residues in DJ-1. Post-mortem studies of brain samples taken from PD patients found that the acidic isoforms of DJ-1 are more abundant in PD brains as compared to controls [Choi, 2006, J. Biol. Chem. 281, 10816-10824]. Elevated levels of DJ-1 were recently reported in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of sporadic PD patients [Waragai, 2006, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 345, 967-972]. These studies imply that DJ-1 has a role not only in selective inherited cases but also in the more common sporadic disease.
 Dopamine is a highly toxic molecule. Neurotoxicity due to elevated cytosolic dopamine has long been implicated in etiology of neurodegeneration in PD. Dopaminergic neurons protect themselves from dopamine toxicity by its concentration within intracytoplasmic vesicles. Vesicular monoamine transporters (VMATs) mediate accumulation of monoamines such as serotonin, dopamine, adrenaline, noradrenaline, and histamine from the cytoplasm into storage organelles. There are two isoforms of VMATs identified in humans: VMAT1 and VMAT2, which are also members of the solute carrier family 18 (SLC18A1 and SLC18A2, respectively). These proteins share 60% sequence identity; however, they demonstrate a range of differences in their physiologic and pharmacologic properties. VMAT1 is expressed primarily in neuroendocrine cells such as the adrenal medulla and pineal gland, while VMAT2 is expressed in all aminergic neurons in the mammalian CNS. The vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2) transfers dopamine from the cytoplasm into these synaptic vesicles, thereby controlling intraneuronal sequestration of dopamine, preventing its cytoplasmic oxidation and preparing it for the exocytotic quantal release.
 Biogenic amines play critical roles in consciousness, mood, thought, motivation, cognition, perception, and autonomic responses. Alterations in genes encoding VMATs might play an important role in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric diseases including bipolar disease, depression, addiction and schizophrenia (Richards, 2006). VMAT2 is a site of action of important drugs such as reserpine and tetrabenazine, both of which inhibit vesicular amine transport. Reserpine is a useful drug in the treatment of hypertension and schizophrenia; however, high dosages of reserpine frequently produce a syndrome resembling depressive disorder. The monoamine theory is one of the major hypotheses about the biological etiology of major depressive disorders. Recent pharmacological and postmortem investigations suggest that depressed patients have alterations in function of serotonergic neuronal system. Elevated levels of VMAT2 have been reported in the brain of bipolar disorder patients and in platelet of untreated depressed patients. It is speculated that altered VMAT2 expression in depressed patients results from a compensatory mechanism to overcome a monoaminergic deficit. Several lines of evidence suggest the involvement of the VMAT in the psychostimulant action of amphetamines which induce monoamine efflux from vesicles.
 U.S. Pat. Appl. No. 20060153807 teaches administration of DJ-1 and peptides thereof for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
 According to an aspect of some embodiments of the present invention there is provided a method of selecting an agent comprising a neuroprotecting activity, the method comprising:
 (a) introducing a plurality of agents into a plurality of cells;
 (b) analyzing Vesicular Monoamine Transporter 2 (VMAT2) transcription in the cells; and
 (c) identifying an agent of the plurality of agents capable of up-regulating DJ-1-dependent VMAT2 transcription in the cells, thereby selecting the agent comprising the neuroprotecting activity.
 According to an aspect of some embodiments of the present invention there is provided an agent identified according to the method of the present invention.
 According to an aspect of some embodiments of the present invention there is provided an isolated peptide or peptide mimetic thereof, comprising an amino acid sequence which regulates VMAT2 transcription, the peptide being no more than 30 amino acids in length.
 According to an aspect of some embodiments of the present invention there is provided an isolated peptide comprising at least one of the amino acid sequences as set forth in SEQ ID NOs: 1-6.
 According to an aspect of some embodiments of the present invention there is provided an isolated polynucleotide comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding the peptide identified according to the method of the present invention.
 According to an aspect of some embodiments of the present invention there is provided an isolated polynucleotide comprising a nucleic acid sequence encoding a peptide comprising an amino acid sequence which regulates VMAT2 transcription, the peptide being no more than 30 amino acids in length.
 According to an aspect of some embodiments of the present invention there is provided a method of treating a neurodegenerative disorder, the method comprising administering to an individual in need thereof a therapeutically effective amount of the isolated peptides of the present invention, thereby treating the neurodegenerative disorder.
 According to an aspect of some embodiments of the present invention there is provided a method of treating a neurodegenerative disorder, the method comprising administering to an individual in need thereof a therapeutically effective amount of the isolated polynucleotides of the present invention, thereby treating the neurodegenerative disorder.
 According to an aspect of some embodiments of the present invention there is provided a method of increasing viability of neuronal cells, the method comprising contacting the neuronal cells with an agent selected according to the method of the present invention, thereby increasing viability of the neuronal cells.
 According to an aspect of some embodiments of the present invention there is provided a method of selecting an agent comprising a neurotoxic activity, the method comprising:
 (a) introducing agents into a cell;
 (b) analyzing Vesicular Monoamine Transporter 2 (VMAT2) transcription in the cell; and
 (c) identifying the agent capable of down-regulating DJ-1-dependent VMAT2 transcription in the cell, thereby selecting the agent comprising the neurotoxic activity.
 According to an aspect of some embodiments of the present invention there is provided a method of decreasing viability of neuronal cells, the method comprising contacting the neuronal cells with an agent selected according to the method of the present invention, thereby decreasing viability of the neuronal cells.
 According to some embodiments of the invention, the agent is a peptide agent.
 According to some embodiments of the invention, the agent is a small molecule.
 According to some embodiments of the invention, the peptide agent comprises a DJ-1 sequence.
 According to some embodiments of the invention, the cell is a neuronal cell.
 According to some embodiments of the invention, the neuronal cell is a neuroblastoma cell.
 According to some embodiments of the invention, the analyzing is effected by determining an interaction between the agent and a promoter region of a Vesicular Monoamine Transporter 2 (VMAT2) polynucleotide.
 According to some embodiments of the invention, the analyzing is effected by a transcription assay.
 According to some embodiments of the invention, the transcription assay is a reporter based assay.
 According to some embodiments of the invention, the promoter region of VMAT2 is endogenous to the cell.
 According to some embodiments of the invention, the promoter region of VMAT2 is exogenous to the cell.
 According to some embodiments of the invention, the promoter region is transcriptionally linked to a detectable polypeptide.
 According to some embodiments of the invention, the agent is a peptide agent.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
 The patent or application file contains at least one drawing executed in color. Copies of this patent or patent application publication with color drawing(s) will be provided by the Office upon request and payment of the necessary fee.
 The invention is herein described, by way of example only, with reference to the accompanying drawings. With specific reference now to the drawings in detail, it is stressed that the particulars shown are by way of example and for purposes of illustrative discussion of the preferred embodiments of the present invention only, and are presented in the cause of providing what is believed to be the most useful and readily understood description of the principles and conceptual aspects of the invention. In this regard, no attempt is made to show structural details of the invention in more detail than is necessary for a fundamental understanding of the invention, the description taken with the drawings making apparent to those skilled in the art how the several forms of the invention may be embodied in practice.
 In the drawings:
 FIGS. 1A-B are bar graphs illustrating that vulnerability to dopamine toxicity and accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) depend on DJ-1 expression levels. FIG. 1A: Exposure to increasing dopamine concentrations (0-500 uM, for 24 hours) causes dose dependent cell death, as evaluated by MTT viability assay. Overexpression of DJ-1 conferred resistance to dopamine while decreasing DJ-1 levels by siRNA led to increased vulnerability to dopamine. Cell viability (%) is expressed as percentage of surviving cells compared with that in non-treated control. Data presented as means±s.d. * indicates viability versus no treatment, p<0.05. Each experiment was repeated 3 times in triplicates. FIG. 1B: Dopamine exposure leads to increased intracellular ROS, as quantified by the DCF assay. Decreased DJ-1 expression by siRNA for DJ-1 led to increased dopamine-induced intracellular ROS. Overexpression of DJ-1 led to a decreased intracellular ROS. Data presented as means±s.d., * p<0.001 (ROS induced by dopamine versus no treatment). † LSD p<0.001 (dopamine-induced ROS in DJ-1 overexpression or siRNA for DJ-1 as compared to naive neuroblastoma). Each experiment was repeated 3 times in triplicates.
 FIGS. 2A-B are bar graphs illustrating that dopamine exposure leads to rapid upregulation of DJ-1 in naive neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, which was abolished by treatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). FIG. 2A: Exposure of naive neuroblastoma to dopamine induced upregulation of DJ-1 mRNA within 1 hour. Pre-treatment with NAC abolished DJ-1 mRNA upregulation. Data presented as means±s.d., * p<0.001. FIG. 2B: Western blot of total cell lysates from naive neuroblastoma cells demonstrates upregulation of DJ-1 protein levels after dopamine exposure. The experiment was repeated 3 times with similar results.
 FIGS. 3A-E are bar graphs and photomicrographs illustrating that overexpression of DJ-1 markedly increases VMAT2 expression levels while siRNA for DJ-1 leads to decreased VMAT2 expression. FIG. 3A: VMAT2 mRNA levels. Overexpression of DJ-1 led to upregulation of VMAT2 mRNA (p=0.0001), while siRNA for DJ-1 led to decreased VMAT2 expression levels (p=0.001). Real time quantitative PCR was repeated 3 times, in triplicates. FIG. 3B: VMAT2 protein expression levels in naive neuroblastoma cells, overexpressing DJ-1 cells, and siRNA for DJ-1 expressing cells as quantified by Western blotting. FIGS. 3C-E: Representative images of naive neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells (FIG. 3C), DJ-1 overexpressing cells (FIG. 3D), and siRNA for DJ-1 expressing cells (FIG. 3E) immunocytochemically stained for VMAT2 (red). Nuclei were counterstained with the DNA-binding dye DAPI (blue). All images were taken in the same exposure times. Experiments were repeated 3 times in duplicates.
 FIGS. 4A-D are bar graphs and photographs illustrating that DJ-1 up regulates VMAT2 expression and function. FIG. 4A: Dopamine exposure leads to upregulation of DJ-1 mRNA within 1 hour. FIG. 4B: Upregulation of VMAT2 mRNA 7 hours following dopamine exposure. Data presented as means±s.d. * p<0.05; ** p<0.01. FIG. 4c: Chromatin immunopercipitation demonstrating binding of DJ-1 to VMAT2 promotor. Enhanced binding of DJ-1 to VMAT2 promotor is induced by dopamine exposure. Input, 3% of total DNA before IP; IP, done using antibodies specifically recognising DJ-1; non specific Ab, species-matched control antibodies used as negative controls. FIG. 4D: Overexpression of DJ-1 increased KClinduced dopamine release from the synaptic vesicles, while decreased DJ-1 by led to reduced dopamine release. The experiment was repeated 3 times in triplicates. Data presented as means±s.d. * p<0.001; ** p=0.003 versus naive neuroblastoma cells.
 FIG. 5 is an example of a bioinformatics analysis of the DJ-1 polypeptide (SEQ ID NO: 528) as analyzed by ConSeq®.
 FIG. 6 is a schematic illustration of the proposed mechanism of DJ-1 protection from dopamine toxicity.
 FIGS. 7A-B are bar graphs illustrating the expression level of DJ-1. Overexpression of DJ-1 was effected by stable transfection, and reduced DJ-1 levels were effected by transfection with siRNA for DJ-1. Expression levels of DJ-1 were demonstrated by quantifying mRNA levels (using quantitative Real time PCR (FIG. 7A) as well as protein levels (using Western blot, FIG. 7B). Error bars indicate mean±s.d. * p<0.001. Cells overexpressing DJ-1 increased the DJ-1 mRNA and protein levels over 3-fold, while siRNA for DJ-1 led to reduced DJ-1 expression to 40% of basal levels. These cells had similar growth rates and maintained normal morphological features similar to naive neuroblastoma SHSY5Y cells.
 FIGS. 8A-B are bar graphs illustrating that DJ-1 overexpression protects against dopaminergic toxins such as rotenone (FIG. 8A) and 6-hydroxydopamine (FIG. 8B). Error bars indicate mean±s.d. * p<0.05.
 FIGS. 9A-B illustrate that DJ-1 up-regulates tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and function. FIG. 9A: Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) demonstrating binding of DJ-1 to TH promotor. Dopamine exposure leads to enhanced binding of DJ-1 to TH promotor. Input, 3% of total DNA before ChIP; ChIP, done using antibodies specifically recognising DJ-1; non specific Ab, species-matched control antibodies used as negative controls. FIG. 9B: TH mRNA levels quantified by real time PCR. Overexpression of DJ-1 leads to upregulation of TH mRNA. GAPDH was used as reference gene. Real time quantitative PCR was repeated 3 times, in triplicates.
 FIGS. 10A-E are photographs and graphs illustrating that dopamine exposure leads to the upregulation of DJ-1 in naive neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, which is mediated by phosphorylation of ERK 1,2. Exposure of naive neuroblastoma to dopamine induces phosphorylation of ERK 1,2 within 20-60 minutes as illustrated by Western blotting (FIG. 10A) and immunocytochemistry (FIG. 100). FIG. 10D: Inhibition of ERK1,2 phosphorylation using PD98059 inhibited DJ-1 mRNA upregulation induced by dopamine. Real time quantitative PCR was repeated 3 times, in triplicate. Data are presented as means±s.d. FIG. 10E: Western blot analysis demonstrated that the inhibition of ERK1,2 phosphorylation using PD98059 abolished DJ-1 protein upregulation induced by dopamine. Data are presented as means±s.d. of three independent experiments.
 FIGS. 11A-B are bar graphs illustrating that in vivo 6-hydroxydopamine intrastriatal injection leads to ERK1,2 phosphorylation and elevation of DJ-1 and VMAT2 protein levels. FIG. 11A: Unilateral (right) in vivo 6-hydroxydopamine intrastriatal injection leads to the elevation of DJ-1 and VMAT2 protein levels, as evaluated by Western blotting. Data presented as means±s.d. * p<0.05 versus the unlesioned striatum. FIG. 11B: In vivo striatal injection of 6-hydroxydopamine leads to rapid phosphorylation of ERK 1,2 as evaluated by Western blotting. Data presented as means±s.d. * p<0.05 versus the unlesioned striatum.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
 The present invention is of a method of identifying novel neuroprotective DJ-1 derived peptide agents based on the capability thereof of regulating VMAT.
 Specifically, the peptides identified using this novel screening method can be used to treat a myriad of neurodegenerative diseases and protect against neurodamaging toxins.
 The principles and operation of the methods according to the present invention may be better understood with reference to the drawings and accompanying descriptions.
 Before explaining at least one embodiment of the invention in detail, it is to be understood that the invention is not limited in its application to the details set forth in the following description or exemplified by the Examples. The invention is capable of other embodiments or of being practiced or carried out in various ways. Also, it is to be understood that the phraseology and terminology employed herein is for the purpose of description and should not be regarded as limiting.
 The present inventors have identified a novel mechanism by which DJ-1 enhances neuroprotection in the brain. Specifically, the present inventors have uncovered that ROS, generated by free cytoplasmic dopamine, leads to rapid upregulation of DJ-1, which in turn protectively augments the sequestration of dopamine into the synaptic vesicles through transcriptional upregulation of VMAT2.
 The present inventors showed that exposure of human neuroblastoma cells to dopamine led to rapid upregulation of DJ-1, which was mediated through increased intracellular ROS. DJ-1 upregulation was followed by upregulation of VMAT2 expression. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assay the present inventors demonstrated that DJ-1 is a transcriptional regulator that activates VMAT2 at the genomic level. Overexpression of DJ-1 increased cell resistance to dopamine toxicity, reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and markedly increased VMAT2 expression and function.
 Thus, according to one aspect of the present invention, there is provided a method of selecting an agent comprising a neuroprotecting activity, the method comprising:
 (a) introducing a plurality of agents into a plurality of cells; and
 (b) analyzing Vesicular Monoamine Transporter 2 (VMAT2) transcription; and
 identifying an agent of the plurality of agents capable of up-regulating DJ-1-dependent VMAT2 transcription, thereby selecting the agent comprising the neuroprotecting activity.
 The phrase "neuroprotecting activity", as used herein, refers to an activity which inhibits, prevents, ameliorates or reduces the severity of the dysfunction, degeneration or death of nerve cells, axons or their supporting cells in the central nervous system of a mammal, including a human.
 The term "VMAT2", as used herein, refers to the polypeptide, or part of the peptide that transports dopamine from the cytoplasm into the synaptic vesicles, thereby controlling intraneuronal sequestration of dopamine. An exemplary VMAT2 is set forth e.g. in Genbank Accession No. NM--003054.
 As used herein, the term "DJ-1" refers to the polypeptide as set forth in GenBank Accession No: AB073864 (SEQ ID NO: 528), and derivatives and homologues thereof.
 As used herein, the phrase "DJ-1 dependent VMAT2 transcription" refers to the transcription of VMAT2 which requires the presence of a functional DJ-1. The present inventors, using chromatin precipitation, have shown that DJ-1 interacts with the VMAT2 promoter. Without being bound to theory the present inventors postulate that DJ-1 may up-regulate transcription either by binding directly to the promoter region or alternatively by binding to another polypeptide which is capable of binding to the VMAT2 promoter region.
 Agents that are able to up-regulate DJ-1 dependent transcription of VMAT2 include agents that increase the activity (i.e. transcriptional activity) or amount of endogenous DJ-1 and also agents that are able to mimic (i.e. compete with) DJ-1's ability to enhance VMAT2 transcription (i.e. DJ-1 agonists).
 Any type of agent may be identified according to the method of the present invention, including but not limited to polynucleotide agents and polypeptide agents. Candidate agents encompass numerous chemical classes, such as organic molecules, e.g. small organic compounds having a molecular weight of more than 50 and less than about 2,500 daltons. Candidate agents typically comprise functional groups necessary for structural interaction with proteins, particularly hydrogen bonding, and typically include at least an amine, carbonyl, hydroxyl or carboxyl group, preferably at least two of the functional chemical groups. The candidate agents often comprise cyclical carbon or heterocyclic structures and/or aromatic or polyaromatic structures substituted with one or more of the above functional groups. Candidate agents are also found among biomolecules including, but not limited to: peptides, saccharides, fatty acids, steroids, pheromones, purines, pyrimidines, derivatives, structural analogs or combinations thereof.
 Candidate agents may be obtained from a wide variety of sources including libraries of synthetic or natural compounds. For example, numerous means are available for random and directed synthesis of a wide variety of organic compounds and biomolecules, including expression of randomized oligonucleotides and oligopeptides. Alternatively, libraries of natural compounds in the form of bacterial, fungal, plant and animal extracts are available or readily produced. Additionally, natural or synthetically produced libraries and compounds are readily modified through conventional chemical, physical and biochemical means, and may be used to produce combinatorial libraries. Known pharmacological agents may be subjected to directed or random chemical modifications, such as acylation, alkylation, esterification, amidification, etc., to produce structural analogs.
 According to one embodiment, the agent that is capable of up-regulating DJ-1 dependent transcription is a peptide agent. An exemplary agent of the present invention is one that comprises a DJ-1 sequence (i.e. a DJ-1 derived peptide).
 The term "peptide" as used herein refers to a polymer of natural or synthetic amino acids, encompassing native peptides (either degradation products, synthetically synthesized peptides or recombinant peptides) and peptidomimetics (typically, synthetically synthesized peptides), as well as peptoids and semipeptoids which are peptide analogs, which may have, for example, modifications rendering the peptides even more stable while in a body or more capable of penetrating into cells.
 Such modifications include, but are not limited to N terminus modification, C terminus modification, peptide bond modification, including, but not limited to, CH2-NH, CH2-S, CH2-S═O, O═C--NH, CH2-O, CH2-CH2, S═C--NH, CH═CH or CF═CH, backbone modifications, and residue modification. Methods for preparing peptidomimetic compounds are well known in the art and are specified, for example, in Quantitative Drug Design, C. A. Ramsden Gd., Chapter 17.2, F. Choplin Pergamon Press (1992), which is incorporated by reference as if fully set forth herein. Further details in this respect are provided hereinunder.
 Peptide bonds (--CO--NH--) within the peptide may be substituted, for example, by N-methylated bonds (--N(CH3)-CO--), ester bonds (--O(R)H--C--O--O--C(R)--N--), ketomethylen bonds (--CO--CH2-), α-aza bonds (--NH--N(R)--CO--), wherein R is any alkyl, e.g., methyl, carba bonds (--CH2-NH--), hydroxyethylene bonds (--CH(OH)--CH2-), thioamide bonds (--CS--NH--), olefinic double bonds (--CH═CH--), retro amide bonds (--NH--CO--), peptide derivatives (--N(R)--CH2-CO--), wherein R is the "normal" side chain, naturally presented on the carbon atom.
 These modifications can occur at any of the bonds along the peptide chain and even at several (2-3) at the same time.
 Natural aromatic amino acids, Trp, Tyr and Phe, may be substituted for synthetic non-natural acid such as Phenylglycine, TIC, naphthylelanine (Nol), ring-methylated derivatives of Phe, halogenated derivatives of Phe or o-methyl-Tyr.
 In addition to the above, the peptides of the present invention may also include one or more modified amino acids or one or more non-amino acid monomers (e.g. fatty acids, complex carbohydrates etc).
 As used herein in the specification and in the claims section below the term "amino acid" or "amino acids" is understood to include the 20 naturally occurring amino acids; those amino acids often modified post-translationally in vivo, including, for example, hydroxyproline, phosphoserine and phosphothreonine; and other unusual amino acids including, but not limited to, 2-aminoadipic acid, hydroxylysine, isodesmosine, nor-valine, nor-leucine and ornithine. Furthermore, the term "amino acid" includes both D- and L-amino acids (stereoisomers).
 Tables 1 and 2 below list naturally occurring amino acids (Table 1) and non-conventional or modified amino acids (Table 2) which can be used with the present invention.
TABLE-US-00001 TABLE 1 Three-Letter One-letter Amino Acid Abbreviation Symbol alanine Ala A Arginine Arg R Asparagine Asn N Aspartic acid Asp D Cysteine Cys C Glutamine Gln Q Glutamic Acid Glu E glycine Gly G Histidine His H isoleucine Ile I leucine Leu L Lysine Lys K Methionine Met M phenylalanine Phe F Proline Pro P Serine Ser S Threonine Thr T tryptophan Trp W tyrosine Tyr Y Valine Val V Any amino acid as above Xaa X
TABLE-US-00002 TABLE 2 Non-conventional amino acid Code Non-conventional amino acid Code α-aminobutyric acid Abu L-N-methylalanine Nmala α-amino-α-methylbutyrate Mgabu L-N-methylarginine Nmarg aminocyclopropane- Cpro L-N-methylasparagine Nmasn carboxylate L-N-methylaspartic acid Nmasp aminoisobutyric acid Aib L-N-methylcysteine Nmcys aminonorbornyl- Norb L-N-methylglutamine Nmgin carboxylate L-N-methylglutamic acid Nmglu cyclohexylalanine Chexa L-N-methylhistidine Nmhis cyclopentylalanine Cpen L-N-methylisolleucine Nmile D-alanine Dal L-N-methylleucine Nmleu D-arginine Darg L-N-methyllysine Nmlys D-aspartic acid Dasp L-N-methylmethionine Nmmet D-cysteine Dcys L-N-methylnorleucine Nmnle D-glutamine Dgln L-N-methylnorvaline Nmnva D-glutamic acid Dglu L-N-methylornithine Nmorn D-histidine Dhis L-N-methylphenylalanine Nmphe D-isoleucine Dile L-N-methylproline Nmpro D-leucine Dleu L-N-methylserine Nmser D-lysine Dlys L-N-methylthreonine Nmthr D-methionine Dmet L-N-methyltryptophan Nmtrp D-ornithine Dorn L-N-methyltyrosine Nmtyr D-phenylalanine Dphe L-N-methylvaline Nmval D-proline Dpro L-N-methylethylglycine Nmetg D-serine Dser L-N-methyl-t-butylglycine Nmtbug D-threonine Dthr L-norleucine Nle D-tryptophan Dtrp L-norvaline Nva D-tyrosine Dtyr α-methyl-aminoisobutyrate Maib D-valine Dval α-methyl-γ-aminobutyrate Mgabu D-α-methylalanine Dmala α-methylcyclohexylalanine Mchexa D-α-methylarginine Dmarg α-methylcyclopentylalanine Mcpen D-α-methylasparagine Dmasn α-methyl-α-napthylalanine Manap D-α-methylaspartate Dmasp α-methylpenicillamine Mpen D-α-methylcysteine Dmcys N-(4-aminobutyl)glycine Nglu D-α-methylglutamine Dmgln N-(2-aminoethyl)glycine Naeg D-α-methylhistidine Dmhis N-(3-aminopropyl)glycine Norn D-α-methylisoleucine Dmile N-amino-α-methylbutyrate Nmaabu D-α-methylleucine Dmleu α-napthylalanine Anap D-α-methyllysine Dmlys N-benzylglycine Nphe D-α-methylmethionine Dmmet N-(2-carbamylethyl)glycine Ngln D-α-methylornithine Dmorn N-(carbamylmethyl)glycine Nasn D-α-methylphenylalanine Dmphe N-(2-carboxyethyl)glycine Nglu D-α-methylproline Dmpro N-(carboxymethyl)glycine Nasp D-α-methylserine Dmser N-cyclobutylglycine Ncbut D-α-methylthreonine Dmthr N-cycloheptylglycine Nchep D-α-methyltryptophan Dmtrp N-cyclohexylglycine Nchex D-α-methyltyrosine Dmty N-cyclodecylglycine Ncdec D-α-methylvaline Dmval N-cyclododeclglycine Ncdod D-α-methylalnine Dnmala N-cyclooctylglycine Ncoct D-α-methylarginine Dnmarg N-cyclopropylglycine Ncpro D-α-methylasparagine Dnmasn N-cycloundecylglycine Ncund D-α-methylasparatate Dnmasp N-(2,2-diphenylethyl)glycine Nbhm D-α-methylcysteine Dnmcys N-(3,3-diphenylpropyl)glycine Nbhe D-N-methylleucine Dnmleu N-(3-indolylyethyl) glycine Nhtrp D-N-methyllysine Dnmlys N-methyl-γ-aminobutyrate Nmgabu N-methylcyclohexylalanine Nmchexa D-N-methylmethionine Dnmmet D-N-methylornithine Dnmorn N-methylcyclopentylalanine Nmcpen N-methylglycine Nala D-N-methylphenylalanine Dnmphe N-methylaminoisobutyrate Nmaib D-N-methylproline Dnmpro N-(1-methylpropyl)glycine Nile D-N-methylserine Dnmser N-(2-methylpropyl)glycine Nile D-N-methylserine Dnmser N-(2-methylpropyl)glycine Nleu D-N-methylthreonine Dnmthr D-N-methyltryptophan Dnmtrp N-(1-methylethyl)glycine Nva D-N-methyltyrosine Dnmtyr N-methyla-napthylalanine Nmanap D-N-methylvaline Dnmval N-methylpenicillamine Nmpen γ-aminobutyric acid Gabu N-(p-hydroxyphenyl)glycine Nhtyr L-t-butylglycine Tbug N-(thiomethyl)glycine Ncys L-ethylglycine Etg penicillamine Pen L-homophenylalanine Hphe L-α-methylalanine Mala L-α-methylarginine Marg L-α-methylasparagine Masn L-α-methylaspartate Masp L-α-methyl-t-butylglycine Mtbug L-α-methylcysteine Mcys L-methylethylglycine Metg L-α-methylglutamine Mgln L-α-methylglutamate Mglu L-α-methylhistidine Mhis L-α-methylhomo phenylalanine Mhphe L-α-methylisoleucine Mile N-(2-methylthioethyl)glycine Nmet D-N-methylglutamine Dnmgln N-(3-guanidinopropyl)glycine Narg D-N-methylglutamate Dnmglu N-(1-hydroxyethyl)glycine Nthr D-N-methylhistidine Dnmhis N-(hydroxyethyl)glycine Nser D-N-methylisoleucine Dnmile N-(imidazolylethyl)glycine Nhis D-N-methylleucine Dnmleu N-(3-indolylyethyl)glycine Nhtrp D-N-methyllysine Dnmlys N-methyl-γ-aminobutyrate Nmgabu N-methylcyclohexylalanine Nmchexa D-N-methylmethionine Dnmmet D-N-methylornithine Dnmorn N-methylcyclopentylalanine Nmcpen N-methylglycine Nala D-N-methylphenylalanine Dnmphe N-methylaminoisobutyrate Nmaib D-N-methylproline Dnmpro N-(1-methylpropyl)glycine Nile D-N-methylserine Dnmser N-(2-methylpropyl)glycine Nleu D-N-methylthreonine Dnmthr D-N-methyltryptophan Dnmtrp N-(1-methylethyl)glycine Nval D-N-methyltyrosine Dnmtyr N-methyla-napthylalanine Nmanap D-N-methylvaline Dnmval N-methylpenicillamine Nmpen γ-aminobutyric acid Gabu N-(p-hydroxyphenyl)glycine Nhtyr L-t-butylglycine Tbug N-(thiomethyl)glycine Ncys L-ethylglycine Etg penicillamine Pen L-homophenylalanine Hphe L-α-methylalanine Mala L-α-methylarginine Marg L-α-methylasparagine Masn L-α-methylaspartate Masp L-α-methyl-t-butylglycine Mtbug L-α-methylcysteine Mcys L-methylethylglycine Metg L-αthylglutamine Mgln L-α-methylglutamate Mglu L-αethylhistidine Mhis L-α-methylhomophenylalanine Mhphe L-αthylisoleucine Mile N-(2-methylthioethyl)glycine Nmet L-α-methylleucine Mleu L-α-methyllysine Mlys L-α-methylmethionine Mmet L-α-methylnorleucine Mnle L-α-methylnorvaline Mnva L-α-methylornithine Morn L-α-methylphenylalanine Mphe L-α-methylproline Mpro L-α-methylserine mser L-α-methylthreonine Mthr L-αethylvaline Mtrp L-α-methyltyrosine Mtyr L-α-methylleucine Mval L-N-methylhomophenylalanine Nmhphe nbhm N-(N-(2,2-diphenylethyl) N-(N-(3,3-diphenylpropyl) carbamylmethyl-glycine Nnbhm carbamylmethyl(1)glycine Nnbhe 1-carboxy-1-(2,2-diphenyl Nmbc hylamino)cyclopropane
 According to one embodiment, the DJ-1 derived peptide comprises at least a 5% sequence homology to DJ-1. Preferably, the 5% homology covers at least part of the sequence of the DJ-1 peptide that is capable of enhancing VMAT2 transcription. According to one embodiment, the peptide is 5 amino acids long. According to another embodiment, the peptide is 6 amino acids long. According to another embodiment, the peptide is 7 amino acids long. According to another embodiment, the peptide is 8 amino acids long. According to another embodiment, the peptide is 9 amino acids long. According to another embodiment, the peptide is 10 amino acids long. According to another embodiment, the peptide is 11 amino acids long. According to another embodiment, the peptide is 12 amino acids long. According to another embodiment, the peptide is 13 amino acids long. According to another embodiment, the peptide is 14 amino acids long. According to another embodiment, the peptide is 15 amino acids long. According to another embodiment, the peptide is 16 amino acids long. According to another embodiment, the peptide is 17 amino acids long. According to another embodiment, the peptide is 18 amino acids long. According to another embodiment, the peptide is 19 amino acids long. According to another embodiment, the peptide is 20 amino acids long. According to another embodiment, the peptide is 25 amino acids long. According to another embodiment, the peptide is no more than about 30 amino acids long. According to another embodiment, the peptide is no more than about 40 amino acids long. According to another embodiment, the peptide is no more than about 50 amino acids long. According to another embodiment, the peptide is no more than about 60 amino acids long.
 According to one embodiment the DJ-1 derived peptides comprise amino acid sequences whose deletions and point mutations were shown to be associated with Parkinson's--see e.g. Bonifati, V., et al. Science 299, 256-259 (2003); Abou-Sleiman, P. M., et al., Ann. Neurol. 54, 283-286 (2003); Hedrich, K., et al. Neurology 62, 389-394 (2004).
 According to another embodiment the DJ-1 derived peptides comprise amino acid sequences which were shown using bioinformatics anlaysis (e.g. ConSeq® analysis) to be important for structure and/or functionality (e.g. capable of up-regulating transcription of VMAT2). As illustrated in FIG. 5, 17 amino acids were shown to be important for functionality and 13 amino acids were shown to be important for structure.
 Thus, according to another embodiment of this aspect of the present invention, the DJ-1 derived peptides comprise at least one of the following amino acid sequences: amino acids 13-33 of DJ-1--SEQ ID NO: 1; amino acids 44-55 of DJ-1--SEQ ID NO: 2; amino acids 69-79 of DJ-1--SEQ ID NO: 3; amino acids 103-112 of DJ-1--SEQ ID NO: 4; amino acids 124-130 of DJ-1--SEQ ID NO: 5; and amino acids 146-174 of DJ-1--SEQ ID NO: 6.
 Other exemplary contemplated peptides listed in Table 3, herein below are those that comprise at least part of the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NOs: 1-6.
TABLE-US-00003 TABLE 3 seq id derived from DJ-1 Peptide no: peptide no: Sequence Length 17 1 GAEE 4 18 1 AEEM 4 19 1 EEME 4 20 1 EMET 4 21 1 METV 4 22 1 ETVI 4 23 1 TVIP 4 24 1 VIPV 4 25 1 IPVD 4 26 1 PVDV 4 27 1 VDVM 4 28 1 DVMR 4 29 1 VMRR 4 30 1 MRRA 4 31 1 RRAG 4 32 1 RAGI 4 33 1 AGIK 4 34 1 GIKV 4 35 1 GAEEM 5 36 1 AEEME 5 37 1 EEMET 5 38 1 EMETV 5 39 1 METVI 5 40 1 ETVIP 5 41 1 TVIPV 5 42 1 VIPVD 5 43 1 IPVDV 5 44 1 PVDVM 5 45 1 VDVMR 5 46 1 DVMRR 5 47 1 VMRRA 5 48 1 MRRAG 5 49 1 RRAGI 5 50 1 RAGIK 5 51 1 AGIKV 5 52 1 GAEEME 6 53 1 AEEMET 6 54 1 EEMETV 6 55 1 EMETVI 6 56 1 METVIP 6 57 1 ETVIPV 6 58 1 TVIPVD 6 59 1 VIPVDV 6 60 1 IPVDVM 6 61 1 PVDVMR 6 62 1 VDVMRR 6 63 1 DVMRRA 6 64 1 VMRRAG 6 65 1 MRRAGI 6 66 1 RRAGIK 6 67 1 RAGIKV 6 68 1 GAEEMET 7 69 1 AEEMETV 7 70 1 EEMETVI 7 71 1 EMETVIP 7 72 1 METVIPV 7 73 1 ETVIPVD 7 74 1 TVIPVDV 7 75 1 VIPVDVM 7 76 1 IPVDVMR 7 77 1 PVDVMRR 7 78 1 VDVMRRA 7 79 1 DVMRRAG 7 80 1 VMRRAGI 7 81 1 MRRAGIK 7 82 1 RRAGIKV 7 83 1 GAEEMETV 8 84 1 AEEMETVI 8 85 1 EEMETVIP 8 86 1 EMETVIPV 8 87 1 METVIPVD 8 88 1 ETVIPVDV 8 89 1 TVIPVDVM 8 90 1 VIPVDVMR 8 91 1 IPVDVMRR 8 92 1 PVDVMRRA 8 93 1 VDVMRRAG 8 94 1 DVMRRAGI 8 95 1 VMRRAGIK 8 96 1 MRRAGIKV 8 97 1 GAEEMETVI 9 98 1 AEEMETVIP 9 99 1 EEMETVIPV 9 100 1 EMETVIPVD 9 101 1 METVIPVDV 9 102 1 ETVIPVDVM 9 103 1 TVIPVDVMR 9 104 1 VIPVDVMRR 9 105 1 IPVDVMRRA 9 106 1 PVDVMRRAG 9 107 1 VDVMRRAGI 9 108 1 DVMRRAGIK 9 109 1 VMRRAGIKV 9 110 1 GAEEMETVIP 10 111 1 AEEMETVIPV 10 112 1 EEMETVIPVD 10 113 1 EMETVIPVDV 10 114 1 METVIPVDVM 10 115 1 ETVIPVDVMR 10 116 1 TVIPVDVMRR 10 117 1 VIPVDVMRRA 10 118 1 IPVDVMRRAG 10 119 1 PVDVMRRAGI 10 120 1 VDVMRRAGIK 10 121 1 DVMRRAGIKV 10 122 1 GAEEMETVIPV 11 123 1 AEEMETVIPVD 11 124 1 EEMETVIPVDV 11 125 1 EMETVIPVDVM 11 126 1 METVIPVDVMR 11 127 1 ETVIPVDVMRR 11 128 1 TVIPVDVMRRA 11 129 1 VIPVDVMRRAG 11 130 1 IPVDVMRRAGI 11 131 1 PVDVMRRAGIK 11 132 1 VDVMRRAGIKV 11 133 1 GAEEMETVIPVD 12 134 1 AEEMETVIPVDV 12 135 1 EEMETVIPVDVM 12 136 1 EMETVIPVDVMR 12 137 1 METVIPVDVMRR 12 138 1 ETVIPVDVMRRA 12
139 1 TVIPVDVMRRAG 12 140 1 VIPVDVMRRAGI 12 141 1 IPVDVMRRAGIK 12 142 1 PVDVMRRAGIKV 12 143 1 GAEEMETVIPVDV 13 144 1 AEEMETVIPVDVM 13 145 1 EEMETVIPVDVMR 13 146 1 EMETVIPVDVMRR 13 147 1 METVIPVDVMRRA 13 148 1 ETVIPVDVMRRAG 13 149 1 TVIPVDVMRRAGI 13 150 1 VIPVDVMRRAGIK 13 151 1 IPVDVMRRAGIKV 13 152 1 GAEEMETVIPVDVM 14 153 1 AEEMETVIPVDVMR 14 154 1 EEMETVIPVDVMRR 14 155 1 EMETVIPVDVMRRA 14 156 1 METVIPVDVMRRAG 14 157 1 ETVIPVDVMRRAGI 14 158 1 TVIPVDVMRRAGIK 14 159 1 VIPVDVMRRAGIKV 14 160 1 GAEEMETVIPVDVMR 15 161 1 AEEMETVIPVDVMRR 15 162 1 EEMETVIPVDVMRRA 15 163 1 EMETVIPVDVMRRAG 15 164 1 METVIPVDVMRRAGI 15 165 1 ETVIPVDVMRRAGIK 15 166 1 TVIPVDVMRRAGIKV 15 167 2 VQCS 4 168 2 QCSR 4 169 2 CSRD 4 170 2 SRDV 4 171 2 RDVV 4 172 2 DVVI 4 173 2 VVIC 4 174 2 VICP 4 175 2 ICPD 4 176 2 VQCSR 5 177 2 QCSRD 5 178 2 CSRDV 5 179 2 SRDVV 5 180 2 RDVVI 5 181 2 DVVIC 5 182 2 VVICP 5 183 2 VICPD 5 184 2 VQCSRD 6 185 2 QCSRDV 6 186 2 CSRDVV 6 187 2 SRDVVI 6 188 2 RDVVIC 6 189 2 DVVICP 6 190 2 VVICPD 6 191 2 VQCSRDV 7 192 2 QCSRDVV 7 193 2 CSRDVVI 7 194 2 SRDVVIC 7 195 2 RDVVICP 7 196 2 DVVICPD 7 197 2 VQCSRDVV 8 198 2 QCSRDVVI 8 199 2 CSRDVVIC 8 200 2 SRDVVICP 8 201 2 RDVVICPD 8 202 2 VQCSRDVVI 9 203 2 QCSRDVVIC 9 204 2 CSRDVVICP 9 205 2 SRDVVICPD 9 206 2 VQCSRDVVIC 10 207 2 QCSRDVVICP 10 208 2 CSRDVVICPD 10 209 2 VQCSRDVVICP 11 210 2 QCSRDVVICPD 11 211 3 VVVL 4 212 3 VVLP 4 213 3 VLPG 4 214 3 LPGG 4 215 3 PGGN 4 216 3 GGNL 4 217 3 GNLG 4 218 3 NLGA 4 219 3 VVVLP 5 220 3 VVLPG 5 221 3 VLPGG 5 222 3 LPGGN 5 223 3 PGGNL 5 224 3 GGNLG 5 225 3 GNLGA 5 226 3 VVVLPG 6 227 3 VVLPGG 6 228 3 VLPGGN 6 229 3 LPGGNL 6 230 3 PGGNLG 6 231 3 GGNLGA 6 232 3 VVVLPGG 7 233 3 VVLPGGN 7 234 3 VLPGGNL 7 235 3 LPGGNLG 7 236 3 PGGNLGA 7 237 3 VVVLPGGN 8 238 3 VVLPGGNL 8 239 3 VLPGGNLG 8 240 3 LPGGNLGA 8 241 3 VVVLPGGNL 9 242 3 VVLPGGNLG 9 243 3 VLPGGNLGA 9 244 3 VVVLPGGNLG 10 245 3 VVLPGGNLGA 10 246 4 AAIC 4 247 4 AICA 4 248 4 ICAG 4 249 4 CACP 4 250 4 AGPT 4 251 4 GPTA 4 252 4 PTAL 4 253 4 AAICA 5 254 4 AICAG 5 255 4 ICAGP 5 256 4 CAGPT 5 257 4 AGPTA 5 258 4 GPTAL 5 259 4 AAICAG 6 260 4 AICAGP 6 261 4 ICAGPT 6 262 4 CAGPTA 6 263 4 AGPTAL 6 264 4 AAICAGP 7
265 4 AICAGPT 7 266 4 ICAGPTA 7 267 4 CAGPTAL 7 268 4 AAICAGPT 8 269 4 AICAGPTA 8 270 4 ICAGPTAL 8 271 4 AAICAGPTA 9 272 4 AICAGPTAL 9 273 5 TTHP 4 274 5 THPL 4 275 5 HPLA 4 276 5 PLAK 4 277 5 TTHPL 5 278 5 THPLA 5 279 5 HPLAK 5 280 5 TTHPLA 6 281 5 THPLAK 6 282 6 VEKD 4 283 6 EKDG 4 284 6 KDGL 4 285 6 DGLI 4 286 6 GLIL 4 287 6 LILT 4 288 6 ILTS 4 289 6 LTSR 4 290 6 TSRG 4 291 6 SRGP 4 292 6 RGPG 4 293 6 GPGT 4 294 6 PGTS 4 295 6 GTSF 4 296 6 TSFE 4 297 6 SFEF 4 298 6 FEFA 4 299 6 EFAL 4 300 6 FALA 4 301 6 ALAI 4 302 6 LAIV 4 303 6 AIVE 4 304 6 IVEA 4 305 6 VEAL 4 306 6 EALN 4 307 6 ALNG 4 308 6 VEKDG 5 309 6 EKDGL 5 310 6 KDGLI 5 311 6 DGLIL 5 312 6 GLILT 5 313 6 LILTS 5 314 6 ILTSR 5 315 6 LTSRG 5 316 6 TSRGP 5 317 6 SRGPG 5 318 6 RGPGT 5 319 6 GPGTS 5 320 6 PGTSF 5 321 6 GTSFE 5 322 6 TSFEF 5 323 6 SFEFA 5 324 6 FEFAL 5 325 6 EFALA 5 326 6 FALAI 5 327 6 ALAIV 5 328 6 LAIVE 5 329 6 AIVEA 5 330 6 IVEAL 5 331 6 VEALN 5 332 6 EALNG 5 333 6 VEKDGL 6 334 6 EKDGLI 6 335 6 KDGLIL 6 336 6 DGLILT 6 337 6 GLILTS 6 338 6 LILTSR 6 339 6 ILTSRG 6 340 6 LTSRGP 6 341 6 TSRGPG 6 342 6 SRGPGT 6 343 6 RGPGTS 6 344 6 GPGTSF 6 345 6 PGTSFE 6 346 6 GTSFEF 6 347 6 TSFEFA 6 348 6 SFEFAL 6 349 6 FEFALA 6 350 6 EFALAI 6 351 6 FALAIV 6 352 6 ALAIVE 6 353 6 LAIVEA 6 354 6 AIVEAL 6 355 6 IVEALN 6 356 6 VEALNG 6 357 6 VEKDGLI 7 358 6 EKDGLIL 7 359 6 KDGLILT 7 360 6 DGLILTS 7 361 6 GLILTSR 7 362 6 LILTSRG 7 363 6 ILTSRGP 7 364 6 LTSRGPG 7 365 6 TSRGPGT 7 366 6 SRGPGTS 7 367 6 RGPGTSF 7 368 6 GPGTSFE 7 369 6 PGTSFEF 7 370 6 GTSFEFA 7 371 6 TSFEFAL 7 372 6 SFEFALA 7 373 6 FEFALAI 7 374 6 EFALAIV 7 375 6 FALAIVE 7 376 6 ALAIVEA 7 377 6 LAIVEAL 7 378 6 AIVEALN 7 379 6 IVEALNG 7 380 6 VEKDGLIL 8 381 6 EKDGLILT 8 382 6 KDGLILTS 8 383 6 DGLILTSR 8 384 6 GLILTSRG 8 385 6 LILTSRGP 8 386 6 ILTSRGPG 8 387 6 LTSRGPGT 8 388 6 TSRGPGTS 8 389 6 SRGPGTSF 8
390 6 RGPGTSFE 8 391 6 GPGTSFEF 8 392 6 PGTSFEFA 8 393 6 GTSFEFAL 8 394 6 TSFEFALA 8 395 6 SFEFALAI 8 396 6 FEFALAIV 8 397 6 EFALAIVE 8 398 6 FALAIVEA 8 399 6 ALAIVEAL 8 400 6 LAIVEALN 8 401 6 AIVEALNG 8 402 6 VEKDGLILT 9 403 6 EKDGLILTS 9 404 6 KDGLILTSR 9 405 6 DGLILTSRG 9 406 6 GLILTSRGP 9 407 6 LILTSRGPG 9 408 6 ILTSRGPGT 9 409 6 LTSRGPGTS 9 410 6 TSRGPGTSF 9 411 6 SRGPGTSFE 9 412 6 RGPGTSFEF 9 413 6 GPGTSFEFA 9 414 6 PGTSFEFAL 9 415 6 GTSFEFALA 9 416 6 TSFEFALAI 9 417 6 SFEFALAIV 9 418 6 FEFALAIVE 9 419 6 EFALAIVEA 9 420 6 FALAIVEAL 9 421 6 ALAIVEALN 9 422 6 LAIVEALNG 9 423 6 VEKDGLILTS 10 424 6 EKDGLILTSR 10 425 6 KDGLILTSRG 10 426 6 DGLILTSRGP 10 427 6 GLILTSRGPG 10 428 6 LILTSRGPGT 10 429 6 ILTSRGPGTS 10 430 6 LTSRGPGTSF 10 431 6 TSRGPGTSFE 10 432 6 SRGPGTSFEF 10 433 6 RGPGTSFEFA 10 434 6 GPGTSFEFAL 10 435 6 PGTSFEFALA 10 436 6 GTSFEFALAI 10 437 6 TSFEFALAIV 10 438 6 SFEFALAIVE 10 439 6 FEFALAIVEA 10 440 6 EFALAIVEAL 10 441 6 FALAIVEALN 10 442 6 ALAIVEALNG 10 443 6 VEKDGLILTSR 11 444 6 EKDGLILTSRG 11 445 6 KDGLILTSRGP 11 446 6 DGLILTSRGPG 11 447 6 GLILTSRGPGT 11 448 6 LILTSRGPGTS 11 449 6 ILTSRGPGTSF 11 450 6 LTSRGPGTSFE 11 451 6 TSRGPGTSFEF 11 452 6 SRGPGTSFEFA 11 453 6 RGPGTSFEFAL 11 454 6 GPGTSFEFALA 11 455 6 PGTSFEFALAI 11 456 6 GTSFEFALAIV 11 457 6 TSFEFALAIVE 11 458 6 SFEFALAIVEA 11 459 6 FEFALAIVEAL 11 460 6 EFALAIVEALN 11 461 6 FALAIVEALNG 11 462 6 VEKDGLILTSRG 12 463 6 EKDGLILTSRGP 12 464 6 KDGLILTSRGPG 12 465 6 DGLILTSRGPGT 12 466 6 GLILTSRGPGTS 12 467 6 LILTSRGPGTSF 12 468 6 ILTSRGPGTSFE 12 469 6 LTSRGPGTSFEF 12 470 6 TSRGPGTSFEFA 12 471 6 SRGPGTSFEFAL 12 472 6 RGPGTSFEFALA 12 473 6 GPGTSFEFALAI 12 474 6 PGTSFEFALAIV 12 475 6 GTSFEFALAIVE 12 476 6 TSFEFALAIVEA 12 477 6 SFEFALAIVEAL 12 478 6 FEFALAIVEALN 12 479 6 EFALAIVEALNG 12 480 6 VEKDGLILTSRGP 13 481 6 EKDGLILTSRGPG 13 482 6 KDGLILTSRGPGT 13 483 6 DGLILTSRGPGTS 13 484 6 GLILTSRGPGTSF 13 485 6 LILTSRGPGTSFE 13 486 6 ILTSRGPGTSFEF 13 487 6 LTSRGPGTSFEFA 13 488 6 TSRGPGTSFEFAL 13 489 6 SRGPGTSFEFALA 13 490 6 RGPGTSFEFALAI 13 491 6 GPGTSFEFALAIV 13 492 6 PGTSFEFALAIVE 13 493 6 GTSFEFALAIVEA 13 494 6 TSFEFALAIVEAL 13 495 6 SFEFALAIVEALN 13 496 6 FEFALAIVEALNG 13 497 6 VEKDGLILTSRGPG 14 498 6 EKDGLILTSRGPGT 14 499 6 KDGLILTSRGPGTS 14 500 6 DGLILTSRGPGTSF 14 501 6 GLILTSRGPGTSFE 14 502 6 LILTSRGPGTSFEF 14 503 6 ILTSRGPGTSFEFA 14 504 6 LTSRGPGTSFEFAL 14 505 6 TSRGPGTSFEFALA 14 506 6 SRGPGTSFEFALAI 14 507 6 RGPGTSFEFALAIV 14 508 6 GPGTSFEFALAIVE 14 509 6 PGTSFEFALAIVEA 14 510 6 GTSFEFALAIVEAL 14 511 6 TSFEFALAIVEALN 14 512 6 SFEFALAIVEALNG 14 513 6 VEKDGLILTSRGPGT 15 514 6 EKDGLILTSRGPGTS 15 515 6 KDGLILTSRGPGTSF 15
516 6 DGLILTSRGPGTSFE 15 517 6 GLILTSRGPGTSFEF 15 518 6 LILTSRGPGTSFEFA 15 519 6 ILTSRGPGTSFEFAL 15 520 6 LTSRGPGTSFEFALA 15 521 6 TSRGPGTSFEFALAI 15 522 6 SRGPGTSFEFALAIV 15 523 6 RGPGTSFEFALAIVE 15 524 6 GPGTSFEFALAIVEA 15 525 6 PGTSFEFALAIVEAL 15 526 6 GTSFEFALAIVEALN 15 527 6 TSFEFALAIVEALNG 15
 Candidate peptide sequences may be screened by determining if there is an interaction between them and the VMAT2 promoter. Exemplary methods for such screening include EMSA (electromobility shift assay) and chromatin precipitation. Such methods are known to one skilled in the art.
 Alternatively or additionally, the candidate peptides may be screened for regulatory activity of VMAT2 transcription. An exemplary method for analyzing such regulatory activity comprises transfecting a polynucleotide encoding the promoter region of VMAT2 (i.e. an exogenous VMAT2 promoter) linked to a detectable protein (i.e. reporter protein) into a cell--i.e. a reporter based assay. The method further comprises introducing the candidate peptide agents into the cell (e.g. by transfection of an expression vector encoding the agent) and detecting the detectable protein whereby the amount of the detectable protein reflects the transcriptional activity of the promoter. It will be appreciated that the polynucleotide sequence of any protein that may be readily detected may be transcriptionally linked to the VMAT2 promoter. Thus for example, the protein may be a phosphorescent protein such as luciferase, a fluorescent protein such as green fluorescent protein, a chemiluminescent protein or may be a non-directly detectable protein for which an antibody is available for detection thereof. Cells for analyzing transcriptional activity are further described hereinbelow.
 It will be appreciated that transcriptional activity of endogenous VMAT2 may also be analyzed with VMAT2 being detected using a detectable agent such as an antibody.
 Once the minimal amino acid sequence of DJ-1 is identified that is capable of transcriptionally activating VMAT2, other peptides may be synthesized (comprising conservative or non-conservative substitutions) in order to "tweak the system" and generate DJ-1-derived peptides with improved characteristics i.e. comprising an enhanced transcriptional activity.
 The term "conservative substitution" as used herein, refers to the replacement of an amino acid present in the native sequence in the peptide with a naturally or non-naturally occurring amino or a peptidomimetics having similar steric properties. Where the side-chain of the native amino acid to be replaced is either polar or hydrophobic, the conservative substitution should be with a naturally occurring amino acid, a non-naturally occurring amino acid or with a peptidomimetic moiety which is also polar or hydrophobic (in addition to having the same steric properties as the side-chain of the replaced amino acid).
 As naturally occurring amino acids are typically grouped according to their properties, conservative substitutions by naturally occurring amino acids can be easily determined bearing in mind the fact that in accordance with the invention replacement of charged amino acids by sterically similar non-charged amino acids are considered as conservative substitutions.
 For producing conservative substitutions by non-naturally occurring amino acids it is also possible to use amino acid analogs (synthetic amino acids) well known in the art. A peptidomimetic of the naturally occurring amino acid is well documented in the literature known to the skilled practitioner.
 When affecting conservative substitutions the substituting amino acid should have the same or a similar functional group in the side chain as the original amino acid.
 The phrase "non-conservative substitutions" as used herein refers to replacement of the amino acid as present in the parent sequence by another naturally or non-naturally occurring amino acid, having different electrochemical and/or steric properties. Thus, the side chain of the substituting amino acid can be significantly larger (or smaller) than the side chain of the native amino acid being substituted and/or can have functional groups with significantly different electronic properties than the amino acid being substituted. Examples of non-conservative substitutions of this type include the substitution of phenylalanine or cyclohexylmethyl glycine for alanine, isoleucine for glycine, or --NH--CH[(--CH2)5--COOH]--CO-- for aspartic acid. Those non-conservative substitutions which fall under the scope of the present invention are those which still constitute a peptide having anti-bacterial properties.
 As mentioned, the N and C termini of the peptides of the present invention may be protected by function groups. Suitable functional groups are described in Green and Wuts, "Protecting Groups in Organic Synthesis", John Wiley and Sons, Chapters 5 and 7, 1991, the teachings of which are incorporated herein by reference. Preferred protecting groups are those that facilitate transport of the compound attached thereto into a cell, for example, by reducing the hydrophilicity and increasing the lipophilicity of the compounds.
 These moieties can be cleaved in vivo, either by hydrolysis or enzymatically, inside the cell. Hydroxyl protecting groups include esters, carbonates and carbamate protecting groups. Amine protecting groups include alkoxy and aryloxy carbonyl groups, as described above for N-terminal protecting groups. Carboxylic acid protecting groups include aliphatic, benzylic and aryl esters, as described above for C-terminal protecting groups. In one embodiment, the carboxylic acid group in the side chain of one or more glutamic acid or aspartic acid residue in a peptide of the present invention is protected, preferably with a methyl, ethyl, benzyl or substituted benzyl ester.
 Examples of N-terminal protecting groups include acyl groups (--CO--R1) and alkoxy carbonyl or aryloxy carbonyl groups (--CO--O--R1), wherein R1 is an aliphatic, substituted aliphatic, benzyl, substituted benzyl, aromatic or a substituted aromatic group. Specific examples of acyl groups include acetyl, (ethyl)-CO--, n-propyl-CO--, iso-propyl-CO--, n-butyl-CO--, sec-butyl-CO--, t-butyl-CO--, hexyl, lauroyl, palmitoyl, myristoyl, stearyl, oleoyl phenyl-CO--, substituted phenyl-CO--, benzyl-CO-- and (substituted benzyl)-CO--. Examples of alkoxy carbonyl and aryloxy carbonyl groups include CH3-O--CO--, (ethyl)-O--CO--, n-propyl-O--CO--, iso-propyl-O--CO--, n-butyl-O--CO--, sec-butyl-O--CO--, t-butyl-O--CO--, phenyl-O--CO--, substituted phenyl-O--CO-- and benzyl-O--CO--, (substituted benzyl)-O--CO--. Adamantan, naphtalen, myristoleyl, tuluen, biphenyl, cinnamoyl, nitrobenzoy, toluoyl, furoyl, benzoyl, cyclohexane, norbornane, Z-caproic. In order to facilitate the N-acylation, one to four glycine residues can be present in the N-terminus of the molecule.
 The carboxyl group at the C-terminus of the compound can be protected, for example, by an amide (i.e., the hydroxyl group at the C-terminus is replaced with --NH2, --NHR2 and --NR2R3) or ester (i.e. the hydroxyl group at the C-terminus is replaced with --OR2). R2 and R3 are independently an aliphatic, substituted aliphatic, benzyl, substituted benzyl, aryl or a substituted aryl group. In addition, taken together with the nitrogen atom, R2 and R3 can form a C4 to C8 heterocyclic ring with from about 0-2 additional heteroatoms such as nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur. Examples of suitable heterocyclic rings include piperidinyl, pyrrolidinyl, morpholino, thiomorpholino or piperazinyl. Examples of C-terminal protecting groups include --NH2, --NHCH3, --N(CH3)2, --NH(ethyl), --N(ethyl)2, --N(methyl) (ethyl), --NH(benzyl), --N(C1-C4 alkyl)(benzyl), --NH(phenyl), --N(C1-C4 alkyl) (phenyl), --OCH3, --O-(ethyl), --O-(n-propyl), --O-(n-butyl), --O-(iso-propyl), --O-(sec-butyl), --O-(t-butyl), --O-benzyl and --O-phenyl.
 The peptides of the present invention may also comprise non-amino acid moieties, such as for example, hydrophobic moieties (various linear, branched, cyclic, polycyclic or hetrocyclic hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon derivatives) attached to the peptides; various protecting groups, especially where the compound is linear, which are attached to the compound's terminals to decrease degradation. Chemical (non-amino acid) groups present in the compound may be included in order to improve various physiological properties such; decreased degradation or clearance; decreased repulsion by various cellular pumps, improve immunogenic activities, improve various modes of administration (such as attachment of various sequences which allow penetration through various barriers, through the gut, etc.); increased specificity, increased affinity, decreased toxicity and the like.
 According to one embodiment, the peptides of the present invention are attached to a sustained-release enhancing agent. Exemplary sustained-release enhancing agents include, but are not limited to hyaluronic acid (HA), alginic acid (AA), polyhydroxyethyl methacrylate (Poly-HEMA), polyethylene glycol (PEG), glyme and polyisopropylacrylamide.
 Other methods of improving the penetration of peptides into cells include attachment of cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) thereto. CPPS are short cationic peptide sequences that have been demonstrated to mediate the intracellular delivery of a range of biological cargos. They were first identified while investigating the ability of the HIV TAT transactivation protein to penetrate cells and activate HIV-1-specific genes (Jones, 2005, Br J Pharmacol 2005; 145:1093-110). Subsequent studies revealed that the minimum region required for translocation was a positively charged section between amino acids 47-57, which was associated with DNA binding (Jones, 2005, Br J Pharmacol 2005; 145:1093-1102). Since these initial observations, a range of additional CPPs have been identified including antennapedia, transportan and polyarginine. Antennapedia and TAT conjugation has been extensively used for the in vitro and in vivo delivery of biological active peptides and proteins (Lindsay, 2002 Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2002; 2:587-594).
 Attaching the amino acid sequence component of the peptides of the invention to other non-amino acid agents may be by covalent linking, by non-covalent complexion, for example, by complexion to a hydrophobic polymer, which can be degraded or cleaved producing a compound capable of sustained release; by entrapping the amino acid part of the peptide in liposomes or micelles to produce the final peptide of the invention. The association may be by the entrapment of the amino acid sequence within the other component (liposome, micelle) or the impregnation of the amino acid sequence within a polymer to produce the final peptide of the invention.
 The compounds of the invention may be linear or cyclic (cyclization may improve stability). Cyclization may take place by any means known in the art. Where the compound is composed predominantly of amino acids, cyclization may be via N- to C-terminal, N-terminal to side chain and N-terminal to backbone, C-terminal to side chain, C-terminal to backbone, side chain to backbone and side chain to side chain, as well as backbone to backbone cyclization. Cyclization of the peptide may also take place through non-amino acid organic moieties comprised in the peptide.
 According to another embodiment, the agent capable of up-regulating DJ-1-dependent VMAT2 transcription is an activating antibody capable of specifically binding to DJ-1 and increasing the activity thereof. Methods of producing antibodies are described hereinbelow.
 According to yet another embodiment, the agent capable of up-regulating DJ-1 dependent VMAT2 transcription is a co-factor which is required to bind to DJ-1 in order for the latter to bind (either directly or indirectly) to the VMAT2 promoter.
 Any cell may be selected in order to identify the agent capable of up-regulating DJ-1-dependent VMAT2 transcription provided that it comprises any co-factors necessary for activating the VMAT2 promoter and does not comprise factors which may potentially down-regulate the VMAT2 promoter. An example of such a cell is a neuronal cell e.g. a neuroblastoma cell. Preferably, when the cells are used to identify agents that alter the activity of endogenous DJ-1, the cells comprise endogenous DJ-1, such as neuroblastoma cells. Alternatively, exogenous DJ-1 may be introduced into cells by transfection or the like, as further described hereinbelow.
 It will be appreciated that the screening method of the present invention may also be used to identify agents comprising a neurotoxic activity. According to this aspect of the present invention, neurotoxic agents may be identified on the basis that they down-regulate DJ-1 dependent VMAT2 transcription. Such agents are typically antagonists of DJ-1, or are capable of down-regulating the activity or amount of DJ-1 (e.g. antibodies).
 The peptides of the present invention can be biochemically synthesized such as by using standard solid phase techniques. These methods include exclusive solid phase synthesis, partial solid phase synthesis methods, fragment condensation, classical solution synthesis. These methods are preferably used when the peptide is relatively short (i.e., 10 kDa) and/or when it cannot be produced by recombinant techniques (i.e., not encoded by a nucleic acid sequence) and therefore involves different chemistry.
 Solid phase peptide synthesis procedures are well known in the art and further described by John Morrow Stewart and Janis Dillaha Young, Solid Phase Polypeptide Syntheses (2nd Ed., Pierce Chemical Company, 1984).
 Synthetic peptides can be purified by preparative high performance liquid chromatography [Creighton T. (1983) Proteins, structures and molecular principles. WH Freeman and Co. N.Y.] and the composition of which can be confirmed via amino acid sequencing.
 Recombinant techniques may also be used to generate the peptides of the present invention. These techniques may be preferred when the peptide is longer than 20 amino acids and/or large amounts are required thereof. Such recombinant techniques are described by Bitter et al., (1987) Methods in Enzymol. 153:516-544, Studier et al. (1990) Methods in Enzymol. 185:60-89, Brisson et al. (1984) Nature 310:511-514, Takamatsu et al. (1987) EMBO J. 6:307-311, Coruzzi et al. (1984) EMBO J. 3:1671-1680 and Brogli et al., (1984) Science 224:838-843, Gurley et al. (1986) Mol. Cell. Biol. 6:559-565 and Weissbach & Weissbach, 1988, Methods for Plant Molecular Biology, Academic Press, NY, Section VIII, pp 421-463.
 To produce an expression vector for the expression of the peptides of the present invention, a polynucleotide encoding the peptides of the present invention are ligated into a nucleic acid expression vector, which comprises the polynucleotide sequence under the transcriptional control of a cis-regulatory sequence (e.g., promoter sequence) suitable for directing constitutive, tissue specific or inducible transcription of the peptides of the present invention in the host cells.
 The phrase "an isolated polynucleotide" refers to a single or double stranded nucleic acid sequence which is isolated and provided in the form of an RNA sequence, a complementary polynucleotide sequence (cDNA), a genomic polynucleotide sequence and/or a composite polynucleotide sequences (e.g., a combination of the above).
 As used herein the phrase "complementary polynucleotide sequence" refers to a sequence, which results from reverse transcription of messenger RNA using a reverse transcriptase or any other RNA dependent DNA polymerase. Such a sequence can be subsequently amplified in vivo or in vitro using a DNA dependent DNA polymerase.
 As used herein the phrase "genomic polynucleotide sequence" refers to a sequence derived (isolated) from a chromosome and thus it represents a contiguous portion of a chromosome.
 As used herein the phrase "composite polynucleotide sequence" refers to a sequence, which is at least partially complementary and at least partially genomic. A composite sequence can include some exonal sequences required to encode the peptide of the present invention, as well as some intronic sequences interposing therebetween. The intronic sequences can be of any source, including of other genes, and typically will include conserved splicing signal sequences. Such intronic sequences may further include cis acting expression regulatory elements.
 As mentioned hereinabove, polynucleotide sequences of the present invention are inserted into expression vectors (i.e., a nucleic acid construct) to enable expression of the recombinant peptide. The expression vector of the present invention may include additional sequences which render this vector suitable for replication and integration in prokaryotes, eukaryotes, or preferably both (e.g., shuttle vectors). Typical cloning vectors contain transcription and translation initiation sequences (e.g., promoters, enhances) and transcription and translation terminators (e.g., polyadenylation signals).
 A variety of prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells can be used as host-expression systems to express the peptides of the present invention. These include, but are not limited to, microorganisms, such as bacteria transformed with a recombinant bacteriophage DNA, plasmid DNA or cosmid DNA expression vector containing the peptide coding sequence; yeast transformed with recombinant yeast expression vectors containing the peptide coding sequence; plant cell systems infected with recombinant virus expression vectors (e.g., cauliflower mosaic virus, CaMV; tobacco mosaic virus, TMV) or transformed with recombinant plasmid expression vectors, such as Ti plasmid, containing the peptide coding sequence.
 Other than containing the necessary elements for the transcription and translation of the inserted coding sequence (encoding the peptide), the expression construct of the present invention can also include sequences engineered to optimize stability, production, purification, yield or activity of the expressed peptide.
 Various methods can be used to introduce the expression vector of the present invention into the host cell system. Such methods are generally described in Sambrook et al., Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, Cold Springs Harbor Laboratory, New York (1989, 1992), in Ausubel et al., Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, John Wiley and Sons, Baltimore, Md. (1989), Chang et al., Somatic Gene Therapy, CRC Press, Ann Arbor, Mich. (1995), Vega et al., Gene Targeting, CRC Press, Ann Arbor Mich. (1995), Vectors: A Survey of Molecular Cloning Vectors and Their Uses, Butterworths, Boston Mass. (1988) and Gilboa et at. [Biotechniques 4 (6): 504-512, 1986] and include, for example, stable or transient transfection, lipofection, electroporation and infection with recombinant viral vectors. In addition, see U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,464,764 and 5,487,992 for positive-negative selection methods.
 Transformed cells are cultured under effective conditions, which allow for the expression of high amounts of recombinant peptide. Effective culture conditions include, but are not limited to, effective media, bioreactor, temperature, pH and oxygen conditions that permit protein production. An effective medium refers to any medium in which a cell is cultured to produce the recombinant peptide of the present invention. Such a medium typically includes an aqueous solution having assimilable carbon, nitrogen and phosphate sources, and appropriate salts, minerals, metals and other nutrients, such as vitamins. Cells of the present invention can be cultured in conventional fermentation bioreactors, shake flasks, test tubes, microtiter dishes and petri plates. Culturing can be carried out at a temperature, pH and oxygen content appropriate for a recombinant cell. Such culturing conditions are within the expertise of one of ordinary skill in the art.
 Depending on the vector and host system used for production, resultant peptides of the present invention may either remain within the recombinant cell, secreted into the fermentation medium, secreted into a space between two cellular membranes, such as the periplasmic space in E. coli; or retained on the outer surface of a cell or viral membrane.
 Following a predetermined time in culture, recovery of the recombinant peptide is effected.
 The phrase "recovering the recombinant peptide" used herein refers to collecting the whole fermentation medium containing the peptide and need not imply additional steps of separation or purification.
 Thus, peptides of the present invention can be purified using a variety of standard protein purification techniques, such as, but not limited to, affinity chromatography, ion exchange chromatography, filtration, electrophoresis, hydrophobic interaction chromatography, gel filtration chromatography, reverse phase chromatography, concanavalin A chromatography, chromatofocusing and differential solubilization.
 To facilitate recovery, the expressed coding sequence can be engineered to encode the peptide of the present invention and fused cleavable moiety. Such a fusion protein can be designed so that the peptide can be readily isolated by affinity chromatography; e.g., by immobilization on a column specific for the cleavable moiety. Where a cleavage site is engineered between the polypeptide and the cleavable moiety, the peptide can be released from the chromatographic column by treatment with an appropriate enzyme or agent that specifically cleaves the fusion protein at this site [e.g., see Booth et al., Immunol. Lett. 19:65-70 (1988); and Gardella et al., J. Biol. Chem. 265:15854-15859 (1990)].
 The peptide of the present invention is preferably retrieved in "substantially pure" form.
 As used herein, the phrase "substantially pure" refers to a purity that allows for the effective use of the protein in the applications described herein.
 In addition to being synthesizable in host cells, the peptide of the present invention can also be synthesized using in vitro expression systems. These methods are well known in the art and the components of the system are commercially available.
 As mentioned hereinabove, an agent capable of regulating DJ-1-dependent VMAT2 transcription is an antibody capable of specifically binding to DJ-1.
 Preferably, the antibody specifically binds at least one epitope of DJ-1. As used herein, the term "epitope" refers to any antigenic determinant on an antigen to which the paratope of an antibody binds.
 Epitopic determinants usually consist of chemically active surface groupings of molecules such as amino acids or carbohydrate side chains and usually have specific three dimensional structural characteristics, as well as specific charge characteristics.
 The term "antibody" as used in this invention includes intact molecules as well as functional fragments thereof, such as Fab, F(ab')2, and Fv that are capable of binding to macrophages. These functional antibody fragments are defined as follows: (1) Fab, the fragment which contains a monovalent antigen-binding fragment of an antibody molecule, can be produced by digestion of whole antibody with the enzyme papain to yield an intact light chain and a portion of one heavy chain; (2) Fab', the fragment of an antibody molecule that can be obtained by treating whole antibody with pepsin, followed by reduction, to yield an intact light chain and a portion of the heavy chain; two Fab' fragments are obtained per antibody molecule; (3) (Fab')2, the fragment of the antibody that can be obtained by treating whole antibody with the enzyme pepsin without subsequent reduction; F(ab')2 is a dimer of two Fab' fragments held together by two disulfide bonds; (4) Fv, defined as a genetically engineered fragment containing the variable region of the light chain and the variable region of the heavy chain expressed as two chains; and (5) Single chain antibody ("SCA"), a genetically engineered molecule containing the variable region of the light chain and the variable region of the heavy chain, linked by a suitable peptide linker as a genetically fused single chain molecule.
 Methods of producing polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies as well as fragments thereof are well known in the art (See for example, Harlow and Lane, Antibodies: A Laboratory Manual, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York, 1988, incorporated herein by reference).
 Since the agents identified according to the screening method of the present invention comprise neuromodulating activity (i.e. neuroprotecting activity or neurotoxic activity), they may be used to increase or decrease the viability of neuronal cells.
 Accordingly, agents identified using the screening method of the present invention may be used to treat neurodegenerative disorders.
 Examples of neurodegenerative disorders include but are not limited to Parkinson's, Multiple Sclerosis, Huntington's disease, action tremors and tardive dyskinesia, panic, anxiety, depression, alcoholism, insomnia and manic behavior, Alzheimer's and epilepsy.
 It will be appreciated that the agents of the present invention may also be used to treat the effects of neurotoxins, such as environmental neurotoxins (e.g. lead, methyl mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and environmental tobacco smoke).
 The DJ-1 peptides of the present invention may be delivered to the subject as peptide molecules per se, or as polynucleotides where they are expressed in vivo i.e. gene therapy.
 Gene therapy as used herein refers to the transfer of genetic material (e.g. DNA or RNA) of interest into a host to treat or prevent a genetic or acquired disease or condition or phenotype. The genetic material of interest encodes a product (e.g. a protein, polypeptide, peptide, functional RNA, antisense) whose production in vivo is desired. For example, the genetic material of interest can encode a hormone, receptor, enzyme, polypeptide or peptide of therapeutic value. For review see, in general, the text "Gene Therapy" (Advanced in Pharmacology 40, Academic Press, 1997).
 Two basic approaches to gene therapy have evolved: (1) ex vivo and (2) in vivo gene therapy. In ex vivo gene therapy cells are removed from a patient, and while being cultured are treated in vitro. Generally, a functional replacement gene is introduced into the cell via an appropriate gene delivery vehicle/method (transfection, transduction, homologous recombination, etc.) and an expression system as needed and then the modified cells are expanded in culture and returned to the host/patient. These genetically reimplanted cells have been shown to express the transfected genetic material in situ. The cells may be autologous or non-autologous to the subject. Since non-autologous cells are likely to induce an immune reaction when administered to the body several approaches have been developed to reduce the likelihood of rejection of non-autologous cells. These include either suppressing the recipient immune system or encapsulating the non-autologous cells in immunoisolating, semipermeable membranes before transplantation.
 In in vivo gene therapy, target cells are not removed from the subject rather the genetic material to be transferred is introduced into the cells of the recipient organism in situ, that is within the recipient. In an alternative embodiment, if the host gene is defective, the gene is repaired in situ (Culver, 1998. (Abstract) Antisense DNA & RNA based therapeutics, February 1998, Coronado, Calif.).
 These genetically altered cells have been shown to express the transfected genetic material in situ.
 To confer specificity, preferably the nucleic acid constructs used to express the peptides of the present invention comprise cell-specific promoter sequence elements.
 As mentioned hereinabove, the peptides of the present invention may be delivered to the subject as peptide molecules.
 It will further be appreciated that delivery of peptide agents to the brain is restricted by the blood brain barrier. Over the years, several strategies to circumvent the blood brain barrier have been proposed, such as by transient osmotic opening of the BBB, high dosing (e.g., of chemotherapy), use of carrier systems such as antibodies, or even biodegradable implants. All these systems are contemplated by the present invention.
 Furthermore, several synthetic NP polymers, arranged as spheres have been studied as carriers of drugs across the BBB. Poly(butyl cyanoacrylate) has been reported to effectively deliver different drugs, including peptides [Kreuter J. Adv. Drug Delivery Rev. 2001, 47:65-81; Gulayev A E, et al., Pharm Res 1999, 16:1564-9].
 It has also been suggested that liposomes can enhance drug delivery to the brain across the blood-brain barrier [Umezawa and Eto, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 153:1038-1044 (1988); Chan et al., Ann. Neurol, 21:540-547 (1987); Laham et al., Life Sciences 40:2011-2016 (1987); and Yagi et al., J. APRIo Biocheme 4:121-125 (1982)]. Liposomes are small vesicles (usually submicron sized) comprised of one or more concentric bilayers of phospholipids separated by aqueous compartments.
 It has been suggested that the use of an external ligand such as mannose can improve a liposomal particle's ability to cross the BBB [Huiting a et al., J exp Med 172 (1990) 1025-33; Umezawa F., Biochem Biophys Res Commun 153 (1988) 1038-44]. The mannosylated liposomes were shown to be incorporated in glial cells as opposed to neuronal cells, the former having a receptor for mannose [Umezawa F., Biochem Biophys Res Commun 153, 1988, 1038-44]. PCT Application, Publication No. WO9402178A1 to Micklus discusses the coupling of liposomes to an antibody binding fragment which binds to a receptor molecule present on the vascular endothelial cells of the mammalian blood-brain barrier. The peptides perhaps may also be delivered by phages, intranasally for example.
 The DJ-1 regulating agents of the present invention may be delivered to the subject per se or as part of a pharmaceutical composition.
 As used herein a "pharmaceutical composition" refers to a preparation of one or more of the active ingredients described herein with other chemical components such as physiologically suitable carriers and excipients. The purpose of a pharmaceutical composition is to facilitate administration of a compound to an organism.
 Herein the term "active ingredient" refers to the DJ-1 peptides of the present invention accountable for the biological effect.
 Hereinafter, the phrases "physiologically acceptable carrier" and "pharmaceutically acceptable carrier" which may be interchangeably used refer to a carrier or a diluent that does not cause significant irritation to an organism and does not abrogate the biological activity and properties of the administered compound. An adjuvant is included under these phrases.
 Herein the term "excipient" refers to an inert substance added to a pharmaceutical composition to further facilitate administration of an active ingredient. Examples, without limitation, of excipients include calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate, various sugars and types of starch, cellulose derivatives, gelatin, vegetable oils and polyethylene glycols.
 Pharmaceutical compositions of the present invention may be manufactured by processes well known in the art, e.g., by means of conventional mixing, dissolving, granulating, dragee-making, levigating, emulsifying, encapsulating, entrapping or lyophilizing processes.
 Pharmaceutical compositions for use in accordance with the present invention thus may be formulated in conventional manner using one or more physiologically acceptable carriers comprising excipients and auxiliaries, which facilitate processing of the active ingredients into preparations which, can be used pharmaceutically. Proper formulation is dependent upon the route of administration chosen.
 For injection, the active ingredients of the pharmaceutical composition may be formulated in aqueous solutions, preferably in physiologically compatible buffers such as Hank's solution, Ringer's solution, or physiological salt buffer.
 Herein the term "excipient" refers to an inert substance added to a pharmaceutical composition to further facilitate administration of an active ingredient. Examples, without limitation, of excipients include calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate, various sugars and types of starch, cellulose derivatives, gelatin, vegetable oils and polyethylene glycols.
 Techniques for formulation and administration of drugs may be found in "Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences," Mack Publishing Co., Easton, Pa., latest edition, which is incorporated herein by reference.
 Suitable routes of administration may, for example, include oral, rectal, transmucosal, especially transnasal, intestinal or parenteral delivery, including intramuscular, subcutaneous and intramedullary injections as well as intrathecal, direct intraventricular, intravenous, inrtaperitoneal, intranasal, or intraocular injections.
 Alternately, one may administer the pharmaceutical composition in a local rather than systemic manner, for example, via injection of the pharmaceutical composition directly into a tissue region of a patient i.e. the brain. The compositions of the present invention can be directly administered to any structure in the brain. In one embodiment, the compositions are administered to brain structures selected from the group consisting of substantia nigra, hippocampus, striatum, and cortex. In another embodiment of the invention, the composition is administered using a stereotactic device.
 Pharmaceutical compositions of the present invention may be manufactured by processes well known in the art, e.g., by means of conventional mixing, dissolving, granulating, dragee-making, levigating, emulsifying, encapsulating, entrapping or lyophilizing processes.
 Pharmaceutical compositions for use in accordance with the present invention thus may be formulated in conventional manner using one or more physiologically acceptable carriers comprising excipients and auxiliaries, which facilitate processing of the active ingredients into preparations which, can be used pharmaceutically. Proper formulation is dependent upon the route of administration chosen.
 For injection, the active ingredients of the pharmaceutical composition may be formulated in aqueous solutions, preferably in physiologically compatible buffers such as Hank's solution, Ringer's solution, or physiological salt buffer. For transmucosal administration, penetrants appropriate to the barrier to be permeated are used in the formulation. Such penetrants are generally known in the art.
 The pharmaceutical composition described herein may be formulated for parenteral administration, e.g., by bolus injection or continuous infusion. Formulations for injection may be presented in unit dosage form, e.g., in ampoules or in multidose containers with optionally, an added preservative. The compositions may be suspensions, solutions or emulsions in oily or aqueous vehicles, and may contain formulatory agents such as suspending, stabilizing and/or dispersing agents.
 Pharmaceutical compositions for parenteral administration include aqueous solutions of the active preparation in water-soluble form. Additionally, suspensions of the active ingredients may be prepared as appropriate oily or water based injection suspensions. Suitable lipophilic solvents or vehicles include fatty oils such as sesame oil, or synthetic fatty acids esters such as ethyl oleate, triglycerides or liposomes. Aqueous injection suspensions may contain substances, which increase the viscosity of the suspension, such as sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, sorbitol or dextran. Optionally, the suspension may also contain suitable stabilizers or agents which increase the solubility of the active ingredients to allow for the preparation of highly concentrated solutions.
 Alternatively, the active ingredient may be in powder form for constitution with a suitable vehicle, e.g., sterile, pyrogen-free water based solution, before use.
 Pharmaceutical compositions suitable for use in context of the present invention include compositions wherein the active ingredients are contained in an amount effective to achieve the intended purpose. More specifically, a therapeutically effective amount means an amount of active ingredients effective to prevent, alleviate or ameliorate symptoms of a disorder (e.g., neurodegenerative disorder) or prolong the survival of the subject being treated.
 Determination of a therapeutically effective amount is well within the capability of those skilled in the art, especially in light of the detailed disclosure provided herein.
 For any preparation used in the methods of the invention, the therapeutically effective amount or dose can be estimated from animal models to achieve a desired concentration or titer. Such information can be used to more accurately determine useful doses in humans.
 Toxicity and therapeutic efficacy of the active ingredients described herein can be determined by standard pharmaceutical procedures in experimental animals.
 For example, 6-OHDA-lesioned mice may be used as animal models of Parkinson's. In addition, a sunflower test may be used to test improvement in delicate motor function by challenging the animals to open sunflowers seeds during a particular time period.
 Transgenic mice may be used as a model for Huntingdon's disease which comprise increased numbers of CAG repeats have intranuclear inclusions of huntingtin and ubiquitin in neurons of the striatum and cerebral cortex but not in the brain stem, thalamus, or spinal cord, matching closely the sites of neuronal cell loss in the disease.
 Transgenic mice may be used as a model for ALS disease which comprise SOD-1 mutations.
 The septohippocampal pathway, transected unilaterally by cutting the fimbria, mimics the cholinergic deficit of the septohippocampal pathway loss in Alzheimers disease. Accordingly animal models comprising this lesion may be used to test the cells of the present invention for treating Alzheimers.
 In general, schizophrenia animal models can be divided in three categories, i.e. models that investigate behaviours in animals that are disturbed in schizophrenic patients (e.g. prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response and latent inhibition), pharmacological models, and experimentally induced brain pathology e.g. brain lesion models. Methods of generating such models and use of same are described in Bachevalier, J. (1994) Medial temporal lobe structures and autism, a review of clinical and experimental findings. Neuropsychologia 32, 627-648; R. Joober et al. Genetic of schizophrenia: from animal models to clinical studies. J. Psychiatry Neurosci. 2003; 27 (5): 336-47; Lipska, B. K., Jaskiw, G. E., Weinberger, D. R., 1993, Postpuberal emergence of hyperresponsiveness to stress and to amphetamine after neonatal hippocampal damage, a potential animal model for schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacol. 122, 35-43; Weinberger, R. R. (1987) Implications of normal brain development for the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 44: 660-669; Wolterink G., Daenen, E. W. P. M., Dubbeldam, S., Gerrits, M. A. F. M., Van Rijn, R., Kruse, C. G., Van der Heijden, J., Van Ree, J. M. (2001) Early amygdala damage in the rat as model for neurodevelopmental psychopathological. Eur. Neuropsychopharmacol. 11, 51-59; and Daenen E. W. P. M., Wolterink G., Gerrits M. A. F. M., Van Ree J. M. (2002) Amygdala or ventral hippocampal lesions at two early stages of life differentially affect open filed behaviour later in life: an animal model of neurodevelopmental psychopathological disorders. Behavioral Brain Research 131: 67-78, each of which is fully incorporated herein by reference. The data obtained from these animal studies can be used in formulating a range of dosage for use in human. The dosage may vary depending upon the dosage form employed and the route of administration utilized. The exact formulation, route of administration and dosage can be chosen by the individual physician in view of the patient's condition. (See e.g., Fingl, et al., 1975, in "The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics", Ch. 1 p. 1).
 Dosage amount and interval may be adjusted individually to provide cell numbers sufficient to induce normoglycemia (minimal effective concentration, MEC). The MEC will vary for each preparation, but can be estimated from in vitro data. Dosages necessary to achieve the MEC will depend on individual characteristics and route of administration. Detection assays can be used to determine plasma concentrations.
 The amount of a composition to be administered will, of course, be dependent on the subject being treated, the severity of the affliction, the manner of administration, the judgment of the prescribing physician, etc.
 Compositions of the present invention may, if desired, be presented in a pack or dispenser device, such as an FDA approved kit, which may contain one or more unit dosage forms containing the active ingredient. The pack may, for example, comprise metal or plastic foil, such as a blister pack. The pack or dispenser device may be accompanied by instructions for administration. The pack or dispenser may also be accommodated by a notice associated with the container in a form prescribed by a governmental agency regulating the manufacture, use or sale of pharmaceuticals, which notice is reflective of approval by the agency of the form of the compositions or human or veterinary administration. Such notice, for example, may be of labeling approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for prescription drugs or of an approved product insert. Compositions comprising a preparation of the invention formulated in a compatible pharmaceutical carrier may also be prepared, placed in an appropriate container, and labeled for treatment of an indicated condition, as if further detailed above.
 Additional objects, advantages, and novel features of the present invention will become apparent to one ordinarily skilled in the art upon examination of the following examples, which are not intended to be limiting. Additionally, each of the various embodiments and aspects of the present invention as delineated hereinabove and as claimed in the claims section below finds experimental support in the following examples.
 Additional objects, advantages, and novel features of the present invention will become apparent to one ordinarily skilled in the art upon examination of the following examples, which are not intended to be limiting. Additionally, each of the various embodiments and aspects of the present invention as delineated hereinabove and as claimed in the claims section below finds experimental support in the following examples.
 Reference is now made to the following examples, which together with the above descriptions, illustrate the invention in a non limiting fashion.
 Generally, the nomenclature used herein and the laboratory procedures utilized in the present invention include molecular, biochemical, microbiological and recombinant DNA techniques. Such techniques are thoroughly explained in the literature. See, for example, "Molecular Cloning: A laboratory Manual" Sambrook et al., (1989); "Current Protocols in Molecular Biology" Volumes I-III Ausubel, R. M., ed. (1994); Ausubel et al., "Current Protocols in Molecular Biology", John Wiley and Sons, Baltimore, Md. (1989); Perbal, "A Practical Guide to Molecular Cloning", John Wiley & Sons, New York (1988); Watson et al., "Recombinant DNA", Scientific American Books, New York; Birren et al. (eds) "Genome Analysis: A Laboratory Manual Series", Vols. 1-4, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, New York (1998); methodologies as set forth in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,666,828; 4,683,202; 4,801,531; 5,192,659 and 5,272,057; "Cell Biology: A Laboratory Handbook", Volumes I-III Cellis, J. E., ed. (1994); "Culture of Animal Cells--A Manual of Basic Technique" by Freshney, Wiley-Liss, N.Y. (1994), Third Edition; "Current Protocols in Immunology" Volumes I-III Coligan J. E., ed. (1994); Stites et al. (eds), "Basic and Clinical Immunology" (8th Edition), Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, Conn. (1994); Mishell and Shiigi (eds), "Selected Methods in Cellular Immunology", W.H. Freeman and Co., New York (1980); available immunoassays are extensively described in the patent and scientific literature, see, for example, U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,791,932; 3,839,153; 3,850,752; 3,850,578; 3,853,987; 3,867,517; 3,879,262; 3,901,654; 3,935,074; 3,984,533; 3,996,345; 4,034,074; 4,098,876; 4,879,219; 5,011,771 and 5,281,521; "Oligonucleotide Synthesis" Gait, M. J., ed. (1984); "Nucleic Acid Hybridization" Hames, B. D., and Higgins S. J., eds. (1985); "Transcription and Translation" Hames, B. D., and Higgins S. J., eds. (1984); "Animal Cell Culture" Freshney, R. I., ed. (1986); "Immobilized Cells and Enzymes" IRL Press, (1986); "A Practical Guide to Molecular Cloning" Perbal, B., (1984) and "Methods in Enzymology" Vol. 1-317, Academic Press; "PCR Protocols: A Guide To Methods And Applications", Academic Press, San Diego, Calif. (1990); Marshak et al., "Strategies for Protein Purification and Characterization--A Laboratory Course Manual" CSHL Press (1996); all of which are incorpotaed by reference as if fully set forth herein. Other general references are provided throughout this document. The procedures therein are believed to be well known in the art and are provided for the convenience of the reader. All the information contained therein is incorporated herein by reference.
General Materials and Methods
 Cellular Transfection and Treatment:
 SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, obtained from the ATCC (Rockville, USA), were stably transfected with pIRES2-acGFP1 plasmid (BD biosciences, Clontech) containing wild type DJ-1. Decreased expression of DJ-1 was achieved by stable transfection with pSilencer2.1-U6 plasmid (Ambion) containing siRNA for DJ-1. As controls, naive neuroblastoma cells were used as well as cells stably transfected with the same vectors. Transfections were performed using the lipofectamine 2000 reagent (Invitrogen). Stable transfections were achieved by geneticin treatment and were verified by measuring DJ-1 mRNA and protein levels using real-time PCR and Western blotting.
 Cells were treated with dopamine (0-500 uM; Sigma. Israel), N-acetylcysteine (NAC 5 mM; Sigma), and PD-98059 (30 uM; Calbiochem, Rosh Haayin, Israel).
 In Vivo 6-hydroxydopamine Hemiparkinsonian Mouse Model:
 Eight-week-old male C57BL/6 mice (Harlan, Israel; 22-28 g) were used for 6-hydroxydopamine hemiparkinsonian mouse model experiments. All animals were housed in standard conditions, in a constant temperature (22±1° C.), relative humidity (30%), 12-h light: 12-h dark cycle, with free access to food and water. Surgical procedures were performed under the supervision of the Animal Care Committee at the Rabin Medical Center and at Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel. Mice received a unilateral, right intrastriatal injection of 4 μg 6-hydroxydopamine hydrobromide (Sigma, Israel) using a stereotaxic surgical procedure. Injections were targeted to the central striatum using the following coordinates: 0.5 mm anterior to bregma, 2.0 mm lateral to bregma, and 2.5 mm deep to the skull surface. Treatments were administered in a volume of 2.0 μL at a rate of 0.5 μL/min. 24 hours after 6-hydroxydopamine lesioning, striatal tissue was collected from both the injected and intact sides for DJ-1, VMAT2 and TH analysis. For analysis of acute 6-hydroxydopamine effects on phosphokinases striatal tissue was excised after 30 and 45 minutes of 6-hydroxydopamine injection.
 Protein Extraction and Western Blotting:
 Protein extraction and Western blotting were done as previously described [Lev, N., et al Antioxid. redox signal. 8, 1987-1995 (2006)]. The membranes were probed with rabbit anti-DJ 1 antibody (1:1000; Chemicon Laboratories), mouse anti-VMAT2 (1:100; Chemicon Laboratories), and rabbit anti emerin (1:5000; Santa Cruz), followed by horseradish peroxidase conjugated secondary antibody (1:10000; Sigma) and developed with the Super Signal West Pico Chemiluminescent substrate (Pierce Biotechnology). Densitometry of the specific protein bands was preformed by VersaDoc® imaging system and Quantity One® software (BioRad).
 RNA Isolation and Real Time Quantitative PCR:
 Total RNA was isolated from cultured neuroblastoma cells using a commercial reagent TriReagent® (Sigma). The amount and quality of RNA was determined spectrophotometrically using the ND-1000 spectrophotometer (NanoDrop). First-strand cDNA synthesis was carried out from 1 μg of the total RNA using random primer (Invitrogen) and RT-superscript II (Invitrogen) reverse transcriptase. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the desired genes was performed in an ABI Prism 7700 sequence detection system (Applied biosystems) using Sybr green PCR master mix (Applied biosystems) and the following primers: GAPDH (used as `housekeeping` gene) sense: CGACAGTCAGCCGCATCTT (SEQ ID NO: 7), GAPDH antisense: CCAATACGACCAAATCCGTTG (SEQ ID NO: 8); DJ-1 sense: CATGAGGCGAGCTGGGATTA, (SEQ ID NO: 9) DJ-1 antisense: GCTGGCATCAGGACAAATGAC, (SEQ ID NO:10) VMAT2 sense: GGACAACATGCTGCTCACTG, (SEQ ID NO: 11) VMAT2 antisense: ATTCCCGGTGACCATAGTCG (SEQ ID NO: 12). Real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) was performed using Absolute® QPCR SYBR® Green ROX Mix, in triplicates. Quantitative calculations of the gene of interest versus GAPDH were done using the ddCT method.
 Cells were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde and permeabilized with 0.5% Triton X-100 and were then incubated in a blocking solution followed by overnight incubation with rabbit anti-VMAT2 (1:100; Chemicon Laboratories), at 4° C. followed by incubation with alexa-568 conjugated goat anti rabbit antibodies (1:1000; Molecular probes). Nuclei were counterstained by 4',6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI, Sigma).
 Cell Viability:
 Cell viability was determined by the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, Sigma) reduction assay. Viability after exposure to increasing dopamine levels was analyzed by adding MTT solution to each well followed by incubation at 37° C. for 3 hours. Absorbance was determined at 564 nm in a microplate reader. Cell viability was evaluated in triplicate for each treatment. All experiments were repeated at least 3 times.
 Measurement of Intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS):
 The generation of ROS, after exposure to increasing dopamine concentrations, was measured using H2DCFDA (Sigma), which is incorporated into the cells and cleaved into fluorescent DCF in the presence of ROS. 10 μM H2DCFDA was added to the cell suspension, and the cells were incubated in the dark at 37° C. for 10 minutes. DCF fluorescence was measured by FLUOstar spectrofluorometer microplate reader at 520 nm. The generation of ROS was quantitatively assayed by the increase in DCF fluorescence and expressed as percentage of control. Each experiment was repeated at least 3 times in triplicates.
 KCl-Induced Dopamine Release:
 Cells were plated on poly-D-lysin-coated 24-well plates. Cells were rinsed with assay buffer (containing Tris 4 mM, HEPES 6.25 mM, NaCl 120 mM, KCl 5 mM, CaCl2 1.2 mM, MgSO4 1.2 mM, D-glucose 5.6 mM and ascorbic acid 0.5 mM) and were then incubated with 0.5 uCi/ml [3H]Dopamine (Amersham Biosciences) for 20 minutes at 37° C. To measure stimulation-induced [3H]Dopamine release, [3H]Dopamine-loaded cells were rinsed extensively with ice cold buffer, and were treated with 60 mM KCl for 20 minutes at 37° C. and extracellular [3H]Dopamine was measured. Inhibition of VMAT2 was done using dihydrotetrabenazine (0-1 mM). All samples were analyzed with Packard liquid scintillation counter. Experiments were conducted in triplicates and repeated three times.
 Chromatin Immunoprecipitation:
 ChIP assays using cultured neuroblastoma cells were performed following Upstate instructions. After protein-DNA cross-linking by paraformaldehyde, cells were harvested and the pellets were resuspended in lysis-buffer and sonicated on ice (5 sets of 15-s pulse at 40% maximal power). After pre-clearing with Protein G/A-agarose, aliquots were incubated with DJ-1 antibodies or non-specific antibodies (as control) overnight at 4° C. with rotation. Immunopercipitated DNA was used as templates for the following primers, designed for the human VMAT promotor:
TABLE-US-00004 (SEQ ID NO: 13) sense: AGGCGAGGGCTAAGATGTTT; (SEQ ID NO: 14) antisense: ACGTGGGGTCCCAGTTACTT and for TH promotor: (SEQ ID NO: 15) sense: GAGCCTTCCTGGTGTTTGTG; (SEQ ID NO: 16) antisense: CTCTCCGATTCCAGATGGTG.
 Statistical Analysis:
 Comparisons of two groups were conducted using a 2-tailed Student's t test. Statistical analyses among three or more groups were performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by least-significant difference (LSD) post hoc comparison. Differences among groups were considered significant if the probability (P) of error was less than 5%.
 The Parkinson's Disease-Associated DJ-1 Protein Protects Against Dopamine Toxicity by Upregulating Vesicular Monoamine Transporter-2
 Loss-of-function DJ-1 mutations are linked to the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and PD. Therefore, the present inventors hypothesized that decreasing DJ-1 levels by siRNA for DJ-1 may predispose dopaminergic SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells to dopamine-induced cell death, while overexpression of DJ-1 may have a protective effect. To test this hypothesis, cells were generated which either overexpressed DJ-1 or expressed siRNA for DJ-1 thereby decreasing DJ-1 levels. Expression levels of DJ-1 mRNA and protein in these lines were evaluated by quantitative real time PCR and by Western blotting (FIGS. 1A-B). Exposure of neuroblastoma cells to increasing doses of dopamine resulted in cell death. Dopamine-induced cell death was dependent on DJ-1 expression levels; over-expression of DJ-1 protected neuroblastoma cells from the toxic effect of dopamine, while decreasing DJ-1 levels by siRNA resulted in increased vulnerability to dopamine exposure (FIG. 1A). To analyze whether dopamine toxicity was mediated through oxidative stress, intracellular ROS was measured. Exposure of cells to increasing doses of dopamine caused a rise in oxidative stress as indicated by increased intracellular ROS (FIG. 1B). Overexpression of DJ-1 reduced intracellular ROS after dopamine exposure while reducing DJ-1 expression levels by siRNA resulted in elevated intracellular ROS accumulation (FIG. 1B). Similarly, it was found that susceptibility of neuroblastoma cells to other dopaminergic neurotoxins such as rotenone and 6-hydroxydopamine was dependent on DJ-1 levels and that enhanced DJ-1 expression reduced the intracellular ROS caused by these toxins (FIGS. 8A-B). Furthermore, it found that naive neuroblastoma cells augment DJ-1 expression levels in response to dopamine. Exposure to 50 μM dopamine resulted in a rapid increase in DJ-1 mRNA levels which occurred within 1 hour (FIG. 2A). Increased DJ-1 protein after dopamine exposure was detected as well using Western blot (FIG. 2B). Pretreatment with the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) abolished the upregulation of DJ-1 induced by dopamine exposure (FIGS. 2A-B), suggesting that the upregulation of DJ-1 is mediated by intracellular ROS generation. Intracellular increases in DJ-1 levels may serve to protect the cells from the toxic effect of dopamine, as shown in FIGS. 1A-B.
 Recent reports indicate that protein kinases, especially the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) participate in the critical steps of neurotoxic cascades (Leak et al., 2006, J Neurochem 99:1151-1163). Therefore, the possible involvement of MAPK in the signal transduction pathway that leads to upregulation of DJ-1 was investigated. Dopamine exposure led to a rapid phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1 and 2 (FIGS. 10A-C). ERK1, 2 activation preceded upregulation of DJ-1 mRNA. Inhibition of ERK1,2-MAPK by PD-98059 attenuated dopamine-induced DJ-1 upregulation, as shown by real time PCR and Western blotting (FIGS. 10D-E). These experiments indicate that dopamine exposure leads to rapid activation of ERK 1, 2, leading to DJ-1 upregulation.
 Next, vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2) levels were examined to ascertain whether increased DJ-1 levels confer resistance to dopamine toxicity via sequestration of dopamine into the synaptic vesicles. It was found that overexpression of DJ-1 resulted in a dramatic increase--over 500-fold--in the vesicular monoamine transporter-2 (VMAT2) expression level compared to control VMAT2 levels (FIG. 3A). Decreased DJ-1 levels, through siRNA for DJ-1, resulted in reduced VMAT2 levels (FIG. 3A). This correlation between VMAT2 and DJ-1 expression levels was also confirmed by Western blotting (FIG. 3B) and immunocytochemical staining (FIGS. 3C-E). In order to further verify that upregulation of DJ-1 leads to upregulation of VMAT2, naive neuroblastoma cells were exposed to dopamine and DJ-1, and VMAT2 mRNA levels were quantified at different intervals. Exposure to 50 μM dopamine led to a 2.5-fold increase in DJ-1 mRNA within 1 hour (FIG. 4A). After 7 hours, VMAT2 mRNA was elevated 60-fold of basal level (FIG. 4B). This kinetics pattern indicates that dopamine exposure leads to DJ-1 upregulation which is followed by VMAT2 upregulation. These events may be mediated via transcriptional regulation of VMAT2 expression by DJ-1.
 To examine this possibility, a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was performed to assess the physical interaction between DJ-1 and VMAT2 promotor. The DNA immunopercipitated by anti-DJ-1 antibodies was amplified by primers specifically recognizing VMAT2 promotor, while no amplification of VMAT2 promotor was detected when immunopercipitation was done using non specific IgG (FIG. 4c). Moreover, after exposure to 50 μM dopamine, higher amounts of VMAT2 promotor were precipitated by anti-DJ-1 antibodies, implying that DJ-1 activates VMAT2 transcription in response to dopamine exposure (FIG. 4c). Taken together, these results demonstrate that DJ-1 regulates VMAT2 expression and that increased cytoplasmic dopamine results in upregulation of VMAT2 transcription through DJ-1. Additionally, it was found that DJ-1 upregulates another gene important in dopamine homeostasis, tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis (FIGS. 9A-B). In order to assess the functional changes in VMAT2 activity, [3H]dopamine release from the synaptic vesicles was stimulated by KCl-induced depolarization.
 The dopamine release assay revealed that DJ-1 overexpressing neuroblastoma cells released more dopamine from the synaptic vesicles compared to naive neuroblastoma cells, while cells transfected with siRNA for DJ-1 released less dopamine (FIG. 4D). KCl induced dopamine release was abolished by dihydrotetrabenazine, a VMAT2 inhibitor, indicating that the assay indeed measures VMAT2 function. This functional assay indicates that vesicular dopamine storage is dependent on DJ-1 expression levels.
 Next, the present inventors examined whether ROS also induces upregulation of DJ-1 in vivo. In order to evaluate such in vivo changes, a hemiparkinsonian mouse model induced by unilateral intrastriatal 6-hydroxydopamine lesioning was used. An increased expression of DJ-1 and of VMAT-2 proteins was found, 24 hours following 6-hydroxydopamine injection in the lesioned striatum as compared to the unlesioned side (FIG. 11A). Consistent with the in vitro results, acute exposure to 6-hydroxydopamine led to the increased phosphorylation of ERK1, 2 (FIG. 11B).
 This study suggests a novel mechanism through which DJ-1 mutations may be associated with increased vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons leading to their degeneration in PD. It was found that DJ-1 regulates intracytoplasmic dopamine levels by controlling the expression of the vesicular dopamine transporter, VMAT2.
 Overexpression of DJ-1 led to increased resistance to dopamine toxicity mediated by increased dopamine sequestration into synaptic vesicles by VMAT2, and therefore decreased intracellular ROS. Reducing DJ-1 levels by siRNA to DJ-1 led to the opposite effects, decreasing VMAT2 expression levels as well as its function, combined with increased intracellular ROS and a rise in the susceptibility to dopamine toxicity. Moreover, it was found that exposure of naive neuroblastoma cells to dopamine leads to rapid upregulation of DJ-1, followed by upregulation of VMAT2. It was shown using chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, that DJ-1 binds to the VMAT2 promotor and that this binding is enhanced by dopamine. Hence, DJ-1 upregulation is vital in dopaminergic neurons in order to sequestrate excess dopamine into synaptic vesicles and thus protect the cells from cytoplasmic accumulation of dopamine-induced ROS. Oxidative-induced changes in DJ-15 imply that DJ-1 may serve as a sensor for increased cytoplasmic levels of ROS, and its rapid upregulation may be a first line defense mechanism of dopaminergic neurons that acts to rapidly clear away free cytosolic dopamine by taking it up into the synaptic vesicles.
 Moreover, apart from the accumulation of dopamine into the synaptic vesicles, VMAT2 also provides neuroprotection by sequestering into cytoplasmic vesicles external toxins implicated in PD pathogenesis, such as 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+). Overexpression of VMAT2 confers protection against these toxic insults, while genetic and pharmacological blockade of VMAT2 renders dopaminergic neurons more susceptible. These studies imply that the dopamine sequestration mechanism may also function to protect dopaminergic neurons from exposure to environmental toxins. Therefore, DJ-1 dysfunction may also augment dopaminergic neuronal vulnerability to damaging environmental factors. Therefore, on one hand, mutations in DJ-1 cause hereditary PD while on the other hand, the present findings suggest that malfunction of wild type DJ-1 may also predispose neuron to damage induced by exposure to external noxious agents. To conclude, the findings presented suggest a novel mechanism in which ROS, generated by free cytoplasmic dopamine, lead to rapid upregulation of DJ-1, which in turn protectively augment the sequestration of dopamine into the synaptic vesicles through upregulation of VMAT2. This mechanism explains how mutations in DJ-1 trigger early onset PD and suggest that DJ-1 dysfunction may also be involved in the pathogenesis of sporadic PD.
 It is appreciated that certain features of the invention, which are, for clarity, described in the context of separate embodiments, may also be provided in combination in a single embodiment. Conversely, various features of the invention, which are, for brevity, described in the context of a single embodiment, may also be provided separately or in any suitable subcombination.
 Although the invention has been described in conjunction with specific embodiments thereof, it is evident that many alternatives, modifications and variations will be apparent to those skilled in the art. Accordingly, it is intended to embrace all such alternatives, modifications and variations that fall within the spirit and broad scope of the appended claims. All publications, patents and patent applications mentioned in this specification are herein incorporated in their entirety by reference into the specification, to the same extent as if each individual publication, patent or patent application was specifically and individually indicated to be incorporated herein by reference. In addition, citation or identification of any reference in this application shall not be construed as an admission that such reference is available as prior art to the present invention.
528121PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 1Gly Ala Glu Glu Met Glu Thr Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met Arg Arg 1 5 10 15 Ala Gly Ile Lys Val 20 212PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 2Val Gln Cys Ser Arg Asp Val Val Ile Cys Pro Asp 1 5 10 311PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 3Val Val Val Leu Pro Gly Gly Asn Leu Gly Ala 1 5 10 410PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 4Ala Ala Ile Cys Ala Gly Pro Thr Ala Leu 1 5 10 57PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 5Thr Thr His Pro Leu Ala Lys 1 5 629PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 6Val Glu Lys Asp Gly Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser 1 5 10 15 Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile Val Glu Ala Leu Asn Gly 20 25 719DNAArtificial sequenceSingle strand DNA oligonucleotide 7cgacagtcag ccgcatctt 19821DNAArtificial sequenceSingle strand DNA oligonucleotide 8ccaatacgac caaatccgtt g 21920DNAArtificial sequenceSingle strand DNA oligonucleotide 9catgaggcga gctgggatta 201021DNAArtificial sequenceSingle strand DNA oligonucleotide 10gctggcatca ggacaaatga c 211120DNAArtificial sequenceSingle strand DNA oligonucleotide 11ggacaacatg ctgctcactg 201220DNAArtificial sequenceSingle strand DNA oligonucleotide 12attcccggtg accatagtcg 201320DNAArtificial sequenceSingle strand DNA oligonucleotide 13aggcgagggc taagatgttt 201420DNAArtificial sequenceSingle strand DNA oligonucleotide 14acgtggggtc ccagttactt 201520DNAArtificial sequenceSingle strand DNA oligonucleotide 15gagccttcct ggtgtttgtg 201620DNAArtificial sequenceSingle strand DNA oligonucleotide 16ctctccgatt ccagatggtg 20174PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 17Gly Ala Glu Glu 1 184PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 18Ala Glu Glu Met 1 194PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 19Glu Glu Met Glu 1 204PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 20Glu Met Glu Thr 1 214PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 21Met Glu Thr Val 1 224PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 22Glu Thr Val Ile 1 234PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 23Thr Val Ile Pro 1 244PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 24Val Ile Pro Val 1 254PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 25Ile Pro Val Asp 1 264PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 26Pro Val Asp Val 1 274PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 27Val Asp Val Met 1 284PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 28Asp Val Met Arg 1 294PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 29Val Met Arg Arg 1 304PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 30Met Arg Arg Ala 1 314PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 31Arg Arg Ala Gly 1 324PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 32Arg Ala Gly Ile 1 334PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 33Ala Gly Ile Lys 1 344PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 34Gly Ile Lys Val 1 355PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 35Gly Ala Glu Glu Met 1 5 365PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 36Ala Glu Glu Met Glu 1 5 375PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 37Glu Glu Met Glu Thr 1 5 385PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 38Glu Met Glu Thr Val 1 5 395PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 39Met Glu Thr Val Ile 1 5 405PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 40Glu Thr Val Ile Pro 1 5 415PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 41Thr Val Ile Pro Val 1 5 425PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 42Val Ile Pro Val Asp 1 5 435PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 43Ile Pro Val Asp Val 1 5 445PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 44Pro Val Asp Val Met 1 5 455PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 45Val Asp Val Met Arg 1 5 465PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 46Asp Val Met Arg Arg 1 5 475PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 47Val Met Arg Arg Ala 1 5 485PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 48Met Arg Arg Ala Gly 1 5 495PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 49Arg Arg Ala Gly Ile 1 5 505PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 50Arg Ala Gly Ile Lys 1 5 515PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 51Ala Gly Ile Lys Val 1 5 526PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 52Gly Ala Glu Glu Met Glu 1 5 536PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 53Ala Glu Glu Met Glu Thr 1 5 546PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 54Glu Glu Met Glu Thr Val 1 5 556PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 55Glu Met Glu Thr Val Ile 1 5 566PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 56Met Glu Thr Val Ile Pro 1 5 576PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 57Glu Thr Val Ile Pro Val 1 5 586PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 58Thr Val Ile Pro Val Asp 1 5 596PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 59Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val 1 5 606PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 60Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met 1 5 616PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 61Pro Val Asp Val Met Arg 1 5 626PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 62Val Asp Val Met Arg Arg 1 5 636PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 63Asp Val Met Arg Arg Ala 1 5 646PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 64Val Met Arg Arg Ala Gly 1 5 656PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 65Met Arg Arg Ala Gly Ile 1 5 666PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 66Arg Arg Ala Gly Ile Lys 1 5 676PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 67Arg Ala Gly Ile Lys Val 1 5 687PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 68Gly Ala Glu Glu Met Glu Thr 1 5 697PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 69Ala Glu Glu Met Glu Thr Val 1 5 707PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 70Glu Glu Met Glu Thr Val Ile 1 5 717PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 71Glu Met Glu Thr Val Ile Pro 1 5 727PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 72Met Glu Thr Val Ile Pro Val 1 5 737PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 73Glu Thr Val Ile Pro Val Asp 1 5 747PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 74Thr Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val 1 5 757PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 75Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met 1 5 767PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 76Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met Arg 1 5 777PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 77Pro Val Asp Val Met Arg Arg 1 5 787PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 78Val Asp Val Met Arg Arg Ala 1 5 797PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 79Asp Val Met Arg Arg Ala Gly 1 5 807PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 80Val Met Arg Arg Ala Gly Ile 1 5 817PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 81Met Arg Arg Ala Gly Ile Lys 1 5 827PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 82Arg Arg Ala Gly Ile Lys Val 1 5 838PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 83Gly Ala Glu Glu Met Glu Thr Val 1 5 848PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 84Ala Glu Glu Met Glu Thr Val Ile 1 5 858PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 85Glu Glu Met Glu Thr Val Ile Pro 1 5 868PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 86Glu Met Glu Thr Val Ile Pro Val 1 5 878PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 87Met Glu Thr Val Ile Pro Val Asp 1 5 888PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 88Glu Thr Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val 1 5 898PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 89Thr Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met 1 5 908PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 90Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met Arg 1 5 918PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 91Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met Arg Arg 1 5 928PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 92Pro Val Asp Val Met Arg Arg Ala 1 5 938PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 93Val Asp Val Met Arg Arg Ala Gly 1 5 948PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 94Asp Val Met Arg Arg Ala Gly Ile 1 5 958PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 95Val Met Arg Arg Ala Gly Ile Lys 1 5 968PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 96Met Arg Arg Ala Gly Ile Lys Val 1 5 979PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 97Gly Ala Glu Glu Met Glu Thr Val Ile 1 5 989PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 98Ala Glu Glu Met Glu Thr Val Ile Pro 1 5 999PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 99Glu Glu Met Glu Thr Val Ile Pro Val 1 5 1009PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 100Glu Met Glu Thr Val Ile Pro Val Asp 1 5 1019PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 101Met Glu Thr Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val 1 5 1029PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 102Glu Thr Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met 1 5 1039PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 103Thr Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met Arg 1 5 1049PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 104Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met Arg Arg 1 5 1059PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 105Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met Arg Arg Ala 1 5 1069PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 106Pro Val Asp Val Met Arg Arg Ala Gly 1 5 1079PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 107Val Asp Val Met Arg Arg Ala Gly Ile 1 5 1089PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 108Asp Val Met Arg Arg Ala Gly Ile Lys 1 5 1099PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 109Val Met Arg Arg Ala Gly Ile Lys Val 1 5 11010PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 110Gly Ala Glu Glu Met Glu Thr Val Ile Pro 1 5 10 11110PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 111Ala Glu Glu Met Glu Thr Val Ile Pro Val 1 5 10 11210PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 112Glu Glu Met Glu Thr Val Ile Pro Val Asp 1 5 10 11310PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 113Glu Met Glu Thr Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val 1 5 10 11410PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 114Met Glu Thr Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met 1 5 10 11510PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 115Glu Thr Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met Arg 1 5 10 11610PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 116Thr Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met Arg Arg 1 5 10 11710PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 117Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met Arg Arg Ala 1 5 10 11810PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 118Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met Arg Arg Ala Gly 1 5 10 11910PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 119Pro Val Asp Val Met Arg Arg Ala Gly Ile 1 5 10 12010PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 120Val Asp Val Met Arg Arg Ala Gly Ile Lys 1 5 10 12110PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 121Asp Val Met Arg Arg Ala Gly Ile Lys Val 1 5 10 12211PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 122Gly Ala Glu Glu Met Glu Thr Val Ile Pro Val 1 5 10 12311PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 123Ala Glu Glu Met Glu Thr Val Ile Pro Val Asp 1 5 10 12411PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 124Glu Glu Met Glu Thr Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val 1 5 10 12511PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 125Glu Met Glu Thr Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met 1 5 10 12611PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 126Met Glu Thr Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met Arg 1 5 10 12711PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 127Glu Thr Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met Arg Arg 1 5 10 12811PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 128Thr Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met Arg Arg Ala 1 5 10 12911PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 129Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met Arg Arg Ala Gly 1 5 10 13011PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 130Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met Arg Arg Ala Gly Ile 1 5 10 13111PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 131Pro Val Asp Val Met Arg Arg Ala Gly Ile Lys 1 5 10 13211PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 132Val Asp Val Met Arg Arg Ala Gly Ile Lys Val 1 5 10 13312PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 133Gly Ala Glu Glu Met Glu Thr Val Ile Pro Val Asp 1 5 10 13412PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 134Ala Glu Glu Met Glu Thr Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val 1 5 10 13512PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 135Glu Glu Met Glu Thr Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met 1 5 10 13612PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 136Glu Met Glu Thr Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met Arg 1 5 10 13712PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 137Met Glu Thr Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met Arg Arg 1 5 10 13812PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 138Glu Thr Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met Arg Arg Ala 1 5 10 13912PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 139Thr Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met Arg Arg Ala Gly 1 5 10 14012PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 140Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met Arg Arg Ala Gly Ile 1 5 10 14112PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 141Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met Arg Arg Ala Gly Ile Lys 1 5 10 14212PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 142Pro Val Asp Val Met Arg Arg Ala Gly Ile Lys Val 1 5 10 14313PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 143Gly Ala Glu Glu Met Glu Thr Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val 1 5 10 14413PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 144Ala Glu Glu Met Glu Thr Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met 1 5 10 14513PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 145Glu Glu Met Glu Thr Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met Arg 1 5 10 14613PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 146Glu Met Glu Thr Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met Arg Arg 1 5 10 14713PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 147Met Glu Thr Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met Arg Arg Ala 1 5 10 14813PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 148Glu Thr Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met Arg Arg Ala Gly 1 5 10 14913PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 149Thr Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met Arg Arg Ala Gly Ile 1 5 10 15013PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 150Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met Arg Arg Ala Gly Ile Lys 1 5 10 15113PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 151Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met Arg Arg Ala Gly Ile Lys Val 1 5 10 15214PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 152Gly Ala Glu Glu Met Glu Thr Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met 1 5
10 15314PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 153Ala Glu Glu Met Glu Thr Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met Arg 1 5 10 15414PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 154Glu Glu Met Glu Thr Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met Arg Arg 1 5 10 15514PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 155Glu Met Glu Thr Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met Arg Arg Ala 1 5 10 15614PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 156Met Glu Thr Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met Arg Arg Ala Gly 1 5 10 15714PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 157Glu Thr Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met Arg Arg Ala Gly Ile 1 5 10 15814PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 158Thr Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met Arg Arg Ala Gly Ile Lys 1 5 10 15914PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 159Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met Arg Arg Ala Gly Ile Lys Val 1 5 10 16015PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 160Gly Ala Glu Glu Met Glu Thr Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met Arg 1 5 10 15 16115PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 161Ala Glu Glu Met Glu Thr Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met Arg Arg 1 5 10 15 16215PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 162Glu Glu Met Glu Thr Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met Arg Arg Ala 1 5 10 15 16315PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 163Glu Met Glu Thr Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met Arg Arg Ala Gly 1 5 10 15 16415PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 164Met Glu Thr Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met Arg Arg Ala Gly Ile 1 5 10 15 16515PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 165Glu Thr Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met Arg Arg Ala Gly Ile Lys 1 5 10 15 16615PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 166Thr Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met Arg Arg Ala Gly Ile Lys Val 1 5 10 15 1674PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 167Val Gln Cys Ser 1 1684PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 168Gln Cys Ser Arg 1 1694PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 169Cys Ser Arg Asp 1 1704PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 170Ser Arg Asp Val 1 1714PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 171Arg Asp Val Val 1 1724PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 172Asp Val Val Ile 1 1734PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 173Val Val Ile Cys 1 1744PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 174Val Ile Cys Pro 1 1754PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 175Ile Cys Pro Asp 1 1765PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 176Val Gln Cys Ser Arg 1 5 1775PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 177Gln Cys Ser Arg Asp 1 5 1785PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 178Cys Ser Arg Asp Val 1 5 1795PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 179Ser Arg Asp Val Val 1 5 1805PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 180Arg Asp Val Val Ile 1 5 1815PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 181Asp Val Val Ile Cys 1 5 1825PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 182Val Val Ile Cys Pro 1 5 1835PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 183Val Ile Cys Pro Asp 1 5 1846PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 184Val Gln Cys Ser Arg Asp 1 5 1856PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 185Gln Cys Ser Arg Asp Val 1 5 1866PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 186Cys Ser Arg Asp Val Val 1 5 1876PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 187Ser Arg Asp Val Val Ile 1 5 1886PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 188Arg Asp Val Val Ile Cys 1 5 1896PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 189Asp Val Val Ile Cys Pro 1 5 1906PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 190Val Val Ile Cys Pro Asp 1 5 1917PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 191Val Gln Cys Ser Arg Asp Val 1 5 1927PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 192Gln Cys Ser Arg Asp Val Val 1 5 1937PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 193Cys Ser Arg Asp Val Val Ile 1 5 1947PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 194Ser Arg Asp Val Val Ile Cys 1 5 1957PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 195Arg Asp Val Val Ile Cys Pro 1 5 1967PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 196Asp Val Val Ile Cys Pro Asp 1 5 1978PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 197Val Gln Cys Ser Arg Asp Val Val 1 5 1988PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 198Gln Cys Ser Arg Asp Val Val Ile 1 5 1998PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 199Cys Ser Arg Asp Val Val Ile Cys 1 5 2008PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 200Ser Arg Asp Val Val Ile Cys Pro 1 5 2018PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 201Arg Asp Val Val Ile Cys Pro Asp 1 5 2029PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 202Val Gln Cys Ser Arg Asp Val Val Ile 1 5 2039PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 203Gln Cys Ser Arg Asp Val Val Ile Cys 1 5 2049PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 204Cys Ser Arg Asp Val Val Ile Cys Pro 1 5 2059PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 205Ser Arg Asp Val Val Ile Cys Pro Asp 1 5 20610PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 206Val Gln Cys Ser Arg Asp Val Val Ile Cys 1 5 10 20710PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 207Gln Cys Ser Arg Asp Val Val Ile Cys Pro 1 5 10 20810PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 208Cys Ser Arg Asp Val Val Ile Cys Pro Asp 1 5 10 20911PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 209Val Gln Cys Ser Arg Asp Val Val Ile Cys Pro 1 5 10 21011PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 210Gln Cys Ser Arg Asp Val Val Ile Cys Pro Asp 1 5 10 2114PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 211Val Val Val Leu 1 2124PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 212Val Val Leu Pro 1 2134PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 213Val Leu Pro Gly 1 2144PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 214Leu Pro Gly Gly 1 2154PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 215Pro Gly Gly Asn 1 2164PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 216Gly Gly Asn Leu 1 2174PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 217Gly Asn Leu Gly 1 2184PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 218Asn Leu Gly Ala 1 2195PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 219Val Val Val Leu Pro 1 5 2205PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 220Val Val Leu Pro Gly 1 5 2215PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 221Val Leu Pro Gly Gly 1 5 2225PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 222Leu Pro Gly Gly Asn 1 5 2235PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 223Pro Gly Gly Asn Leu 1 5 2245PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 224Gly Gly Asn Leu Gly 1 5 2255PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 225Gly Asn Leu Gly Ala 1 5 2266PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 226Val Val Val Leu Pro Gly 1 5 2276PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 227Val Val Leu Pro Gly Gly 1 5 2286PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 228Val Leu Pro Gly Gly Asn 1 5 2296PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 229Leu Pro Gly Gly Asn Leu 1 5 2306PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 230Pro Gly Gly Asn Leu Gly 1 5 2316PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 231Gly Gly Asn Leu Gly Ala 1 5 2327PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 232Val Val Val Leu Pro Gly Gly 1 5 2337PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 233Val Val Leu Pro Gly Gly Asn 1 5 2347PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 234Val Leu Pro Gly Gly Asn Leu 1 5 2357PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 235Leu Pro Gly Gly Asn Leu Gly 1 5 2367PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 236Pro Gly Gly Asn Leu Gly Ala 1 5 2378PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 237Val Val Val Leu Pro Gly Gly Asn 1 5 2388PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 238Val Val Leu Pro Gly Gly Asn Leu 1 5 2398PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 239Val Leu Pro Gly Gly Asn Leu Gly 1 5 2408PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 240Leu Pro Gly Gly Asn Leu Gly Ala 1 5 2419PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 241Val Val Val Leu Pro Gly Gly Asn Leu 1 5 2429PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 242Val Val Leu Pro Gly Gly Asn Leu Gly 1 5 2439PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 243Val Leu Pro Gly Gly Asn Leu Gly Ala 1 5 24410PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 244Val Val Val Leu Pro Gly Gly Asn Leu Gly 1 5 10 24510PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 245Val Val Leu Pro Gly Gly Asn Leu Gly Ala 1 5 10 2464PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 246Ala Ala Ile Cys 1 2474PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 247Ala Ile Cys Ala 1 2484PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 248Ile Cys Ala Gly 1 2494PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 249Cys Ala Gly Pro 1 2504PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 250Ala Gly Pro Thr 1 2514PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 251Gly Pro Thr Ala 1 2524PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 252Pro Thr Ala Leu 1 2535PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 253Ala Ala Ile Cys Ala 1 5 2545PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 254Ala Ile Cys Ala Gly 1 5 2555PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 255Ile Cys Ala Gly Pro 1 5 2565PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 256Cys Ala Gly Pro Thr 1 5 2575PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 257Ala Gly Pro Thr Ala 1 5 2585PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 258Gly Pro Thr Ala Leu 1 5 2596PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 259Ala Ala Ile Cys Ala Gly 1 5 2606PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 260Ala Ile Cys Ala Gly Pro 1 5 2616PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 261Ile Cys Ala Gly Pro Thr 1 5 2626PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 262Cys Ala Gly Pro Thr Ala 1 5 2636PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 263Ala Gly Pro Thr Ala Leu 1 5 2647PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 264Ala Ala Ile Cys Ala Gly Pro 1 5 2657PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 265Ala Ile Cys Ala Gly Pro Thr 1 5 2667PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 266Ile Cys Ala Gly Pro Thr Ala 1 5 2677PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 267Cys Ala Gly Pro Thr Ala Leu 1 5 2688PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 268Ala Ala Ile Cys Ala Gly Pro Thr 1 5 2698PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 269Ala Ile Cys Ala Gly Pro Thr Ala 1 5 2708PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 270Ile Cys Ala Gly Pro Thr Ala Leu 1 5 2719PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 271Ala Ala Ile Cys Ala Gly Pro Thr Ala 1 5 2729PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 272Ala Ile Cys Ala Gly Pro Thr Ala Leu 1 5 2734PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 273Thr Thr His Pro 1 2744PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 274Thr His Pro Leu 1 2754PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 275His Pro Leu Ala 1 2764PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 276Pro Leu Ala Lys 1 2775PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 277Thr Thr His Pro Leu 1 5 2785PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 278Thr His Pro Leu Ala 1 5 2795PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 279His Pro Leu Ala Lys 1 5 2806PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 280Thr Thr His Pro Leu Ala 1 5 2816PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 281Thr His Pro Leu Ala Lys 1 5 2824PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 282Val Glu Lys Asp 1 2834PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 283Glu Lys Asp Gly 1 2844PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 284Lys Asp Gly Leu 1 2854PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 285Asp Gly Leu Ile 1 2864PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 286Gly Leu Ile Leu 1 2874PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 287Leu Ile Leu Thr 1 2884PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 288Ile Leu Thr Ser 1 2894PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 289Leu Thr Ser Arg 1 2904PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 290Thr Ser Arg Gly 1 2914PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 291Ser Arg Gly Pro 1 2924PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 292Arg Gly Pro Gly 1 2934PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 293Gly Pro Gly Thr 1 2944PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 294Pro Gly Thr Ser 1 2954PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 295Gly Thr Ser Phe 1 2964PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 296Thr Ser Phe Glu 1 2974PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 297Ser Phe Glu Phe 1 2984PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 298Phe Glu Phe Ala 1 2994PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 299Glu Phe Ala Leu 1 3004PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 300Phe Ala Leu Ala 1 3014PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 301Ala Leu Ala Ile 1 3024PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 302Leu Ala Ile Val 1 3034PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 303Ala Ile Val Glu 1 3044PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 304Ile Val Glu Ala 1 3054PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 305Val Glu Ala Leu 1 3064PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 306Glu Ala Leu Asn 1 3074PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 307Ala Leu Asn Gly 1 3085PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 308Val Glu Lys Asp Gly 1 5 3095PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 309Glu Lys Asp Gly Leu 1 5 3105PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 310Lys Asp Gly Leu Ile 1 5 3115PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 311Asp Gly Leu Ile Leu 1 5 3125PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 312Gly Leu Ile Leu Thr 1 5 3135PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 313Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser 1 5 3145PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 314Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg 1 5 3155PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 315Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly 1 5 3165PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 316Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro 1 5 3175PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 317Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly 1 5 3185PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 318Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr 1 5 3195PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 319Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser 1 5 3205PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 320Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe 1 5 3215PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 321Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu 1 5 3225PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 322Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe 1 5 3235PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 323Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala 1 5 3245PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 324Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu 1 5 3255PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 325Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala 1 5 3265PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 326Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile 1 5 3275PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 327Ala Leu Ala Ile Val 1 5 3285PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 328Leu Ala Ile Val Glu 1 5 3295PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 329Ala Ile Val Glu Ala 1
5 3305PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 330Ile Val Glu Ala Leu 1 5 3315PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 331Val Glu Ala Leu Asn 1 5 3325PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 332Glu Ala Leu Asn Gly 1 5 3336PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 333Val Glu Lys Asp Gly Leu 1 5 3346PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 334Glu Lys Asp Gly Leu Ile 1 5 3356PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 335Lys Asp Gly Leu Ile Leu 1 5 3366PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 336Asp Gly Leu Ile Leu Thr 1 5 3376PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 337Gly Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser 1 5 3386PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 338Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg 1 5 3396PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 339Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly 1 5 3406PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 340Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro 1 5 3416PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 341Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly 1 5 3426PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 342Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr 1 5 3436PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 343Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser 1 5 3446PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 344Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe 1 5 3456PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 345Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu 1 5 3466PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 346Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe 1 5 3476PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 347Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala 1 5 3486PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 348Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu 1 5 3496PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 349Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala 1 5 3506PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 350Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile 1 5 3516PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 351Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile Val 1 5 3526PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 352Ala Leu Ala Ile Val Glu 1 5 3536PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 353Leu Ala Ile Val Glu Ala 1 5 3546PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 354Ala Ile Val Glu Ala Leu 1 5 3556PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 355Ile Val Glu Ala Leu Asn 1 5 3566PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 356Val Glu Ala Leu Asn Gly 1 5 3577PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 357Val Glu Lys Asp Gly Leu Ile 1 5 3587PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 358Glu Lys Asp Gly Leu Ile Leu 1 5 3597PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 359Lys Asp Gly Leu Ile Leu Thr 1 5 3607PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 360Asp Gly Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser 1 5 3617PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 361Gly Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg 1 5 3627PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 362Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly 1 5 3637PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 363Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro 1 5 3647PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 364Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly 1 5 3657PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 365Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr 1 5 3667PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 366Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser 1 5 3677PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 367Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe 1 5 3687PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 368Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu 1 5 3697PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 369Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe 1 5 3707PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 370Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala 1 5 3717PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 371Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu 1 5 3727PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 372Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala 1 5 3737PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 373Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile 1 5 3747PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 374Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile Val 1 5 3757PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 375Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile Val Glu 1 5 3767PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 376Ala Leu Ala Ile Val Glu Ala 1 5 3777PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 377Leu Ala Ile Val Glu Ala Leu 1 5 3787PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 378Ala Ile Val Glu Ala Leu Asn 1 5 3797PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 379Ile Val Glu Ala Leu Asn Gly 1 5 3808PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 380Val Glu Lys Asp Gly Leu Ile Leu 1 5 3818PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 381Glu Lys Asp Gly Leu Ile Leu Thr 1 5 3828PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 382Lys Asp Gly Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser 1 5 3838PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 383Asp Gly Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg 1 5 3848PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 384Gly Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly 1 5 3858PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 385Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro 1 5 3868PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 386Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly 1 5 3878PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 387Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr 1 5 3888PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 388Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser 1 5 3898PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 389Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe 1 5 3908PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 390Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu 1 5 3918PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 391Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe 1 5 3928PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 392Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala 1 5 3938PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 393Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu 1 5 3948PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 394Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala 1 5 3958PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 395Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile 1 5 3968PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 396Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile Val 1 5 3978PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 397Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile Val Glu 1 5 3988PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 398Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile Val Glu Ala 1 5 3998PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 399Ala Leu Ala Ile Val Glu Ala Leu 1 5 4008PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 400Leu Ala Ile Val Glu Ala Leu Asn 1 5 4018PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 401Ala Ile Val Glu Ala Leu Asn Gly 1 5 4029PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 402Val Glu Lys Asp Gly Leu Ile Leu Thr 1 5 4039PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 403Glu Lys Asp Gly Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser 1 5 4049PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 404Lys Asp Gly Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg 1 5 4059PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 405Asp Gly Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly 1 5 4069PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 406Gly Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro 1 5 4079PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 407Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly 1 5 4089PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 408Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr 1 5 4099PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 409Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser 1 5 4109PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 410Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe 1 5 4119PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 411Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu 1 5 4129PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 412Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe 1 5 4139PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 413Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala 1 5 4149PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 414Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu 1 5 4159PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 415Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala 1 5 4169PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 416Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile 1 5 4179PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 417Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile Val 1 5 4189PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 418Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile Val Glu 1 5 4199PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 419Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile Val Glu Ala 1 5 4209PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 420Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile Val Glu Ala Leu 1 5 4219PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 421Ala Leu Ala Ile Val Glu Ala Leu Asn 1 5 4229PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 422Leu Ala Ile Val Glu Ala Leu Asn Gly 1 5 42310PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 423Val Glu Lys Asp Gly Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser 1 5 10 42410PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 424Glu Lys Asp Gly Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg 1 5 10 42510PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 425Lys Asp Gly Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly 1 5 10 42610PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 426Asp Gly Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro 1 5 10 42710PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 427Gly Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly 1 5 10 42810PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 428Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr 1 5 10 42910PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 429Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser 1 5 10 43010PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 430Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe 1 5 10 43110PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 431Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu 1 5 10 43210PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 432Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe 1 5 10 43310PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 433Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala 1 5 10 43410PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 434Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu 1 5 10 43510PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 435Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala 1 5 10 43610PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 436Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile 1 5 10 43710PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 437Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile Val 1 5 10 43810PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 438Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile Val Glu 1 5 10 43910PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 439Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile Val Glu Ala 1 5 10 44010PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 440Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile Val Glu Ala Leu 1 5 10 44110PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 441Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile Val Glu Ala Leu Asn 1 5 10 44210PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 442Ala Leu Ala Ile Val Glu Ala Leu Asn Gly 1 5 10 44311PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 443Val Glu Lys Asp Gly Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg 1 5 10 44411PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 444Glu Lys Asp Gly Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly 1 5 10 44511PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 445Lys Asp Gly Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro 1 5 10 44611PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 446Asp Gly Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly 1 5 10 44711PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 447Gly Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr 1 5 10 44811PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 448Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser 1 5 10 44911PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 449Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe 1 5 10 45011PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 450Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu 1 5 10 45111PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 451Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe 1 5 10 45211PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 452Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala 1 5 10 45311PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 453Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu 1 5 10 45411PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 454Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala 1 5 10 45511PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 455Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile 1 5 10 45611PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 456Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile Val 1 5 10 45711PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 457Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile Val Glu 1 5 10 45811PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 458Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile Val Glu Ala 1 5 10 45911PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 459Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile Val Glu Ala Leu 1 5 10 46011PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 460Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile Val Glu Ala Leu Asn 1 5 10 46111PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 461Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile Val Glu Ala Leu Asn Gly 1 5 10 46212PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 462Val Glu Lys Asp Gly Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly 1 5 10 46312PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 463Glu Lys Asp Gly Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro 1 5 10 46412PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 464Lys Asp Gly Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly 1 5 10 46512PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 465Asp Gly Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr 1 5 10 46612PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 466Gly Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser 1 5 10 46712PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 467Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe 1 5 10 46812PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 468Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu 1 5 10 46912PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 469Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe 1 5 10 47012PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 470Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala 1 5 10 47112PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 471Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu 1 5 10 47212PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 472Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala 1 5 10 47312PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 473Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile 1 5 10 47412PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 474Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile Val 1 5 10 47512PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 475Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile Val Glu 1 5 10 47612PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 476Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe
Ala Leu Ala Ile Val Glu Ala 1 5 10 47712PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 477Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile Val Glu Ala Leu 1 5 10 47812PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 478Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile Val Glu Ala Leu Asn 1 5 10 47912PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 479Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile Val Glu Ala Leu Asn Gly 1 5 10 48013PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 480Val Glu Lys Asp Gly Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro 1 5 10 48113PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 481Glu Lys Asp Gly Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly 1 5 10 48213PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 482Lys Asp Gly Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr 1 5 10 48313PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 483Asp Gly Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser 1 5 10 48413PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 484Gly Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe 1 5 10 48513PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 485Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu 1 5 10 48613PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 486Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe 1 5 10 48713PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 487Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala 1 5 10 48813PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 488Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu 1 5 10 48913PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 489Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala 1 5 10 49013PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 490Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile 1 5 10 49113PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 491Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile Val 1 5 10 49213PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 492Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile Val Glu 1 5 10 49313PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 493Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile Val Glu Ala 1 5 10 49413PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 494Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile Val Glu Ala Leu 1 5 10 49513PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 495Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile Val Glu Ala Leu Asn 1 5 10 49613PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 496Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile Val Glu Ala Leu Asn Gly 1 5 10 49714PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 497Val Glu Lys Asp Gly Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly 1 5 10 49814PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 498Glu Lys Asp Gly Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr 1 5 10 49914PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 499Lys Asp Gly Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser 1 5 10 50014PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 500Asp Gly Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe 1 5 10 50114PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 501Gly Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu 1 5 10 50214PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 502Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe 1 5 10 50314PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 503Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala 1 5 10 50414PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 504Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu 1 5 10 50514PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 505Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala 1 5 10 50614PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 506Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile 1 5 10 50714PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 507Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile Val 1 5 10 50814PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 508Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile Val Glu 1 5 10 50914PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 509Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile Val Glu Ala 1 5 10 51014PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 510Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile Val Glu Ala Leu 1 5 10 51114PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 511Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile Val Glu Ala Leu Asn 1 5 10 51214PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 512Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile Val Glu Ala Leu Asn Gly 1 5 10 51315PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 513Val Glu Lys Asp Gly Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr 1 5 10 15 51415PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 514Glu Lys Asp Gly Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser 1 5 10 15 51515PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 515Lys Asp Gly Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe 1 5 10 15 51615PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 516Asp Gly Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu 1 5 10 15 51715PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 517Gly Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe 1 5 10 15 51815PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 518Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala 1 5 10 15 51915PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 519Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu 1 5 10 15 52015PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 520Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala 1 5 10 15 52115PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 521Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile 1 5 10 15 52215PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 522Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile Val 1 5 10 15 52315PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 523Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile Val Glu 1 5 10 15 52415PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 524Gly Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile Val Glu Ala 1 5 10 15 52515PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 525Pro Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile Val Glu Ala Leu 1 5 10 15 52615PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 526Gly Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile Val Glu Ala Leu Asn 1 5 10 15 52715PRTArtificial sequenceDJ-1 derived peptide 527Thr Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile Val Glu Ala Leu Asn Gly 1 5 10 15 528189PRTHomo sapiens 528Met Ala Ser Lys Arg Ala Leu Val Ile Leu Ala Lys Gly Ala Glu Glu 1 5 10 15 Met Glu Thr Val Ile Pro Val Asp Val Met Arg Arg Ala Gly Ile Lys 20 25 30 Val Thr Val Ala Gly Leu Ala Gly Lys Asp Pro Val Gln Cys Ser Arg 35 40 45 Asp Val Val Ile Cys Pro Asp Ala Ser Leu Glu Asp Ala Lys Lys Glu 50 55 60 Gly Pro Tyr Asp Val Val Val Leu Pro Gly Gly Asn Leu Gly Ala Gln 65 70 75 80 Asn Leu Ser Glu Ser Ala Ala Val Lys Glu Ile Leu Lys Glu Gln Glu 85 90 95 Asn Arg Lys Gly Leu Ile Ala Ala Ile Cys Ala Gly Pro Thr Ala Leu 100 105 110 Leu Ala His Glu Ile Gly Cys Gly Ser Lys Val Thr Thr His Pro Leu 115 120 125 Ala Lys Asp Lys Met Met Asn Gly Gly His Tyr Thr Tyr Ser Glu Asn 130 135 140 Arg Val Glu Lys Asp Gly Leu Ile Leu Thr Ser Arg Gly Pro Gly Thr 145 150 155 160 Ser Phe Glu Phe Ala Leu Ala Ile Val Glu Ala Leu Asn Gly Lys Glu 165 170 175 Val Ala Ala Gln Val Lys Ala Pro Leu Val Leu Lys Asp 180 185
Patent applications by Ramot At Tel Aviv University Ltd.