Patent application title: METHOD AND APPARATUS TO ESTIMATE RELATIVE BASE STATION AND SUBSCRIBER TERMINAL LOCATIONS AND USING IT TO INCREASE FREQUENCY REUSE
Rehan Jalil (San Jose, CA, US)
Mustafa Ergen (Oakland, CA, US)
IPC8 Class: AH04W402FI
Class name: Multiplex communications communication over free space having a plurality of contiguous regions served by respective fixed stations
Publication date: 2013-01-17
Patent application number: 20130016660
Method for estimating position information of base stations as well as
terminals for three dimensional centralized real-time spectrum management
to achieve high spectral efficiency. In one aspect of the invention, the
method comprises i) understanding the position information of plurality
of base stations, wherein the plurality of terminals and the base
stations form a wireless network, ii) determining, at the central
controller, position of a terminal via plurality of communication
wirelessly between the base stations and a terminal and between the base
station and the central controller, iii) applying network wide real time
knowledge at the central controller to electronically steerable antennas
to use a resource in a different direction then where it is used by other
base stations to achieve frequency reuse of one.
1. A method for increasing access to a wireless network, the method
comprising: determining relative locations of the plurality of terminals
with respect to the base stations; and electronically steering respective
antennas based on the determined relative locations to increase frequency
reuse in the wireless network.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein determining relative locations of the plurality of terminals with respect to the base stations includes: scanning a plurality of terminals on entry of the plurality of terminals into the wireless network by transmitting digital signals to the plurality of terminals; estimating respective distances from the plurality of terminals to each of the base stations using the transmitted digital signals.
3. The method of claim 2, further comprising transmitting distance information including the estimated distances to each of the base stations; and storing and processing the distance information.
4. The method of claim 1, wherein determining relative locations of the plurality of terminals with respect to the base stations includes cluster localizing, cluster transforming, and cluster optimizing.
5. The method of claim 4, wherein the cluster localizing includes selecting a base station of the base stations as an origin of a local coordinate, and estimating possible positions of the plurality of terminals based on the estimated distances.
6. The method of claim 4, further comprising using a smart scheduling at the base stations to increase frequency reuse.
7. The method of claim 4, wherein a scheduler schedules a resource with respect to terminals bandwidth.
8. The method of claim 7, wherein the base stations are synchronized to transmit and receive frames in the same time and same frequency, whereby the other base stations are aware of the scheduling in a neighboring base station in a way to reduce interference.
9. The method of claim 7, wherein the base stations are synchronized to transmit and receive frames in different time and same frequency, whereby the other base stations are aware of the scheduling in a neighboring base station in a way to reduce interference.
10. The method of claim 7, wherein the base stations are synchronized to transmit and receive frames in same time and different frequency, whereby the other base stations are aware of the scheduling in a neighboring base station in a way to reduce interference.
11. The method of claim 4 further comprising constructing and refining non-overlapping regions and interference regions for each of the base stations and the plurality of terminals based on the periodically determined relative locations of the plurality of terminals and the base stations.
12. The method of claim 11 further comprising scheduling a resource of a base station of the base stations based on the constructed and refined non-overlapping regions and interference regions.
13. An apparatus for increasing access to a wireless network, the apparatus comprising: a determination module configured to determine relative locations of a plurality of terminals with respect to the base stations; and a steering module configured to steer antennas electronically based on the determined relative locations to increase frequency reuse.
14. The apparatus of claim 13 further comprising: a scanning module configured to scan a plurality of terminals on entry of the plurality of terminals into the wireless network by ways of transmitting digital signals to the plurality of terminals.
15. The apparatus of claim 14 further comprising an estimation module configured to estimate respective distances from the plurality of terminals using the transmitted digital signals.
16. The apparatus of claim 15 further comprising: a transmission module configured to transmit distance information including the periodically estimated distances to each of the base stations; and a memory configured to store the distance information and process the distance information.
17. The apparatus of claim 13, wherein the determining module is further configured to determine relative locations of the plurality of terminals with respect to the base stations by performing: cluster localizing, cluster transforming, and cluster optimizing.
18. The apparatus of claim 17, further comprising a processor configured to instruct a scheduler to schedule a resource to increase frequency reuse.
19. The apparatus of claim 17, further comprising a processor configured to construct and refine non-overlapping regions and interference regions for each of the base stations and the plurality of terminals based on the determined relative locations of the plurality of terminals and the base stations.
20. The apparatus of claim 19, wherein the processor is further configured to instruct the scheduler to schedule a resource based on the constructed and refined non-overlapping regions and interference regions.
21. A computer program product having a non-transitory computer readable medium with computer readable instructions stored thereon for increasing access to a wireless network, the computer readable program, when executed by a processor, causes the processor to: determine relative locations of the plurality of terminals with respect to the base stations; and electronically steer respective antennas based on the determined relative locations to increase frequency reuse in the wireless network.
STATEMENT OF RELATED APPLICATIONS
 This application is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/772,929, entitled "Method and Apparatus to Estimate Relative Base Station and Subscriber Terminal Locations and Using it to Increase Frequency Reuse" filed in the United States Patent and Trademark Office on May 3, 2010, which is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/644,136, now U.S. Pat. No. 7,738,875, entitled "Method and Apparatus to Estimate Relative Base Station and Subscriber Terminal Locations and Using it to Increase Frequency Reuse", filed in the United States Patent and Trademark Office on Dec. 22, 2006, which claims the benefit to U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/753,452, filed in the United States Patent and Trademark Office on Dec. 22, 2005. The teachings of all patents, published applications, and references cited herein are incorporated by reference in their entirety herein.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
 In this invention, a method is proposed to find relative location of fixed base stations in the network; only distance information between some subscriber terminals and base stations are known if it is within the range. One part of the embodiment proposes a method to localize base stations. The method localizes base stations by selecting a base station as an origin of a local coordinate, and estimating possible positions of the base stations based on distance estimates reported by the terminals. Another embodiment of this invention proposes a method to locate terminals along with base stations. Final embodiment of this invention proposes a scheduling method in an OFDMA/TDMA/FDMA network in which there is a single channel which is used by all base stations. The scheduling method implements a scheduler in the base station to electronically steer the antennas of the base stations. Method achieves frequency reuse close to 1 by using a resource in a direction that does not conflict with others by the help of electronically steerable antennas and position information of the base stations and terminals. Further, the scheduler schedules a resource with respect to terminals bandwidth and informs other base stations not to schedule any resource in a contending direction. Furthermore, the scheduling method synchronizes all the base stations to transmit and receive frames in the same time and same frequency, whereby each of the base stations is aware of the scheduling in a neighboring base station in a way to reduce interference.
 In another aspect, an apparatus for estimating a relative position of a base station and a terminal in a wireless network and using the relative position information to increase frequency reuse is disclosed. The apparatus includes a central controller, a plurality of terminals, at least three base stations, and the central controller is communicatively coupled with each terminal and base station in the wireless network using an OFDMA protocol. The terminals on entry into the wireless network estimate distance information by transmitting digital signals to the base stations using timing signals or power dissipation. Further, the central controller processes relative location information of base stations and terminals based on distance information transmitted by the terminals. Furthermore, the central controller includes means for coordinating a scheduler to increase the frequency of reuse by the base station and the terminals with electronically steerable antenna.
 The method and system proposed in this invention can be generalized to three dimensional space in which base stations and terminals are placed in 3-D space.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS
 The objective of the present invention will be more apparent from the following detailed drawings, in which:
 FIG. 1 illustrates the network diagram where there are mobile stations, base stations a central controller connected to IP backbone.
 FIG. 2 depicts a scanning procedure where each mobile station range with a BS and estimate the distance from the ranging parameters.
 FIG. 3 shows the diagram of the method.
 FIG. 4 shows the BS locationing with full distance information from MS.
 FIG. 5 illustrates a network deployment with three base stations and 19 terminals.
 FIG. 6 illustrates a build-up mechanism to construct a map from partial information.
 FIG. 7 illustrates the mechanism to locate the mobile stations.
 FIG. 8 illustrates the shadow point if there are only two distance estimates.
 FIG. 9 illustrates the coordination of the central controller to provide location based scheduling with steerable antennas to increase the frequency reuse.
INTRODUCTION TO CERTAIN INVENTIVE PARTS OF INVENTION
 We consider a wireless network where there are plurality of terminals (Ts) and plurality of base stations (BSs) and central controller as seen in FIG. 1. Terminals can be mobile or fixed but base stations are fixed. We also consider a central controller that can do command control to BSs. A terminal in order to associate with a BS can scan multiple BSs at a given time without initiating an association in a typical network shown below.
 A T first scans for the BS in the network entry procedure. In the scanning procedure the T can estimate its distance to a BS. As a result, after the network entry procedure a T has a set of distance estimates for the BSs that are in the vicinity of its range. Distance estimates can be done in various ways including RSSI based estimation, time of flight based estimation. FIG. 2 illustrates the network for scanning. This scanning report is sent to the central controller.
 Based on the collected measurements, the central controller can construct the matrix (C) in Table I. Useful information in C is D matrix. One can see that there is no mechanism to estimate the distances between BSs and the distances between Ts and some distance estimates are censored between Ts and BSs because of the range limitations.
Methodology for the Invention
 For simplicity, we describe two-dimensional localization. However, our algorithm extends straightforwardly to three dimensions. We define a cluster as a set of four or more BSs, and a set of Ts such each Ts is connected to at least two of these BSs. A Ts is connected to a BS when it is in its communication range.
 The algorithm can be broken down into three main phases. The first phase localizes the elements of clusters, BSs and Ts, into a local coordinate system. The second phase finds the relative positions among clusters and computes coordinate transformations between each cluster's local coordinate systems and generates a unique global coordinate system. The third phase refines the localization of the clusters using the periodical updates sent by the Ts. An example is depicted in FIG. 3.
 The three phases of the algorithm are as follows:
 Phase I. Cluster Localization: A BS becomes the origin of the local coordinate system of a cluster and the algorithm estimates the relative location of the neighboring BSs which can be unambiguously localized. We call this process cluster localization. For each cluster, we identify the sets of possible positions of the BSs given the distance estimates, reported by the Ts. The Ts and BSs's positions are jointly estimated. The figure below exemplifies the cluster localization for three base stations and five terminals.
 Phase II. Cluster Transformation. The algorithm finds the set of BSs in common between two clusters. In the next step, the remaining BSs belonging to the two clusters are localized relative to the known positions using trilateration. Finally, the algorithm computes transformations between the local coordinate systems of neighboring clusters.
 Phase III. Cluster Optimization. Refine the position estimates for each cluster using the periodical updates sent by Ts. This phase reduces and any accumulated error that results from the incremental approach used in the second phase.
 The goal of cluster localization is to compute the position of a cluster of BSs and Ts in a local coordinate system up to a global rotation and possible reflection. The algorithm provides that the relative positions of the nodes in a cluster are unique up to a global rotation, translation, and reflection. Using this property any two clusters sharing three BSs form a larger cluster that is also globally rigid. By induction, any number of clusters chained in this manner forms a globally rigid graph.
 The algorithm for Phase 1, cluster localization, is as follows:
 1. The central controller identifies a cluster of nc (nc>4) BSs. Given D, all the distance estimates dij involving to BSs in the cluster are selected. Let mc (<m) be the number of Ts connected to the mc BSs. This corresponds to performing rows and columns operations on D in order to find all the submatrices Dc of dimension mc×nc whose elements are not all different form zero. For simplicity, Ts with only one connectivity are neglected.
 2. We define a relative coordinate system for the cluster, where BS1 is at the origin and MS1 is arbitrarily placed at location (Dcl 1,0).
 3.Localizing BSs in clusters: the relative positions of the BSs in each cluster are estimated using uniquely the distance estimates in Dc. Algorithm 1 accomplishes this task. We define estMSj as the set of possible locations for MSj, j=1, 2, . . . , mc that are consistent with Dc. Similarly, define estBSl as the set of possible locations for BSl, i=1, 2, . . . , nc that are consistent with Dc. Algorithm 1 proceeds by progressively excluding from these sets points that are not consistent with the matrix Dc.
 Localization within a cluster  set estBSl=[0,0] and  estMS1=[Dcl1,0];  for all MSj, j=2, . . . mc  If Dcj0 not `full`  estMSj=circle ([0,0], Dcj0) j=2, . . . , mc  estBSl=circle ([Dc11, 0], Dc11) i=2, . . . , nc  for all BS1  delete (x,y) in estBSl inside circle ([0,0], mindistBS)  for all MSj such that Dcjl and Dcji not `null` delete (x,y) in estBSl outside circle ([0,0], Dcjl+Dcji) while localization is complete  for all BS j  for all MS i  delete points in estBSj and estMSi not consistent with Dc
 When the connectivity is high enough, the relative positions of the BSs are unique up to a global rotation, translation and reflection.
 FIG. 4 shows an example of cluster with four BSs and twenty MSs. The dotted lines show the connections between BSs and MSs. FIG. 5 shows the output of Algorithm 1 when applied to this cluster. For simplicity, the relative location, of the BSs are rotated and translated such that the algorithm's output can be compared with the original network.
 In Phase II, the algorithm localizes the relative positions among clusters by chaining together clusters as seen in FIG. 6. Whenever two clusters have three nodes in common, it is possible to localize the clusters relative to each other. If the first cluster is fully localized, we can localize the second cluster by trilaterating from the three known positions. The global network can be thought as a graph of clusters, and localization amounts to trilaterating overlapping graphs. This operation can be performed in linear-time.
 Distance updates periodically sent by Ts can be used to improve the localization performance of the previous two phases. As time goes on, the distance estimates for each graph increase. The central controller can store all the updates in a database, and Phase I and Phase II can be periodically re-computed with the updated information. Since the base station locations are fixed the computed output shall be fed as an input to do fine tuning.
 Once the base station locations are fixed, then terminal's position can be found by triangulation. Terminals that have at least three estimates have enough information to find the location. FIG. 7 shows the examples of triangulation.
 However, for terminal 2 in FIG. 7, there could be a shadow point as seen in FIG. 8. Location A and B cannot be differentiated by distance estimates but wireless signal conditions in a given area can be used to differentiate those two locations, also possibility of having those shadow points diminishes with the dense deployment of base stations. Mobility pattern of the terminal also brings side information to identify its location.
 Frequency Reuse With Steerable Antenna Along With Locationing
 In OFDMA/TDMA network, interference region between base stations can be avoidable by defining non-overlapping regions inside the given resource. A resource is considered as a collection of slots which are mapped into frequency and symbol axis. Non-overlapping regions can be constructed in the central controller via global knowledge of the topology to be assigned to different base stations which are sharing a terminal which is in the interference region of theirs. In this way, same resource can be used across the network by all base stations but they do use or blank out some regions according to the occupancy in their interference regions. In this way frequency reuse is close to unity.
 When an electronically steerable antenna is available along with the locationing information of each terminal, frequency reuse of unity is achieved via single channel across network by directing non-overlapping resources to different terminals. If there is a conflicting node which is in the vicinity of BS1 and BS2. If BS1 uses a resource for that conflicting node, BS2 is allowed to use that resource only in a location different than the location of that conflicting node consequently which guarantees no interference with BS1's transmission. As a result, all resources are put to use but they are used with respect to geographical location of terminals.
 An example is shown in FIG. 9 where there are two base stations; Base station 1 assigns resource R 1 to terminal 1 and base station 2 uses R 1 in different direction which is guaranteed to be
 The description presented above only includes some but not all embodiments of the invention. Related other ways of managing three dimensional spectrum management to achieve high spectral efficiency may be devised without departing from the original scope of this invention, and are thus include by the present invention.
Patent applications by Mustafa Ergen, Oakland, CA US
Patent applications by Rehan Jalil, San Jose, CA US
Patent applications by WiChorus, Inc.
Patent applications in class Having a plurality of contiguous regions served by respective fixed stations
Patent applications in all subclasses Having a plurality of contiguous regions served by respective fixed stations