Patent application title: Multiplexed Assay Using Spectrally-Encoded Solid Support Matrices
Michael P. Nova (Rancho Santa Fe, CA, US)
Andrew E. Senyei (La Jolla, CA, US)
Andrew E. Senyei (La Jolla, CA, US)
IRORI TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
IPC8 Class: AC40B3004FI
Class name: Combinatorial chemistry technology: method, library, apparatus method of screening a library by measuring the ability to specifically bind a target molecule (e.g., antibody-antigen binding, receptor-ligand binding, etc.)
Publication date: 2013-04-11
Patent application number: 20130090260
In a multiplexed assay, each molecule of a plurality of molecules is
attached to a support matrix particle with a substrate adapted for
attachment and/or synthesis of molecules. A spectrally-encoded identifier
embodied in a photochemical medium is embedded or encased within the
substrate to uniquely identify the molecule attached to the substrate.
The molecules are exposed to one or more processing conditions, and then
placed within the path of an optical detector adapted to read the
spectrally-encoded identifier and measure biochemical activity on each
support matrix particle. The measured biochemical activity is associated
with the unique identity of the support matrix particle and, hence, with
the molecule attached to the particle.
1. A multiplexed assay, comprising: attaching each molecule of a
plurality of molecules to a separate support matrix particle, each
support matrix particle comprising a substrate adapted for attachment of
a molecule and a spectrally-encoded identifier embodied in a
photochemically-active medium incorporated into the substrate, the
spectrally-encoded identifier adapted to uniquely identify the molecule
attached to the substrate; exposing the plurality of molecules and their
corresponding support matrix particles to one or more processing
conditions in suspension to produce a plurality of processed molecules;
placing the plurality of support matrix particles into a vessel feeding
into an optically-transparent tube disposed within the detection path of
each of an optical detector and an analytical instrument, wherein the
optical detector comprises a light source emitting at a wavelength
adapted to induce activity in the photochemically-active medium for
reading the spectrally-encoded identifier and wherein the analytical
instrument is adapted to measure biochemical activity on each support
matrix particle; and associating the measured biochemical activity with
the spectrally-encoded identifier for the corresponding support matrix
particle and, hence, with the processed molecule that is associated with
the spectrally-encoded identifier.
2. The assay of claim 1, wherein the photochemically-active medium is a photochromic material.
3. The assay of claim 1, wherein the optically-transparent tube causes the support matrix particles to flow past the optical detector one at a time.
4. The assay of claim 1, wherein the light source comprises a laser.
5. The assay of claim 1, wherein the spectrally-encoded identifier comprises a plurality of different wavelengths.
6. The assay of claim 1, wherein the one or more processing conditions comprises attaching a fluorescent label to each molecule.
7. The assay of claim 6, wherein the analytical instrument measures biochemical activity by detecting an emission from the fluorescent label.
8. The assay of claim 1, wherein the one or more processing conditions comprise: reacting the molecules with an analyte; and further reacting the molecules with a detection antibody, wherein the detection antibody is conjugated with a detectable label.
9. The assay of claim 8, wherein the analyte comprises a fluid comprising an antigen.
10. The assay of claim 1, wherein the spectrally-encoded identifier is embedded or encased within the substrate.
11. The assay of claim 1, wherein the spectrally-encoded identifier is encased within a protective coating.
12. The assay of claim 1, wherein a remote memory stores the encoded data in association with information about the molecule attached to the support matrix particle.
13. An assay for evaluating a plurality of molecules, comprising: linking each of the molecules to a separate support matrix particle having a spectrally-encoded identifier embodied in a photochemical medium within the support matrix particle, the spectrally-encoded identifier having a unique identity, wherein the unique identity is associated with the molecule linked to the support matrix particle; exposing each molecule and its linked support matrix particle to one or more reagents in suspension, wherein at least one of the one or more reagents is conjugated with a label; placing the plurality of support matrix particles into a vessel feeding into an optically-transparent tube disposed within the path of an optical detector comprising a light source for inducing activity in the photochemical medium and a photodetector adapted to read the spectrally-encoded identifier as the support matrix particle passes through the optically-transparent tube; and measuring biochemical processes on each support matrix particle by directing the support matrix particles past an analytical instrument adapted to detect the label.
14. The assay of claim 13, wherein the support matrix particle has a fluor incorporated therein.
15. The assay of claim 14, wherein the spectrally-encoded identifier is embedded or encased within the support matrix.
16. The assay of claim 13, wherein the spectrally-encoded identifier comprises a plurality of different wavelengths.
17. The assay of claim 13, wherein the label is a fluorescent label.
18. The assay of claim 7, wherein the step of measuring comprises detecting an emission from the fluorescent label.
19. The assay of claim 13, wherein the photochemical medium is a photochromic material.
20. The assay of claim 13, wherein the optically-transparent tube causes the support matrix particles to flow past the optical detector one at a time.
21. The assay of claim 13, wherein the light source comprises laser.
22. An assay system, comprising: a plurality of support matrix particles, each support matrix particle adapted for linking a molecule of a plurality of molecules, wherein each support matrix particle has a spectrally-encoded identifier embodied in a photochemical medium embedded or encased therein, the spectrally-encoded identifier having a unique identity, wherein the unique identity is associated with the molecule linked to the support matrix particle; a particle identity reader adapted for reading the spectrally-encoded identifier for each support matrix particle and generating a signal corresponding to the spectrally-encoded identifier; an analytical instrument adapted to measure biochemical activity on each support matrix particle and generate a signal corresponding to measured biochemical activity; a vessel adapted for receiving a plurality of support matrix particles with linked molecules and directing the plurality of support matrix particles within a reading field of the particle identity reader and a detection field of the analytical instrument; and a system controller in communication with the particle identity reader and the analytical instrument for receiving the signal corresponding to the spectrally-encoded identifier and the signal corresponding to measured biochemical activity, wherein the system controller is operable to associate the measured biochemical activity with the spectrally-encoded identifier for the corresponding support matrix particle and, hence, with the molecule that is linked to the spectrally-encoded identifier.
23. The assay system of claim 22, wherein the plurality of molecules are labeled with a fluorescent label and the analytical instrument comprises an excitation light source and a fluorescence detector.
24. The assay system of claim 22, wherein the particle identity reader is adapted to detect a plurality of different wavelengths.
25. The assay system of claim 22, further comprising an optically-transparent tube in fluid communication with the vessel, wherein the optically-transparent tube directs the plurality of support matrix particles past the particle identity reader and the analytical instrument.
26. The assay system of claim 22, wherein the vessel comprises a plate
27. An assay for evaluating a plurality of molecules, comprising: linking each of the molecules to a separate support matrix particle having a spectrally-encoded identifier comprising a photochemically-active medium embedded or encased therein, the spectrally-encoded identifier having a unique identity that is associated with the molecule linked to the support matrix particle; exposing the plurality of molecules and their corresponding support matrix particles to one or more reagents to produce processed molecules; placing a plurality of support matrix particles with linked processed molecules into a common vessel; measuring biochemical processes within the common vessel using analytical instrumentation; before, during or after the step of measuring, detecting the spectrally-encoded identifier for each support matrix particle, wherein the spectrally-encoded identifier comprises a plurality of different wavelengths; and associating the measured biochemical process for each support matrix particle with the spectrally-encoded identifier for that particle and, hence, with the processed molecule that is associated with the spectrally-encoded identifier.
28. The assay of claim 27, wherein the support matrix particle further comprises a magnetic material.
29. The assay of claim 27, wherein the common vessel comprises a plate.
30. The assay of claim 27, wherein the step of exposing comprises attaching a detectable label, and the step of measuring comprises: exciting the detectable label with a light source; and detecting fluorescent emissions from the detectable label.
 This application is a continuation of application Ser. No. 13/478,689, filed May 23, 2012, which is a continuation of application Ser. No. 13/099,198, filed May 2, 2011, issued Jul. 10, 2012 as U.S. Pat. No. 8,219,327, which is a continuation of application Ser. No. 11/011,452, filed on Dec. 14, 2004, issued May 3, 2011 as U.S. Pat. No. 7,935,659, which is a continuation of Ser. No. 08/945,053, filed on May 11, 1998, now abandoned, filed as a 371 of international application No. PCT/US96/06145, filed on Apr. 25, 1996, and which is a continuation-in-part of application Ser. No. 08/639,813, filed on Apr. 2, 1996, now abandoned, which is a continuation-in-part of U.S. application Ser. No. 08/567,746, filed on Dec. 5, 1995, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,025,129, Feb. 15, 2000, which is a continuation-in-part of application Ser. No. 08/538,387, filed on Oct. 3, 1995, now U.S. Pat. No. 5,874,214, Feb. 23, 1999, which is a continuation-in-part of each of application Ser. No. 08/473,660, filed on Jun. 7, 1995, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,331,273, Dec. 18, 2001, application Ser. No. 08/480,147, filed on Jun. 7, 1995, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,352,854, Mar. 5, 2002, application Ser. No. 08/480,196, filed on Jun. 7, 1995, now U.S. Pat. No. 5,925,562, Jul. 20, 1999, application Ser. No. 08/484,504, filed on Jun. 7, 1995, now U.S. Pat. No. 5,751,629, May 12, 1998, application Ser. No. 08/484,186, filed on Jun. 7, 1995, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,416,714, Jul. 9, 2002, and application Ser. No. 08/428,662, filed on Apr. 25, 1995, now U.S. Pat. No. 5,741,462, Apr. 21, 1998. The subject matter of each of the above-identified applications is incorporated herein by reference its entirety.
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
 The present invention relates to the use of encoded beads for molecular tracking and identification during multiplexed assays.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
 Drug discovery relies on the ability to identify compounds that interact with a selected target, such as cells, an antibody, receptor, enzyme, transcription factor or the like. Traditional drug discovery relied on collections or "libraries" obtained from proprietary databases of compounds accumulated over many years, natural products, fermentation broths, and rational drug design. Recent advances in molecular biology, chemistry and automation have resulted in the development of rapid, high throughput screening (HTS) protocols to screen these collections. In connection with HTS, methods for generating molecular diversity and for detecting, identifying and quantifying biological or chemical material have been developed. These advances have been facilitated by fundamental developments in chemistry, including the development of highly sensitive analytical methods, solid state chemical synthesis, and sensitive and specific biological assay systems.
 Analyses of biological interactions and chemical reactions, however, require the use of labels or tags to track and identify the results of such analyses. Typically biological reactions, such as binding, catalytic, hybridization and signaling reactions, are monitored by labels such as radioactive, fluorescent, photoabsorptive, luminescent and other such labels, or by direct or indirect enzyme labels. Chemical reactions are also monitored by direct or indirect means, such as by linking the reactions to a second reaction in which a colored, fluorescent, chemiluminescent or other such product results. These analytical methods, however, are often time consuming, tedious and, when practiced in vivo, invasive. In addition, each reaction is typically measured individually, in a separate assay. There is, thus, a need to develop alternative and convenient methods for tracking and identifying analytes in biological interactions and the reactants and products of chemical reactions.
 High Throughput Screening:
 In addition, exploitation of this diversity requires development of methods for rapidly screening compounds. Advances in instrumentation, molecular biology and protein chemistry and the adaptation of biochemical activity screens into microplate formats, has made it possible to screen of large numbers of compounds. Also, because compound screening has been successful in areas of significance for the pharmaceutical industry, high throughput screening (HTS) protocols have assumed importance. Presently, there are hundreds of HTS systems operating throughout the world, which are used, not only for compound screening for drug discovery, but also for immunoassays, cell-based assays and receptor-binding assays.
 An essential element of high throughput screening for drug discovery process and areas in which molecules are identified and tracked, is the ability to extract the information made available during synthesis and screening of a library, identification of the active components of intermediary structures, and the reactants and products of assays. While there are several techniques for identification of intermediary products and final products, nanosequencing protocols that provide exact structures are only applicable on mass to naturally occurring linear oligomers such as peptides and amino acids. Mass spectrographic (MS) analysis is sufficiently sensitive to determine the exact mass and fragmentation patterns of individual synthesis steps, but complex analytical mass spectrographic strategies are not readily automated nor conveniently performed. Also, mass spectrographic analysis provides at best simple connectivity information, but no stereoisomeric information, and generally cannot discriminate among isomeric monomers. Another problem with mass spectrographic analysis is that it requires pure compounds; structural determinations on complex mixtures are either difficult or impossible. Finally, mass spectrographic analysis is tedious and time consuming. Thus, although there are a multitude of solutions to the generation of libraries and to screening protocols, there are no ideal solutions to the problems of identification, tracking and categorization.
 These problems arise in any screening or analytical process in which large numbers of molecules or biological entities are screened. In any system, once a desired molecule(s) has been isolated, it must be identified. Simple means for identification do not exist. Because of the problems inherent in any labeling procedure, it would be desirable to have alternative means for tracking and quantitating chemical and biological reactions during synthesis and/or screening processes, and for automating such tracking and quantitating.
 Therefore, it is an object herein to provide methods for identification, tracking and categorization of the components of complex mixtures of diverse molecules. It is also an object herein to provide products for such identification, tracking and categorization and to provide assays, diagnostics and screening protocols that use such products. It is of particular interest herein to provide means to track and identify compounds and to perform HTS protocols.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
 Combinations of matrix materials with programmable data storage or recording devices, herein referred to as memories, and assays using these combinations are provided. These combinations are referred to herein as matrices with memories. By virtue of this memory with matrix combination, molecules, such as antigens, antibodies, ligands, proteins and nucleic acids, and biological particles, such as phage and viral particles and cells, that are associated with, such as in proximity to or in physical contact with the matrix combination, can be electromagnetically tagged by programming the memory with data corresponding to identifying information. Programming and reading the memory is effected remotely, preferably using electromagnetic radiation, particularly radio frequency or radar. Memories may also be remote from the matrix, such as instances in which the memory device is precoded with a mark or identifier or the matrix is encoded with a bar code. The identity, i.e., the mark or code, of each device is written to a memory, which may be a computer or a piece of paper or any recording device, and information associated with each matrix is stored in the remote memory and linked to the code or other identifier.
 The molecules and biological particles that are associated with the matrix combination, such as in proximity to or in physical contact or with the matrix combination, can be identified and the results of the assays determined by retrieving the stored data points from the memories. Querying the memory will identify associated molecules or biological particles that have reacted.
 The combinations provided herein thus have a multiplicity of applications, including combinatorial chemistry, isolation and purification of target macromolecules, capture and detection of macromolecules for analytical purposes, high throughput screening, selective removal of contaminants, enzymatic catalysis, drug delivery, chemical modification, information collection and management and other uses. These combinations are particularly advantageous for use in multianalyte analyses, assays in which an electromagnetic signal is generated by the reactants or products in the assay, for use in homogeneous assays, and for use in multiplexed protocols.
 Of particular interest herein, are multiprotocol applications (such as multiplexed assays or coupled synthetic and assay protocols) in which the matrices with memories are used in a series (more than one) of reactions, a series (more than one) of assays, and/or a series of more or more reactions and one or more assays, typically on a single platform or coupled via automated analysis instrumentation. As a result synthesis is coupled to screening.
DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
 FIG. 1 depicts combinatorial synthesis of chemical libraries on matrix supports with memories.
 FIG. 2 depicts combinatorial synthesis of peptides on a matrix with memory.
 FIG. 3 depicts combinatorial synthesis of oligonucleotides on matrix supports with memories.
 FIG. 4 depicts generation of a chemical library, such as a library of organic molecules, according to the present invention.
 FIG. 5 is a block diagram of the data storage means and supporting electrical components of a preferred embodiment.
 FIG. 6 is a diagrammatic view of the memory array within the recording device, and the corresponding data stored in the host computer memory.
 FIG. 7 is an illustration of an exemplary apparatus for separating the matrix particles with memories for individual exposure to an EM signal.
 FIG. 8 is an illustration of a second exemplary embodiment of an apparatus for separating matrix particles for individual exposure to an optical signal.
 FIG. 9 is a diagrammatic view of the memory array within the recording device, the corresponding data stored in the host computer memory, and included photodetector with amplifier and gating transistor.
 FIG. 10 illustrates an exemplary scheme for the synthesis of the 8 member RF encoded combinatorial decameric peptide library.
 FIG. 11 illustrates a sequence using fluorescent solid supports in an application in solid phase synthesis of direct SPA.
 FIG. 12 illustrates an exemplary sequence using coded macro "beads".
 FIG. 13 illustrates an exemplary sequence for preparation and use of a tubular microvessel in which the container is radiation grafted with monomers.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
 Unless defined otherwise, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as is commonly understood by one of skill in the art to which this invention belongs. All patents and publications referred to herein are, unless noted otherwise, incorporated by reference in their entirety.
 As used herein, a matrix refers to any solid or semisolid or insoluble support to which the memory device and/or the molecule of interest, typically a biological molecule, organic molecule or biospecific ligand is linked or contacted. Typically a matrix is a substrate material having a rigid or semi-rigid surface. In many embodiments, at least one surface of the substrate will be substantially flat, although in some embodiments it may be desirable to physically separate synthesis regions for different polymers with, for example, wells, raised regions, etched trenches, or other such topology. Matrix materials include any materials that are used as affinity matrices or supports for chemical and biological molecule syntheses and analyses, such as, but are not limited to: polystyrene, polycarbonate, polypropylene, nylon, glass, dextran, chitin, sand, pumice, TEFLON®, agarose, polysaccharides, dendrimers, buckyballs, polyacrylamide, Kieselguhr-polyacrylamide non-covalent composite, polystyrene-polyacrylamide covalent composite, polystyrene-PEG (polyethyleneglycol) composite, silicon, rubber, and other materials used as supports for solid phase syntheses, affinity separations and purifications, hybridization reactions, immunoassays and other such applications. The matrix herein may be particulate or may be in the form of a continuous surface, such as a microtiter dish or well, a glass slide, a silicon chip, a nitrocellulose sheet, nylon mesh, or other such materials. When particulate, typically the particles have at least one dimension in the 5-10 mm range or smaller. Such particles, referred collectively herein as "beads", are often, but not necessarily, spherical. Such reference, however, does not constrain the geometry of the matrix, which may be any shape, including random shapes, needles, fibers, elongated, etc. The "beads" may include additional components, such as magnetic or paramagnetic particles (see, e.g., Dyna beads (Dynal, Oslo, Norway)) for separation using magnets, fluophores and other scintillants, as long as the additional components do not interfere with chemical reactions, data entry or retrieval from the memory.
 As used herein, scintillants include, 2,5-diphenyloxazole (PPO), anthracene, 2-(4'-tert-butylphenyl)-5-(4''-biphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (butyl-PBD); 1-phenyl-3-mesityl-2-pyrazoline (PMP), with or without frequency shifters, such as 1,4-bis(5-phenyl(oxazolyl)benzene) (POPOP); p-bis-o-methylstyrylbenzene (bis-MSB). Combinations of these fluors such as PPO and POPOP or PPO and bis-MSB, in suitable solvents, such as benzyltoluene (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,410,155), are referred to as scintillation cocktails.
 As used herein a luminescent moiety refers to a scintillant or fluophor used in scintillation proximity assays or in non-radioactive energy transfer assays, such as HTRF assays.
 As used herein, matrix particles refer to matrix materials that are in the form of discrete particles. The particles have any shape and dimensions, but typically have at least one dimension that is 100 mm or less, preferably 50 mm or less, more preferably 10 mm or less, and typically have a size that is 100 mm3 or less, preferably 50 mm3 or less, more preferably 10 mm3 or less, and most preferably 1 mm3 or less. The matrices may also be continuous surfaces, such as microtiter plates (e.g., plates made from polystyrene or polycarbonate or derivatives thereof commercially available from Perkin Elmer Cetus and numerous other sources, and Covalink trays (Nunc), microtiter plate lids or a test tube, such as a 1 ml Eppendorf tube. Matrices that are in the form of containers refers to containers, such as test tubes and microplates and vials that are typically used for solid phase syntheses of combinatorial libraries or as pouches, vessels, bags, and microvessels for screening and diagnostic assays. Thus, a container used for chemical syntheses refers to a container that typically has a volume of about 1 liter, generally 100 ml, and more often 10 ml or less, 5 ml or less, preferably 1 ml or less, and as small as about 50 μl-500 μl, such as 100 μl or 250 μl. This also refers to multi-well plates, such as microtiter plates (96 well, 384 well or other density format). Such microtiter plate will typically contain a recording device in, on, or otherwise in contact with in each of a plurality of wells.
 As used herein, a matrix with a memory refers to a combination of a matrix with a miniature recording device that stores multiple bits of data by which the matrix may be identified, preferably in a non-volatile memory that can be written to and read from by transmission of electromagnetic radiation from a remote host, such as a computer. By miniature is meant of a size less than about 10-20 mm3 (or 10-20 mm in the largest dimension). Preferred memory devices or data storage units are miniature and are preferably smaller than 10-20 mm3 (or 10-20 mm in its largest dimension) dimension, more preferably less than 5 mm3, most preferably about 1 mm3 or smaller.
 As used herein, a microreactor refers to combinations of matrices with memories with associated, such as linked or proximate, biological particles or molecules. It is produced, for example, when the molecule is linked thereto or synthesized thereon. It is then used in subsequent protocols, such as immunoassays and scintillation proximity assays.
 As used herein, a combination herein called a microvessel (e.g., an MICROKAN®) refers to a combination in which a single device (or more than one device) and a plurality of particles are sealed in a porous or semi-permeable inert material, such as TEFLON® or polypropylene or membrane that is permeable to the components of the medium, but retains the particles and memory, or are sealed in a small closable container that has at least one dimension that is porous or semi-permeable. Typically such microvessels, which preferably have at least one end that can be opened and sealed or closed tightly, has a volume of about 200-500 mm3, with preferred dimensions of about 1-10 mm in diameter and 5 to 20 mm in height, more preferably about 5 mm by 15 mm. The porous wall should be non-collapsible with a pore size in the range of 70 μM to about 100 μM, but can be selected to be semi-permeable for selected components of the reaction medium.
 As used herein, a memory is a data storage unit (or medium) with programmable memory, preferably a non-volatile memory.
 As used herein, programming refers to the process by which data or information is entered and stored in a memory. A memory that is programmed is a memory that contains retrievable information.
 As used herein, remotely programmable, means that the memory can be programmed without direct physical or electrical contact or can be programmed from a distance, typically at least about 10 mm, although shorter distances may also be used, such as instances in which the information comes from surface or proximal reactions or from an adjacent memory or in instances, such as embodiments in which the memories are very close to each other, as in microtiter plate wells or in an array.
 As used herein, a recording device (or memory device) is an apparatus that includes the data storage unit with programmable memory, and, if necessary, means for receiving information and for transmitting information that has been recorded. It includes any means needed or used for writing to and reading from the memory. The recording devices intended for use herein, are miniature devices that preferably are smaller than 10-20 mm3 (or 10-20 mm in their largest dimension), and more preferably are closer in size to 1 mm3 or smaller that contain at least one such memory and means for receiving and transmitting data to and from the memory.
 As used herein, a data storage unit with programmable memory includes any data storage means having the ability to record multiple discrete bits of data, which discrete bits of data may be individually accessed (read) after one or more recording operations. Thus, a matrix with memory is a combination of a matrix material with a miniature data storage unit.
 As used herein, programmable means capable of storing unique data points. Addressable means having unique locations that may be selected for storing the unique data points.
 As used herein, a host computer or decoder/encoder instrument is an instrument that has been programmed with or includes information (i.e., a key) specifying the code used to encode the memory devices. This instrument, or one linked thereto, transmits the information and signals to the recording device and it, or another instrument, receives the information transmitted from the recording device upon receipt of the appropriate signal. This instrument thus creates the appropriate signal to transmit to the recording device and can interpret transmitted signals. For example, if a "1" is stored at position 1,1 in the memory of the recording device means, upon receipt of this information, this instrument or computer can determine that this means the linked molecule is, for example, a peptide containing alanine at the N-terminus, an organic group, organic molecule, oligonucleotide, or whatever this information has been predetermined to mean. Alternatively, the information sent to and transmitted from the recording device can be encoded into the appropriate form by a person.
 As used herein, an electromagnetic tag is a recording device that has a memory that contains unique data points that correspond to information that identifies molecules or biological particles linked to, directly or indirectly, in physical contact with or in proximity (or associated with) to the device. Thus, electromagnetic tagging is the process by which identifying or tracking information is transmitted (by any means and to any recording device memory, including optical and magnetic storage media) to the recording device.
 As used herein, proximity means within a very short distance, generally less than 0.5 inch, typically less than 0.2 inches. In particular, stating that the matrix material and memory, or the biological particle or molecule and matrix with memory are in proximity means that, they are at least or at least were in the same reaction vessel or, if the memory is removed from the reaction vessel, the identity of the vessel containing the molecules or biological particles with which the memory was proximate or linked is tracked or otherwise known.
 As used herein, associated with means that the memory must remain in proximity to the molecule or biological particle or must in some manner be traceable to the molecule or biological particle. For example, if a molecule is cleaved from the support with memory, the memory must in some manner be identified as having been linked to the cleaved molecule. Thus, a molecule or biological particle that had been linked to or in proximity to a matrix with memory is associated with the matrix or memory if it can be identified by querying the memory.
 As used herein, electromagnetic (EM) radiation refers to radiation understood by skilled artisans to be EM radiation and includes, but is not limited to radio frequency (RF), infrared (IR), visible, ultraviolet (UV), radiation, sonic waves, X-rays, and laser light.
 As used herein, information identifying or tracking a biological particle or molecule refers to any information that identifies the molecule or biological particle, such as, but not limited to the identity particle (i.e., its chemical formula or name), its sequence, its type, its class, its purity, its properties, such as its binding affinity for a particular ligand. Tracking means the ability to follow a molecule or biological particle through synthesis and/or process steps. The memory devices herein store unique indicators that represent any of this information.
 As used herein, combinatorial chemistry is a synthetic strategy that produces diverse, usually large, chemical libraries. It is the systematic and repetitive, covalent connection of a set, the basis set, of different monomeric building blocks of varying structure to each other to produce an array of diverse molecules (see, e.g., Gallop et al. (1994) J. Medicinal Chemistry 37:1233-1251). It also encompasses other chemical modifications, such as cyclizations, eliminations, cleavages, etc., that are carried in manner that generates permutations and thereby collections of diverse molecules.
 As used herein, a biological particle refers to a virus, such as a viral vector or viral capsid with or without packaged nucleic acid, phage, including a phage vector or phage capsid, with or without encapsulated nucleotide acid, a single cell, including eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells or fragments thereof, a liposome or micellar agent or other packaging particle, and other such biological materials.
 As used herein, the molecules in the combinations include any molecule, including nucleic acids, amino acids, other biopolymers, and other organic molecules, including peptidomimetics and monomers or polymers of small organic molecular constituents of non-peptidic libraries, that may be identified by the methods here and/or synthesized on matrices with memories as described herein.
 As used herein, the term "bio-oligomer" refers to a biopolymer of less than about 100 subunits. A bio-oligomer includes, but is not limited to, a peptide, i.e., containing amino acid subunits, an oligonucleotide, i.e., containing nucleoside subunits, peptide-oligonucleotide chimera, peptidomimetic, and a polysaccharide.
 As used herein, the term "sequences of random monomer subunits" refers to polymers or oligomers containing sequences of monomers in which any monomer subunit may precede or follow any other monomer subunit.
 As used herein, the term "library" refers to a collection of substantially random compounds or biological particles expressing random peptides or proteins or to a collection of diverse compounds. Of particular interest are bio-oligomers, biopolymers, or diverse organic compounds or a set of compounds prepared from monomers based on a selected pharmacophore.
 As used herein, an analyte is any substance that is analyzed or assayed in the reaction of interest. Thus, analytes include the substrates, products and intermediates in the reaction, as well as the enzymes and cofactors.
 As used herein, multianalyte analysis is the ability to measure many analytes in a single specimen or to perform multiple tests from a single specimen. The methods and combinations herein provide means to identify or track individual analytes from among a mixture of such analytes.
 As used herein, a fluophore or a fluor is a molecule that readily fluoresces; it is a molecule that emits light following interaction with radiation. The process of fluorescence refers to emission of a photon by a molecule in an excited singlet state. For scintillation assays, combinations of fluors are typically used. A primary fluor that emits light following interaction with radiation and a secondary fluor that shifts the wavelength emitted by the primary fluor to a higher more efficiently detected wavelength.
 As used herein, a peptidomimetic is a compound that mimics the conformation and certain stereochemical features of the biologically active form of a particular peptide. In general, peptidomimetics are designed to mimic certain desirable properties of a compound but not the undesirable features, such as flexibility leading to a loss of the biologically active conformation and bond breakdown. For example, methylenethio bioisostere (CH2S) has been used as an amide replacement in enkephalin analogs (see, e.g., Spatola, A. F. Chemistry and Biochemistry of Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins (Weinstein, B, Ed., Vol. 7, pp. 267-357, Marcel Dekker, New York (1983); and Szelke et al. (1983) In Peptides: Structure and Function, Proceedings of the Eighth American Peptide Symposium. Hruby and Rich, Eds., pp. 579-582, Pierce Chemical Co., Rockford, Ill.).
 As used herein, complete coupling means that the coupling reaction is driven substantially to completion despite or regardless of the differences in the coupling rates of individual components of the reaction, such as amino acids. In addition, the amino acids, or whatever is being coupled, are coupled to substantially all available coupling sites on the solid phase support so that each solid phase support will contain essentially only one species of peptide.
 As used herein, the biological activity or bioactivity of a particular compound includes any activity induced, potentiated or influenced by the compound in vivo or in vitro. It also includes the abilities, such as the ability of certain molecules to bind to particular receptors and to induce (or modulate) a functional response. It may be assessed by in vivo assays or by in vitro assays, such as those exemplified herein.
 As used herein, pharmaceutically acceptable salts, esters or other derivatives of the compounds include any salts, esters or derivatives that may be readily prepared by those of skill in this art using known methods for such derivatization and that produce compounds that may be administered to animals or humans without substantial toxic effects and that either are pharmaceutically active or are prodrugs. For example, hydroxy groups can be esterified or etherified.
 As used herein, substantially pure means sufficiently homogeneous to appear free of readily detectable impurities as determined by standard methods of analysis, such as thin layer chromatography (TLC), mass spectrometry (MS), size exclusion chromatography, gel electrophoresis, particularly agarose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), used by those of skill in the art to assess such purity, or sufficiently pure such that further purification would not detectably alter the physical and chemical properties, such as enzymatic and biological activities, of the substance. Methods for purification of the compounds to produce substantially chemically pure compounds are known to those of skill in the art. A substantially chemically pure compound may, however, be a mixture of stereoisomers. In such instances, further purification might increase the specific activity of the compound.
 As used herein, adequately pure or "pure" per se means sufficiently pure for the intended use of the adequately pure compound.
 As used herein, biological activity refers to the in vivo activities of a compound or physiological responses that result upon in vivo administration of a compound, composition or other mixture. Biological activity, thus, encompasses therapeutic effects and pharmaceutical activity of such compounds, compositions and mixtures.
 As used herein, a prodrug is a compound that, upon in vivo administration, is metabolized or otherwise converted to the biologically, pharmaceutically or therapeutically active form of the compound. To produce a prodrug, the pharmaceutically active compound is modified such that the active compound will be regenerated by metabolic processes. The prodrug may be designed to alter the metabolic stability or the transport characteristics of a drug, to mask side effects or toxicity, to improve the flavor of a drug or to alter other characteristics or properties of a drug. By virtue of knowledge of pharmacodynamic processes and drug metabolism in vivo, those of skill in this art, once a pharmaceutically active compound is known, can design prodrugs of the compound (see, e.g., Nogrady (1985) Medicinal Chemistry A Biochemical Approach. Oxford University Press, New York, pages 388-392).
 As used herein, amino acids refer to the naturally-occurring amino acids and any other non-naturally occurring amino acids, and also the corresponding D-isomers. It is also understood that certain amino acids may be replaced by substantially equivalent non-naturally occurring variants thereof, such as D-Nva, D-Nle, D-Alle, and others listed with the abbreviations below or known to those of skill in this art.
 As used herein, hydrophobic amino acids include Ala, Val, Leu, lie, Pro, Phe, Trp, and Met, the non-naturally occurring amino acids and the corresponding D isomers of the hydrophobic amino acids, that have similar hydrophobic properties; the polar amino acids include Gly, Ser, Thr, Cys, Tyr, Asn, Gin, the non-naturally occurring amino acids and the corresponding D isomers of the polar amino acids, that have similar properties, the charged amino acids include Asp, Glu, Lys, Arg, His, the non-naturally occurring amino acids and the corresponding D isomers of these amino acids.
 As used herein, Southern, Northern, Western and dot blot procedures refer to those in which DNA, RNA and protein patterns, respectively, are transferred for example, from agarose gels, polyacrylamide gels or other suitable medium that constricts convective motion of molecules, to nitrocellulose membranes or other suitable medium for hybridization or antibody or antigen binding are well known to those of skill in this art.
 As used herein, a receptor refers to a molecule that has an affinity for a given ligand. Receptors may be naturally-occurring or synthetic molecules. Receptors may also be referred to in the art as anti-ligands. As used herein, the terms "receptor" and "anti-ligand" are interchangeable. Receptors can be used in their unaltered state or as aggregates with other species. Receptors may be attached, covalently or noncovalently, or in physical contact with, to a binding member, either directly or indirectly via a specific binding substance or linker. Examples of receptors, include, but are not limited to: antibodies, cell membrane receptors, surface receptors and internalizing receptors, monoclonal antibodies and antisera reactive with specific antigenic determinants (such as on viruses, cells, or other materials), drugs, polynucleotides, nucleic acids, peptides, cofactors, lectins, sugars, polysaccharides, cells, cellular membranes, and organelles.
 Examples of receptors and applications using such receptors, include but are not restricted to:
 a) enzymes: specific transport proteins or enzymes essential to survival of microorganisms, which could serve as targets for antibiotic (ligand) selection;
 b) antibodies: identification of a ligand-binding site on the antibody molecule that combines with the epitope of an antigen of interest may be investigated; determination of a sequence that mimics an antigenic epitope may lead to the development of vaccines of which the immunogen is based on one or more of such sequences or lead to the development of related diagnostic agents or compounds useful in therapeutic treatments such as for auto-immune diseases
 c) nucleic acids: identification of ligand, such as protein or RNA, binding sites;
 d) catalytic polypeptides: polymers, preferably polypeptides, that are capable of promoting a chemical reaction involving the conversion of one or more reactants to one or more products; such polypeptides generally include a binding site specific for at least one reactant or reaction intermediate and an active functionality proximate to the binding site, in which the functionality is capable of chemically modifying the bound reactant (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,215,899);
 e) hormone receptors: determination of the ligands that bind with high affinity to a receptor is useful in the development of hormone replacement therapies; for example, identification of ligands that bind to such receptors may lead to the development of drugs to control blood pressure; and
 f) opiate receptors: determination of ligands that bind to the opiate receptors in the brain is useful in the development of less-addictive replacements for morphine and related drugs.
 As used herein, antibody includes antibody fragments, such as Fab fragments, which are composed of a light chain and the variable region of a heavy chain.
 As used herein, complementary refers to the topological compatibility or matching together of interacting surfaces of a ligand molecule and its receptor. Thus, the receptor and its ligand can be described as complementary, and furthermore, the contact surface characteristics are complementary to each other.
 As used herein, a ligand-receptor pair or complex formed when two macromolecules have combined through molecular recognition to form a complex.
 As used herein, an epitope refers to a portion of an antigen molecule that is delineated by the area of interaction with the subclass of receptors known as antibodies.
 As used herein, a ligand is a molecule that is specifically recognized by a particular receptor. Examples of ligands, include, but are not limited to, agonists and antagonists for cell membrane receptors, toxins and venoms, viral epitopes, hormones (e.g., steroids), hormone receptors, opiates, peptides, enzymes, enzyme substrates, cofactors, drugs, lectins, sugars, oligonucleotides, nucleic acids, oligosaccharides, proteins, and monoclonal antibodies.
 As used herein, a sensor is a device or apparatus that monitors external parameters (i.e., conditions), such as ion concentrations, pH, temperatures. Biosensors are sensors that detect biological species. Sensors encompass devices that rely on electrochemical, optical, biological and other such means to monitor the environment.
 As used herein, multiplexing refers to performing a series of synthetic and processing steps and/or assaying steps on the same platform (e.g., solid support or matrix) or coupled together as part of the same automated coupled protocol, including one or more of the following, synthesis, preferably accompanied by writing to the linked memories to identify linked compounds, screening, including using protocols with matrices with memories, and compound identification by querying the memories of matrices associated with the selected compounds. Thus, the platform refers system in which all manipulations are performed. In general it means that several protocols are coupled and performed sequentially or simultaneously.
 As used herein, a platform refers to the instrumentation or devices in which a reaction or series of reactions is(are) performed.
 As used herein a protecting group refers to a material that is chemically bound to a monomer unit that may be removed upon selective exposure to an activator such as electromagnetic radiation and, especially ultraviolet and visible light, or that may be selectively cleaved. Examples of protecting groups include, but are not limited to: those containing nitropiperonyl, pyrenylmethoxy-carbonyl, nitroveratryl, nitrobenzyl, dimethyl dimethoxybenzyl, 5-bromo-7-nitroindolinyl, o-hydroxy-alpha-methyl cinnamoyl, and 2-oxymethylene anthraquinone.
 Also protected amino acids are readily available to those of skill in this art. For example, Fmoc and Boc protected amino acids can be obtained from Fluka, Bachem, Advanced Chemtech, Sigma, Cambridge Research Biochemical, Bachem, or Peninsula Labs or other chemical companies familiar to those who practice this art.
 As used herein, the abbreviations for amino acids and protective groups are in accord with their common usage and the IUPAC-IUB Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature (see, (1972) Biochem. 11:942-944). Each naturally occurring L-amino acid is identified by the standard three letter code or the standard three letter code with or without the prefix "L-"; the prefix "D-" indicates that the stereoisomeric form of the amino acid is D. For example, as used herein, Fmoc is 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl; BOP is benzotriazol-1-yloxytris(dimethylamino)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate, DCC is dicyclohexylcarbodiimide; DDZ is dimethoxydimethylbenzyloxy; DMT is dimethoxytrityl; FMOC is fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl; HBTU is 2-(1H-benzatriazol-1-yl)-1,1,3,3-tetramethyluronium; hexafluorophosphate NV is nitroveratryl; NVOC is 6-nitroveratryloxycarbonyl and other photoremovable groups; TFA is trifluoroacetic acid; DMF for N,N-dimethylformamide; Boc is tert-butoxycarbonyl; HF for hydrogen fluoride; HFIP for hexafluoroisopropanol; HPLC for high performance liquid chromatography; FAB-MS for fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry; DCM is dichloromethane, Bom is benzyloxymethyl; Pd/C is palladium catalyst on activated charcoal; DIC is diisopropylcarbodiimide; DCC is N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide; (For) is formyl; PyBop is benzotriazol-1-yl-oxy-trispyrrolidino-phosphonium hexafluorophosphate; POPOP is 1,4-bis(5-phenyl(oxazolyl)benzene); PPO is 2,5-diphenyloxazole; butyl-PBD is (2-(4'-tert-butylphenyl)-5-(4''-biphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole); PMP is (1-phenyl-3-mesityl-2-pyrazoline) DIEA is diisopropylethylamine; EDIA is ethyldiiso-propylethylamine; NMP is N-methylpyrrolidone; NV is nitroveratryl PAL is pyridylalanine; HATU is O(7-azabenzotriaol-1-yl)-1,1,3,3-tetramethyl-uronium hexafluorophosphate; THF is tetrahydrofuran; and EDT is 1,2-ethanedithiol.
 A. Matrices
 Matrices, which are generally insoluble materials used to immobilize ligands and other molecules, have application in many chemical syntheses and separations. Matrices are used in affinity chromatography, in the immobilization of biologically active materials, and during chemical syntheses of biomolecules, including proteins, amino acids and other organic molecules and polymers. The preparation of and use of matrices is well known to those of skill in this art; there are many such materials and preparations thereof known. For example, naturally-occurring matrix materials, such as agarose and cellulose, may be isolated from their respective sources, and processed according to known protocols, and synthetic materials may be prepared in accord with known protocols.
 Matrices include any material that can act as a support matrix for attachment of the molecules or biological particles of interest and can be in contact with or proximity to or associated with, preferably encasing or coating, the data storage device with programmable memory. Any matrix composed of material that is compatible with and upon or in which chemical syntheses are performed, including biocompatible polymers, is suitable for use herein. The matrix material should be selected so that it does not interfere with the chemistry or biological reaction of interest during the time which the molecule or particle is linked to, or in proximity therewith (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 4,006,403). These matrices, thus include any material to which the data storage device with memory can be attached, placed in proximity thereof, impregnated, encased or otherwise connected, linked or physically contacted. Such materials are known to those of skill in this art, and include those that are used as a support matrix. These materials include, but are not limited to, inorganics, natural polymers, and synthetic polymers, including, but are not limited to: cellulose, cellulose derivatives, acrylic resins, glass, silica gels, polystyrene, gelatin, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, co-polymers of vinyl and acrylamide, polystyrene cross-linked with divinylbenzene or the like (see, Merrifield (1964) Biochemistry 3:1385-1390), polyacrylamides, latex gels, polystyrene, dextran, polyacrylamides, rubber, silicon, plastics, nitrocellulose, celluloses, natural sponges, and many others.
 Among the preferred matrices are polymeric beads, such as the TENTAGEL resins and derivatives thereof (sold by Rapp Polymere, Tubingen, Germany; see, U.S. Pat. No. 4,908,405 and U.S. Pat. No. 5,292,814.) Matrices that are also contemplated for use herein include fluophore-containing or -impregnated matrices, such as microplates and beads (commercially available, for example, from Amersham, Arlington Heights, Ill.; plastic scintillation beads from NE (Nuclear Technology, Inc., San Carlos, Calif.), Packard, Meriden, Conn.). It is understood that these commercially available materials will be modified by combining them with memories, such as by methods described herein.
 The matrix may also be a relatively inert polymer, which can be grafted by ionizing radiation (see, e.g., FIG. 13, which depicts a particular embodiment) to permit attachment of a coating of polystyrene or other such polymer that can be derivatized and used as a support. Radiation grafting of monomers allows a diversity of surface characteristics to be generated on plasmid supports (see, e.g., Maeji et al. (1994) Reactive Polymers 22:203-212; and Berg et al. (1989) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 111:8024-8026). For example, radiolytic grafting of monomers, such as vinyl monomers, or mixtures of monomers, to polymers, such as polyethylene and polypropylene, produce composites that have a wide variety of surface characteristics. These methods have been used to graft polymers to insoluble supports for synthesis of peptides and other molecules, and are of particular interest herein. The recording devices, which are often coated with a plastic or other insert material, can be treated with ionizing radiation so that selected monomers can be grafted to render the surface suitable for chemical syntheses.
 Where the matrix particles are macroscopic in size, such as about at least 1 mm in at least one dimension, such matrix may contain one or more memories. Where the matrix particles are smaller, such as NE particles (PVT-based plastic scintillator microsphere), which are about 1 to 10 μm in diameter, more than one such particle will generally be associated with one memory. Also, the bead may include additional material, such as scintillant or a fluophore impregnated therein. In preferred embodiments, the solid phase chemistry and subsequent assaying may be performed on the same bead or matrix with memory combination. All procedures, including synthesis on the bead and assaying and analysis, can be automated.
 The matrices are typically insoluble substrates that are solid, porous, deformable, or hard, and have any required structure and geometry, including, but not limited to: beads, pellets, disks, capillaries, hollow fibers, needles, solid fibers, random shapes, thin films and membranes. Typically, when the matrix is particulate, the particles are at least about 10-2000 μM, but may be smaller, particularly for use in embodiments in which more than one particle is in proximity to a memory. For purposes herein, the support material will typically encase or be in contact with the data storage device, and, thus, will desirably have at least one dimension on the order of 1 mm (1000 μM) or more, although smaller particles may be contacted with the data storage devices, particularly in embodiments in which more than one matrix particle is associated, linked or in proximity to one memory or matrix with memory, such as the microvessels (see, e.g., FIGS. 11-16). Each memory will be in associated with, in contact with or proximity to at least one matrix particle, and may be in contact with more than one. As smaller semiconductor and electronic or optical devices become available, the capacity of the memory can be increased and/or the size of the particles can be decreased. For example, presently, 0.5 micron semiconductor devices are available. Integrated circuits 0.25-micron in size have been described and are being developed using a technology called the Complementary Metal Oxide-Semiconductor process (see, e.g., Investor's Business Daily May 30, 1995).
 Also of interest herein, are devices that are prepared by inserting the recording device into a "tube" (see, e.g., FIG. 13) or encasing them in an inert material (with respect to the media in which the device will be in contact). This material is fabricated from a plastic or other inert material. Preferably prior to introducing (and preferably sealing) the recording device inside, the tube or encasing material is treated with ionizing radiation to render the surface suitable for grafting selected monomers, such as styrene (see, Maeji et al. (1994) Reactive Polymers 22:203-212; and Berg et al. (1989) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 111:8024-8026).
 Recording device(s) is(are) introduced inside the material or the material is wrapped around the device and the resulting memory with matrix "tubes" (MICROTUBES®) are used for chemical synthesis or linkage of selected molecules or biological particles. These "tubes" are preferably synthesized from an inert resin, such as a polypropylene resin (e.g., a Moplen resin, V29G PP resin from Montell, Newark Del., a distributor for Himont, Italy). Any inert matrix that can then be functionalized or to which derivatizable monomers can be grafted is suitable. Preferably herein, polypropylene tubes are grafted and then formed into tubes or other suitable shape and the recording device inserted inside. These tubes (MICROTUBES®) with grafted monomers are then used as synthesis, and/or for assays or for multiplexed processes, including synthesis and assays or other multistep procedures.
 Also larger matrix particles, which advantageously provide ease of handling, may be used and may be in contact with or proximity to more than one memory (i.e., one particle may have a plurality of memories in proximity or linked to it; each memory may programmed with different data regarding the matrix particle, linked molecules, synthesis or assay protocol, etc. Thus, so-called macro-beads (Rapp Polymere, Tubingen, Germany), which have a diameter of 2 mm when swollen, or other matrices of such size, are also contemplated for use herein. Particles of such size can be readily manipulated and the memory can be readily impregnated in or on the bead. These beads (available from Rapp) are also advantageous because of their uniformity in size, which is useful when automating the processes for electronically tagging and assaying the beads.
 Selection of the matrices will be governed, at least in part, by their physical and chemical properties, such as solubility, functional groups, mechanical stability, surface area swelling propensity, hydrophobic or hydrophilic properties and intended use.
 The data storage device with programmable memory may be coated with a material, such as a glass or a plastic, that can be further derivatized and used as the support or it may be encased, partially or completely, in the matrix material, such as during or prior to polymerization of the material. Such coating may be performed manually or may be automated. The coating can be effected manually or by using instruments designed for coating such devices. Instruments for this purpose are available (see, e.g., the Series C3000 systems for dipping available from Specialty Coating Systems, Inc., Indianapolis, Ind.; and the Series CM 2000 systems for spray coating available from Integrated Technologies, Inc. Acushnet, Mass.).
 The data storage device with memory may be physically inserted into the matrix material or particle. It also can be manufactured with a coating that is suitable for use as a matrix or that includes regions in the coating that are suitable for use as a matrix. If the matrix material is a porous membrane, it may be placed inside the membrane. It is understood that when the memory device is encased in the matrix or coated with protective material, such matrix or material must be transparent to the signal used to program the memory for writing or reading data. More than one matrix particle may be linked to each data storage device.
 In some instances, the data storage device with memory is coated with a polymer, which is then treated to contain an appropriate reactive moiety or in some cases the device may be obtained commercially already containing the reactive moiety, and may thereby serve as the matrix support upon which molecules or biological particles are linked. Materials containing reactive surface moieties such as amino silane linkages, hydroxyl linkages or carboxysilane linkages may be produced by well established surface chemistry techniques involving silanization reactions, or the like. Examples of these materials are those having surface silicon oxide moieties, covalently linked to gamma-aminopropylsilane, and other organic moieties; N-(3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl)phthelamic acid; and bis-(2-hydroxyethyl)aminopropyltriethoxysilane. Exemplary of readily available materials containing amino group reactive functionalities, include, but are not limited to, para-aminophenyltriethyoxysilane. Also derivatized polystyrenes and other such polymers are well known and readily available to those of skill in this art (e.g., the TENTAGEL® Resins are available with a multitude of functional groups, and are sold by Rapp Polymere, Tubingen, Germany.
 The data storage device with memory, however, generally should not or cannot be exposed to the reaction solution, and, thus, must be coated with at least a thin layer of a glass or ceramic or other protective coating that does not interfere with the operation of the device. These operations include electrical conduction across the device and transmission of remotely transmitted electromagnetic radiation by which data are written and read. It is such coating that may also serve as a matrix upon which the molecules or biological particles may be linked.
 The data storage devices with memory may be coated either directly or following coating with a ceramic, glass or other material, may then be coated with agarose, which is heated, the devices are dipped into the agarose, and then cooled to about room temperature. The resulting glass, silica, agarose or other coated memory device, may be used as the matrix supports for chemical syntheses and reactions.
 The combinations herein are matrix materials with recording devices that contain data storage units that include remotely programmable memories; the recording devices used in solution must be coated with a material that prevents contact between the recording device and the medium, such as the solution or air or gas (e.g., nitrogen or oxygen or CO2). The information is introduced into the memory by addressing the memory to record information regarding molecules or biological particles linked thereto. Except in the reaction detecting (verifying) embodiment, in which the memory can be encoded upon reaction of a linked molecule or biological particle, solution parameters are not recorded in the memory.
 1. Natural Matrix Support Materials
 Naturally-occurring supports include, but are not limited to agarose, other polysaccharides, collagen, celluloses and derivatives thereof, glass, silica, and alumina. Methods for isolation, modification and treatment to render them suitable for use as supports is well known to those of skill in this art (see, e.g., Hermanson et al. (1992) Immobilized Affinity Ligand Techniques, Academic Press, Inc., San Diego). Gels, such as agarose, can be readily adapted for use herein. Natural polymers such as polypeptides, proteins and carbohydrates; metalloids, such as silicon and germanium, that have semiconductive properties, as long as they do not interfere with operation of the data storage device may also be adapted for use herein. Also, metals such as platinum, gold, nickel, copper, zinc, tin, palladium, silver, again as long as the combination of the data storage device with memory, matrix support with molecule or biological particle does not interfere with operation of the device with memory, may be adapted for use herein. Other matrices of interest include oxides of the metal and metalloids such as Pt--PtO, Si--SiO, Au--AuO, TiO2, Cu--CuO, and the like. Also compound semiconductors, such as lithium niobate, gallium arsenide and indium-phosphide, and nickel-coated mica surfaces, as used in preparation of molecules for observation in an atomic force micro-scope (see, e.g., Ill et al. (1993) Biophys J. 64:91 91 may be used as matrices. Methods for preparation of such matrix materials are well known.
 For example, U.S. Pat. No. 4,175,183 describes a water insoluble hydroxyalkylated cross-linked regenerated cellulose and a method for its preparation. A method of preparing the product using near stoichio-metric proportions of reagents is described. Use of the product directly in gel chromatography and as an intermediate in the preparation of ion exchangers is also described.
 2. Synthetic Matrices
 There are innumerable synthetic matrices and methods for their preparation known to those of skill in this art. Synthetic matrices are typically produced by polymerization of functional matrices, or copolymerization from two or more monomers of from a synthetic monomer and naturally occurring matrix monomer or polymer, such as agarose. Before such polymers solidify, they are contacted with the data storage device with memory, which can be cast into the material or dipped into the material. Alternatively, after preparation of particles or larger synthetic matrices, the recording device containing the data storage unit(s) can be manually inserted into the matrix material. Again, such devices can be pre-coated with glass, ceramic, silica or other suitable material.
 Synthetic matrices include, but are not limited to: acrylamides, dextran-derivatives and dextran co-polymers, agarose-polyacrylamide blends, other polymers and co-polymers with various functional groups, methacrylate derivatives and co-polymers, polystyrene and polystyrene co-polymers (see, e.g., Merrifield (1964) Biochemistry 3:1385-1390; Berg et al. (1990) in Innovation Perspect. Solid Phase Synth. Collect. Pap., Int. Symp., 1st, Epton, Roger (Ed), pp. 453-459; Berg et al. (1989) in Pept., Proc. Eur. Pept. Symp., 20th, Jung, G. et al. (Eds), pp. 196-198; Berg et al. (1989) J. Am. Chem., Soc. 111:8024-8026; Kent et al. (1979) Isr. J. Chem. 17:243-247; Kent et al. (1978) J. Org. Chem., 43:2845-2852; Mitchell et al. (1976) Tetrahedron Lett. 42:3795-3798; U.S. Pat. No. 4,507,230; U.S. Pat. No. 4,006,117; and U.S. Pat. No. 5,389,449). Methods for preparation of such matrices are well-known to those of skill in this art.
 Synthetic matrices include those made from polymers and co-polymers such as polyvinylalcohols, acrylates and acrylic acids such as polyethylene-co-acrylic acid, polyethylene-co-methacrylic acid, polyethylene-co-ethylacrylate, polyethylene-co-methyl acrylate, polypropylene-co-acrylic acid, polypropylene-co-methyl-acrylic acid, polypropylene-co-ethylacrylate, polypropylene-co-methyl acrylate, polyethylene-co-vinyl acetate, polypropylene-co-vinyl acetate, and those containing acid anhydride groups such as polyethylene-co-maleic anhydride, polypropylene-co-maleic anhydride and the like. Liposomes have also been used as solid supports for affinity purifications (Powell et al. (1989) Biotechnol. Bioeng. 33:173).
 3. Immobilization and Activation
 Numerous methods have been developed for the immobilization of proteins and other biomolecules onto solid or liquid supports. Among the most commonly used methods are absorption and adsorption or covalent binding to the support, either directly or via a linker, such as the numerous disulfide linkages, thioether bonds, hindered disulfide bonds, and covalent bonds between free reactive groups, such as amine and thiol groups, known to those of skill in art (see, e.g., the PIERCE CATALOG, ImmunoTechnology Catalog & Handbook, 1992-1993, which describes the preparation of and use of such reagents and provides a commercial source for such reagents. To effect immobilization, a solution of the protein or other biomolecule is contacted with a support material such as alumina, carbon, an ion-exchange resin, cellulose, glass or a ceramic. Fluorocarbon polymers have been used as supports to which biomolecules have been attached by adsorption (see, U.S. Pat. No. 3,843,443; Published International PCT Application WO/86 03840).
 A large variety of methods are known for attaching biological molecules, including proteins and nucleic acids, molecules to solid supports (see, U.S. Pat. No. 5,451,683). For example, U.S. Pat. No. 4,681,870 describes a method for introducing free amino or carboxyl groups onto a silica matrix. These groups may subsequently be covalently linked to other groups, such as a protein or other anti-ligand, in the presence of a carbodiimide. Alternatively, a silica matrix may be activated by treatment with a cyanogen halide under alkaline conditions. The anti-ligand is covalently attached to the surface upon addition to the activated surface. Another method involves modification of a polymer surface through the successive application of multiple layers of biotin, avidin and extenders (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 4,282,287); other methods involve photoactivation in which a polypeptide chain is attached to a solid substrate by incorporating a light-sensitive unnatural amino acid group into the polypeptide chain and exposing the product to low-energy ultraviolet light (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 4,762,881). Oligonucleotides have also been attached using a photochemically active reagents, such as a psoralen compound, and a coupling agent, which attaches the photoreagent to the substrate (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 4,542,102 and U.S. Pat. No. 4,562,157). Photoactivation of the photoreagent binds a nucleic acid molecule to the substrate to give a surface-bound probe.
 Covalent binding of the protein or other biomolecule or organic molecule or biological particle to chemically activated solid matrix supports such as glass, synthetic polymers, and cross-linked polysaccharides is a more frequently used immobilization technique. The molecule or biological particle may be directly linked to the matrix support or linked via linker, such as a metal (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 4,179,402; and Smith et al. (1992) Methods: A Companion to Methods in Enz. 4:73-781. An example of this method is the cyanogen bromide activation of polysaccharide supports, such as agarose. The use of perfluorocarbon polymer-based supports for enzyme immobilization and affinity chromatography is described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,885,250). In this method the biomolecule is first modified by reaction with a perfluoroalkylating agent such as perfluorooctylpropylisocyanate described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,954,444. Then, the modified protein is adsorbed onto the fluorocarbon support to effect immobilization.
 The activation and use of matrices are well known and may be effected by any such known methods (see, e.g., Hermanson et al. (1992) Immobilized Affinity Ligand Techniques, Academic Press, Inc., San Diego). Molecules may also be attached to matrices through kinetically inert metal ion linkages, such as Co(III), using, for example, native metal binding sites on the molecules, such as IgG binding sequences, or genetically modified proteins that bind metal ions.
 Other suitable methods for linking molecules and biological particles to solid supports are well known to those of skill in this art (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,416,193). These linkers include linkers that are suitable for chemically linking molecules, such as proteins and nucleic acid, to supports include, but are not limited to, disulfide bonds, thioether bonds, hindered disulfide bonds, and covalent bonds between free reactive groups, such as amine and thiol groups. These bonds can be produced using heterobifunctional reagents to produce reactive thiol groups on one or both of the moieties and then reacting the thiol groups on one moiety with reactive thiol groups or amine groups to which reactive maleimido groups or thiol groups can be attached on the other. Other linkers include, acid cleavable linkers, such as bismaleimideothoxy propane, acid labile-transferrin conjugates and adipic acid dihydrazide, that would be cleaved in more acidic intracellular compartments; cross linkers that are cleaved upon exposure to UV or visible light and linkers, such as the various domains, such as CH1, CH2, and CH3, from the constant region of human IgG, (see, Batra et al. (1993) Molecular Immunol. 30:379-386).
 Presently preferred linkages are direct linkages effected by adsorbing the molecule or biological particle to the surface of the matrix. Other preferred linkages are photocleavable linkages that can be activated by exposure to light. The selected linker will depend upon the particular application and, if needed, may be empirically selected.
 B. Data Storage Units with Memory
 Any remotely programmable data storage device that can be linked to or used in proximity to the solid supports and molecules and biological particles as described herein is intended for use herein. Preferred devices are rapidly and readily programmable using penetrating electromagnetic radiation, such as radio frequency or visible light lasers, operate with relatively low power, have fast access, and are remotely programmable so that information can be stored or programmed and later retrieved from a distance, as permitted by the form of the electromagnetic signal used for transmission. Presently preferred devices are on the order of 1-10 mm in the largest dimension and are remotely programmable using RF or radar.
 Recording devices may be active, which contain a power source, such as a battery, and passive, which does not include a power source. In a passive device, which has no independent power source, the transmitter/receiver system, which transfers the data between the recording device and a host computer and which is preferably integrated on the same substrate as the memory, also supplies the power to program and retrieve the data stored in the memory. This is effected by integrating a rectifier circuit onto the substrate to convert the received signal into an operating voltage. Alternatively, an active device can include a battery.
 The remotely programmable device can be programmed sequentially to be uniquely identifiable during and after stepwise synthesis of macromolecules or before, or during, or after selection of screened molecules. In certain embodiments herein, the data storage units are information carriers in which the functions of writing data and reading the recorded data are empowered by an electromagnetic signal generated and modulated by a remote host controller. Thus, the data storage devices are inactive, except when exposed to the appropriate electromagnetic signal. In an alternative embodiment, the devices may be optically or magnetically programmable read/write devices.
 Electromagnetically Programmable Devices
 The programmable devices intended for use herein, include any device that can record or store data. The preferred device will be remotely programmable and will be small, typically on the order of 10-20 mm3 (or 10-20 mm in its largest dimension) or, preferably smaller. Any means for remote programming and data storage, including semiconductors and optical storage media are intended for use herein.
 Also intended for use herein, are commercially available precoded devices, such as identification and tracking devices for animals and merchandise, such those used with and as security systems (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,652,528, 5,044,623, 5,099,226, 5,218,343, 5,323,704, 4,333,072, 4,321,069, 4,318,658, 5,121,748, 5,214,409, 5,235,326, 5,257,011 and 5,266,926), and devices used to tag animals. These devices may also be programmable using an RF signal. These device can be modified, such as by folding it, to change geometry to render them more suitable for use in the methods herein. Of particular interest herein are devices sold by BioMedic Data Systems, Inc, NJ (see, e.g., the IPTT-100 purchased from BioMedic Data Systems, Inc., Maywood, N.J.; see, also U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,422,636, 5,420,579, 5,262,772, 5,252,962, 5,250,962, and see, also, U.S. application Ser. No. 08/322,644, filed Oct. 13, 1994). ID tags available from IDTAG® Inc, particularly the IDTI50 read/write transponder (IDTAG® Ltd. Bracknell, Berks RG12 3XQ, UK. These transponders are packaged in glass or polystyrene or other such material.
 Devices that rely on other programmable volatile memories are also intended for use herein. For example, a battery may be used as to supply the power to provide an operating voltage to the memory device. When a battery is used the memory can be an EEPROM, a DRAM, or other erasable memory requiring continuous power to retain information. It may be advantageous to combine the antenna/rectifier circuitry with a battery to create a passive/active device, in which the voltages supplied by each source supplement each other. For example, the transmitted signal could provide the voltage for writing and reading, while the battery, in addition to supplementing this write/read voltage, provides a refresh voltage for a DRAM memory so that data is retained when the transmitted signal is removed.
 Electrically-Programmable Memory Devices
 In one embodiment, the recording device utilizes antifuse technology. An antifuse contains a layer of antifuse material sandwiched between two conductive electrodes. The antifuse device is initially an open circuited device in its unprogrammed state and can be irreversibly converted into an essentially short circuited device by the application of a programming voltage across the two electrodes to disrupt the antifuse material and create a low resistance current path between the two electrodes.
 Examples of the antifuse and its use as a memory cell within a Read-Only Memory are discussed in Roesner et al., "Apparatus and Method of Use of Radio frequency Identification Tags", U.S. application Ser. No. 08/379,923, filed Jan. 27, 1995, Roesner, "Method of Fabricating a High Density Programmable Read-Only Memory", U.S. Pat. No. 4,796,071 (1989) and Roesner, "Electrically Programmable Read-Only Memory Stacked above a Semiconductor Substrate", U.S. Pat. No. 4,442,507 (1984). A preferred antifuse is described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,095,362. "Method for reducing resistance for programmed antifuse" (1992) (see, also U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,412,593 and 5,384,481).
 Referring to FIG. 5, which depicts a preferred embodiment, a recording device containing a non-volatile electrically-programmable read-only memory (ROM) 102 that utilizes antifuse technology (or EEPROM or other suitable memory) is combined on a single substrate 100 with a thin-film planar antenna 110 for receiving/transmitting an RF signal 104, a rectifier 112 for deriving a voltage from a received radio frequency (RF) signal, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) 114 for converting the voltage into a digital signal for storage of data in the memory, and a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) 116 for converting the digital data into a voltage signal for transmission back to the host computer is provided. A single substrate 100 is preferred to provide the smallest possible chip, and to facilitate encapsulation of the chip with a protective, polymer shell (or shell+matrix or matrix material) 90. Shell 90 must be non-reactive with and impervious to the various processes that the recording device is being used to track in order to assure the integrity of the memory device components on the chip.
 Referring to FIG. 1, in which chemical building blocks A, C, and E are added to a molecule linked to a matrix with memory, and to FIG. 6, an illustrative example of how information is written onto a particle is provided in Table 1.
TABLE-US-00001 TABLE 1 PROCESS STEP X-REGISTER ADDRESS Y-REGISTER ADDRESS A 1 8 C 2 4 E 3 2
 For the step in which A is added, the address signal would increment the x-register 124 one location and increment the y-register 126 eight locations, and then apply the programming voltage. The activation of this switch is indicated by an "A" at the selected address, although the actual value stored will be a binary "1", indicating ON. (As described, for example, in U.S. Pat. No. 4,424,579; the manner in which the programming voltage is applied depends on whether the decoders have depletion or enhancement transistors.) The host computer 122 would write into its memory 120 that for process A, the x-, y-address is 1,8. Upon removal of the RF signal after recording process A, the voltage is removed and the registers would reset to 0. For the step in which C is added, the address signal would increment the x-register 124 two locations and the y-register 126 four locations, then apply the programming voltage, as indicated by the letter "C". The host computer 120 would similarly record in memory that an indication of exposure to process C would be found at x-, y-address 2,4. Again, upon removal of the RF signal, the registers reset to 0 so that when the matrix particle's memory is again exposed to RF following addition of block E, the registers increment 3 and 2 locations, respectively, and the programming voltage is applied to turn on the switch, indicated by "E". Desirably all processing steps are automated.
 Ideally, the tagging of particles that are exposed to a particular process would be performed in the process vessel containing all of the particles. The presence, however, of a large number of particles may result in interference or result in an inability to generate a sufficiently high voltage for programming all of the particles simultaneously. This might be remedied by providing an exposure of prolonged duration, e.g., several minutes, while stirring the vessel contents to provide the greatest opportunity for all particles to receive exposure to the RF signal. On the other hand, since each particle will need to be read individually, a mechanism for separating the particles may be used in both write and read operations. Also, in instances in which each particle will have a different molecule attached, each particle memory must be addressed separately.
 An apparatus for separating the particles to allow individual exposure to the RF signal is illustrated in FIG. 7. Here, the particles are placed in a vessel 140 which has a funnel 142, or other constricted section, which permits only one particle 150 to pass at a time. It is noted that the particles, as illustrated, are, for purposes of exemplification, depicted as spherical. The particles, however, can be of any shape, including asymmetric shapes. Where the particles are asymmetric or of other shapes, the size of the funnel exit and tube should be selected to fit the largest diameter of the particles closely. If a particular orientation of the particle is desired or required for effective transmission, the tube and funnel exit should be designed and oriented to permit only particles in the proper alignment with the tube to exit.
 The RF transmitter 80 is positioned adjacent a tube 144 which receives input from funnel 142. When a particle passes through tube 144 the RF transmitter provides a signal to write to or read from the particle's memory. Means for initiating the RF transmission may include connection to a mechanical gate or shutter 145 in the funnel 142 which controls the admission of the particle into the tube. As illustrated in FIG. 7, however, optical means for detecting the presence of the matrix particle with memory to initiate RF transmission are provided in the form of a laser 146 directed toward the tube 144, which is transparent to the wavelength of the light emitted by the laser. When the laser light impinges upon the particle (shown with dashed lines) it is reflected toward an optical detector 148 which provides a signal to the host computer 122 to initiate the RF transmission. Alternatively, magnetic means, or any other means for detecting the presence of the particle in the tube 144 may be used, with the limitation that any electromagnetic radiation used does not induce any reactions in the substances on the particle's surface. After exposure of the individual particle to the RF signal, the particle may be received in one or more vessels for further processing. As illustrated, tube 144 has an exemplary three-way splitter and selection means, shown here in dashed lines as mechanical gates, for directing the particles to the desired destination.
 It is understood that the above description of operation and use of the data storage devices, may be adapted for use with devices that contain volatile memories, such as EEPROMs, flash memory and DRAMs.
 Other types of electrically-programmable read-only memories, preferably non-volatile memories, which are known in the art, may be used. Preprogrammed remotely addressable identification tags, such as those used for tracking objects or animals (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,257,011, 5,235,326, 5,226,926, 5,214,409, 4,333,072, available from AVID, Norco, Calif.; see, also U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,218,189, 5,416,486, 4,952,928, 5,359,250) and remotely writable versions thereof are also contemplated for use herein. Preprogrammed tags may be used in embodiments, such as those in which tracking of linked molecules is desired.
 Alternatively, the matrices or strips attached thereto may be encoded with a pre-programmed identifying bar code, such as an optical bar code that will be encoded on the matrix and read by laser. Such pre-coded devices may be used in embodiments in which parameters, such as location in an automated synthesizer, are monitored. The identity of a product or reactant may be determined by its location or path, which is monitored by reading the chip in each device and storing such information in a remote computer. Read/write tags such as the IPTT-100 (BioMedic Data Systems, Inc., Maywood, N.J.; see, also U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,422,636, 5,420,579, 5,262,772, 5,252,962, 5,250,962, and U.S. application Ser. No. 08/322,644) are also contemplated for use herein.
 Among the particularly preferred devices are the chips (particularly, the IPTT-100, Bio Medic Data Systems, Inc., Maywood, N.J.; see, also U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,422,636, 5,420,579, 5,262,772, 5,252,962 and 5,250,962 and U.S. application Ser. No. 08/322,6440 that can be remotely encoded and remotely read. These devices, such as the IPTT-100 transponders that are about 8 mm long, include a recording device, an EEPROM, a passive transponder for receiving an input signal and transmitting an output signal in response. In some embodiments here, the devices are modified for use herein by altering the geometry. They are folded in half and the antenna wrapped around the resulting folded structure. This permits convenient insertion into the microvessels and formation of other combinations.
 Another such device is a 4 mm chip with an onboard antenna and an EEPROM (Dimensional Technology International, Germany). This device can also be written to and read from remotely.
 Also, ID tags available from IDTAG® Inc. particularly the IDT150 read/write transponder (ITDAG® Ltd. Bracknell, Berks RG12 3XQ, UK), discussed above, are also preferred herein.
 It is also contemplated herein, that the memory is not proximate to the matrix, but is separate, such as a remote computer or other recording device. In these embodiments, the matrices are marked with a unique code or mark of any sort. The identity of each mark is saved in the remote memory, and then, each time something is done to a molecule or biological particle linked to each matrix, the information regarding such event is recorded and associated with the coded identity. After completion of, for example, a synthetic protocol, each matrix is examined or read to identify the code. Retrieving information from the remote memory that is stored with the identifying code will permit identification or retrieval of any other saved information regarding the matrix.
 For example, simple codes, including bar codes, alphanumeric characters or other visually or identifiable codes or marks on matrices are also contemplated for use herein. When bar codes or other precoded devices are used, the information can be written to an associated but remote memory, such as a computer or even a piece of paper. The computer stores the bar code that a identifies a matrix particle or other code and information relating to the molecule or biological particle linked to the matrix or other relevant information regarding the linked materials or synthesis or assay. Instead of writing to an on-board memory, information is encoded in a remote memory that stores information regarding the precoded identity of each matrix with bar code and linked molecules or biological particles. Thus, the precoded information is associated with, for example, the identity of the linked molecule or a component thereof or a position (such as X-Y coordinates in a grid). This information is transmitted to a memory for later retrieval. Each treatment or synthetic step that is performed on the linked molecule or biological particle is transmitted to the remote memory and associated with the precoded ID.
 For example, an amino acid is linked to a matrix particle that is encoded with or marked with a bar code or even a letter such as "A" or other coded mark. The identity the amino acid linked to the matrix particle "A" is recorded into a memory. This particle is mixed with other particles, each with a unique identifier or mark, and this mixture is then treated to a synthetic step. Each particle is individually scanned or viewed to see what mark is on each particle and the remote memory is written to describe the synthetic step, which is then associated with each unique identifier in the memory, such as the computer or piece of paper. Thus, in the remote memory the original amino acid linked to particle A is stored. After the synthetic step, the identity of the next amino acid is stored in the memory associated with "A" as is the identity of the next amino acid added. At the end of the synthesis, the history of each particle can be read by scanning the particle or visually looking at the particle and noting its bar code or mark, such as A. The remote memory is then queried to determine what amino acids are linked to the particle identified as "A" (see, e.g., FIG. 12).
 For example, many combinatorial libraries contain a relatively small number of discrete compounds (102-104) in a conveniently manipulable quantity, rather than millions of members in minute quantities. These small libraries are ideal for use with the methods and matrices with memories herein. They may also be used in methods in which the memory is not in proximity to the matrix, but is a remote memory, such as a computer or a table of information stored even on paper. The system depicted in FIG. 12 is ideal for use in these methods.
 Polypropylene or other inert polymer, including fluoropolymers or scintillating polymers are molded into a convenient geometry and size, such an approximately 5 mm×5 mm×5 mm cube (or smaller or larger) with a unique identifying code imprinted, preferably permanently, on one side of each cube. If for example, a three element code is used, based on all digits (0 to 9) and all letters of the alphabet, a collection of 46,666 unique three element codes are available for imprinting on the cubes.
 The cubes are surface grafted with a selected monomer (or mixture of monomer), such as styrene. Functionalization of the resulting polymer provides a relatively large surface area for chemical syntheses and subsequent assaying (on a single platform). For example, a 5×5×5 mm3 cube has a surface area of 150 mm2, which is equivalent to about 2-5 μmol achievable loading, which is about 1-2.5 mg of compounds with a molecular weight of about 500. A simple computer program or protocol can direct split and pool during synthesis and the information regarding each building block of the linked molecules on each cube conveniently recorded in the memory (i.e., computer) at each step in the synthesis.
 Since the cubes (herein called MACROCUBES® or MACROBEADS®) are relatively large, they can be read by the eye or any suitable device during synthesis and the associated data can be manually entered into a computer or even written down. The cubes can include scintillant or fluorophore or label and used in any of the assay formats described herein or otherwise known to those of skill in the art.
 For example, with reference to FIG. 12, polypropylene, polyethylene or fluophore raw material (any such material described herein, particularly the Moplen resin e.g., V29G PP resin from Montell, Newark Del., a distributor for Himont, Italy) 1 is molded, preferably into a cube, preferably about 5×5×5 mm3 and engraved, using any suitable imprinting method, with a code, preferably a three element alphanumeric code, on one side. The cube can be weighted or molded so that it all cubes will orient in the same direction. The engraved cubes 2 are then surface-grafted 3 and functionalized using methods described herein or known to those of skill in this art, to produce cubes (MACROBEADS® or MACROCUBES®) or devices any selected geometry 4.
 Optically or Magnetically Programmed Devices
 In addition to electrically-programmable means for storing information on the matrix particles, optical or magnetic means may be used. One example of an optical storage means is provided in U.S. Pat. No. 5,136,572, issued Aug. 4, 1992, of Bradley, which is incorporated herein by reference. Here, an array of stabilized diode lasers emits fixed wavelengths, each laser emitting light at a different wavelength. Alternatively, a tunable diode laser or a tunable dye laser, each of which is capable of emitting light across a relatively wide band of wavelengths, may be used. The recording medium is photochemically active so that exposure to laser light of the appropriate wavelength will form spectral holes.
 As illustrated in FIG. 8, an optical write/read system is configured similar to that of the embodiment of FIG. 7, with a vessel 212 containing a number of the particles which are separated and oriented by passing through a constricted outlet into a write/read path 206 that has an optically-transparent tube (i.e., optically transparent to the required wavelength(s)) with a cross-section that orients the particles as required to expose the memory surface to the laser 200 which is capable of emitting a plurality of discrete, stable wavelengths. Gating and detection similar to that described for the previous embodiment may be used and are not shown. Computer 202 controls the tuning of laser 200 so that it emits light at a unique wavelength to record a data point. Memory within computer 202 stores a record indicating which process step corresponds to which wavelength. For example, for process A, wavelength λ1, e.g., 630 nm (red), for process C, λ2, e.g., 550 nm (green), and for process E, λ3, e.g., 480 nm (blue), etc. The recording medium 204 is configured to permit orientation to repeatably expose the recording side of the medium to the laser beam each time it passes through tube 206. One possible configuration, as illustrated here, is a disc.
 To write onto the recording medium 204, the laser 200 emits light of the selected wavelength to form a spectral hole in the medium. The light is focused by lens 208 to illuminate a spot on recording medium 204. The laser power must be sufficient to form the spectral hole. For reading, the same wavelength is selected at a lower power. Only this wavelength will pass through the spectral hole, where it is detected by detector 210, which provides a signal to computer 202 indicative of the recorded wavelength. Because different wavelengths are used, multiple spectral holes can be superimposed so that the recording medium can be very small for purposes of tagging. To provide an analogy to the electrical memory embodiments, each different wavelength of light corresponds to an address, so that each laser writes one bit of data. If a large number of different steps are to be performed for which each requires a unique data point, the recording media will need to be sufficiently sensitive, and the lasers well-stabilized, to vary only within a narrow band to assure that each bit recorded in the media is distinguishable. Since only a single bit of information is required to tag the particle at any given step, the creation of a single spectral hole at a specific wavelength is capable of providing all of the information needed. The host computer then makes a record associating the process performed with a particular laser wavelength.
 For reading, the same wavelength laser that was used to create the spectral hole will be the only light transmitted through the hole. Since the spectral holes cannot be altered except by a laser having sufficient power to create additional holes, this type of memory is effectively nonvolatile. Further, the recording medium itself does not have any operations occurring within its structure, as is the case in electrical memories, so its structure is quite simple. Since the recording medium is photochemically active, it must be well encased within an optically transmissive (to the active optical wavelength(s)), inert material to prevent reaction with the various processing substances while still permitting the laser light to impinge upon the medium. In many cases, the photochemical recording media may be erased by exposure to broad spectrum light, allowing the memory to be reused.
 Writing techniques can also include the formation of pits in the medium. To read these pits, the detector 210 with be positioned on the same side of the write/read tube 206 as the laser 200 to detect light reflected back from the medium. Other types of optical data storage and recording media may be used as are known in the art. For example, optical discs, which are typically plastic-encapsulated metals, such as aluminum, may be miniaturized, and written to and read from using conventional optical disc technology. In such a system, the miniature discs must be aligned in a planar fashion to permit writing and reading. A modification of the funnel system, described above, will include a flattened tube to insure the proper orientation. Alternatively, the discs can be magnetically oriented. Other optical recording media that may be appropriate for use in the recording devices and combinations herein include, but are not limited to, magneto-optical materials, which provide the advantage of erasability, photochromic materials, photoferroelectric materials, photoconductive electro-optic materials, all of which utilize polarized light for writing and/or reading, as is known in the art. When using any form of optical recording, however, considerations must be made to insure that the selected wavelength of light will not affect or interfere with reactions of the molecules or biological particles linked to or in proximity to matrix particles.
 Three Dimensional Optical Memories
 Another device that is suitable for use in the matrix with memory combinations are optical memories that employ rhodopsins, particularly bacteriorhodopsin (BR), or other photochromic substances that change between two light absorbing states in response to light of each of two wavelengths (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,346,789, 5,253,198 and 5,228,001; see, also Birge (1990) Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 41:683-733). These substances, particularly BR, exhibit useful photochromic and optoelectrical properties. BR, for example, has extremely large optical nonlinearities, and is capable of producing photoinduced electrical signals whose polarity depends on the prior exposure of the material to light of various wavelengths as well as on the wavelength of the light used to induce the signal. There properties are useful for information storage and computation. Numerous applications of this material have been designed, including its use as an ultrafast photosignal detector, its use for dynamic holographic recording, and its use for data storage, which is of interest herein.
 The rhodopsins include the visual rhodopsins, which are responsible for the conversion of light into nerve impulses in the image resolving eyes of mollusks, anthropods, and vertebrates, and also bacteriorhodopsin (BR). These proteins also include a class of proteins that serve photosynthetic and phototactic functions. The best known BR is the only protein found in nature in a crystalline membrane, called the "purple membrane" of Halobacterium Halobium. This membrane converts light into energy via photon-activated transmembrane proton pumping. Upon the absorption of light, the BR molecule undergoes several structural transformations in a well-defined photocycle in which energy is stored in a proton gradient formed upon absorption of light energy. This proton gradient is subsequently utilized to synthesize energy-rich ATP.
 The structural changes that occur in the process of light-induced proton pumping of BR are reflected in alterations of the absorption spectra of the molecule. These changes are cyclic, and under usual physiological conditions bring the molecule back to its initial BR state after the absorption of light in about 10 milliseconds. In less than a picosecond after BR absorbs a photon, the BR produces an intermediate, known as the "J" state, which has a red-shifted absorption maximum. This is the only light-driven event in the photocycle; the rest of the steps are thermally driven processes that occur naturally. The first form, or state, following the photon-induced step is called "K", which represents the first form of light-activated BR that can be stabilized by reducing the temperature to 90° K. This form occurs about 3 picoseconds after the J intermediate at room temperature. Two microseconds later there occurs an "L" intermediate state which is, in turn, followed in 50 microseconds by an "M" intermediate state.
 There are two important properties associated with all of the intermediate states of this material. The first is their ability to be photochemically converted back to the basic BR state. Under conditions where a particular intermediate is made stable, illumination with light at a wavelength corresponding to the absorption of the intermediate state in question results in regeneration of the BR state. In addition, the BR state and intermediates exhibit large two-photon absorption processes which can be used to induce interconversions among different states.
 The second important property is light-induced vectorial charge transport within the molecule. In an oriented BR film, such a charge transport can be detected as an electric signal. The electrical polarity of the signal depends on the physical orientation of molecules within the material as well as on the photochemical reaction induced. The latter effect is due to the dependence of charge transport direction on which intermediates (including the BR state) are involved in the photochemical reaction of interest. For example, the polarity of an electrical signal associated with one BR photochemical reaction is opposite to that associated with a second BR photochemical reaction. The latter reaction can be induced by light with a wavelength around 412 nm and is completed in 200 ns.
 In addition to the large quantum yields and distinct absorptions of BR and M, the BR molecule (and purple membrane) has several intrinsic properties of importance in optics. First, this molecule exhibits a large two-photon absorption cross section. Second, the crystalline nature and adaptation to high salt environments makes the purple membrane very resistant to degeneration by environmental perturbations and thus, unlike other biological materials, it does not require special storage. Dry films of purple membrane have been stored for several years without degradation.
 Furthermore, the molecule is very resistant to photochemical degradation. Thus, numerous optical devices, including recording devices have been designed that use BR or other rhodopsin as the recording medium (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,346,789, 5,253,198 and 5,228,001; see, also Birge (1990) Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem 41:683-733). Such recording devices may be employed in the methods and combinations provided herein.
 C. The Combinations and Preparation Thereof
 Combinations of a miniature recording device that contains or is a data storage unit linked to or in proximity with matrices or supports used in chemical and biotechnical applications, such as combinatorial chemistry, peptide synthesis, nucleic acid synthesis, nucleic acid amplification methods, organic template chemistry, nucleic acid sequencing, screening for drugs, particularly high throughput screening, phage display screening, cell sorting, drug delivery, tracking of biological particles and other such methods, are provided. These combinations of matrix material with data storage unit (or recording device including the unit) are herein referred to as matrices with memories. These combinations have a multiplicity of applications, including combinatorial chemistry, isolation and purification of target macromolecules, capture and detection of macromolecules for analytical purposes, high throughput screening protocols, selective removal of contaminants, enzymatic catalysis, drug delivery, chemical modification, scintillation proximity assays, FET, FRET and HTRF assays, immunoassays, receptor binding assays, drug screening assays, information collection and management and other uses. These combinations are particularly advantageous for use in multianalyte analyses. These combinations may also be advantageously used in assays in which a electromagnetic signal is generated by the reactants or products in the assay. The combination of matrix with memory is also advantageously used in multiplex protocols, such as those in which a molecule is synthesized on the matrix, its identity recorded in the matrix, the resulting combination is used in an assay or in a hybridization reaction. Occurrence of the reaction can be detected externally, such as in a scintillation counter, or can be detected by a sensor that writes to the memory in the matrix. Thus, combinations of matrix materials, memories, and linked or proximate molecules and biological materials and assays using such combinations are provided.
 The combinations contain (i) a miniature recording device that contains one or more programmable data storage devices (memories) that can be remotely read and in preferred embodiments also remotely programmed and (ii) a matrix as described above, such as a particulate support used in chemical syntheses. The remote programming and reading is preferably effected using electromagnetic radiation, particularly radio frequency or radar. Depending upon the application the combinations will include additional elements, such as scintillants, photodetectors, pH sensors and/or other sensors, and other such elements.
 1. Preparation of Matrix-Memory Combinations
 In preferred embodiments, the recording device is cast in a selected matrix material during manufacture. Alternatively, the devices can be physically inserted into the matrix material, the deformable gel-like materials, or can be placed on the matrix material and attached by a connector, such as aplastic or wax or other such material. Alternatively, the device or device(s) may be included in an inert container in proximity to or in contact with matrix material.
 2. Preparation of Matrix-Memory-Molecule or Biological Particle Combinations
 In certain embodiments, combinations of matrices with memories and biological particle combinations are prepared. For example, libraries (e.g., bacteria or bacteriophage, or other virus particles or other particles that contain genetic coding information or other information) can be prepared on the matrices with memories, and stored as such for future use or antibodies can be linked to the matrices with memories and stored for future use.
 3. Combinations for Use in Proximity Assays
 In other embodiments the memory or recording device is coated or encapsulated in a medium, such as a gel, that contains one or more fluophors or one or more scintillants, such as 2,5-diphenyloxazole (PPO) and/or 1,4-bis-(5-phenyl-(oxazolyl))benzene (POPOP) or FlexiScint (a gel with scintillant available from Packard, Meriden, Conn.) or yttrium silicates. Any fluophore or scintillant or scintillation cocktail known to those of skill in the art may be used. The gel coated or encased device is then coated with a matrix suitable, such as glass or polystyrene, for the intended application or application(s). The resulting device is particularly suitable for use as a matrix for synthesis of libraries and subsequent use thereof in scintillation proximity assays.
 Similar combinations in non-radioactive energy transfer proximity assays, such as HTRF, FP, FET and FRET assays, which are described below. These luminescence assays are based on energy transfer between a donor luminescent label, such as a rare earth metal cryptate (e.g., Eu trisbipyridine diamine (EuTBP) or Tb tribipyridine diamine (TbTBP)) and an acceptor luminescent label, such as, when the donor is EuTBP, allopycocyanin (APC), allophycocyanin B, phycocyanin C or phycocyanin R, and when the donor is TbTBP, a rhodamine, thiomine, phycocyanin R, phycoerythrocyanin, phycoerythrin C, phycoerythrin B or phycoerythrin R. Instead of including a scintillant in the combination, a suitable fluorescent material, such as allopycocyanin (APC), allophycocyanin B, phycocyanin C, phycocyanin rhodamine, thiomine, phycocyanin R, phycoerythrocyanin, phycoerythrin C, phycoerythrin B or phycoerythrin R is included. Alternatively, a fluorescent material, such a europium cryptate is incorporated in the combination.
 4. Other Variations and Embodiments
 The combination of memory with matrix particle may be further linked, such as by welding using a laser or heat, to an inert carrier or other support, such as a TEFLON® strip. This strip, which can be of any convenient size, such as 1 to 10 mm by about 10 to 100 μM will render the combination easy to use and manipulate. For example, these memories with strips can be introduced into 10 cm culture dishes and used in assays, such as immunoassays, or they can be used to introduce bacteria or phage into cultures and used in selection assays. The strip may be encoded or impregnated with a bar code to further provide identifying information.
 Microplates containing a recording device in one or a plurality of wells are provided. The plates may further contain embedded scintillant or a coating of scintillant (such as FlashPlate®, available from DuPont NEN®, and plates available from Packard, Meriden, Conn.) FLASHPLATE® is a 96 well microplate that is precoated with plastic scintillant for detection of β-emitting isotopes, such as 125I, 3H, 35S, 14C and 33P. A molecule is immobilized or synthesized in each well of the plate, each memory is programmed with the identify of each molecule in each well. The immobilized molecule on the surface of the well captures a radiolabeled ligand in solution results in detection of the bound radioactivity. These plates can be used for a variety of radioimmunoassays (RIAs), radioreceptor assays (RRAs), nucleic acid/protein binding assays, enzymatic assays and cell-based assays, in which cells are grown on the plates.
 Another embodiment is depicted in FIG. 11. The reactive sites, such as amities, on a support matrix (1 in the figure) in combination with a memory (a MICROKAN®, a MICROTUBE®, a MACROBEAD®, a MICROCUBE® or other matrix with memory combination) are differentiated by reacting them with a selected reaction of Fmoc-glycine and Boc-glycine, thereby producing a differentiated support (2). The Boc groups on 2 are then deprotected with a suitable agent such as TFA, to produce 3. The resulting fee amine groups are coupled with a fluophore (or mixture A and B, to produce a fluorescent support 4, which can be used in subsequent syntheses or for linkage of desired molecules or biological particles, and then used in fluorescence assays and SPAs.
 D. The Recording and Reading and Systems
 Systems for recording and reading information are provided. The systems include a host computer or decoder/encoder instrument, a transmitter, a receiver and the data storage device. The systems also can include a funnel-like device or the like for use in separating and/or tagging single memory devices. In practice, an EM signal, preferably a radio frequency signal is transmitted to the data storage device. The antenna or other receiver means in the device detects the signal and transmits it to the memory, whereby the data are written to the memory and stored in a memory location.
 Mixtures of the matrix with memory-linked molecules or biological particles may be exposed to the EM signal, or each matrix with memory (either before, after or during linkage of the biological particles or molecules) may be individually exposed, using a device, such as that depicted herein, to the EM signal. Each matrix with memory, as discussed below, will be linked to a plurality of molecules or biological particles, which may be identical or substantially identical or a mixture of molecules or biological particles depending, upon the application and protocol in which the matrix with memory and linked (or proximate) molecules or biological particles is used. The memory can be programmed with data regarding such parameters.
 The location of the data, which when read and transmitted to the host computer or decoder/encoder instrument, corresponds to identifying information about linked or proximate molecules or biological particles. The host computer or decoder/encoder instrument can either identify the location of the data for interpretation by a human or another computer or the host computer or the decoder/encoder can be programmed with a key to interpret or decode the data and thereby identify the linked molecule or biological particle.
 As discussed above, the presently preferred system for use is the IPTT-100 transponder and DAS-5001 CONSOLE® (Bio Medic Data Systems, Inc., Maywood, N.J.; see, e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,422,636, 5,420,579, 5,262,772, 5,252,962 and 5,250,962, 5,252,962 and 5,262,772). These systems may be automated or may be manual.
 E. Tools and Applications Using Matrices with Memories
 1. Tools
 The matrix with memory and associated system as described herein is the basic tool that can be used in a multitude of applications, including any reaction that incorporates a functionally specific (i.e., in the reaction) interaction, such as receptor binding. This tool is then combined with existing technologies or can be modified to produce additional tools.
 For example, the matrix with memory combination, can be designed as a single analyte test or as a multianalyte test and also as a multiplexed assay that is readily automated. The ability to add one or a mixture of matrices with memories, each with linked or proximate molecule or biological particle to a sample, provides that ability to simultaneously determine multiple analytes and to also avoid multiple pipetting steps. The ability to add a matrix with memory and linked molecules or particles with additional reagents, such as scintillants, provides the ability to multiplex assays.
 As discussed herein, in one preferred embodiment the matrices are particulate and include adsorbed, absorbed, or otherwise linked or proximate, molecules, such as peptides or oligonucleotides, or biological particles, such as cells. Assays using such particulate memories with matrices may be conduced "on bead" or "off bead". On bead assays are suitable for multianalyte assays in which mixtures of matrices with linked molecules are used and screened against a labeled known. Off bead assays may also be performed; in these instances the identity of the linked molecule or biological particle must be known prior to cleavage or the molecule or biological particle must be in some manner associated with the memory.
 In other embodiments the matrices with memories use matrices that are continuous, such as microplates, and include a plurality of memories, preferably one memory/well. Of particular interest herein are matrices, such as Flash Plates® (NEN, Dupont), that are coated or impregnated with scintillant or fluophore or other luminescent moiety or combination thereof, modified by including a memory in each well. The resulting memory with matrix is herein referred to as a luminescing matrix with memory. Other formats of interest that can be modified by including a memory in a matrix include the Multiscreen Assay System (Millipore) and gel permeation technology.
 2. Scintillation Proximity Assays (SPAs) and Scintillant-Containing Matrices with Memories
 Scintillation proximity assays are well known in the art (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 4,271,139; U.S. Pat. No. 4,382,074; U.S. Pat. No. 4,687,636: U.S. Pat. No. 4,568,649; U.S. Pat. No. 4,388,296; U.S. Pat. No. 5,246,869; International PCT Application No. WO 94/26413; International PCT Application No. WO 90/03844; European Patent Application No. 0 556 005 A1; European Patent Application No. 0 301 769 A1; Hart et al. (1979) Molec. Immunol. 16:265-267; Udenfriend et al. (1985) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 82:8672-8676; Nelson et al. (1987) Analyt. Biochem 165:287-293; Heath, et al. (1991) Methodol. Surv. Biochem. Anal. 21:193-194; Mattingly et al. (1995) J. Memb. Sci. 98:275-280; Pernelle (1993) Biochemistry 32:11682-116878: Bosworth et al. (1989) Nature 341:167-168; and Hart et al. (1989) Nature 341:2651. Beads (particles) and other formats, such as plates and membranes have been developed.
 SPA assays refer to homogeneous assays in which quantifiable light energy produced and is related to the amount of radioactively labelled products in the medium. The light is produced by a scintillant that is incorporated or impregnated or otherwise a part of a support matrix. The support matrix is coated with a receptor, ligand or other capture molecule that can specifically bind to a radiolabeled analyte, such as a ligand.
 a. Matrices
 Typically, SPA uses fluomicrospheres, such as diphenyloxazole-latex, polyacrylamide-containing a fluophore, and polyvinyltoluene (PVT) plastic scintillator beads, and they are prepared for use by adsorbing compounds into the matrix. Also fluomicrospheres based on organic phosphors have been developed. Microplates made from scintillation plastic, such as PVT, have also been used (see, e.g., International PCT Application No. WO 90/03844). Numerous other formats are presently available, and any format may be modified for use herein by including one or more recording devices.
 Typically the fluomicrospheres or plates are coated with acceptor molecules, such as receptors or antibodies to which ligand binds selectively and reversibly. Initially these assays were performed using glass beads containing fluors and functionalized with recognition groups for binding specific ligands (or receptors), such as organic molecules, proteins, antibodies, and other such molecules. Generally the support bodies used in these assays are prepared by forming a porous amorphous microscopic particle, referred to as ahead (see, e.g., European Patent Application No. 0 151,734 and International PCT Application No. WO 91/08489). The bead is formed from a matrix material such as acrylamide, acrylic acid, polymers of styrene, agar, agarose, polystyrene, and other such materials, such as those set forth above. Cyanogen bromide has been incorporated into the bead into to provide moieties for linkage of capture molecules or biological particles to the surface. Scintillant material is impregnated or incorporated into the bead by precipitation or other suitable method. Alternatively, the matrices are formed from scintillating material (see, e.g., International PCT Application No. WO 91/08489, which is based on U.S. application Ser. No. 07/444,297; see, also U.S. Pat. No. 5,198,670), such as yttrium silicates and other glasses, which when activated or doped respond as scintillators. Dopants include Mn, Cu, Pb, Sn, Au, Ag, Sm, and Ce. These materials can be formed into particles or into continuous matrices. For purposes herein, the are used to coat, encase or otherwise be in contact with one or a plurality of recording devices.
 Assays are conducted in normal assay buffers and requires the use of a ligand labelled with an isotope, such as 3H and 125I, that emits low-energy radiation that is readily dissipated easily an aqueous medium. Because 3H β particles and 125I Auger electrons have average energies of 6 and 35 keV, respectively, their energies are absorbed by the aqueous solutions within very small distances (˜4 μm for 3H β particles and 35 μm for 125I Auger electrons). Thus, in a typical reaction of 0.1 ml to 0.1 ml the majority of unbound labelled ligands will be too far from the fluomicrosphere to activate the fluor. Bound ligands, however, will be in sufficiently close proximity to the fluomicrospheres to allow the emitted energy to activate the fluor and produce light. As a result bound ligands produce light, but free ligands do not. Thus, assay beads emit light when they are exposed to the radioactive energy from the label bound to the beads through the antigen-antibody linkage, but the unreacted radioactive species in solution is too far from the bead to elicit light. The light from the beads will be measured in a liquid scintillation counter and will be a measure of the bound label.
 Memories with matrices for use in scintillation proximity assays (SPA) are prepared by associating a memory with a matrix that includes a scintillant. In the most simple embodiment, matrix particles with scintillant (fluomicrospheres) are purchased from Amersham, Packard, NE Technologies ((formerly Nuclear Enterprises, Inc.) San Carlos, Calif.) or other such source and are associated with a memory, such as by including one or more of such beads in a MICROKAN® microvessel with a recording device. Typically, such beads as purchased are derivatized and coated with selected moieties, such as streptavidin, protein A, biotin, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), and polylysine. Also available are inorganic fluomicrospheres based on cerium-doped yttrium silicate or polyvinyltoluene (PVT). These contain scintillant and may be coated and derivatized.
 Alternatively, small particles of PVT impregnated with scintillant are used to coat recording devices, such as the IPTT-100 devices (Bio Medic Data Systems, Inc., Maywood, N.J.; see, also U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,422,636, 5,420,579, 5,262,772, 5,252,962, 5,250,962, 5,074,318, and RE 34,936) that have been coated with a protective material, such as polystyrene, TEFLON®, a ceramic or anything that does not interfere with the reading and writing EM frequency(ies). Such PVT particles may be manufactured or purchased from commercial sources such as NE TECHNOLOGY, INC. (e.g., catalog #191A, 1-10 μm particles). These particles are mixed with agarose or acrylamide, styrene, vinyl or other suitable monomer that will polymerize or gel to form a layer of this material, which is coated on polystyrene or other protective layer on the recording device. The thickness of the layers may be empirically determined, but they must be sufficiently thin for the scintillant to detect proximate radiolabels. To make the resulting particles resistant to chemical reaction they may be coated with polymers such as polyvinyltoluene or polystyrene, which can then be further derivatized for linkage and/or synthesis of molecules and biological particles. The resulting beads are herein called luminescing matrices with memories, and when used in SPA formats are herein referred to as scintillating matrices with memories.
 The scintillating matrices with memories beads can be formed by manufacturing a bead containing a recording device and including scintillant, such as 2,5-diphenyloxazole (PPO) and/or 1,4-bis-(5-phenyl-(oxazolyl))benzene (POPOP) as a coating. These particles or beads are then coated with derivatized polyvinyl benzene or other suitable matrix on which organic synthesis, protein synthesis or other synthesis can be performed or to which organic molecules, proteins, nucleic acids, biological particles or other such materials can be attached. Attachment may be effected using any of the methods known to those of skill in the art, including methods described herein, and include covalent, non-covalent, direct and indirect linkages.
 Molecules, such as ligands or receptors or biological particles are covalently coupled thereto, and their identity is recorded in the memory. Alternatively, molecules, such as small organics, peptides and oligonucleotides, are synthesized on the beads as described herein so that history of synthesis and/or identity of the linked molecule is recorded in the memory. The resulting matrices with memory particles with linked molecules or biological particles may be used in any application in which SPA is appropriate. Such applications, include, but are not limited to: radioimmunoassays, receptor binding assays, enzyme assays and cell biochemistry assays.
 For use herein, the beads, plates and membranes are either combined with a recording device or a plurality of devices, or the materials used in preparing the beads, plates or membranes is used to coat, encase or contact a recording device. Thus, microvessels (MICROKANS®) containing SPA beads coated with a molecule or biological particle of interest; microplates impregnated with or coated with scintillant, and recording devices otherwise coated with, impregnated with or contacted with scintillant are provided.
 To increase photon yield and remove the possibility of loss of fluor, derivatized fluomicrospheres based on yttrium silicate, that is doped selectively with rare earth elements to facilitate production of light with optimum emission characteristics for photomultipliers and electronic circuitry have been developed (see, e.g., European Patent Application No. 0 378 059 B1; U.S. Pat. No. 5,246,869). In practice, solid scintillant fibers, such as cerium-loaded glass or based on rare earths, such as yttrium silicate, are formed into a matrix. The glasses may also include activators, such as terbium, europium or lithium. Alternatively, the fiber matrix may be made from a scintillant loaded polymer, such as polyvinyltoluene. Molecules and biological particles can be adsorbed to the resulting matrix.
 For use herein, these fibers may be combined in a microvessel with a recording device (i.e., to form a MICROKAN®). Alternatively, the fibers are used to coat a recording device or to coat or form a microplate containing recording devices in each well. The resulting combinations are used as supports for synthesis of molecules or for linking biological particles or molecules. The identity and/or location and/or other information about the particles is encoded in the memory and the resulting combinations are used in scintillation proximity assays.
 Scintillation plates (e.g., FlashPlates®, NEN Dupont, and other such plates) and membranes have also been developed (see, Mattingly et al. (1995) J. Memb. Sci. 98:275-280) that may be modified by including a memory for use as described herein. The membranes, which can contain polysulfone resin M.W. 752 kD, polyvinylpyrrolidone MW 40 kDA, sulfonated polysulfone, fluor, such as p-bis-o-methylstyrylbenzene, POP and POPOP, may be prepared as described by Mattingly, but used to coat, encase or contact a recording device. Thus, instead of applying the polymer solution to a glass plate the polymer solution is applied to the recording device, which, if need is pre-coated with a protective coating, such as a glass, teflon or other such coating.
 Further, as shown in the Examples, the recording device may be coated with glass, etched and the coated with a layer of scintillant. The scintillant may be formed from a polymer, such as polyacrylamide, gelatin, agarose or other suitable material, containing fluophors, a scintillation cocktail, FlexiScint (Packard Instrument Co., Inc., Downers Grove, Ill.) NE Technology beads (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 4,588,698 for a description of the preparation of such mixtures). Alternatively, microplates that contain recording devices in one or more wells may be coated with or impregnated with a scintillant or microplates containing scintillant plastic may be manufactured with recording devices in each well. If necessary, the resulting bead, particle or continuous matrix, such as a microplate, may be coated with a thin layer polystyrene, teflon or other suitable material. In all embodiments it is critical that the scintillant be in sufficient proximity to the linked molecule or biological particle to detect proximate radioactivity upon interaction of labeled molecules or labeled particles with the linked molecule or biological particle.
 The resulting scintillating matrices may be used in any application for which scintillation proximity assays are used. These include, ligand identification, single assays, multianalyte assays, including multi-ligand and multi-receptor assays, radioimmunoassays (RIAs), enzyme assays, and cell biochemistry assays (see, e.g., International PCT Application No. WO 93/19175, U.S. Pat. No. 5,430,150, Whitford et al. (1991) Phyto-chemical Analysis 2: 134-136; Fenwick et al. (1994) Anal. Proc. Including Anal. Commun. 31: 103-106; Skinner et al. (1994) Anal. Biochem. 223:259-265; Matsumura et al. (1992) Life Sciences 51: 1603-1611; Cook et al. (1991) Structure and Function of the Aspartic Proteinases. Dunn, ed., Penum Press, NY, pp. 525-528; Bazendale et al. in (1990) Advances in Prostaglandin, Thromboxane and Leukotriene Research. Vol. 21, Samuelsson et al., eds., Raven Press, NY, pp 302-306).
 b. Assays
 (1) Receptor Binding Assays
 Scintillating matrices with memories beads can be used, for example, in assays screening test compounds as agonists or antagonists of receptors or ion channels or other such cell surface protein. Test compounds of interest are synthesized on the beads or linked thereto, the identity of the linked compounds is encoded in the memory either during or following synthesis, linkage or coating. The scintillating matrices with memories are then incubated with radiolabeled (125I, 3H, or other suitable radiolabel) receptor of interest and counted in a liquid scintillation counter. When radiolabeled receptor binds to any of the structure(s) synthesized or linked to the bead, the radioisotope is in sufficient proximity to the bead to stimulate the scintillant to emit light. In contrast By contrast, if a receptor does not bind, less or no radioactivity is associated with the bead, and consequently less light is emitted. Thus, at equilibrium, the presence of molecules that are able to bind the receptor may be detected. When the reading is completed, the memory in each bead that emits light (or more light than a control) queried and the host computer, decoder/encoder, or scanner can interpret the memory in the bead and identify the active ligand.
 (a) Multi-Ligand Assay
 Mixtures of scintillating matrices with memories with a variety of linked ligands, which were synthesized on the matrices or linked thereto and their identities encoded in each memory, are incubated with a single receptor. The memory in each light-emitting scintillating matrix with memory is queried and the identity of the binding ligand is determined.
 (b) Multi-Receptor Assays
 Similar to conventional indirect or competitive receptor binding assays that are based on the competition between unlabelled ligand and a fixed quantity of radiolabeled ligand for a limited number of binding sites, the scintillating matrices with memories permit the simultaneous screening of a number of ligands for a number of receptor subtypes.
 Mixtures of receptor coated beads (one receptor type/per bead; each memory encoded with the identity of the linked receptor) are reacted with labeled ligands specific for each receptor. After the reaction has reached equilibrium, all beads that emit light are reacted with a test compound. Beads that no longer emit light are read.
 For example receptor isoforms, such as retinoic acid receptor isoforms, are each linked to a different batch of scintillating matrix with memory beads, and the identity of each isoform is encoded in the memories of linked matrices. After addition of the radiolabeled ligand(s), such as 3H-retinoic acid, a sample of test compounds (natural, synthetic, combinatorial, etc.) is added to the reaction mixture, mixed and incubated for sufficient time to allow the reaction to reach equilibrium. The radiolabeled ligand binds to its receptor, which has been covalently linked to the bead and which the emitted short range electrons will excite the fluophor or scintillant in the beads, producing light. When unlabelled ligand from test mixture is added, if it displaces the labeled ligand it will diminish or stop the fluorescent light signal. At the end of incubation period, the tube can be measured in a liquid scintillation counter to demonstrate if any of the test material reacted with receptor family. Positive samples (reduced or no fluorescence) will be further analyzed for receptor subtyping by querying their memories with the RF detector. In preferred embodiments, each bead will be read with a fluorescence detector and RF scanner. Those that have a reduced fluorescent signal will be identified and the linked receptor determined by the results from querying the memory.
 The same concept can be used to screen for ligands for a number of receptors. In one example. FGF receptor, EGF receptor, and PDGF receptor are each covalently linked to a different batch of scintillating matrix with memory beads. The identity of each receptor is encoded in each memory. After addition of the 125I-ligands (125I-FGF, 125-EGF, and 125I-PDGF) a sample of test compounds (natural, synthetic, combinatorial, etc.) is added to the tube containing 125I-ligand-receptor-beads, m mixed and incubated for sufficient time to allow the reaction to reach equilibrium. The radiolabeled ligands bind to their respective receptors receptor that been covalently linked to the bead. By virtue of proximity of the label to the bead, the emitted short range electrons will excite the fluophor in the beads. When unlabelled ligand from test mixture is added, if it displaces the any of the labeled ligand it will diminish or stop the fluorescent signal. At the end of incubation period, the tube can be measured in a liquid scintillation counter to demonstrate if any of the test material reacted with the selected receptor family. Positive samples will be further analyzed for receptor type by passing the resulting complexes, measuring the fluorescence of each bead, and querying the memories by exposing them to RF or the selected EM radiation. The specificity of test ligand is determined by identifying beads with reduced fluorescence and determining the identity of the linked receptor by querying the memory.
 (c) Other Formats
 Microspheres, generally polystyrene typically about 0.3 μm-3.9 μm, are synthesized with scintillant inside can either be purchased or prepared by covalently linking scintillant to the monomer prior to polymerization of the polystyrene or other material. They can then be derivatized (or purchased with chemical functional groups), such as --COOH, and --CH2OH. Selected compounds or libraries are synthesized on the resulting microspheres linked via the functional groups, as described herein, or receptor, such as radiolabeled receptor, can be coated on the microsphere. The resulting "bead" with linked compounds, can used in a variety of SPA and related assays, including immunoassays, receptor binding assays, protein, protein interaction assays, and other such assays in which the ligands linked to the scintillant-containing microspheres are reacted with memories with matrices that are coated with a selected receptor.
 For example, 125I-labeled receptor is passively coated on the memory with matrix and then mixed with ligand that is linked to a the scintillant-containing microspheres. Upon binding the radioisotope into is brought into close proximity to the scintillant in which effective energy transfer from the β particle will occur, resulting in emission of light.
 Alternatively, the memory with matrix (containing scintillant) can also be coated with 3H-containing polymer on which the biological target (i.e., receptor, protein, antibody, antigen) can be linked (via adsorption or via a functional group). Binding of the ligand brings the scintillant into close proximity to the label, resulting in light emission.
 (2) Cell-Based Assays
 Cell-based assays, which are fundamental for understanding of the biochemical events in cells, have been used with increasing frequency in biology, pharmacology, toxicology, genetics, and oncology (see, e.g., Benjamin et al. (1992) Mol. Cell. Biol. 12:2730-2738) Such cell lines may be constructed or purchased (see, e.g., the Pro-Tox Kit available from Xenometrix, Boulder Colo.; see, also International PCT Application No. WO 94/7208 cell lines). Established cell lines, primary cell culture, reporter gene systems in recombinant cells, cells transfected with gene of interest, and recombinant mammalian cell lines have been used to set up cell-based assays. For example Xenometrix, Inc. (Boulder, Colo.) provides kits for screening compounds for toxicological endpoints and metabolic profiles using bacteria and human cell lines. Screening is effected by assessing activation of regulatory elements of stress genes fused to reporter genes in bacteria, human liver or colon cell lines and provide information on the cytotoxicity and permeability of test compounds.
 In any drug discovery program, cell-based assays offer a broad range of potential targets as well as information on cytotoxicity and permeability. The ability to test large numbers of compounds quickly and efficiently provides a competitive advantage in pharmaceutical lead identification.
 High throughput screening with cell-based assays is often limited by the need to use separation, wash, and disruptive processes that compromise the functional integrity of the cells and performance of the assay. Homogeneous or mix-and-measure type assays simplify investigation of various biochemical events in whole cells and have been developed using scintillation microplates (see, International PCT Application No. WO 94/26413, which describes scintillant plates that are adapted for attachment and/or growth of cells and proximity assays using such cells). In certain embodiment herein, cell lines such as those described in International PCT Application No. WO 94/17208 are be plated on scintillant plates, and screened against compounds synthesized on matrices with memories. Matrices with memories encoded with the identity of the linked molecule will be introduced into the plates, the linkages cleaved and the effects of the compounds assessed. Positive compounds will be identified by querying the associated memory.
 The scintillant base plate is preferably optically transparent to selected wavelengths that allow cells in culture to be viewed using an inverted phase contrast microscope, and permit the material to transmit light at a given wavelength with maximum efficiency. In addition the base retains its optical properties even after exposure to incident beta radiation from radioisotopes as well as under stringent radiation conditions required for sterilization of the plates. The base plate can be composed of any such optically transparent material containing scintillant, e.g., a scintillant glass based on lanthanide metal compounds. Typically, the base plate is composed of any plastic material, generally formed from monomer units that include phenyl or naphthyl moieties in order to absorb incident radiation energy from radionuclides which are in close proximity with the surface. Preferably the plastic base plate is composed of polystyrene or polyvinyltoluene, into which the scintillant is incorporated. The scintillant includes, but is not limited to: aromatic hydrocarbons such as p-terphenyl, p-quaterphenyl and their derivatives, as well as derivatives of the oxazoles and 1,3,4-oxadiazoles, such as 2-(4-t-butylphenyl)-5-(4-biphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole and 2,5-diphenyloxazole. Also included in the polymeric composition may be a wavelength shifter such as 1,4-bis(5-phenyl-2-oxazolyl)benzene, 9,10-diphenylanthracene, 1,4-bis(2-methylstyryl)-benzene, and other such compounds. The function of the wavelength shifter is to absorb the light emitted by the scintillant substance and re-emit longer wavelength fight which is a better match to the photo-sensitive detectors used in scintillation counters. Other scintillant substances and polymer bodies containing them are known to those of skill in this art (see, e.g., European Patent Application No. 0 556 005 A1).
 The scintillant substances can be incorporated into the plastic material of the base by a variety of methods. For example, the scintillators may be dissolved into the monomer mix prior to polymerization, so that they are distributed evenly throughout the resultant polymer. Alternatively, the scintillant substances may be dissolved in a solution of the polymer and the solvent removed to leave a homogeneous mixture. The base plate of disc may be bonded to the main body of the well or array of wells, which itself may be composed of a plastic material including polystyrene, polyvinyltoluene, or other such polymers. In the case of the multi-well array, the body of the plate may be made opaque, i.e., non-transparent and internally reflective, in order to completely exclude transmission of light and hence minimize "cross-talk." This is accomplished by incorporating into the plastic at the polymerization stage a white dye or pigment, for example, titanium dioxide. Bonding of the base plate to the main body of the device can be accomplished by any suitable bonding technique, for example, heat welding, injection molding or ultrasonic welding.
 For example, a 96-well plate is constructed to the standard dimensions of 96-well microtiter plates 12.8 cm×8.6 cm×1.45 cm with wells in an array of 8 rows of 12 wells each. The main body of the plate is constructed by injection molding of polystyrene containing a loading of white titanium oxide pigment at 12%. At this stage, the wells of the microtiter plate are cylindrical tubes with no closed end. A base plate is formed by injection molding of polystyrene containing 2-(4-t-butylphenyl)-5-(4-biphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (2%) and 9,10-diphenylanthracene (0.5%). The base plate has been silk screen printed with a grid array to further reduce crosstalk. The base plate is then fused in a separate operation to the body by ultrasonic welding, such that the grid array overlies the portions of the microtiter plate between the wells.
 A 24-well device is constructed to the dimensions 12.8×8.6×1.4 cm with 24 wells in an array of 4 rows of 6 wells. The main body of the plate (not including the base of each well) is constructed by injection molding of polystyrene containing 12% white titanium oxide pigment. The base 24 of each well is injection molded with polystyrene containing 2-(4-t-butylphenyl)-5-(4-biphenylyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (2%) and 9,10-diphenylanthracene (0.5%). The heat from the injected base plastic results in fusion to the main body giving an optically transparent base to the well.
 The plates may contain multiple wells that are continuous or that are each discontinuous from the other wells in the array, or they ma be single vessels that have, for example, an open top, side walls and an optically transparent scintillant plastic base sealed around the lower edge of the side walls.
 In another format, the plate is a single well or tube. The tube may be constructed from a hollow cylinder made from optically transparent plastic material and a circular, scintillant containing, plastic disc. The two components are welded together so as to form a single well or tube suitable for growing cells in culture. As in the plate format, bonding of the circular base plate to the cylindrical portion is achieved by any conventional bonding technique, such as ultrasonic welding. The single well or tube may be any convenient size, suitable for scintillation counting. In use, the single well may either be counted as an insert in a scintillation vial, or alternatively as an insert in a scintillation vial, or alternatively as an insert in a multi-well plate of a flat bed scintillation counter. In this latter case, the main body of the multi-well plate would need to be opaque for reasons given earlier.
 The various formats are selected according to use. They may be used for growing cells and studying cellular biochemical processes in living cells or cell fragments. The 96-well plate is a standard format used in experimental cell biology and one that is suitable for use in a flat bed scintillation counter (e.g. Wallac Microbeta or Packard Top Count). In the multi-well format, it is an advantage to be able to prevent "cross talk" between different wells of the plate that may be used for monitoring different biological processes using different amounts or types of radioisotope. Therefore the main body of the plate can be made from opaque plastic material. The 24-well plate format is commonly used for cell culture. This type of plate is also suitable for counting in a flat bed scintillation counter. The dimensions of the wells will be larger.
 As an alternative format, the transparent, scintillant containing plastic disc is made to be of suitable dimensions so as to fit into the bottom of a counting vessel. The counting vessel is made from non-scintillant containing material such as glass or plastic and should be sterile in order to allow cells to grow and the corresponding cellular metabolic processes to continue. Cells are first cultured on the disc, which is then transferred to the counting vessel for the purposes of monitoring cellular biochemical processes.
 The culture of cells on the scintillation plastic base plate of the wells (or the disc) involves the use of standard cell culture procedures, e.g., cells are cultured in a sterile environment at 37° C. in an incubator containing a humidified 95% air/5% CO2 atmosphere. Various cell culture media may be used including media containing undefined biological fluids such as fetal calf serum, or media which is fully defined and serum-free. For example, MCDB 153 is a selective medium for the culture of human keratinocytes (Tsao et al. (1982) J. Cell. Physiol. 110:219-2291.
 These plates are suitable for use with any adherent cell type that can be cultured on standard tissue culture plasticware, including culture of primary cells, normal and transformed cells derived from recognized sources species and tissue sources. In addition, cells that have been transfected with the recombinant genes may also be cultured using the invention. There are established protocols available for the culture of many of these diverse cell types (see, e.g., Freshney et al. (1987) Culture of Animal Cells: A Manual of Basic Technique, 2nd Edition, Alan R. Liss Inc.). These protocols may require the use of specialized coatings and selective media to enable cell growth and the expression of specialized cellular functions.
 The scintillating base plate or disc, like all plastic tissue culture ware, requires surface modification in order to be adapted for the attachment and/or growth of cells. Treatment can involves the use of high voltage plasma discharge, a well established method for creating a negatively charged plastic surface (see, e.g., Amstein et al. (1975) Clinical Microbiol. 2:46-54). Cell attachment, growth and the expression of specialized functions can be further improved by applying a range of additional coatings to the culture surface of the device. These can include: (i) positively or negatively charged chemical coatings such as poly-lysine or other biopolymers (McKeehan et al. (1976) J. Cell Biol. 21:727-734 (1976)); (ii) components of the extracellular matrix including collagen, laminin, fibronectin (see, e.g., Kleinman et al. (1987) Anal. Biochem. 166: 1-13); and (iii) naturally secreted extracellular matrix laid down by cells cultured on the plastic surface (Freshney et al. (1987) Culture of Animal Cells: A Manual of Basic Technique, 2nd Edition, Alan R. Liss Inc.). Furthermore, the scintillating base plate may be coated with agents, such as lectins, or adhesion molecules for attachment of cell membranes or cell types that normally grow in suspension. Methods for the coating of plasticware with such agents are known (see, e.g., Boldt et al. (1979) J. Immunol. 123:808).
 In addition, the surface of the scintillating layer may be coated with living or dead cells, cellular material, or other coatings of biological relevance. The interaction of radiolabeled living cells, or other structures with this layer can be monitored with time allowing processes such as binding, movement to or from or through the layer to be measured.
 Virtually all types of biological molecules can be studied. A any molecule or complex of molecules that interact with the cell surface- or that can be taken up, transported and metabolized by the cells, can be examined using real time analysis. Examples of biomolecules will include receptor ligands, protein and lipid metabolite precursors (e.g., amino acids, fatty acids), nucleosides and any molecule that can be radiolabeled. This would also include ions such as calcium, potassium, sodium and chloride, that are functionally important in cellular homeostasis, and which exist as radioactive isotopes. Furthermore, viruses and bacteria and other cell types, which can be radiolabeled as intact moieties, can be examined for their interaction with monolayer adherent cells grown in the scintillant well format.
 The type of radioactive isotope that can be used with this system will typically include any of the group of isotopes that emit electrons having a mean range up to 2000 μm in aqueous medium. These will include isotopes commonly used in biochemistry such as (3H), (125I), (14C), (35S), (45Ca), (33p), and (32p), but does not preclude the use of other isotopes, such as (55Fe), (109Cd) and (51Cr) that also emit electrons within this range. The wide utility of the invention for isotopes of different emission energy is due to the fact that the current formats envisaged would allow changes to the thickness of the layer containing a scintillant substance, thereby ensuring that all the electron energy is absorbed by the scintillant substance. Furthermore, cross-talk correction software is available which can be utilized with all high energy emitters. Applications using these plates include protein synthesis, Ca2+ transport, receptor-ligand binding, cell adhesion, sugar transport and metabolism, hormonal stimulation, growth factor regulation and stimulation of motility, thymidine transport, and protein synthesis.
 For use in accord with the methods herein, the scintillant plates can include a memory in each well, or alternatively, memory with matrix-linked compounds will be added to each well. The recording device with memory may be impregnated or encased or placed in wells of the plate, typically during manufacture. In preferred embodiments, however, the memories are added to the wells with adsorbed or linked molecules.
 In one embodiment, matrices with memories with linked molecules are introduced into scintillant plates in which cells have been cultured (see, e.g., International PCT Application No. WO 94/26413). For example, cells will be plated on the transparent scintillant base 96-well microplate that permits examination of cells in culture by inverted phase contrast microscope and permits the material to transmit light at a given wavelength with maximum efficiency. Matrices with memories to which test compounds linked by preferably a photocleavable linker are added to the wells. The identity of each test compound is encoded in the memory of the matrix during synthesis if the compound is synthesized on the matrix with memory or when the compound is linked to the matrix.
 Following addition of matrix with memory to the well and release of chemical entities synthesized on the beads by exposure to light or other procedures, the effects of the chemical released from the beads on the selected biochemical events, such as signal transduction, cell proliferation, protein or DNA synthesis, in the cells can be assessed. In this format receptor binding Such events include, but are not limited to: whole cell receptor-ligand binding (agonist or antagonist), thymidine or uridine transport, protein synthesis (using, for example, labeled cysteine, methionine, leucine or proline), hormone and growth factor induced stimulation and motility, and calcium uptake.
 In another embodiment, the memories are included in the plates either placed in the plates or manufactured in the wells of the plates. In these formats, the identities of the contents of the well is encoded into the memory. Of course it is understood, that the information encoded and selection of encased or added memories depends upon the selected protocol.
 In another format, cells will be plated on the tissue culture plate, after transferring the matrices with memories and release of compounds synthesized on the beads in the well. Cytostatic, cytotoxic and proliferative effects of the compounds will be measured using colorimetric (MTT, XTT, MTS, Alamar blue, and Sulforhodamine B), fluorimetric (carboxyfluorescein diacetate), or chemiluminescent reagents (i.e., CytoLite®, Packard Instruments, which is used in a homogeneous luminescent assay for cell proliferation, cell toxicity and multi-drug resistance).
 For example, cells that have been stably or transiently transfected with a specific gene reporter construct containing an inducible promoter co-operatively linked to a reporter gene that encodes an indicator protein can be colorimetrically monitored for promoter induction. Cells will be plated on the tissue culture microtiter plate and after addition of memories with matrices in the wells and release of chemical entities synthesized on the matrices, the effect of the compound released from the beads on the gene expression will be assessed. The Cytosensor Microphysiometer (Molecular Devices) evaluates cellular responses that are mediated by G protein-linked receptors, tyrosine kinase-linked receptors, and ligand-gated ion channels. It measures extracellular pH to assess profiles of compounds assessed for the ability to modulate activities of any of the these cell surface proteins by detecting secretion of acid metabolites as a result of altered metabolic states, particularly changes in metabolic rate. Receptor activation requires use of ATP and other energy resources of the cell thereby leading to increased in cellular metabolic rate. For embodiments herein, the memories with matrices, particularly those modified for measuring pH, and including linked test compounds, can be used to track and identify the added test compound added and also to detect changes in pH, thereby identifying linked molecules that modulate receptor activities.
 3. Memories with Matrices for Non-Radioactive Energy Transfer Proximity Assays
 Non-radioactive energy transfer reactions, such as FET or FRET, FP and HTRF assays, are homogeneous luminescence assays based on energy transfer are carried out between a donor luminescent label and an acceptor label (see, e.g., Cardullo et al. (1988) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85:8790-8794; Peerce et al. (1986) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83:8092-8096; U.S. Pat. No. 4,777,128; U.S. Pat. No. 5,162,508; U.S. Pat. No. 4,927,923; U.S. Pat. No. 5,279,943; and International PCT Application No. WO 92/01 225). The donor label is usually a rare earth metal cryptate, particularly europium trisbipyridine diamine (EuTBP) or terbium trisbipyridine diamine (TbTBP) and an acceptor luminescent, presently fluorescent, label. When the donor is EuTBP, the acceptor is preferably allopycocyanin (APC), allophycocyanin B, phycocyanin C or phycocyanin R, and when the donor is TbTBP, the acceptor is a rhodamine, thioneine, phycocyanin R, phycoerythrocyanin, phycoerythrin C, phycoerythrin B or phycoerythrin R.
 Energy transfer between such donors and acceptors is highly efficient, giving an amplified signal and thereby improving the precision and sensitivity of the assay. Within distances characteristic of interactions between biological molecules, the excitation of a fluorescent label (donor) is transferred non radiatively to a second fluorescent label (acceptor). When using europium cryptate as the donor, APC, a phycobiliprotein of 5 kDa, is presently the preferred acceptor because it has high molar absorptivity at the cryptate emission wavelength providing a high transfer efficiency, emission in a spectral range in which the cryptate signal is insignificant, emission that is not quenched by presence of sera, and a high quantum yield. When using Eu3+ cryptate as donor, an amplification of emitted fluorescence is obtained by measuring APC emission.
 The rare earth cryptates are formed by the inclusion of a luminescence lanthanide ion in the cavity of a macropolycyclic ligand containing 2,2'-biphyridine groups as light absorbers (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,162,508; U.S. Pat. No. 4,927,923; U.S. Pat. No. 5,279,943; and International PCT Application No. WO 92/01225). Preferably the Eu3* trisbypryidine diamine derivative, although the acceptor may be used as the label, is cross-linked to antigens, antibodies, proteins, peptides, and oligonucleotides and other molecules of interest.
 For use herein, matrices with memories are prepared that incorporate either the donor or, preferably the acceptor, into or on the matrix. In practice, as with the scintillating matrices with memories, the matrices may be of any format, i.e., particulate, or continuous, and used in any assay described above for the scintillating matrices. For example, the recording device is coated with a protective coating, such as glass or polystyrene. If glass it can be etched. As with preparation of the scintillating matrices with memories, compositions containing the donor or preferably acceptor, such as APC, and typically a polymer or gel, are coated on the recording device or the device is mixed with the composition to produce a fluorescing matrix with memory. To make these matrices resistant to chemical reaction, if needed, they may be coated with polymers such as polyvinylbenzene or polystyrene. Molecules, such as the constituents of combinatorial libraries, are synthesized on the fluorescing matrices with memories, or molecules or biological particles are linked thereto, the identity of the synthesized molecules or linked molecules or biological particles is encoded in memory, and the resulting matrices with memories employed in any suitable assay, including any of those described for the scintillating memories with matrices. In particular, these homogeneous assays using long-lived fluorescence rare earth cryptates and amplification by non radiative energy transfer have been adapted to use in numerous assays including assays employing ligand receptor interaction, signal transduction, transcription factors (protein-protein interaction), enzyme substrate assays and DNA hybridization and analysis (see, Nowak (1993) Science 270:368; see, also, Velculescu et al. (1995) Science 270:484-487, and Schena et al. (1995) Science 270:467-470, which describe methods quantitative and simultaneous analysis of a large number of transcripts that are particularly suited for modification using matrices with memories). Each of these assays may be modified using the fluorescing matrices with memories provided herein.
 For example, a receptor will be labeled with a europium cryptate (where the matrices with memories incorporate, for example allophycocyanin (APC)) or will be labeled with APC, where the matrices incorporate a europium cryptate. After mixing receptor and mixtures of matrices with different ligands, the mixture is exposed to laser excitation at 337 nm, and, if reaction has occurred, typical signals of europium cryptate and APC over background are emitted. Measurement with an interference filter centered at 665 nm selects the signal of the APC labeled receptor from that of europium cryptate labeled ligand on the beads. If particulate, the memories of matrices that emit at 665, can be queried to identify linked ligands.
 4. Other Applications Using Memories with Matrices and Luminescing Memories with Matrices
 a. Natural Product Screening
 In the past, the vast majority of mainline pharmaceuticals have been isolated form natural products such as plants, bacteria, fungus, and marine microorganisms. Natural products include microbials, botanicals, animal and marine products. Extracts of such sources are screened for desired activities and products. Selected products include enzymes (e.g., hyaluronidase), industrial chemicals (e.g., petroleum emulsifying agents), and antibiotics (e.g., penicillin). It is generally considered that a wealth of new agents still exist within the natural products pool. Large mixtures of natural products, even within a fermentation broth, can be screened using the matrices with memory combinations linked, for example, to peptides, such as antigens or antibody fragments or receptors, of selected and known sequences or specificities, or to other biologically active compounds, such as neurotransmitters, cell surface receptors, enzymes, or any other identified biological target of interest. Mixtures of these peptides linked to memory matrices can be introduced into the natural r product mixture. Individual binding matrices, detected by an indicator, such as a fluorometric dye, can be isolated and the memory queried to determine which linked molecule or biological particle is bound to a natural product.
 b. Immunoassays and Immunodiagnostics
 The combinations and methods provided herein represent major advances in immunodiagnostics. Immunoassays (such as ELISAs, RIAs and EIAs (enzyme immunoassays)) are used to detect and quantify antigens or antibodies.
 (1) Immunoassays
 Immunoassays detect or quantify very small concentrations of analytes in biological samples. Many immunoassays use solid supports in which antigen or antibody is covalently, non-covalently, or otherwise, such as via a linker, attached to a solid support matrix. The support-bound antigen or antibody is then used as an analyte in the assay. As with nucleic acid analysis, the resulting antibody-antigen complexes or other complexes, depending upon the format used, rely on radiolabels or enzyme labels to detect such complexes.
 The use of antibodies to detect and/or quantitate reagents ("antigens") in blood or other body fluids has been widely practiced for many years. Two methods have been most broadly adopted. The first such procedure is the competitive binding assay, in which conditions of limiting antibody are established such that only a fraction (usually 30-50%) of a labeled (e.g., radioisotope, fluophore or enzyme) antigen can bind to the amount of antibody in the assay medium. Under those conditions, the addition of unlabeled antigen (e.g., in a serum sample to be tested) then competes with the labeled antigen for the limiting antibody binding sites and reduces the amount of labeled antigen that can bind. The degree to which the labeled antigen is able to bind is inversely proportional to the amount of unlabeled antigen present. By separating the antibody-bound from the unbound labeled antigen and then determining the amount of labeled reagent present, the amount of unlabeled antigen in the sample (e.g., serum) can be determined.
 As an alternative to the competitive binding assay, in the labeled antibody; or "immunometric" assay (also known as "sandwich" assay), an antigen present in the assay fluid is specifically bound to a solid substrate and the amount of antigen bound is then detected by a labeled antibody (see, e.g., Miles et al. (1968) Nature 29:186-189; U.S. Pat. No. 3,867,517; U.S. Pat. No. 4,376,110). Using monoclonal antibodies two-site immunometric assays are available (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 4,376,110). The "sandwich" assay has been broadly adopted in clinical medicine. With increasing interest in "panels" of diagnostic tests, in which a number of different antigens in a fluid are measured, the need to carry out each immunoassay separately becomes a serious limitation of current quantitative assay technology.
 Some semi-quantitative detection systems have been developed (see, e.g., Buechler et al. (1992) Clin. Chem. 38:1678-1684; and U.S. Pat. No. 5,089,391) for use with immunoassays; but no good technologies yet exist to carefully quantitate a large number of analytes simultaneously (see, e.g., Ekins et al. (1990) J. Clin. Immunoassay 13:169-181) or to rapidly and conveniently track, identify and quantitate detected analytes.
 The methods and memories with matrices provided herein provide a means to quantitate a large number of analytes simultaneously and to rapidly and conveniently track, identify and quantitate detected analytes.
 (2) Multianalyte Immunoassays
 The combinations of matrix with memories provided herein permits the simultaneous assay of large numbers of analytes in any format. In general, the sample that contains an analyte, such as a ligand or any substance of interest, to be detected or quantitated, is incubated with and bound to a protein, such as receptor or antibody, or nucleic acid or other molecule to which the analyte of interest binds. In one embodiment, the protein or nucleic acid or other molecule to which the analyte of interest binds has been linked to a matrix with memory prior to incubation; in another embodiment, complex of analyte or ligand and protein, nucleic acid or other molecule to which the analyte of interest binds is linked to the matrix with memory after the incubation; and in a third embodiment, incubation to form complexes and attachment of the complexes to the matrix with memory are simultaneous. In any embodiment, attachment is effected, for example, by direct covalent attachment, by kinetically inert attachment, by noncovalent linkage, or by indirect linkage, such as through a second binding reaction (i.e., biotin-avidin, Protein A-antibody, antibody-hapten, hybridization to form nucleic acid duplexes of oligonucleotides, and other such reactions and interactions). The complexes are detected and quantitated on the solid phase by virtue of a label, such as radiolabel, fluorescent label, luminophore label, enzyme label or any other such label. The information that is encoded in the matrix with memory depends upon the selected embodiment. If, for example, the target molecule, such as the protein or receptor is bound to the solid phase, prior to complexation, the identity of the receptor and/or source of the receptor may be encoded in the memory in the matrix.
 For example, the combinations provided herein are particularly suitable for analyses of multianalytes in a fluid, and particularly for multianalyte immunoassays. In one example, monoclonal antibodies very specific for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), prostate specific antigen (PSA), CA-1 25, alphafetoprotein (AFP), TGF-β, IL-2, IL-8 and 10 are each covalently attached to a different batch of matrices with memories using well-established procedures and matrices for solid phase antibody assays. Each antibody-matrix with memory complex is given a specific identification tag, as described herein.
 A sample of serum from a patient to be screened for the presence or concentration of these antigens is added to a tube containing two of each antibody-matrix with memory complex (a total of 16 beads, or duplicates of each kind of bead). A mixture of monoclonal antibodies, previously conjugated to fluorescent dyes, such as fluorescein or phenyl-EDTA-Eu chelate, reactive with different epitopes on each of the antigens is then added. The tubes are then sealed and the contents are mixed for sufficient time (typically one hour) to allow any antigens present to bind to their specific antibody-matrix with memory-antigen complex to produce antibody-matrix with memory-antigen-labeled antibody complexes. At the end of the time period, these resulting complexes are briefly rinsed and passed through an apparatus, such as that set forth in FIG. 7, but with an additional light source. As each complex passes through a light source, such as a laser emitting at the excitation wavelength of fluorescein, about 494 nm, or 340 nm for the Eu chelate complex, its fluorescence is measured and quantitated by reading the emitted photons at about 518 nm for fluorescein or 613 nm for phenyl-EDTA-Eu, and as its identity is determined by the specific signal received by the RF detector. In this manner, eight different antigens are simultaneously detected and quantitated in duplicate.
 In another embodiment, the electromagnetically tagged matrices with recorded information regarding linked antibodies can be used with other multianalyte assays, such as those described by Ekins et al. ((1990) J. Clin. Immunoassay 13:169-181; see, also International PCT Applications Nos. 89/01157 and 93/08472, and U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,745,072, 5,171,695 and 5,304,498). These methods rely on the use of small concentrations of sensor-antibodies within a few μm2 area. Individual memories with matrices, or an array of memories embedded in a matrix are used. Different antibodies are linked to each memory, which is programmed to record the identity of the linked antibody. Alternatively, the antibody can be linked, and its identity or binding sites identified, and the information recorded in the memory. Linkage of the antibodies can be effected by any method known to those of skill in this art, but is preferably effected using cobalt-iminodiacetate coated memories (see, Hale (1995) Analytical Biochem. 231:46-49, which describes means for immobilization of antibodies to cobalt-iminodiacetate resin) mediated linkage particularly advantageous. Antibodies that are reversibly bound to a cobalt-iminodiacetate resin are attached in exchange insert manner when the cobalt is oxidized from the +2 to +3 state. In this state the antibodies are not removed by metal chelating regents, high salt, detergents or chaotropic agents. They are only removed by reducing agents. In addition, since the metal binding site in antibodies is in the C-terminus heavy chain, antibodies so-bound are oriented with the combining site directed away from the resin.
 In particular antibodies are linked to the matrices with memories. The matrices are either in particular form or in the form of a slab with an array of recording devices linked to the matrices or microtiter dish or the like with a recording device in each well. Antibodies are then linked either to each matrix particle or to discrete "microspots" on the slab or in the microtiter wells. In one application, prior to use of these matrices with memories, they are bound to a relatively low affinity anti-idiotype antibody (or other species that specifically recognizes the antibody binding site, such as a single chain antibody or peptidomimetic) labeled with a fluophore (e.g., Texas Red, see, Ekins et al. (1990) J. Clin. Immunoassay 13: 169-181) to measure the concentration of and number of available binding sites present on each matrix with memory particle or each microspot, which information is then encoded into each memory for each microspot or each particle. These low affinity antibodies are then eluted, and the matrices can be dried and stored until used.
 Alternatively or additionally, the memories in the particles or at each microspot could be programmed with the identity or specificity of the linked antibody, so that after reaction with the test sample and identification of complexed antibodies, the presence and concentration of particular analytes in the sample can be determined. They can be used for multianalyte analyses as described above.
 After reaction with the test sample, the matrices with memories are reacted with a second antibody, preferably, although not necessarily, labeled with a different label, such as a different fluophore, such as fluorescein. After this incubation, the microspots or each matrix particle is read by passing the particle through a laser scanner (such as a confocal microscope, see, e.g., Ekins et al. (1990) J. Clin. Immunoassay 13:169-181; see also U.S. Pat. No. 5,342,633) to determine the fluorescence intensity. The memories at each spot or linked to each particle are queried to determine the total number of available binding sites, thereby permitting calculation of the ratio of occupied to unoccupied binding sites.
 Equilibrium dialysis and modifications thereof has been used to study the interaction of antibody or receptor or other protein or nucleic acid with low molecular weight dialyzable molecules that bind to the antibody or receptor or other protein or nucleic acid. For applications herein, the antibody, receptor, protein or nucleic acid is linked to solid support (matrix with memory) and is incubated with the ligand.
 In particular, this method may be used for analysis of multiple binding agents (receptors), linked to matrices with memories, that compete for available ligand, which is present in limiting concentration. After reaction, the matrices with memories linked to the binding agents (receptors) with the greatest amount of bound ligand, are the binding agents (receptors) that have the greatest affinity for the ligand.
 The use of matrices with memories also permits simultaneous determination of Ka values of multiple binding agents (receptors) or have multiple ligands. For example, a low concentration of labeled ligand, is mixed with a batch of different antibodies bound to matrices with memories. The mixture is flowed through a reader (i.e., a Coulter counter or other such instrument that reads RF and the label) could simultaneously measure the ligand (by virtue of the label) and identity of each linked binding agent (or linked ligand) as the chip is read. After the reaction equilibrium (determined by monitoring progress of the reaction) labeled ligand is added and the process of reading label and the chips repeated. This process is repeated until all binding sites on the binding agent (or ligand) approach saturation, thereby permitting calculation of Ka values and binding sites that were available.
 c. Selection of Antibodies and Other Screening Methods
 (1) Antibody Selection
 In hybridoma preparation and selection, fused cells are plated into, for example, microtiter wells with the matrices with memory-tagged antibody binding reagent (such as protein A or Co-chelate (see, e.g., Smith et al. (1992) Methods: A Companion to Methods in Enzymology 4:73 (1992); III et al. (1993) Biophys J. 64:919; Loetscher et al. (1992) J. Chromatography 595:113-199; U.S. Pat. No. 5,443,816; Hale (1995) Analytical Biochem. 231:46-49). The solid phase is removed, pooled and processed batchwise to identify the cells that produce antibodies that are the greatest binders (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,324,633 for methods and device for measuring the binding affinity of a receptor to a ligand; or the above method by which phage libraries are screened for highest KA phage, i.e., limiting labeled antigen).
 (2) Antibody Panning
 Memories with matrices with antibody attached thereto (e.g. particularly embodiments in which the matrix is a plate) may be used in antibody panning (see, e.g., Wysocki et al. (1978) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 25:2844-48; Basch et al. (1983) J. Immunol. Methods 56:269; Thiele et al. (1986) J. Immunol. 136:1038-1048; Mage et al. (1981) Eur. J. Immunol. 11:226; Mage et al. (1977) J. Immunol. Methods 15:47-56; see, also, U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,217,870 and 5,087,570, for descriptions of the panning method). Antibody panning was developed as a means to fractionate lymphocytes on the basis of surface phenotype based on the ability of antibody molecules to adsorb onto polystyrene surfaces and retain the ability to bind antigen. Originally (Wysocki et al. (1978) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 75: 2844-2848) polystyrene dishes coated with antibodies specific for cell surface antigens and permit cells to bind to the dishes, thereby fractionating cells. In embodiments herein, polystyrene or other suitable matrix is associated with a memory device and coated with an antibody, whose identity is recorded in the memory. Mixtures of these antibody coated memories with matrices can be mixed with cells, and multiple cell types can be sorted and identified by querying the memories to which cells have bound. d.
 d. Phage Display
 Phage, viruses, bacteria and other such manipulable hosts and vectors (referred to as biological particles) can be modified to express selected antigens (peptides or polypeptides) on their surfaces by, for example, inserting DNA encoding the antigen into the host or vector genome, at a site such as in the DNA encoding the coat protein, such that upon expression the antigen (peptide or polypeptide) is presented on the surface of the virus, phage or bacterial host. Libraries of such particles that express diverse or families of proteins on their surfaces have been prepared. The resulting library is then screened with a targeted antigen (receptor or ligand) and those viruses with the highest affinity for the targeted antigen (receptor or ligand) are selected (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,403,484, 5,395,750, 5,382,513, 5,316,922, 5,288,622, 5,223,409, 5,223,408 and 5,348,867).
 Libraries of antibodies expressed on the surfaces of such packages have been prepared from spleens of immunized and unimmunized animals and from humans. In the embodiment in which a library of phage displaying antibodies from unimmunized human spleens is prepared, it is often of interest to screen this library against a large number of different antigens to identify a number of useful human antibodies for medical applications. Phage displaying antibody binding sites derived from single or small numbers of spleen cells can be separately produced, expanded into large batches, and bound to matrices with memories, such as programmable PROM or EEPROM memories, and identified according to phage batch number recorded in the memory. Each antigen can then be exposed to a large number of different phage-containing memory devices, and those that bind the antigen can be identified by one of several means, including radiolabeled, fluorescent labeled, enzyme labeled or alternate (e.g., mouse) tagged antibody labeled antigen. The encoded information in the thus identified phage-containing devices, relates to the batch of phage reactive with the antigen.
 Libraries can also be prepared that contain modified binding sites or synthetic antibodies. DNA molecules, each encoding proteins containing a family of similar potential binding domains and a structural signal calling for the display of the protein on the outer surface of a selected viral or bacterial or other package, such as a bacterial cell, bacterial spore, phage, or virus are introduced into the bacterial host, virus or phage. The protein is expressed and the potential binding domain is displayed on the outer surface of the particle. The cells or viruses bearing the binding domains to which target molecules bind are isolated and amplified, and then are characterized. In one embodiment, one or more of these successful binding domains is used as a model for the design of a new family of potential binding domains, and the process is repeated until a novel binding domain having a desired affinity for the target molecule is obtained. For example, libraries of de novo synthesized synthetic antibody library containing antibody fragments expressed on the surface have been prepared. DNA encoding synthetic antibodies, which have the structure of antibodies, specifically Fab or Fv fragments, and contain randomized binding sequences that may correspond in length to hypervariable regions (CDRs) can be inserted into such vectors and screened with an antigen of choice.
 Synthetic binding site libraries can be manipulated and modified for use in combinatorial type approaches in which the heavy and light chain variable regions are shuffled and exchanged between synthetic antibodies in order to affect specificities and affinities. This enables the production of antibodies that bind to a selected antigen with a selected affinity. The approach of constructing synthetic single chain antibodies is directly applicable to constructing synthetic Fab fragments which can also be easily displayed and screened. The diversity of the synthetic antibody libraries can be increased by altering the chain lengths of the CDRs and also by incorporating changes in the framework regions that may affect antibody affinity. In addition, alternative libraries can be generated with varying degrees of randomness or diversity by limiting the amount of degeneracy at certain positions within the CDR. The synthetic binding site can be modified further by varying the chain lengths of the CDRs and adjusting amino acids at defined positions in the CDRs or the framework region which may affect affinities. Antibodies identified from the synthetic antibody library can easily be manipulated to adjust their affinity and or effector functions. In addition, the synthetic antibody library is amenable to use in other combinatorial type approaches. Also, nucleic acid amplification techniques have made it possible to engineer humanized antibodies and to clone the immunoglobulin (antibody) repertoire of an immunized mouse from spleen cells into phage expression vectors and identify expressed antibody fragments specific to the antigen used for immunization (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,395,750).
 The phage or other particles, containing libraries of modified binding sites, can be prepared in batches and linked to matrices that identify the DNA that has been inserted into the phage. The matrices are then mixed and screened with labeled antigen (e.g., fluorescent or enzymatic) or hapten, using an assay carried out with limiting quantities of the antigen, thereby selecting for higher affinity phage. Thus, libraries of phage linked to matrix particles with memories can be prepared. The matrices are encoded to identify the batch number of the phage, a sublibrary, or to identify a unique sequence of nucleotides or amino acids in the antibody or antibody fragment expressed on its surface. The library is then screened with labeled antigens. The antigens are labeled with enzyme labels or radiolabels or with the antigen bound with a second binding reagent, such as a second antibody specific for a second epitope to which a fluorescent antigen binds.
 Following identification of antigen bound phage, the matrix particle can be queried and the identity of the phage or expressed surface protein or peptide determined. The resulting information represents a profile of the sequence that binds to the antigen. This information can be analyzed using methods known to those of skill in this art.
 e. Anti-Microbial Assays and Mutagenicity Assays
 Compounds are synthesized or linked to matrix with memory. The linkage is preferably a photocleavable linkage or other readily cleavable linkage. The matrices with memories with linked compounds, whose identities are programmed into each memory are the placed on, for example, 10-cm culture plates, containing different bacteria, fungi, or other microorganism. After release of the test compounds the anti-microbial effects of the chemical will be assessed by looking for lysis or other indicia of anti-microbial activity. In preferred embodiments, arrays of memories with matrices can be introduced into plates. The memories are encoded with the identity of the linked or associated test compound and the position on the array.
 The AMES test is the most widely used mutagen/carcinogen screening assay (see, e.g., Ames et al. (1975) Mutation Res. 31:347-364; Ames et al. (1973) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 20:782-786; Martin et al. (1983) Mutation Research 113:173; Ames (1971) in Chemical Mutagens, Principles and Methods for their Detection, Vol. 1, Plenum Press, NY, pp 267-282). This test uses several unique strains of Salmonella typhimurium that are histidine-dependent for growth and that lack the usual DNA repair enzymes. The frequency of normal mutations that render the bacteria, independent of histidine (i.e., the frequency of spontaneous revertants) is low. The test evaluates the impact of a compound on this revertant frequency. Because some substances are convened to a mutagen by metabolic action, the compound to be tested is mixed with the bacteria on agar plates along with the liver extract. The liver extract serves to mimic metabolic action in an animal. Control plates have only the bacteria and the extract. The mixtures are allowed to incubate. Growth of bacteria is checked by counting colonies. A test is positive where the number of colonies on the plates with mixtures containing a test compound significantly exceeds the number on the corresponding control plates.
 A second type of Ames test (see, International PCT Application No. WO 95/10629, which is based on U.S. application Ser. No. 08/011,617; and Gee et al. (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 91:11606-11610; commercially avail from Xenometrix, Boulder Colo.) is of interest herein. This test provides a panel of Salmonella typhimurium strains for use as a detection system for mutagens that also identifies mutagenic changes. Although a direct descendant of the traditional Ames Salmonella reverse mutation assay in concept, the Ames II assay provides the means to rapidly screen for base mutations through the use of a mixture of six different Salmonella strains.
 These new strains carry his mutations listed in the table below. All are deleted for uvrB and are deficient therefore in excision repair. In addition, all six have lipopolysaccharide (rfa) mutations rendering them more permeable, and all contain the pKM101 plasmid conferring enhanced mutability.
TABLE-US-00002 STRAIN BASE CHANGE MUTATION TA7001 A:T → G:C hisG1775 TA7002 T:A → A:T hisC9138 TA7003 T:A → G:C hisG9074 TA7004 G:C → A:T hisG9133 TA7005 G:C → A:T hisG9130 TA7006 G:C → C:G hisC9070
 These strains, which revert at similar spontaneous frequencies (approximately 1 to 10×108) can be exposed and plated separately for determining mutational spectra, or mixed and exposed together to assess broad mutagenic potential. The assay takes 3 days from start to finish and can be performed in 96 well or 384 well-microtiter plates. Revertant colonies are scored using bromo-creosol purple indicator dye in the growth medium. The mixed strains can be assayed first as part of a rapid screening program. Since this six strain mixture is slightly less sensitive than individual strains tested alone, compounds which are negative for the mix can be retested using all six strains. For all but the weakest mutagens, the Ames II strain mixture appears to be capable of detecting reversion events even if only one strain is induced to revert. The mixed strains provide a means to perform rapid initial screening for gonotoxins, while the battery of base-specific tester strains permit mutational spectra analysis.
 As modified herein, the test compounds are linked to matrices with memories that have been encoded with the identity of the test compounds. The assays can be performed on multiple test compounds simultaneously using arrays of matrices with memories or multiple matrices with memories encoded with the identity of the linked test compound and the array position or plate number into which the compound is introduced.
 f. Hybridization Assays and Reactions
 (1) Hybridization Reactions
 It is often desirable to detect or quantify very small concentrations of nucleic acids in biological samples. Typically, to perform such measurements, the nucleic acid in the sample (i.e., the target nucleic acid) is hybridized to a detection oligonucleotide. In order to obtain a detectable signal proportional to the concentration of the target nucleic acid, either the target nucleic acid in the sample or the detection oligonucleotide is associated with a signal generating reporter element, such as a radioactive atom, a chromogenic or fluorogenic molecule, or an enzyme (such as alkaline phosphatase) that catalyzes a reaction that produces a detectable product. Numerous methods are available for detecting and quantifying the signal.
 Following hybridization of a detection oligonucleotide with a target, the resulting signal-generating hybrid molecules must be separated from unreacted target and detection oligonucleotides. In order to do so, many of the commonly used assays immobilize the target nucleic acids or detection oligonucleotides on solid supports. Presently available solid supports to which oligonucleotides are linked include nitrocellulose or nylon membranes, activated agarose supports, diazotized cellulose supports and non-porous polystyrene latex solid microspheres. Linkage to a solid support permits fractionation and subsequent identification of the hybridized nucleic acids, since the target nucleic acid may be directly captured by oligonucleotides immobilized on solid supports. More frequently, so-called "sandwich" hybridization systems are used. These systems employ a capture oligonucleotide covalently or otherwise attached to a solid support for capturing detection oligonucleotide-target nucleic acid adducts formed in solution (see, e.g., EP 276,302 and Gingeras et al. (1989) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86:1173). Solid supports with linked oligonucleotides are also used in methods of affinity purification. Following hybridization or affinity purification, however, if identification of the linked molecule or biological material is required, the resulting complexes or hybrids or compounds must be subjected to analyses, such as sequencing. The combinations and methods herein eliminate the need for such analyses.
 Use of matrices with memories in place of the solid support matrices used in the prior hybridization methods permits rapid identification of hybridizing molecules. The identity of the linked oligonucleotide is written or encoded into the memory. After reaction, hybrids are identified, such as by radioactivity or separation, and the identify of hybridizing molecules are determined by querying the memories.
 (2) Hybridization Assays
 Mixtures nucleic acid probes linked to the matrices with memories can be used for screening in assays that heretofore had to be done with one probe at a time or with mixtures of probes followed by sequencing the hybridizing probes. There are numerous examples of such assays (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,292,874, "Nucleic acid probes to Staphylococcus aureus" to Milliman, and U.S. Pat. No. 5,232,831, "Nucleic acid probes to Streptococcus pyogenes" to Milliman, et al.; see, also, U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,216,143, 5,284,747 5,352,579 and 5,374,718). For example, U.S. Pat. No. 5,232,831 provides probes for the detection of particular Streptococcus species from among related species and methods using the probes. These probes are based on regions of Streptococcus rRNA that are not conserved among related Streptococcus species. Particular species are identified by hybridizing with mixtures of probes and ascertaining which probe(s) hybridize. By virtue of the instant matrices with memories, following hybridization, the identity of the hybridizing probes can be determined by querying the memories, and thereby identifying the hybridizing probe.
 i. Combinatorial Libraries and Other Libraries and Screening Methodologies
 The combinations of matrices with memories are applicable to virtually any synthetic scheme and library preparation and screening protocol. These include, those discussed herein, and also methodologies and devices, such as the Chiron "pin" technology (see, e.g., International PCT application No. WO 94/11388; Geysen et al. (1985) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 82:178; and Geysen et al. (1987) J. Immunol. Meth. 102:259-274) which relies on a support composed of annular synthesis components that have an active surface for synthesis of a modular polymer and an inert support rod that is positioned axially to the annular synthesis components. This pin technology was developed for the simultaneous synthesis of multiple peptides. In particular the peptides are synthesized on polyacrylic acid grafted on the tip of polyethylene pins, typically arranged in a microtiter format. Amino acid coupling is effected by immersing the pins in a microtiter plate. The resulting peptides remain bound to the pins and can be reused.
 As provided herein, "pins" may be linked to a memory or recording device, preferably encasing the device, or each pin may be coded and the code and the identity of the associated linked molecule(s) stored in a remote memory. As a result it will not be necessary to physically array the pins, rather the pins can be removed and mixed or sorted.
 Also of interest herein, are DIVERSOMER® technology libraries produced by simultaneous parallel synthesis schemes for production of nonoligomeric chemical diversity (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,424,483; Hobbs DeWitt et al. (1994) Drug Devel. Res. 33:116-124; Czarnik et al. (1994) Polym. Preor. 35:985; Stankovic et al. (1994) in Innovation Perspect. Solid Phase Synth. Collect. Pap., Int. Symp., 3rd Epton, R. (Ed), pp. 391-6; DeWitt et al. (1994) Drug Dev. Res. 33:116-124; Hobbs DeWitt et al. (1993) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90:6909-6913). In this technology, a starting material is bonded to a solid phase, such as a matrix material, and is subsequently treated with reagents in a stepwise fashion. Because the products are linked to the solid support, multistep syntheses can be automated and multiple reactions can be performed simultaneously to produce libraries of small molecules. This technology can be readily improved by combining the matrices with memories or encoding the matrix supports in accord with the methods herein.
 The matrices with memories, either those with memories in proximity or those in which the matrix includes a code stored in a remote memory, can be used in virtually any combinatorial library protocol. These protocols or methodologies and libraries, include but are not limited to those described in any of following references: Zuckermann et al. (1994) J. Med. Chem. 37:2678; Martin et al. (1995) J. Med. Chem. 38:1431; Campbell et al. (1995) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 117:5381; Salmon et al. (1993) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90:11708; Patek et al. (1994) Tetrahedron Lett. 35:91 69; Patek et al. (1995) Tetrahedron Lett. 36:2227; Hobbs DeWitt et al. (1993) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90:6906; Baldwin et al. (1995) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 117:5588; and any others.
 h. Nucleic Acid Sequencing
 Methods of DNA sequencing based on hybridization of DNA fragments with a complete set of fixed length oligonucleotides (8-mers) that are immobilized individually as dots in a 2-dimensional matrix is sufficient for computer-assisted reconstruction of the sequences of fragments up to 200 bases long (International PCT Application WO92/10588). The nucleic acid probes are of a length shorter than a target, which is hybridized to the probes under conditions such that only those probes having an exact complementary sequence are hybridized maximally, but those with mismatches in specific locations hybridize with a reduced affinity, as can be determined by conditions necessary to dissociate the pairs of hybrids. Alignment of overlapping sequences from the hybridizing probes reconstructs the complement of the target (see, EP 0 535 242 A1, International PCT Application WO 95/00530, and Khrapko et al. (1989) FEBS Lttrs. 256:118-122). The target fragment with the sequence of interest is hybridized, generally under highly stringent conditions that tolerate no mismatches or as described below a selected number of mismatches, with mixtures of oligonucleotides (typically a mixture of octomers of all possible sequences) that are each immobilized on a matrix with memory that is encoded with the sequence of the probe. Upon hybridization, hybridizing probes are identified by routine methods, such as OD or using labeled probe, and the sequences of the hybridizing probes can be determined by retrieving the sequences from the linked memories. When hybridization is carried out under conditions in which no mismatches are tolerated, the sequence of the target can then be determined by aligning overlapping sequences of the hybridizing probes.
 Previous methods used to accomplish this process have incorporated microscopic arrays of nucleotide oligomers synthesized on small silicon based chips. It is difficult to synthesize such arrays and quality control the large number of spots on each chip (about 64,000 spots for 8-mer oligonucleotides, that number necessary to accomplish sequencing by hybridization). In the present method, each oligomer is independently synthesized on a batch of individual chips, those chips are tested for accuracy and purity of their respective oligomers, then one chip from each batch is added to a large pool containing oligomers having all possible sequences. After hybridization in batch mode with the gene segment to be sequenced, usually amplified by a method such as PCR, using appropriate primers, and labeled with a detectable (such as fluorescent) tag, the chips can be passed through a detector, such as described above for processing multiplexed assays, including multiplexed immunoassays, and the degree of binding to each oligomer can be determined. After exposing the batch to varying degrees of dissociating conditions, the devices can again be assayed for degree of binding, and the strength of binding to related sequences will relate the sequence of the gene segment (see, e.g., International PCT Application WO95/00530).
 j. Separations Physical Mapping and Measurements of Kinetics of Binding and Binding Affinities
 Multiple blots (i.e., Western, Northern, Southern and/or dot blots) may be simultaneously reacted and processed. Each memory, in the form of a rectangle or other suitable, is linked or coated on one surface with material, such as nitrocellulose, to which or the analyte of interest binds or with which it reacts. The chips are arranged in an array, such as in strips that can be formed into rectangles or suitable other shapes, circles, or in other geometries, and the respective x-y coordinate or other position-identifying, coordinate(s), and, if needed, sheet number and/or other identifying information, is programmed into each memory. Alternatively, they may be programmed with this identification, then positioned robotically or manually into an array configuration. They are preferably linked together, such as by reversible glue, or placing them in agarose, or by any suitable method as long as the reactive surface is not disturbed. Following transfer of the material, such as transfer of protein from a Western Blot, nucleic acid from a Southern or Northern blot, dot blots, replica plated bacterial culture, or viral plaques, the memories are separated and mixed for reaction with a traditionally labeled, such as a fluorescent label, detection nucleic acid, protein, antibody or receptor of interest. Complexes are identified, and their origin in the blot determined by retrieving the stored information in each chip. Quantitation may also be effected based on the amount of label bound.
 A series of appropriately activated matrices with memories are arranged in an array, one or, preferably two dimensional. In one configuration, each chip is pre-programmed and placed in a specific location that is entered into its memory, such as an x-y coordinate. At least one surface of the memory with matrix is treated so that the transferred reagent binds. For example, a piece of nitrocellulose can be fixed to one side of the memory device. The resulting array is then contacted with a separation medium whereby each reagent of interest is transferred to and bound to the end of the matrix with memory such that the reagent location is known. The matrices are separated and pooled; multiple arrays may be pooled as long as source information is recorded in each memory. All matrices with memories are then contacted with detection agents that specifically bind to reagents in the mixture. The matrices with memories are passed through a reading device, either after an incubation for end point determinations or continuously for kinetic measurements. The reading device is a device that can detect a label, such as fluorescence, and a reader, such as an RF reader, that can query the memory and identify each matrix. The rate of binding and maximum binding and identify of bound reagents can be determined.
 Dot blots, for example, can be used in hybridoma analysis to identify clones that secrete antibodies of desired reactivity and to determine the relative affinities of antibodies secreted by different cell lines. Matrices with memories that are activated to bind immunoglobulins and with on-board information specifying their relative locations in the array are dipped in an array into the wells of microplates containing hybridoma cells. After incubation, they are withdrawn, rinsed, removed and exposed to labeled antigen. Matrices of desired specificity and affinity are selected and read thereby identifying the original wells containing the hybridoma cells that produce the selected antibodies.
 In other embodiments, the transfer medium (i.e., the nitrocellulose or other such medium) may be part of the surface of the chip or array of chips that can bind to the separated species subsequent to separation. For example, the separation system, such as the agarose or polyacryl-amide gel, can be included on the surface(s) of the matrix with memories in the array. After separation the surface will be activated with a photoactivatable linker or suitable activating agent to thereby covalently link, such as by a photoflash, the separated molecules to the matrices in the array.
 Alternatively, each matrix with memory may have one or more specific binding agents, such as an antibody or nucleic acid probe, attached (adsorbed, absorbed, or otherwise in physical contact) to matrix with memory. The matrix with memory and linked binding agent is then contacted with a medium containing the target(s). After contacting, which permits binding of any targets to which the linked binding agents specifically bind, the matrix with memory is processed to identify memories with matrices to which target has specifically bound via interaction with the binding agent. For example, the (1) the target is labeled, thereby permitted direct detection of complexes; (2) the memory with matrix is then contacted with a developing agent, such as a second antibody or detection probe, whereby binding agent-target complexes are detected; or (3) the detection agent is present during the reaction, such as non-specifically attached to the matrix with memory or by other method (thin film, coated on the matrix with memory, coated on nitrocellulose).
 Such support bound analytes may also be used to analyze the kinetics of binding by continuously passing the supports through a label reading device during the reaction, and identify the labeled complexes. The binding agents can be eluted, either in a kinetically readable manner or in batch. In addition, since the recording devices may also include components that record reaction conditions, such as temperature and pH, kinetics, which are temperature and pH dependent, may be accurately calculated.
 After elution, the support bound analytes may be identified to analyze kinetics of binding to the binding agent. Such binding and elution protocols may also be adapted to affinity purification methodologies.
 k. Cell Sorting
 The devices herein may also be used in methods of cell sorting. For example, the memory with matrix combinations are linked to selected antigens, information regarding the antigens is encoded into the memories, the resulting combinations are used in multi-analyte analyses of cells.
 It is possible to identify a profile of cells exhibiting different surface markers (antigens, for example, or other ligands or receptor molecules) by using combinations of labeled and matrix memory-bound binding agents. In one embodiment, each agent, such as an antibody, capable of binding specifically to one of many different surface markers is bound to a different matrix with a memory. The nature of the recognized marker is recorded in the memory of each matrix-binding agent complex, and the mixture of binding-agent-matrix memory complexes is reacted with a mixture of cells. The cell-matrix complexes that result from binding agents attaching cells to the surfaces of the respective matrices are then reacted with a labeled (for example, fluorescent) reagent or mixture of reagents which also reacts with the cells. These labeled reagents can be the same or different from those coupled to the memory matrices. When the matrices are passed through a reader (to read the label and the memory), those that have bound cells can be identified and if necessary isolated. This application is particularly useful for screening for rare cells, for example stem cells in a bone marrow or peripheral lymphocyte sample, for detecting tumor cells in a bone marrow sample to be used for autologous transplantation, or for fetal cells in a maternal circulation.
 In these embodiments, the memory with matrices herein can be counted and read with instruments, such as a device that operates on the principles of a Coulter counter, that are designed to count cells or particles. In using a Coulter Counter, a suspension of cells or particles is sucked through a minute hole in a glass tube. One electrode is placed within the tube and another is outside of the tube in the suspension. The passage of a particle through the hole temporarily interrupts the current; the number of interruptions is determined by a conventional scaling unit.
 For use herein, such instruments are modified by including an RF reader (or other reader if another frequency or memory means is selected) so that the identity of the particle or cell (or antigen on the cell or other encoded information) can be determined as the particle or cell passes through the hole and interrupts the current, and also, if needed, a means to detect label, such as fluorescent label. As the particle passes through the hole the RF reader will read the memory in the matrix that is linked to the particle. The particles also may be counted concurrently with the determination of the identity of the particle. Among the applications of this device and method, is a means to sort multiple types of cells at once.
 1. Drug Delivery and Detecting Changes in Internal Conditions in the Body
 Memories may also be combined with biocompatible supports and polymers that are used internally in the bodies of animals, such as drug delivery devices (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,447,533, 5,443,953, 5,383,873, 5,366,733, 5,324,324, 5,236,355, 5,114,719, 4,786,277, 4,779,806, 4,705,503, 4,702,732, 4,657,543, 4,542,025, 4,530,840, 4,450,150 and 4,351,337) or other biocompatible support (see, U.S. Pat. No. 5,217,743 and U.S. Pat. No. 4,973,493, which provide methods for enhancing the biocompatibility of matrix polymers). Such biocompatible polymers include matrices of poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) and matrices of a polyanhydride copolymer of a stearic acid dimer and sebacic acid (see, e.g., Sherwood et al. (1992) Bio/Technology 10:1446-1449).
 The biocompatible drug delivery device in combination with the memory is introduced into the body. The device, generally by virtue of combination with a biosensor or other sensor, also monitors pH, temperature, electrolyte concentrations and other such physiological parameters and in response to preprogrammed changes, directs the drug delivery device to release or not release drugs or can be queried, whereby the change is detected and drug delivered or administered.
 Alternatively, the device provided in combination with a biocompatible support and biosensor, such that the information determined by the biosensor can be stored in the device memory. The combination of device and biosensor is introduced into the body and is used to monitor internal conditions, such as glucose level, which level is written to memory. The internal condition, such as glucose level, electrolytes, particularly potassium, pH, hormone levels, and other such level, can then be determined by querying the device.
 In one embodiment, the device, preferably one containing a volatile memory that is read to and written using RF, linked to a biosensor (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,384,028 which provides a biosensor with a data memory that stores data) that can detect a change in an internal condition, such as glucose or electrolyte, and store or report that change via RF to the linked matrix with memory, which records such change as a data point in the memory, which can then be queried. The animal is then scanned with RF and the presence of the data point is indicative of a change. Thus, instead of sampling the body fluid, the memory with matrix with linked biosensor is introduced into a site in the body, and can be queried externally. For example, the sensor can be embedded under the skin and scanned periodically, or the scantier is worn on the body, such as on the wrist, and the matrix with memory either periodically, intermittently, or continuously sends signals; the scanner is linked to an infusion device and automatically, when triggered triggers infusion or alters infusion rate.
 m. Multiplexed or Coupled Protocols in which the Synthesis Steps (the Chemistry) is Coupled to Subsequent Uses of the Synthesized Molecules
 Multiplexed or multiple step processes in which compounds are synthesized and then assayed without any intermediate identification steps are provided herein. Since the memories with matrices permit identification of linked or proximate or associated molecules or biological particles, there is no need to identify such molecules or biological particles during any preparative and subsequent assaying steps or processing steps. Thus, the chemistry (synthesis) can be directly coupled to the biology (assaying, screening or any other application disclosed herein). For purposes herein this coupling is referred to as multiplexing. Thus, high speed synthesis can be coupled to high throughput screening protocols.
 F. Applications of the Memories with Matrices and Luminescing Matrices with Memories in Combinatorial Syntheses and Preparation of Libraries
 Libraries of diverse molecules are critical for identification of new pharmaceuticals. A diversity library has three components: solid support matrix, linker and synthetic target. The support is a matrix material as described herein that is stable to a wide range of reaction conditions and solvents; the linker is selectively cleavable and does not leave a functionalized appendage on the synthetic target; and the target is synthesized in high yield and purity. For use herein, the diversity library further includes a memory or recording device in combination with the support matrix. The memory is linked, encased, in proximity with or otherwise associate with each matrix particle, whereby the identify of synthesized targets is written into the memory.
 The matrices with memories are linked to molecules and particles that are components of libraries to electronically tagged combinatorial libraries. Particularly preferred libraries are the combinatorial libraries that containing matrices with memories that employ radio frequencies for reading and writing.
 1. Oligomer and Polypeptide Libraries
 a. Bio-Oligomer Libraries
 One exemplary method for generating a library (see, U.S. Pat. No. 5,382,513) involves repeating the steps of (1) providing at least two aliquots of a solid phase support; separately introducing a set of subunits to the aliquots of the solid phase support; completely coupling the subunit to substantially all sites of the solid phase support to form a solid phase support/new subunit combination, assessing the completeness of coupling and if necessary, forcing the reaction to completeness; thoroughly mixing the aliquots of solid phase support/new subunit combination; and, after repeating the foregoing steps the desired number of times, removing protecting groups such that the bio-oligomer remains linked to the solid phase support. In one embodiment, the subunit may be an amino acid, and the bio-oligomer may be a peptide. In another embodiment, the subunit may be a nucleoside and the bio-oligomer may be an oligonucleotide. In a further embodiment, the nucleoside is deoxyribonucleic acid; in yet another embodiment, the nucleoside is ribonucleic acid. In a further embodiment, the subunit may be an amino acid, oligosaccharide, oligoglycosides or a nucleoside, and the bio-oligomer may be a peptide-oligonucleotide chimera or other chimera. Each solid phase support is attached to a single bio-oligomer species and all possible combinations of monomer (or multimers in certain embodiments) subunits of which the bio-oligomers are composed are included in the collection.
 In practicing this method herein, the support matrix has a recording device with programmable memory, encased, linked or otherwise attached to the matrix material, and at each step in the synthesis the support matrix to which the nascent polymer is attached is programmed to record the identity of the subunit that is added. At the completion of synthesis of each biopolymer, the resulting biopolymers linked to the supports are mixed.
 After mixing an acceptor molecule or substrate molecule of interest is added. The acceptor molecule is one that recognizes and binds to one or more solid phase matrices with memory/bio-oligomer species within the mixture or the substrate molecule will undergo a chemical reaction catalyzed by one or more solid phase matrix with memory/bio-oligomer species within the library. The resulting combinations that bind to the acceptor molecule or catalyze reaction are selected. The memory in the matrix-memory combination is read and the identity of the active bio-oligomer species is determined.
 b. Split Bead Sequential Syntheses
 Various schemes for split bead syntheses of polymers (FIG. 1), peptides (FIG. 2), nucleic acids (FIG. 3) and organic molecules based on a pharmacophore monomer (FIG. 4) are provided. Selected matrices with memory particles are placed in a suitable separation system, such as a funnel (see, FIG. 5). After each synthetic step, each particle is scanned (i.e., read) as it passes the RF transmitter, and information identifying the added component or class of components is stored in memory. For each type of synthesis a code can be programmed (i.e. a 1 at position 1, 1 in the memory could, for example, represent alanine at the first position in the peptide). A host computer or decoder/encoder is programmed to send the appropriate signal to a transmitter that results in the appropriate information stored in the memory (i.e., for alanine as amino acid 1, a 1 stored at position 1, 1). When read, the host computer or decoder/encoder can interpret the signal read from and transmitted from the memory.
 In an exemplary embodiment, a selected number of beads (i.e., particulate matrices with memories (matrix particles linked to recording devices), typically at least 103, more often 104, and desirably at least 105 or more up to and perhaps exceeding 1015, are selected or prepared. The beads are then divided into groups, depending upon the number of choices for the first component of the molecule. They are divided into a number of containers equal to or less than (for pooled screening, nested libraries or the other such methods) the number of choices. The containers can be microtiter wells, Merrifield synthesis vessels, columns, test tubes, gels, etc. The appropriate reagents and monomer are added to each container and the beads in the first container are scanned with electromagnetic with radiation, preferably high frequency radio waves, to transmit information and encode the memory to identify the first monomer. The beads in the second container are so treated. The beads are then combined and separated according to the combinatorial protocol, and at each stage of added monomer each separate group is labeled by inputting data specific to the monomer. At the end of the synthesis protocol each bead has an oligomer attached and information identifying the oligomer stored in memory in a form that can be retrieved and decoded to reveal the identity of each oligomer.
 An 8-member decapeptide library was designed, synthesized, and screened against an antibody specifically generated against one of the library members using the matrices with memories. Rapid and clean encoding and decoding of structural information using radio frequency signals, coupling of combinatorial chemical synthesis to biological assay protocols, and potential to sense and measure biodata using suitable biosensors, such as a temperature thermistor or pH electrode, embedded within the devices have been demonstrated. The "split and pool" method (see, e.g., Furka et al. (19910 Int. J. Pept. Protein Res. 37; 487-493; Lam et al. (1991) Nature 354:82-84; and Sebestyen et al. (1993) Biooro. Med. Chem. Lett. 3:413-418) was used to generate the library. An ELISA (see e.g., Harlow et al. (1988) Antibodies, a laboratory manual, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.) was used to screen the library for the peptide specific for the antibody.
 2. "Nested" Combinatorial Library Protocols
 In this type of protocol libraries of sublibraries are screened, and a sublibrary selected for further screening (see, e.g. Zuckermann et al. (1994) J. Med. Chem. 37:2678-2685; and Zuckermann et al. (1992) Am. Chem. Soc. 114:10646-106471. In this method, three sets of monomers were chosen from commercially available monomers, a set of four aromatic hydrophobic monomers, a set of three hydroxylic monomers, a set of seventeen diverse monomers, and three N-termini were selected. The selection was based on an analysis of the target receptor and known ligands. A library containing eighteen mixtures, generated from the six permutations of the three monomer sets, times three N-termini was prepared. Each mixture of all combinations of the three sets of amines, four sets of hydrophobic monomers and seventeen diverse monomers was then assayed. The most potent mixture was selected for deconvolution by synthesis of pools of combinatorial mixtures of the components of the selected pool. This process was repeated, until individual compounds were selected.
 Tagging the mixtures with the matrices with memories will greatly simplify the above protocol. Instead of screening each mixture separately, each matrix particle with memory will be prepared with sets of the compounds, analogous to the mixtures of compounds. The resulting matrix particles with memories and linked compounds can be combined and then assayed. As with any of the methods provided herein, the linked compounds (molecules or biological particles) can be cleaved from the matrix with memory prior to assaying or anytime thereafter, as long as the cleaved molecules remain in proximity to the device or in some manner can be identified as the molecules or particles that were linked to the device. The matrix particle(s) with memories that exhibit the highest affinity (bind the greatest amount of sample at equilibrium) are selected and identified by querying the memory to identify the group of compounds. This group of compounds is then deconvoluted and further screened by repeating this process, on or off the matrices with memories, until high affinity compounds are selected.
 3. Other Combinatorial Protocols
 The matrices with memories provided herein may be used as supports in any synthetic scheme and for any protocol, including protocols for synthesis of solid state materials. Combinatorial approaches have been developed for parallel synthesis of libraries of solid state materials (see, e.g., Xiang et al. (1995) Science 268:1738-1740). In particular, arrays containing different combinations, stoichiometries, and deposition sequences of inorganics, such as BaCO3, BiO3, CaO, CuO, PbO, SrCO3 and Y2O3, for screening as superconductors have been prepared. These arrays may be combined with memories that identify position and the array and/or deposited material.
 The following examples are included for illustrative purposes only and are not intended to limit the scope of the invention.
Formulation of a Polystyrene Polymer on Glass and Derivatization of Polystyrene
 A glass surface of any conformation (beads for exemplification purposes (1)) that contain a selected memory device that coat the device or that can be used in proximity to the device or subsequently linked to the device is coated with a layer of polystyrene that is derivatized so that it contains a cleavable linker, such as an acid cleavable linker. To effect such coating a bead, for example, is coated with a layer of a solution of styrene, chloromethylated styrene, divinyl benzene, benzoyl peroxide (88/10/1/1/, molar ratio) and heated at 70° C. for 24 h. The result is a cross-linked chloromethylated polystyrene on glass (2). Treatment of (2) with ammonia (2 M in 1,4-dioxane, overnight) produces aminomethylated coated beads (3). The amino group on (3) is coupled with polyethylene glycol dicarboxymethyl ether (4) (n=20) under standard conditions (PyBop/DIEA) to yield carboxylic acid derivatized beads (5). Coupling of (5) with modified PAL (PAL is pyridylalanine) linker (6) under the same conditions produces a bead that is coated with polystyrene that has an acid cleavable linker (7).
 The resulting coated beads with memories are then used as solid support for molecular syntheses or for linkage of any desired substrate.
Preparation of a Library and Encoding the Matrices with Memories
 A pool of the matrices with memories was split into two equal groups. Each group was then addressed and write-encoded with a unique radio frequency signal corresponding to the building block, in this instance an amino acid, to be added to that group.
 The matrices with memories were then pooled, and common reactions and manipulations such as washing and drying, were performed. The pool was then re-split and each group was encoded with a second set of radio frequency signals corresponding to the next set of building blocks to be introduced, and the reactions were performed accordingly. This process was repeated until the synthesis was completed. The semiconductor devices also recorded temperature and can be modified to record other reaction conditions and parameters for each synthetic step for storage and future retrieval.
 Ninety-six matrices with memories were used to construct a 24-member peptide library using a 3×2×2×2 "split and pool" strategy. The reactions, standard Fmoc peptide syntheses (see, e.g., Barany et al. (1987) Int. J. Peptide Protein Res. 30:705-7391 were carried out separately with each group. All reactions were performed at ambient temperature; fmoc deprotection steps were run for 0.5 h; coupling steps were run for 1 h; and cleavage for 2 h. This number was selected to ensure the statistical formation of a 24-member library (see, Burgess et al. (1994) J. Med. Chem. 37:2985).
 Each matrix with memory in the 96-member pool was decoded using a specifically designed radio frequency memory retrieving device (Bio Medic Data Systems Inc. DAS-5001 CONSOLE® System, see, also U.S. Pat. No. 5,252,962 and U.S. Pat. No. 5,262,772) the identity of the peptide on each matrix with memory (Table 2). The structural identity of each peptide was confirmed by mass spectrometry and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The content of peptide in each crude sample was determined by HPLC to be higher than 90% prior to any purification and could be increased further by standard chromatographic techniques.
TABLE-US-00003 TABLE 2 Radio Frequency Encoded Combinatorial 24-member peptide library # of matrices Entry (SEQ with Mass ID). RF Code Peptide memoriesa,b (Actual)c 1 LAGD Leu-Ala-Gly-Asp 3 372 (372.2) 2 LEGD Leu-Glu-Gly-Asp 4 432 (432.2) 3 SAGD Ser-Ala-Glv-Asp 5 348 (348.1) 4 SEGD Ser-Glu-Glv-Asp 5 406 (406.1) 5 LAVD Leu-Ala-Val-Asp 4 416 (416.2) 6 LEVD Leu-Glu-Val-Asp 6 474 (474.2) 7 SAVD Ser-Ala-Val-Asp 2 390 (390.2) 8 SEVD Ser-Glu-Val-Asp 3 446 (446.2) 9 LAGF Leu-Ala-Gly-Phe 5 406 (406.2) 10 LEGF Leu-Glu-Gly-Phe 5 464 (464.2) 11 SAGF Ser-Ala-Gly-Phe 5 380 (380.2) 12 SEGF Ser-Glu-Gly-Phe 6 438 (438.2) 13 LAVF Leu-Ala-Val-Phe 6 448 (448.3) 14 LEVF Leu-Glu-Val-Phe 2 XXX 15 SAVF Ser-Ala-Val-Phe 2 XXX 16 SEVF Ser-Glu-Val-Phe 1 480 (480.2) 17 LAGK Leu-Ala-Gly-Lys 2 387 (387.3) 18 LEGK Leu-Glu-Gly-Lys 1 445 (445.3) 19 SAGK Ser-Ala-Gly-Lys 4 361 (361.2) 20 SEGK Ser-Glu-Gly-Lys 3 419 (419.2) 21 LAVK Leu-Ala-Val-Lys 4 429 (429.3) 22 LEVK Leu-Glu-Val-Lys 6 487 (487.3) 23 SAVK Ser-Ala-Val-Lys 6 403 (403.3) 24 SEVK Ser-Glu-Val-Lys 6 461 (461.3) aThis is the number of packets of each matrix with memory containing the same peptide. The ambient temperature was recorded by the sensor device of the chip in the matrices with memories at various points during the synthetic pathway. cMass refers to (M + H) except entry 1 and 8 which refer to (M - H). Since each peptide has a unique mass, the mass spectrum confirms its structure. ° HPLC conditions: Shimadzu SCL 10A with a MICROSORB-MV ® C-1 8 column (5 μM, 100 Å; isocratic elution with acetonittle/water.
Synthesis of a Decapeptide Library
 Materials and Methods
 (1) A memory device (IPTT-100, Bio Medic Data Systems, Inc., Maywood, N.J.), which is 8×1×1 mm, and TENTAGEL® beads (20 mg) were encapsulated using a porous membrane wall and sealed (final size≈10×2×2 mm). In particular, each memory with matrix microvessel 20 mg of TENTAGEL® resin carrying the acid-cleavable linker PAL.
 (2) Solvents and reagents (DMF, DCM, MeOH, Fmoc-amino acids, PyBOP, HATU, DIEA, and other reagents) were used as received. Mass spectra were recorded on an API I Perkin Elmer SCIEX Mass Spectrometer employing electrospray sample introduction. HPLC was performed with a Shimadzu SCI 10A with an AXXiOM C-1 8 column (5 μm, 100 Å; gradient: 0-20 min, 25-100% acetonitrile/water (0.1% TFA). UV spectra were recorded on a Shimadzu UV-1 601 instrument. Peptide sequencing was performed using a Beckman model 6300 amino acid analyzer. Chemicals, solvents and reagents were obtained from the following companies: amino acid derivatives (CalBiochem); solvents (VWR; reagents (Aldrich-Sigma).
 (3) General Procedure for Fmoc-Amino Acid Coupling
 The matrix with memory microvessels were placed in a flat-bottomed flask. Enough DMF (v, ml, 0.75 ml per microvessel) was added to completely cover all the matrix with memory microvessels. Fmoc-amino acid. EDIA, and PyBOP (or HATU for the hindered amino acids Pro and lie) were added sequentially with final concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.1 M, respectively. The flask was sealed and shaken gently at ambient temperature for 1 h. The solution was removed and the matrix with memory microvessels were washed with DMF (4×vr), and re-subjected to the same coupling conditions with half the amount of reagents. They were finally washed with DMF (4×vr), MeOH (4×v4). DCM (4×v4), and dried under vacuum at ambient temperature.
 (4) Fmoc-Deprotection
 The matrix with memory microvessels were placed in a flat bottomed flask. Enough 20% piperidine solution in DMF (vr ml, 0.75 ml/matrix with memory microvessel) was added to completely cover the microvessels. The flask was sealed and gently shaken at ambient temperature for 30 min. Aliquots were removed and the UV absorption of the solution was measured at 302 nm to determine the Fmoc number. The matrix with memory microvessels were then washed with DMF (6×vr) and DCM (6×vr) and dried under vacuum at ambient temperature.
 (5) Procedure for Peptide Cleavage from Solid Support
 The TENTAGEL® beads (20-120 mg) from each matrix with memory microvessel were treated with 1 ml of TFA cleavage mixture (EDT:thioanisole;H2O:PhOH:TFA, 1.5:3:3:4.5:88, w/w) at ambient temperature for 1.5 hours. The resin beads were removed by filtration through a glass-wool plug, the solution was concentrated, diluted with water (2 ml), extracted with diethyl ether (8×2 ml), and lyophilized to yield the peptide as a white powder (4-20 mg).
 (6) Preparation of Polyclonal Antibodies
 The peptide (SEQUENCE ID No. 25) with a cysteine at the N-terminus, was synthesized by standard solid phase methods using an automated Applied Biosystems 430A peptide synthesizer (see, Sakakibara (1971) Chemistry and Biochemistry of Amino Acids, Peptides and Proteins, Weinstein, ed, Vol. 1, Marcel Dekker, NY, pp. 51-85). The synthetic peptide was conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin using maleimidohexanoyl-N-hydroxysuccinimide as a cross-linking agent (see, Ishikawa et al. (1983) J. Immunoassay 4:209-237). Rabbits were injected at multiple dorsal intradermal sites with 500 μg peptide emulsified with complete Freund's adjuvant. The animals were boosted regularly at 3-6 week intervals with 200 μg of peptide conjugate emulsified in incomplete Freund's adjuvant. The titer of the antisera after a few booster injections was approximately 1:50,000 to 1:100,000 as determined by ELISA using the unconjugated peptide as the antigen.
 (7) Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA)
 Plates were coated with 100 μl/well of a 0.5 μg/μl solution of peptides diluted in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) by incubating them overnight at 4° C. The plates were washed extensively with PBS and incubated with 200 μl of 0.1% bovine serum albumin (BSA) in PBS for 1 h at room temperature. The plates were then washed with PBS and 100 μl of prebled or rabbit anti-peptide (peptide of SEQ ID No. 25) antibody (1:100,000) was added to the duplicate wells. After a 1 h incubation at ambient temperature, the plates were washed with PBS and 100 μl of peroxidase-goat-antirabbit IgG diluted in PBS supplemented with 0.1% BSA was added. After incubation for another hour at ambient temperature, the plates were extensively washed with PBS and 100 μl of peroxidase substrate solution was added to each well. The plates were then incubated for 15 minutes at ambient temperature. The peroxidase reaction was measured by the increase in absorbance at 405 nm.
 The Library
 The library included the peptide having the sequence Met-Leu-Asp-Ser-Ile-Trp-Lys-Pro-Asp-Leu (MLDSIWKPDL; SEQ ID NO. 25), against which an antibody had been generated in rabbits (the peptide used for rabbits had an additional N-terminal Cys residue for linking), and seven other peptides differing at residues L, P, and/or I (SEQ ID NOs. 26-32 and the Scheme set forth in FIG. 10).
 The matrix with memory microvessels loaded with TENTAGEL® beads carrying PAL linkers (20 mg each) were split into two equal groups. Each group was encoded with the radio frequency code L or A (the one-letter symbols for amino acids leucine and alanine, respectively) and the first coupling was carried out separately using Fmoc-Leu-OH or Fmoc-Ala-OH, respectively and ByBOP, or HATU for the sterically hindered amino acids (STEP 1, FIG. 10). The microvessels were then pooled, deprotected with 20% piperidine in DMF (Fmoc removal), encoded with the code D and subjected to coupling with Fmoc-Asp(OfBu)-OH and deprotection as above (STEP 2). The microvessels were then re-split into two equal and fully randomized groups and encoding was performed on each group with the codes P or F and amino acid derivatives Fmoc-Pro-OH or Fmoc-Phe-OH were coupled, respectively (STEP 3). The microvessels were pooled again and amino acid derivatives Fmoc-Lys(Boc)-OH and Fmoc-Trp(Boc)-OH were coupled sequentially with appropriate encoding and deprotection procedures (STEPS 4 and 5), and then were re-split into two equal groups, encoded appropriately and the amino acid derivatives Fmoc-Ile-OH or Fmoc-Gly-OH were coupled separately (STEP 6). The matrix with memory microvessels were pooled, the amino groups deprotected and the remaining amino acids (Ser, Asp, Leu and Met) were sequentially introduced with appropriate encoding and deprotections using suitably protected Fmoc derivatives (STEPS 7-10). The introduction of each amino acid was performed by double couplings at every step. The coupling efficiency for each step was generally over 90% as measured by Fmoc number determination after Fmoc deprotection spectroscopy).
 Decoding each matrix with memory allowed identification of identical units. It was observed that a fairly even distribution of matrix with memories over the entire library space was obtained. It should be noted that sorting out the matrices with memories at each split by decoding allows this random process to become an exact, "one compound--one matrix with memory method."
 TENTAGEL® beads from matrices with memories with identical codes were pooled together and the peptides were cleaved from the resin separately with EDT:thioanisole:H2O:PhOH:TFA (1.5:3:3:4.5:88m, w/w). The work-up and isolation procedures involved filtration, evaporation, dilution with water, thorough extraction with diethyl ether, and lyophilization. The fully deprotected peptides were obtained as white solids, their structures were confirmed by mass spectroscopy, and their purity was determined by HPLC analysis. The peptide sequence in entry 2, (SEQ ID NO. 26) was confirmed by peptide amino acid sequence analysis. Ambient reactor temperature was also measured at specific synthesis steps by the on-board temperature thermistor.
 Biological Screening of the Peptide Library
 A rabbit polyclonal antibody generated specifically against the peptide SEQ ID NO. 25 was used to detect this specific sequence in the REC® peptide library by the ELISA method. The ELISA assay correctly identified the library member with the SEQ ID NO. 25 (100% binding). The sequence of this peptide was also confirmed by the radio frequency code, mass spectroscopy, and amino acid sequence analysis.
 It was also of interest to observe trends in the binding of the antibody to the other members of the library. It was observed that the binding of each peptide was dependent on the type, position, and number of modifications from the parent sequence. Thus, replacement of I with G did not change significantly the antigenicity of the peptide. Substitution of L with A reduced antibody binding by ≈40% and replacement of P with F essentially converted a peptide to a non-recognizable sequence. Replacement of two amino acids resulted in significant loss of binding. Thus the concurrent substitutions (I→G and P→F), (I→G and L→A), and (P→F and L→A) reduced antibody binding by ≈40, 60, and 92%, respectively. Finally, the peptide library member in which I, P and L were replaced with G, F and A, respectively, was not recognized by the antibody. Collectively, these results suggest that amino acids at the C-terminus of the peptide, especially P play an important role in this particular antibody-peptide recognition.
Procedures for Coating Glass-Enclosed Memory Devices with Silylated Polystyrene
 A procedure for coating glass-enclosed memory devices, such as the IPTT-100, is represented schematically as follows:
 A. Procedure A
 1. Before coating, the glass surface of the IPTT-100 transponder was cleaned using base, chloroform, ethanol and water, sequentially, and, then heated to 200° C. (or 300° C.) to remove water.
 2. The residue from the solvents in step 1 were removed under vacuum.
 3. N-styrylethyltrimethoxy silane HCl, chloromethyl styrene, divinyl benzene and benzoyl peroxide (9:1:0.1:0.2 mol) is stirred for 10 minutes.
 4. The resulting mixture was coated on the cleaned glass, which was then baked at 150-200° C. for 5 to 10 minutes in air or under nitrogen.
 5. The coated glass was then sequentially washed with DCM, DMF and water. The resulting coating was stable in DCM, DMF, acid and base for at two weeks at 70° C.
 B. Procedure B
 1. Before coating, the glass surface is cleaned using base, chloroform, ethanol and water, sequentially, and, then heating to 200° C. (or 300° C.) to remove water.
 2. The residue from the solvents in step 1 are removed under vacuum.
 3. N-styrylethyltrimethoxy silane HCl (10-15%) is refluxed in toluene with the cleaned glass surface.
 4. After reaction, the glass surface is washed with toluene, DCM, ethanol and water sequentially.
 5. A mixture of chloromethyl styrene, divinyl benzene and benzoyl peroxide (molar ratio of N-styrylethyltrimethoxy silane HCl to the other compounds is 9:1:0.1:0.2 mol) is coated on the glass, which is then baked at 150-200° C. for 10 to 60 minutes.
 6. The coated glass is then sequentially washed with toluene, DCM, DMF and water.
Preparation of Scintillant-Encased Glass Beads and Chips
 POPOP (Aldrich) or PPO (concentrations about 5 to 6 g/l), and/or μ-bis-σ-methylstyrylbenzene (bis-MSB) or di-phenylanthracene (DPA) (concentrations about 1 g/l), or scintillation wax (FlexiScint from Packard). Precise concentrations may be determined empirically depending upon the selected mixture of components;
 Porous glass beads (Sigma); and
 IPTT-100 transponders.
 A. Preparation of Scintillant Coated Beads
 Porous glass beads are soaked in a mixture of PPO (22-25% by weight) and bis-MSB (up to 1% by weight) in a monomer solution, such styrene or vinyltoluene, or in hot liquefied scintillation wax (3-5 volume/volume of bead). A layer of polystyrene (about 2 to 4 μM) is then applied. A peptide is either synthesized on the polystyrene, as described above, or is coated (adsorbed) or linked via a cleavable linker to the polystyrene.
 B. Preparation of Scintillant Coated Matrix with Memory Beads
 1. The porous glass beads are replaced with glass-encased (etched prior to use) transponders and are treated as in A. The resulting beads are sealed with polystyrene (2 to 5 μM) and then coated with a selected acceptor molecule, such as an antigen, antibody or receptor, to which a radiolabeled ligand or antibody selectively binds. The identity of the linked peptides or protein is encoded into each memory. After reaction and counting in a liquid scintillation counter, the beads that have bound acceptor molecule are read to identify the linked protein.
 2. The porous glass beads are replaced with glass encased (etched prior to use) transponders and are treated as in A and sealed as in A with polystyrene. A peptide, small organic or other library is synthesized on the polystyrene surface of each bead, and the identity of each member of the library encoded into the memory. The beads with linked molecules are reacted with labeled receptor and counted in a liquid scintillation counter. After counting in a liquid scintillation counter, the beads that have bound receptor are read to identify the molecule that bound to the receptor.
Use of the Scintillant Coated or Encased Particles in Assays
 In experiments 1-3, as model system, the binding of biotin to functional amine groups was detected using 125I-strepavidin. In experiment 4, the binding of (Met5) enkephalin to the functional amine groups was detected using 125I-antibody.
 1. Scintillant (PPO %2 and DPA %0.05) was introduced (Emerald Diagnostics, Eugene, Oreg.) and incorporated on the interior surface of polystyrene beads (Bang Laboratories). The polystyrene beads were 3.1 μM, with 20% crosslinking and were derivatized with amine groups.
 2. The concentration of the functional amine groups on the bead surfaces was estimated to be about 0.04125 μmol/mg. The amine groups were covalently linked to the N-hydroxy succinimide derivative of Biotin (Calbiochem 203112) at molecular ratio of 1:10, respectively. This was done by re-suspending the beads in a 50% acetonitrile: water, Hepes (pH 8.0) buffered solution containing biotin for 2 hours at room temperature. After 2 hours, the beads were washed 6 times with 10 ml of 50% acetonitrile in water. Beads were re-suspended in PBS (pH 7.2) and stored overnight at 4° C.
 3. Using an SPA format, biotin was detected using 125I-streptavidin to the biotin was detected. This was done by diluting beads to a 20 mg/ml and adding them to 96 well plates at 4, 2, 1, 0.5, 0.25, and 0.125 mg per well. Volumes were adjusted to 100 μl per well, 125I-strepavidin was added to final concentration of 0.1 μCi per well. Plates were counted in a Wallac MicroBeta Trilux scintillation counter after 2 hours. Bound biotin was detected.
 1. Scintillants (pyrenebutyric acid and 9-anthracenepropionic acid) were covalently linked to the TENTAGEL® beads, with 0.25 mmol/g available functional amine groups, at 2%:0.05% ratio, respectively. The fluorophore was linked to 15% of these sites.
 2. The functional amine group on the TENTAGEL® beads were covalently linked to the N-hydroxy succinimide derivative of biotin. The free functional amine groups on beads (0.21 μmol/mg) were covalently linked to biotin (Calbiochem 203112). Briefly, Biotin was mixed with the beads at a molecular ratio of 10:1 in 6 ml of 50% acetonitrile with Hepes (pH 8.0) and incubated for 2 hours at room temperature. At the end of incubation period, the beads were washed 3 times 10 ml of 100% acetonitrile followed by 3 washes with 50% acetonitrile in water. The beads were re-suspended in PBS (pH 7.2) and stored overnight at 4° C.
 3. Biotin was detected using 1251-streptavidin detected in a SPA format. This was done by diluting beads to a 20 mg/ml, and introducing them into wells in 96 well plats at 4, 2, 1, 0.5, 0.25, and 0.125 mg per well. Volumes were adjusted to 100 μl per well, 125I-streptavidin (Amersham IM236) was added to each well at a concentration of 0.05 μCi/well. After approximately 2 hours, additional 125I-strepavidin was added for a final concentration of 0.1 μCi per well. Plates were counted in a Wallac MicroBeta Trilux scintillation counter after 2 hours. Bound biotin was detected.
 1. BMDS chips (and also similar chips ID TAG available from Identification Technologies Inc.) were coated with scintillant (PPO %2 and DPA 0.5% in polystyrene (10% in dichloromethane).
 2. The chip was then coated with a layer of derivatized silane.
 3. The functional amine groups were covalently linked to the N-hydroxy succinimide derivative of Biotin. The free functional amine groups on the silane (375 nmol/chip) were covalently linked to Biotin (Calbiochem 203112). Briefly, biotin was dissolved in 1 ml of 30% acetonitrile with Hepes (pH 8.0) and incubated with the chip for 2 hours at room temperature. At the end of incubation period, the chip was washed 3 times with 50% acetonitrile in water, re-suspended in PBS (pH 7.2) and stored overnight at 4° C.
 4. Biotin was detected in a SPA format by 125I-streptavidin. The chips were placed in 24-well plate with 500 μl 125I-streptavidin (0.1 μCi/well, Amersham IM236)). After a 2 hour incubation, the plates were counted in Wallac MicroBeta Trilux scintillation counter. Binding was detected.
 1. The chips were coated with scintillant (PPO %2 and DPA) 0.05% in polystyrene (10% in dichloromethane).
 2. The functional amine group was derivatized for spontaneous covalent binding to amine group (Xenopore, N.J.).
 3. (Met5)Enkephalin (tyr-gly-gly-phe-met; SEQ ID No. 33) peptide (R&D Antibodies) were covalently linked to the amine group by incubating the coated chip with the peptide in 500 μl of PBS (160 μg peptide/ml, pH 8)) overnight at room temperature.
 4. At the end of the incubation, the chips were washed and then incubated in 3% bovine serum albumin for 2 hours.
 5. Linked peptide was detected in a SPA format. The chips were was placed in 24-well plate containing 500 μl of 125I-anti- (Met5)Enkephalin antibody (0.1 μCi/well, R&D Antibodies). The antibody is a rabbit polyclonal against the C-terminal region of the peptide. After a two hour incubation, the plates were counted in Wallac MicroBeta Trilux scintillation counter and linked peptide was detected.
 Since modifications will be apparent to those of skill in this art, it is intended that this invention be limited only by the scope of the appended claims.
3314PRTartificial sequencerandom coupling in split and pool synthesis 1Leu Ala Gly Asp1 24PRTartificial sequencerandom coupling in split and pool synthesis 2Leu Glu Gly Asp1 34PRTartificial sequencerandom coupling in split and pool synthesis 3Ser Ala Gly Asp1 44PRTartificial sequencerandom coupling in split and pool synthesis 4Ser Glu Gly Asp1 54PRTartificial sequencerandom coupling in split and pool synthesis 5Leu Ala Val Asp1 64PRTartificial sequencerandom coupling in split and pool synthesis 6Leu Glu Val Asp1 74PRTartificial sequencerandom coupling in split and pool synthesis 7Ser Ala Val Asp1 84PRTartificial sequencerandom coupling in split and pool synthesis 8Ser Glu Val Asp1 94PRTartificial sequencerandom coupling in split and pool synthesis 9Leu Ala Gly Phe1 104PRTartificial sequencerandom coupling in split and pool synthesis 10Leu Glu Gly Phe1 114PRTartificial sequencerandom coupling in split and pool synthesis 11Ser Ala Gly Phe1 124PRTartificial sequencerandom coupling in split and pool synthesis 12Ser Glu Gly Phe1 134PRTartificial sequencerandom coupling in split and pool synthesis 13Leu Ala Val Phe1 144PRTartificial sequencerandom coupling in split and pool synthesis 14Leu Glu Val Phe1 154PRTartificial sequencerandom coupling in split and pool synthesis 15Ser Ala Val Phe1 164PRTartificial sequencerandom coupling in split and pool synthesis 16Ser Glu Val Phe1 174PRTartificial sequencerandom coupling in split and pool synthesis 17Leu Ala Gly Lys1 184PRTartificial sequencerandom coupling in split and pool synthesis 18Leu Glu Gly Lys1 194PRTartificial sequencerandom coupling in split and pool synthesis 19Ser Ala Gly Lys1 204PRTartificial sequencerandom coupling in split and pool synthesis 20Ser Glu Gly Lys1 214PRTartificial sequencerandom coupling in split and pool synthesis 21Leu Ala Val Lys1 224PRTartificial sequencerandom coupling in split and pool synthesis 22Leu Glu Val Lys1 234PRTartificial sequencerandom coupling in split and pool synthesis 23Ser Ala Val Lys1 244PRTartificial sequencerandom coupling in split and pool synthesis 24Ser Glu Val Lys1 2510PRTartificial sequencerandom coupling in split and pool synthesis 25Met Leu Asp Ser Ile Trp Lys Pro Asp Leu1 5 102610PRTartificial sequencerandom coupling in split and pool synthesis 26Met Leu Asp Ser Gly Trp Lys Pro Asp Leu1 5 102710PRTartificial sequencerandom coupling in split and pool synthesis 27Met Leu Asp Ser Ile Trp Lys Pro Asp Ala1 5 102810PRTartificial sequencerandom coupling in split and pool synthesis 28Met Leu Asp Ser Ile Trp Lys Phe Asp Leu 1 5 102910PRTartificial sequencerandom coupling in split and pool synthesis 29Met Leu Asp Ser Gly Trp Lys Phe Asp Leu1 5 103010PRTartificial sequencerandom coupling in split and pool synthesis 30Met Leu Asp Ser Gly Trp Lys Pro Asp Ala1 5 103110PRTartificial sequencerandom coupling in split and pool synthesis 31Met Leu Asp Ser Ile Trp Lys Phe Asp Ala1 5 103210PRTartificial sequencerandom coupling in split and pool synthesis 32Met Leu Asp Ser Gly Trp Lys Phe Asp Ala1 5 10335PRTartificial sequencerandom coupling in split and pool synthesis 33Tyr Gly Gly Phe Met1 5
Patent applications by Andrew E. Senyei, La Jolla, CA US
Patent applications by Michael P. Nova, Rancho Santa Fe, CA US
Patent applications by IRORI TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
Patent applications in class By measuring the ability to specifically bind a target molecule (e.g., antibody-antigen binding, receptor-ligand binding, etc.)
Patent applications in all subclasses By measuring the ability to specifically bind a target molecule (e.g., antibody-antigen binding, receptor-ligand binding, etc.)