Patent application title: RNA-INTERFERENCE BY SINGLE-STRANDED RNA MOLECULES
Thomas Tuschl (New York, NY, US)
Javier Martinez (New York, NY, US)
Agnieszka Patkaniowska (New York, NY, US)
Henning Urlaub (Goettingen, DE)
Reinhard Lührmann (Marburg-Michelbach, DE)
Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Foerderung der Wissenschaften e.V.
IPC8 Class: AC07H2102FI
Class name: Multicellular living organisms and unmodified parts thereof and related processes nonhuman animal transgenic nonhuman animal (e.g., mollusks, etc.)
Publication date: 2012-09-27
Patent application number: 20120246747
The present invention relates to sequence and structural features of
single-stranded (ss)RNA molecules required to mediate target-specific
nucleic acid modifications by RNA-interference (RNAi), such as target
mRNA degradation and/or DNA methylation.
1. Purified human RISC having a molecular weight of from up to about
2. The RISC of claim 1 comprising at least one member of the Argonaute family of proteins.
3. The RISC of claim 1 containing eIF2C1 and/or eIFC2 and optionally at least one of eIFC3, eIFC4, HILI and HIWI.
4. The RISC of claim 1, further containing an RNA component, particularly a single-stranded RNA molecule.
5. The RISC of claim 4, wherein the single-stranded RNA molecule has a length from 14-50 nucleotides wherein at least the 14-20 5' most nucleotides are substantially complementary to a target transcript.
6. The RISC of claim 4, wherein said RNA molecule has a length from 15-29 nucleotides.
7. The RISC of claim 4, wherein said RNA molecule has a free 5' hydroxyl moiety or a moiety selected from phosphate groups or analogues thereof.
8. The RISC of claim 7, wherein said RNA molecule has a 5'-moiety selected from 5'-monophosphate ((HO)2(O)P--O-5'), 5'-diphosphate ((HO)2(O)P--O--P(HO)(O)--O-5'), 5'-triphosphate ((HO)2(O)P--O--(HO)(O) P--O--P(HO)(O)--O-5'), 5'-guanosine cap (7-methylated or non-methylated) (7m-G-0-5'-(HO)(O)P--O--(HO)(O)P--O--P(HO) (O)--O-5'), 5'-adenosine cap (Appp), and any modified or unmodified nucleotide cap structure (N--O-5'-(HO)(O)P--O--(HO)(O)P--O--P(HO)(O)--O-5'), 5'-monothiophosphate (phosphorothioate; (HO)2(S)P--O-5'), 5'-monodithiophosphate (phosphorodithioate; (HO)(HS)(S)P--O-5'), 5'-phosphorothiolate ((HO)2(O)P--S-5'); any additional combination of oxygen/sulfur replaced monophosphate, diphosphate and triphosphates (e.g. 5'-alpha-thiotriphosphate, 5'-gamma-thiotriphosphate, etc.), 5'-phosphoramidates ((HO)2(O)P--NH-5', (HO)(NH2)(O)P--O-5'), 5'-alkylphosphonates (R=alkyl=methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, propyl, etc., e.g. RP(OH)(O)--O-5'-, (OH)2(O)P-5'-CH2-), 5'-alkyletherphosphonates (R=alkylether=methoxymethyl (MeOCH2-), ethoxymethyl, etc., e.g. RP(OH)(O)--O-5'-).
9. The RISC of claim 1, wherein said RNA molecule is completely complementary to said target transcript, optionally with the exception of nucleotides that extend beyond position 20 (counted from the 5' terminus).
10. The RISC of claim 1, wherein said RNA molecule comprises at least one modified nucleotide analogue, which is preferably selected from sugar-backbone- and nucleobase-modified ribonucleotides and combinations thereof.
11. The RISC of claim 1, wherein said RNA molecule is associated with biodegradable polymers or microparticles, preferably wherein said association comprises a covalent coupling, in particular a covalent coupling via the 3'-terminus of the RNA molecule.
12. A host cell or non-human host organism capable of overexpressing RISC according to claim 1.
13. A method of enhancing RNAi in a cell or an organism comprising causing said cell or organism to overexpress at least one component of RISC according to claim 1.
14. The RISC molecule according to claim 1 for use as a target for diagnosis and/or therapy.
15. The RISC according to claim 1 for use as a diagnostic and/or therapeutic agent itself, as a molecular-biological reagent or as component in a screening procedure for identification and/or characterization of pharmaceutical agents.
 This application is a divisional of U.S. Ser. No. 10/520,470 filed
Jan. 7, 2005, which is a 35 U.S.C. 371 National Phase Entry Application
from PCT/EP2003/007516, filed Jul. 10, 2003, which claims the benefit of
European Patent Application Nos. 02015532.1 filed Jul. 10, 2002 and
02018906.4 filed Aug. 23, 2002, the disclosures of which is incorporated
herein in their entirety by reference.
 The present invention relates to sequence and structural featUres of single-stranded (ss)RNA molecules required to mediate target-specific nucleic acid modifications by RNA-interference (RNAi), such as target mRNA degradation and/or DNA methylation.
 Most eukaryotes possess a cellular defense system protecting their genomes against invading foreign genetic elements. Insertion of foreign elements is believed to be generally accompanied by formation of dsRNA that is interpreted by the cell as a signal for unwanted gene activity (e.g. Ahlquist, Science 296 (2002), 1270-1273; Fire et al., Nature 391 (1998), 806-811). Dicer RNase III rapidly processes dsRNA to small dsRNA fragments of distinct size and structure (e.g. Bernstein et al., Nature 409 (2001), 363-366), the small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) (Elbashir et al., Genes & Dev. 15 (2001 b), 188-200), which direct the sequence-specific degradation of the single-stranded mRNAs of the invading genes. siRNA duplexes have 2- to 3-nt 3' overhanging ends and contain 5' phosphate and free 3' hydroxyl termini (WO 02/44321). The process of posttranscriptional dsRNA-dependent gene silencing is commonly referred to as RNA interference (RNAi), and in some instances is also linked to transcriptional silencing.
 Experimental introduction of siRNA duplexes into mammalian cells is now widely used to disrupt the activity of cellular genes homologous in sequence to the introduced dsRNA. Used as a reverse genetic approach, siRNA-induced gene silencing accelerates linking of gene sequence to biological function. siRNA duplexes are short enough to bypass general dsRNA-induced unspecific effects in vertebrate animal and mammalian cells. siRNAs may also be expressed intracellularly from introduced expression plasmids or viral vectors providing an alternative to chemical RNA synthesis. Therefore, an understanding of how siRNAs act in mammalian systems is important for refining this gene silencing technology and for producing gene-specific therapeutic agents.
 Biochemical studies have begun to unravel the mechanistic details of RNAi. The first cell-free systems were developed using D. melanogaster cell or embryo extracts, and were followed by the development of in vitro systems from C. elegans embryo and mouse embryonal carcinoma cells. While the D. melanogaster lysates support the steps of dsRNA processing and sequence-specific mRNA targeting, the latter two systems only recapitulate the first step.
 RNAi in D. melanogaster extracts is initiated by ATP-dependent processing of long dsRNA to siRNAs by Dicer RNase III (e.g. Bernstein et al., (2001), supra). Thereafter, siRNA duplexes are assembled into a multi-component complex, which guides the sequence-specific recognition of the target mRNA and catalyzes its cleavage (e.g. Elbashir (2001 b), supra). This complex is referred to as RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) (Hammond et at., Nature 404 (2000), 293-296). siRNAs in D. melanogaster are predominantly 21- and 22-nt, and when paired in a manner to contain a 2-nt 3' overhanging structure effectively enter RISC (Elbashir et al., EMBO J. 20 (2001 c), 6877-6888). Mammalian systems have siRNAs of similar size, and siRNAs of 21- and 22-nt also represent the most effective sizes for silencing genes expressed in mammalian cells (e.g. Elbashir et al., Nature 411 (2001 a), 494-498, Elbashir et al., Methods 26 (2002), 199-213).
 RISC assembled on siRNA duplexes in D. melanogaster embryo lysate targets homologous sense as well as antisense single-stranded RNAs for degradation. The cleavage sites for sense and antisense target RNAs are located in the middle of the region spanned by the siRNA duplex. Importantly, the 5'-end, and not the 3' :end, of the guide siRNA sets the ruler for the position of the target RNA cleavage. Furthermore, a 5' phosphate is required at the target-complementary strand of a siRNA duplex for RISC activity, and ATP is used to maintain the 5' phosphates of the siRNAs (Nykanen et al., Cell 107 (2001), 309-321). Synthetic siRNA duplexes with free 5' hydroxyls and 2-nt 3' overhangs are so readily phosphorylated in D. melanogaster embryo lysate that the RNAi efficiencies of 5'-phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated siRNAs are not significantly different (Elbashir et al. (2001 c), supra).
 Unwinding of the siRNA duplex must occur prior to target RNA recognition. Analysis of ATP requirements revealed that the formation of RISC on siRNA duplexes required ATP in lysates of D. melanogaster. Once formed, RISC cleaves the target RNA in the absence of ATP. The need for ATP probably reflects the unwinding step and/or other conformational rearrangements. However, it is currently unknown if the unwound strands of an siRNA duplex remain associated with RISC or whether RISC only contains a single-stranded siRNA.
 A component associated with RISC was identified as Argonaute2 from D. melanogaster Schneider 2 (S2) cells (Hammond et al., Science 293 (2001 a), 1146-1150), and is a member of a large family of proteins. The family is referred to as Argonaute or PPD family and is characterized by the presence of a PAZ domain and a C-terminal Piwi domain, both of unknown function (Cerutti et al., Trends Biochem. Sci. (2000), 481-482); Schwarz and Zamore, Genes & Dev. 16 (2002), 1025-1031). The PAZ domain is also found in Dicer. Because Dicer and Argonaute2 interact in S2 cells, PAZ may function as a protein-protein interaction motif. Possibly, the interaction between Dicer and Argonaute2 facilitates siRNA incorporation into RISC. In D. melanogaster, the Argonaute family has five members, most of which were shown to be involved in gene silencing and development. The mammalian members of the Argonaute family are poorly characterized, and some of them have been implicated in translational control, microRNA processing and development. The biochemical function of Argonaute proteins remains to be established and the development of more biochemical systems is crucial.
 Here we report on the analysis of human RISC in extracts prepared from HeLa cells. The reconstitution of RISC and the mRNA targeting step revealed that RISC is a ribonucleoprotein complex that is composed of a single-stranded siRNA. Once RISC is formed the incorporated siRNA can no longer exchange with free siRNAs. Surprisingly, RISC can be reconstituted in HeLa S100 extracts providing single-stranded siRNAs. Introducing 5' phosphorylated single-stranded antisense siRNAs into HeLa cells potently silences an endogenous gene with similar efficiency than duplex siRNA.
 The object underlying the present invention is to provide novel agents capable of mediating target-specific RNAi.
 The solution of this problems is provided by the use of a single-stranded RNA molecule for the manufacture of an agent for inhibiting the expression of said target transcript. Surprisingly, it was found that single-stranded RNA molecules are capable of inhibiting the expression of target transcripts by RNA-interference (RNAi).
 The length of the single-stranded RNA molecules is preferably from 14-50 nt, wherein at least the 14 to 20 5'-most nucleotides are substantially complementary to the target RNA transcript. The RNA oligonucleotides may have a free 5' hydroxyl moiety, or a moiety which is 5' phosphorylated (by means of chemical synthesis or enzymatic reactions) or which is modified by 5'-monophosphate analogues.
 The inhibition of target transcript expression may occur in vitro, e.g. in eucaryotic, particularly mammalian cell cultures or cell extracts. On the other hand, the inhibition may also occur in vivo i.e. in eucaryotic, particularly mammalian organisms including human beings.
 Preferably, the single-stranded RNA molecule has a length from 15-29 nucleotides. The RNA-strand may have a 3' hydroxyl group. In some cases, however, it may be preferable to modify the 3' end to make it resistant against 3' to 5' exonucleases. Tolerated 3'-modifications are for example terminal 2'-deoxy nucleotides, 3' phosphate, 2',3'-cyclic phosphate, C3 (or C6, C7, C12) aminolinker, thiol linkers, carboxyl linkers, non-nucleotidic spacers (C3, C6, C9, C12, abasic, triethylene glycol, hexaethylene glycol), biotin, fluoresceine, etc.
 The 5'-terminus comprises an OH group, a phosphate group or an analogue thereof. Preferred 5' phosphate modifications are 5'-monophosphate ((HO)2(O)P--O-5'), 5'-diphosphate ((HO)2(O)P--O--P(HO)(O)--O-5'), 5'-triphosphate ((HO)2(O) P--O--(HO)(O)P--O--P(HO) (O)--O-5'), 5'-guanosine cap (7-methylated or non-methylated) (7m-G-O-5'-(HO)(O)P--O--(HO)(O)P--O--P(HO)(O)--O-5'), 5'-adenosine cap. (Appp), and any modified or unmodified nucleotide cap structure (N--O-5'-(HO)(O)P--O--(HO)(O)P--O--P(HO)(O)--O-5'), 5'-monothiophosphate (phosphorothioate; (HO)2(S)P--O-5'), 5'-monodithiophosphate (phosphorodithioate; (HO)(HS)(S)P--O-5'), 5'-phosphorothiolate ((HO)2(O)P--S-5'); any additional combination of oxgen/sulfur replaced monophosphate, diphosphate and triphosphates (e.g. 5'-alpha-thiotriphosphate, 5'-gamma-thiotriphosphate, etc.), 5'-phosphoramidates ((HO)2(O)P--NH-5', (HO)(NH2)(O)P--O-5'), 5'-alkylphosphonates (R=alkyl=methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, propyl, etc., e.g. RP(OH)(O)--O-5'-, (OH)2(O)P-5'-CH2--), 5'-alkyletherphosphonates (R=alkylether=methoxymethyl (MeOCH2--), ethoxymethyl, etc., e.g. RP(OH)(O)--O-5'-).
 The sequence of the RNA molecule of the present invention has to have a sufficient identity to a nucleic acid target molecule in order to mediate target-specific RNAi. Thus the single-stranded RNA molecule of the present invention is substantially complementary to the target transcript.
 The target RNA cleavage reaction guided by the single-stranded RNA molecules of the present invention is highly sequence-specific. However, no all positions of the RNA molecule contribute equally to target recognition. Mismatches, particularly at the 3'-terminus of the single-stranded RNA molecule, more particularly the residues 3' to the first 20 nt of the single-stranded RNA molecule are tolerated. Especially preferred are single-stranded RNA molecules having at the 5'-terminus at least 15 and preferably at least 20 nucleotides which are completely complementary to a predetermined target transcript or have at only mismatch and optionally up to 35 nucleotides at the 3'-terminus which may contain 1 or several, e.g. 2, 3 or more mismatches.
 In order to enhance the stability of the single-stranded RNA molecules, the 3'-ends may be stabilized against degradation, e.g. they may be selected such that they consist of purine nucleotides, particularly adenosine or guanosine nucleotides. Alternatively or additionally, 3' nucleotides may be substituted by modified nucleotide analogues, including backbone modifications of ribose and/or phosphate residues.
 In an especially preferred embodiment of the present invention the RNA molecule may contain at least one modified nucleotide analogue. The nucleotide analogues may be located at positions where the target-specific activity, e.g. the RNAi mediating activity is not substantially affected, e.g. in a region at the 5'-end and/or the 3'-end of the RNA molecule. Particularly, the 3'-terminus may be stabilized by incorporating modified nucleotide analogues, such as non-nucleotidic chemical derivatives such as C3 (or C6, C7, C12) arninolinker, thiol linkers, carboxyl linkers, non-nucleotidic spacers (C3, C6, C9, C12, abasic, triethylene glycol, hexaethylene glycol), biotin, fluoresceine, etc. A further modification, by which the nuclease resistance of the RNA molecule may be increased, is by covalent coupling of inverted nucleotides, e.g. 2'-deoxyribonucleotides or ribonucleotides to the 3'-end of the RNA molecule. A preferred RNA molecule structure comprises: 5'-single-stranded siRNA-3'-O--P(O)(OH)--O-3'-N, wherein N is a nucleotide, e.g. a 2'-deoxyribonucleotide or ribonucleotide, typically an inverted thymidine residue, or an inverted oligonucleotide structure, e.g. containing up to 5 nucleotides.
 Preferred nucleotide analogues are selected from sugar- or backbone-modified ribonucleotides. It should be noted, however, that also nucleobase-modified ribonucleotides, i.e. ribonucleotides, containing a non-naturally occurring nucleobase instead of a naturally occurring nucleobase such as uridines or cytidines modified at the 5-position, e.g. 5-(2-amino)propyl uridine, 5-bromo uridine; 5-methyl-cytidine; adenosines and guahosines modified at the 8-position, e.g. 8-bromo guanosine; deaza nucleotides, e.g. 7-deaza-adenosine; O- and N-alkylated nucleotides, e.g. N6-methyl adenosine are suitable. In preferred sugar-modified ribonucleotides the 2' OH-group is replaced by a group selected from H, OR, R, halo, SH, SR, NH2, NHR, NR2 or CN, wherein R is C1-C6 alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl or methoxyethoxy, and halo is F, Cl, Br or I. In preferred backbone-modified ribonucleotides the phosphoester group connecting to adjacent ribonucleotides is replaced by a modified group, e.g. a phosphorothioate, phosphorodithioate, N3'-O5'- and/or N5'-O3' phosphoramidate group. It should be noted that the above modifications may be combined. For example, complementary or non-complementary nucleotides at the 3'-terminus, particularly after at least 15, more particularly after at least 20 5'-terminal nucleotides may be modified without significant loss of activity.
 The single-stranded RNA molecule of the invention may be prepared by chemical synthesis. Methods of synthesizing RNA molecules are known in the art.
 The single-stranded RNAs can also be prepared by enzymatic transcription from synthetic DNA templates or from DNA plasmids isolated from recombinant bacteria and subsequent 5'-terminal modification. Typically, phage RNA polymerases are used such as T7, T3 or SP6 RNA polymerase.
 A further aspect of the present invention relates to a method of mediating RNA interference in a cell or an organism comprising the steps:  (a) contacting the cell or organism with the single-stranded RNA molecule of the invention under conditions wherein target-specific nucleic acid modifications may occur and  (b) mediating a target-specific nucleic acid modification effected by the single-stranded RNA towards a target nucleic acid having a sequence portion substantially complementary to the single-stranded RNA.
 Preferably the contacting step (a) comprises introducing the single-stranded RNA molecule into a target cell, e.g. an isolated target cell, e.g. in cell culture, a unicellular microorganism or a target cell or a plurality of target cells within a multicellular organism. More preferably, the introducing step comprises a carrier-mediated delivery, e.g. by liposomal carriers and/or by injection. Further suitable delivery systems include Oligofectamine (Invitrogen) and Transit-TKO siRNA Transfection reagent (Mirus)
 The method of the invention may be used for determining the function of a gene in a cell or an organism or even for modulating the function of a gene in a cell or an organism, being capable of mediating RNA interference.
 The cell is preferably a eukaryotic cell or a cell line, e.g. a plant cell or an animal cell, such as a mammalian cell, e.g. an embryonic cell, a pluripotent stem cell, a tumor cell, e.g. a teratocarcinoma cell or a virus-infected cell. The organism is preferably a eukaryotic organism, e.g. a plant or an animal, such as a mammal, particularly a human.
 The target gene to which the RNA molecule of the invention is directed may be associated with a pathological condition. For example, the gene may be a pathogen-associated gene, e.g. a viral gene, a tumor-associated gene or an autoimmune disease-associated gene. The target gene may also be a heterologous gene expressed in a recombinant cell or a genetically altered organism. By determinating or modulating, particularly, inhibiting the function of such a gene valuable information and therapeutic benefits in the agricultural field or in the medicine or veterinary medicine field may be obtained.
 The ssRNA is usually administered as a pharmaceutical composition. The administration may be carried out by known methods, wherein a nucleic acid is introduced into a desired target cell in vitro or in vivo. Commonly used gene transfer techniques include calcium phosphate, DEAE-dextran, electroporation and microinjection and viral methods (Graham, F. L. and van der Eb, A. J. (1973) Virol. 52, 456; McCutchan, J. H. and Pagano, J. S. (1968), J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 41, 351; Chu, G. et al (1987), Nucl. Acids Res. 15, 1311; Fraley, R. et al. (1980), J. Biol. Chem. 255, 10431; Capecchi, M. R. (1980), Cell 22, 479). A recent addition to this arsenal of techniques for the introduction of nucleic acids into cells is the use of cationic liposomes (Feigner, P. L. et al. (1987), Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci USA 84, 7413). Commercially available cationic lipid formulations are e.g. Tfx 50 (Promega) or Lipofectamin2000 (Life Technologies). A further preferred method for the introduction of RNA into a target organism, particularly into a mouse, is the high-pressure tail vein injection (Lewis, D. L. et al. (2002), Nat. Genet.29, 29; McCaffrey, A. P. et al. (2002), Nature 418, 38-39).
 Herein, a buffered solution comprising the single-stranded RNA (e.g. about 2 ml) is injected into the tail vein of the mouse within 10 s.
 Thus, the invention also relates to a pharmaceutical composition containing as an active agent at least one single-stranded RNA molecule as described above and a pharmaceutical carrier. The composition may be used for diagnostic and for therapeutic applications in human medicine or in veterinary medicine.
 For diagnostic or therapeutic applications, the composition may be in form of a solution, e.g. an injectable solution, a cream, ointment, tablet, suspension or the like. The composition may be administered in any suitable way, e.g. by injection, by oral, topical, nasal, rectal application etc. The carrier may be any suitable pharmaceutical carrier. Preferably, a carrier is used, which is capable of increasing the efficacy of the RNA molecules to enter the target-cells. Suitable examples of such carriers are liposomes, particularly cationic liposomes. A further preferred administration method is injection.
 A further preferred application of the RNAi method is a functional analysis of eukaryotic cells, or eukaryotic non-human organisms, preferably mammalian cells or organisms and most preferably human cells, e.g. cell lines such as HeLa or 293 or rodents, e.g. rats and mice. By transfection with suitable single-stranded RNA molecules which are homologous to a predetermined target gene or DNA molecules encoding a suitable single-stranded RNA molecule a specific knockout phenotype can be obtained in a target cell, e.g. in cell culture or in a target organism. The presence of short single-stranded RNA molecules does not result in an interferon response from the host cell or host organism.
 In an especially preferred embodiment, the RNA molecule is administered associated with biodegradable polymers, e.g. polypeptides, poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), polylysine or polylysine conjugates, e.g. polylysine-graft-imidazole acetic acid, or poly(beta-amino ester) or microparticles, such as microspheres, nanoparticles or nanospheres. More preferably the RNA molecule is covalently coupled to the polymer or microparticle, wherein the covalent coupling particularly is effected via the 3'-terminus of the RNA molecule.
 Further, the invention relates to a pharmaceutical composition for inhibiting the expression of a target transcript by RNAi comprising as an active agent a single-stranded RNA molecule having a length from 14-50, preferably 15-29 nucleotides wherein at least the 14-20 5'most nucleotides are substantially complementary to said target transcript.
 Furthermore, the invention relates to a method for the prevention or treatment of a disease associated with overexpression of at least one target gene comprising administering a subject in need thereof a single-stranded RNA molecule having a length from 14-50, preferably 15-29 nucleotides wherein at least the 14-20 5'most nucleotides are substantially complementary to a target transcript in an amount which is therapeutically effective for RNAi.
 Still, a further subject matter of the invention is a eukaryotic cell or a eukaryotic non-human organism exhibiting a target gene-specific knockout phenotype comprising an at least partially deficient expression of at least one endogeneous target gene wherein said cell or organism is transfected with at least one single-stranded RNA molecule capable of inhibiting the expression of at least one endogeneous target gene. It should be noted that the present invention allows the simultaneous delivery of several antisense RNAs of different sequences, which are either cognate to a different or the same target gene.
 Gene-specific knockout phenotypes of cells or non-human organisms, particularly of human cells or non-human mammals may be used in analytic procedures, e.g. in the functional and/or phenotypical analysis of complex physiological processes such as analysis of gene expression profiles and/or proteomes. For example, one may prepare the knock-out phenotypes of human genes in cultured cells which are assumed to be regulators of alternative splicing processes. Among these genes are particularly the members of the SR splicing factor family, e.g. ASF/SF2, SC35, SRp2O, SRp4O or SRp55. Further, the effect of SR proteins on the mRNA profiles of predetermined alternatively spliced genes such as CD44 may be analysed. Preferably the analysis is carried out by high-throughput methods using oligonucleotide based chips.
 Using RNAi based knockout technologies, the expression of an endogeneous target gene may be inhibited in a target cell or a target organism. The endogeneous gene may be complemented by an exogeneous target nucleic acid coding for the target protein or a variant or mutated form of the target protein, e.g. a gene or a cDNA, which may optionally be fused to a further nucleic acid sequence encoding a detectable peptide or polypeptide, e.g. an affinity tag, particularly a multiple affinity tag. Variants or mutated forms of the target gene differ from the endogeneous target gene in that they encode a gene product which differs from the endogeneous gene product on the amino acid level by substitutions, insertions and/or deletions of single or multiple amino acids. The variants or mutated forms may have the same biological activity as the endogeneous target gene. On the other hand, the variant or mutated target gene may also have a biological activity, which differs from the biological activity of the endogeneous target gene, e.g. a partially deleted activity, a completely deleted activity, an enhanced activity etc.
 The complementation may be accomplished by coexpressing the polypeptide encoded by the exogeneous nucleic acid, e.g. a fusion protein comprising the target protein and the affinity tag and the double stranded RNA molecule for knocking out the endogeneous gene in the target cell. This coexpression may be accomplished by using a suitable expression vector expressing both the polypeptide encoded by the exogeneous nucleic acid, e.g. the tag-modified target protein and the single-stranded RNA molecule or alternatively by using a combination of expression vectors. Proteins and protein complexes which are synthesized de novo in the target cell will contain the exogeneous gene product, e.g. the modified fusion protein. In order to avoid suppression of the exogeneous gene product expression by the RNAi molecule, the nucleotide sequence encoding the exogeneous nucleic acid may be altered on the DNA level (with or without causing mutations on the amino acid level) in the part of the sequence which is homologous to the single-stranded RNA molecule. Alternatively, the endogeneous target gene may be complemented by corresponding nucleotide sequences from other species, e.g. from mouse.
 Preferred applications for the cell or organism of the invention is the analysis of gene expression profiles and/or proteomes. In an especially preferred embodiment an analysis of a variant or mutant form of one or several target proteins is carried out, wherein said variant or mutant forms are reintroduced into the cell or organism by an exogeneous target nucleic acid as described above. The combination of knockout of an endogeneous gene and rescue, by using mutated, e.g. partially deleted exogeneous target has advantages compared to the use. of a knockout cell. Further, this method is particularly suitable for identifying functional domains of the target protein. In a further preferred embodiment a comparison, e.g. of gene expression profiles and/or proteomes and/or phenotypic characteristics of at least two cells or organisms is carried out. These organisms are selected from:  (i) a control cell or control organism without target gene inhibition,  (ii) a cell or organism with target gene inhibition and  (iii) a cell or organism with target gene inhibition plus target gene complementation by an exogeneous target nucleic acid.
 The method and cell of the invention may also be used in a procedure for identifying and/or characterizing pharmacological agents, e.g. identifying new pharmacological agents from a collection of test substances and/or characterizing mechanisms of action and/or side effects of known pharmacological agents.
 Thus, the present invention also relates to a system for identifying and/or characterizing pharmacological agents acting on at least one target protein comprising:  (a) a eukaryotic cell or a eukaryotic non-human organism capable of expressing at least one endogeneous target gene coding for said target protein,  (b) at least one single-stranded RNA molecule capable of inhibiting the expression of said at least one endogeneous target gene by RNAi and  (c) a test substance or a collection of test substances wherein pharmacological properties of said test substance or said collection are to be identified and/or characterized.
 Further, the system as described above preferably comprises:  (d) at least one exogeneous target nucleic acid coding for the target protein or a variant or mutated form of the target protein wherein said exogeneous target nucleic acid differs from the endogeneous target gene on the nucleic acid level such that the expression of the exogeneous target nucleic acid is substantially less inhibited by the single-stranded RNA molecule than the expression of the endogeneons target gene.
 Furthermore, the RNA knockout complementation method may be used for preparative purposes, e.g. for the affinity purification of proteins or protein complexes from eukaryotic cells, particularly mammalian cells and more particularly human cells. In this embodiment of the invention, the exogeneous target nucleic acid preferably codes for a target protein which is fused to an affinity tag.
 The preparative method may be employed for the purification of high molecular weight protein complexes which preferably have a mass of ≧150 kD and more preferably of >500 kD and which optionally may contain nucleic acids such as RNA. Specific examples are the heterotrimeric protein complex consisting of the 20 kD, 60 kD and 90 kD proteins of the U4/U6 snRNP particle, the splicing factor SF3b from the 17S U2 snRNP consisting of 5 proteins having molecular weights of 14, 49, 120, 145 and 155 kD and the 25S U4/U6/U5 tri-snRNP particle containing the U4, U5 and U6 snRNA molecules and about 30 proteins, which has a molecular weight of about 1.7 MD.
 This method is suitable for functional proteome analysis in mammalian cells, particularly human cells.
 Finally, the invention relates to a purified and isolated mammalian, partiCularly human RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) having an apparent molecular weight of less than about 150-160 kDa, e.g. about 120 to 150-160 kDa. The RISC comprises polypeptide and optionally nucleic acid components, particularly single-stranded RNA molecules as described above. The RISC may be used as a target for diagnosis and/or therapy, as a diagnostic and/or therapeutic agent itself, as a molecular-biological reagent or as component in a screening procedure for the identification and/or characterization of pharmaceutical agents.
 Polypeptide components of RISC preferably comprise members of the Argonaute family of proteins, and contain eIF2C1 and/or eIF2C2, and possibly at least one other expressed eIF2C family member, particularly selected from eIF2C3, eIF2C4, HILI and HIWI.
 Expression or overexpression of one or several proteins present in RISC in suitable host cells, e.g. eukaryotic cells, particularly mammalian cells, is useful to assist an RNAi response. These proteins may also be expressed or overexpressed in transgenic animals, e.g. vertebrates, particularly mammals, to produce animals particularly sensitive to injected single-stranded or double-stranded siRNAs. Further, the genes encoding the proteins may be administered for therapeutic purposes, e.g. by viral or non-viral gene delivery vectors.
 It is also conceivable to administer a siRNA/eIF2C1 or 2 complex directly by the assistance of protein transfection reagents (e.g. Amphoteric Protein Transfection Reagents, ProVectin protein (lmgenex), or similar products) rather than RNA/DNA transfection. This may have technical advantages over siRNA transfection that are limited to nucleic acid transfection.
 Alternatively to the application of siRNAs as synthetic double-stranded or single-stranded siRNAs, it is conceivable to also administer an antisense siRNA precursor molecule in the form of a hairpin stem-loop structure comprising 19 to 29 base pairs in the stem with or without 5' or 3' overhanging ends on one side of the duplex and a nucleotide or non-nucleotide loop on the other end. Preferably, the hairpin structure has a 3' overhang of from 1-5 nucleotides. Further, the precursor may contain modified nucleotides as described above, particularly in the loop and/or in the 3' portion, particularly in the overhang. The siRNA or precursors of siRNAs may also be introduced by viral vectors or RNA expression systems into a RISC compound, e.g. eIF2C1 and/or 2 overexpressing organism or cell line. The siRNA precursors may also be generated by direct expression within an organism or cell line. This may be achieved by transformation with a suitable expression vector carrying a nucleic acid template operatively linked to an expression control sequence to express the siRNA precursor.
 Further, the present invention is explained in more detail in the following figures and examples.
 FIG. 1. HeLa cytoplasmic S100 extracts show siRNA-dependent target RNA cleavage.
 (A) Representation of the 177-nt 32P-cap-labeled target RNA with the targeting siRNA duplex. Target RNA cleavage site and the length of the expected cleavage products is also shown. The fat black line positioned under the antisense siRNA is used in the following figures as symbol to indicate the region of the target RNA, which is complementary to the antisense siRNA sequence. (B) Comparison of the siRNA mediated target RNA cleavage using the previously established D. melanogaster embryo in vitro system and HeLa cell S100 cytoplasmic extract. 10 nM cap-labeled target RNA was incubated with 100 nM siRNA as described in materials. Reaction products were resolved on a 6% sequencing gel. Position markers were generated by partial RNase T1 digestion (T1) and partial alkaline hydrolysis (OH) of the cap-labeled target RNA. The arrow indicates the 5' cleavage product, the fragment is unlabeled and therefore invisible.
 FIG. 2. Chemical modification of the 5' end of the antisense but not the sense siRNAs prevents sense target RNA cleavage in HeLa S100 extracts. (A) Illustration of the possible 5' and 3' aminolinker modifications of the sense and antisense strands of a siRNA duplex. L5 represents a 6-carbon chain aminolinker connected via a 5'-phosphodiester linkage, L3 represents a 7-carbon aminolinker connected via a phosphodiester bond to the terminal 3' phosphate. s, sense; as, antisense. (B) Target RNA cleavage testing various combinations of 5' and 3' aminolinker-modified siRNA duplexes. NC (negative control) shows an incubation reaction of the target RNA in the absence of siRNA duplex. T1, RNase T1 ladder; OH, partial alkaline hydrolysis ladder.
 FIG. 3. siRNA containing 3'-terminal phosphates are subjected to ligation as well as dephosphorylation reactions.
 (A) Sequence of the radiolabeled siRNA duplex. The labeled nucleotide was joined to synthetic 20-nt antisense siRNA by T4 RNA ligation of 32pCp. The various combinations of 5' and 3' hydroxyl/phosphate were prepared as described in materials. X and Y indicate 5' and 3' modifications of the antisense siRNA. (B) Fate of the antisense siRNA during incubation of the modified siRNA duplexes in HeLa S100 extract in the presence of non-radiolabeled target RNA. The different phosphorylated forms of the antisense siRNA were distinguished based on their gel mobility. Identical results were obtained when using 5' phosphorylated sense siRNA or when leaving out the target RNA during incubation. Ligation products are only observed when 3' phosphates were present on the labeled antisense siRNA.
 FIG. 4: RISC is a stable complex that does not rapidly exchange bound siRNA.
 Increasing concentrations of non-specific siRNA compete with target-specific RISC formation when added simultaneously to HeLa S100 extracts (lanes 4 to 7). However, when the unspecific siRNA duplex is added 15 min after pre-incubation with the specific siRNA duplex, no more competition was observed (3 lanes to the right). T1, RNase T1 ladder.
 FIG. 5. Partial purification of human RISC.  (A) Graphical representation of the structure of the biotinylated siRNA duplex used for affinity purification of siRNA-associated factors. L3 indicates a C7-aminolinker that was conjugated to a photo-cleavable biotin N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester; UV indicates photocleavage of the UV-sensitive linkage to release affinity selected complexes under native conditions. (B) Superdex-200 gel filtration analysis of siRNA-protein complexes (siRNPs) recovered by UV treatment/elution (UV elu) from the streptavidin affinity column. Fractions were assayed for their ability to sequence-specifically cleave the cap-labeled target RNA. The number of the 10 collected fractions and the relative positions of the aldolase (158 kDa) and BSA (66 kDa) size markers are indicated. (C) Glycerol gradient (5%-20%) sedimentation of siRNPs recovered by UV treatment/elution from the streptavidin affinity column. For legend, see (B). When monitoring the precise size of target RNA cleavage fragments using internally 32P-UTP-labeled, capped mRNA, the sum is equal to the full-length transcript, thus indicating that target RNA is indeed only cleaved once in the middle of the region spanned by the siRNA.
 FIG. 6. RISC contains a single-stranded siRNA.
 siRNPs were subjected to affinity selection after incubation using siRNA duplexes with one or both strands biotinylated. The eluate recovered after UV treatment or the unbound fraction after streptavidin affinity selection (flow-through) was assayed for target RNA degradation. If the antisense strand was biotinylated, all sense target RNA-cleaving RISC was bound to the streptavidin beads, while sense siRNA biotinylation resulted in RISC activity of the flow-through. The cleavage reaction in the flow-through fraction was less efficient than in the UV eluate, because affinity-selected RISC was more concentrated.
 FIG. 7. Single-stranded antisense siRNAs reconstitute RISC in HeLa S100 extracts.
 Analysis of RISC reconstitution using single-stranded or duplex siRNAs comparing HeLa S100 extracts (A) and the previously described D. melanogaster embryo lysate (B). Different concentrations of single-stranded siRNAs (s, sense; as, antisense) and duplex siRNA (ds) were tested for specific targeting of cap-labeled substrate RNA. 100 nM concentrations of the antisense siRNA reconstituted RISC in HeLa S100 extract, although at reduced levels in comparison to the duplex siRNA. Reconstitution with single-stranded siRNAs was almost undetectable in D. melanogaster lysate, presumably because of the higher nuclease activity in this lysate causing rapid degradation of uncapped single-stranded RNAs.
 FIG. 8. Single-stranded antisense siRNAs mediate gene silencing in HeLa cells.  (A) Silencing of nuclear envelope protein lamin A/C. Fluorescence staining of cells transfected with lamin A/C-specific siRNAs and GL2 luciferase (control) siRNAs. Top row, staining with lamin A/C specific antibody; middle row, Hoechst staining of nuclear chromatin; bottom row, phase contrast images of fixed cells. (B) Quantification of lamin A/C knockdown after Western blot analysis. The blot was stripped after lamin A/C probing and reprobed with vimentin antibody. Quantification was performed using a Lumi-Imager (Roche) and LumiAnalyst software to quantitate the ECL signals (Amersham Biosciences), differences in gel loading were corrected relative to non-targeted vimentin protein levels. The levels of lamin A/C protein were normalized to the non-specific GL2 siRNA duplex.
 FIG. 9. Antisense siRNAs of different length direct target RNA cleavage in HeLa S100 extracts.  (A) Graphical representation of the experiment. Antisense siRNAs were extended towards the 5' side (series 1, 20 to 25-nt) or the 3' side (series 2, 20 to 23-nt).  (B) Target RNA cleavage using the antisense siRNAs described in (A). HeLa S100 extract was incubated with 10 nM cap-labeled target RNA and 100 nM antisense siRNAs at 30° C. for 2.5 h. Reaction products were resolved on a 6% sequencing gel. Position markers were generated by partial RNase T1 digestion (T1) and partial alkaline hydrolysis (OH) of the cap-labeled target RNA. Arrows indicate the position of the 5' cleavage products generated by the different antisense siRNAs. The fat black lines on the left (series 1) and the right (series 2) indicate the region of the target RNA, which is complementary to the antisense siRNA sequences.
 FIG. 10. Length dependence of antisense siRNAs and effect of terminal modifications for targeting RNA cleavage in HeLa S100 extracts.
 HeLa S100 extract was incubated with 10 nM cap-labeled target RNA and 100 nM antisense siRNAs at 30° C. for 2.5h. Reaction products were resolved on a 6% sequencing get. Position markers were generated by partial RNase T1 digestion (T1) of the cap-labeled target RNA. The fat black line on the left indicates the region of the target RNA, which is complementary to the 21-nt antisense siRNA sequence. The siRNA sequences used in each experiment are listed below (sense and antisense siRNAs are listed together, they were pre-annealed to form duplex siRNAs). p, phosphate; t, 2'-deoxythymidine, c, 2'-deoxycytidine, g, 2'-deoxycytidine, g, 2'-deoxyguanosine; L, aminolinker, B, photocleavable biotin; A,C,G,U, ribonucleotides.
TABLE-US-00001 Lane Sense siRNA (5'-3') Antisense siRNA (5'-3') 1 pUCGAAGUAUUCCG CG 2 pUCGAAGUAUUCCG CGUACGUG 3 pUCGAAGUAUUCCG CGUACGUGAUGU 4 pUCGAAGUAUUCCG CGUACGUGAUGUUC 5 pUCGAAGUAUUCCG CGUACGUGAUGUUC AC 6 pUCGAAGUAUUCCG CG 7 pUCGAAGUAUUCCG CGUACGUG 8 pUCGAAGUAUUCCG CGUACGUGAUGU 9 pUCGAAGUAUUCCG CGUACGUGAUGUUC 10 pUCGAAGUAUUCCG CGUACGUGAUGUUC AC 11 pUCGAAGUAUUCCG CGUACGUG 12 pUCGAAGUAUUCCG CGUACGtg 13 pUCGAAGUAUUCCG CGUACGUU 14 pUCGAAGUAUUCCG CGUACGtt 15 pUCGAAGUAUUCCG CGUACGUG 16 pUCGAAGUAUUCCG CGUACGtg 17 pUCGAAGUAUUCCG CGUACGUU 18 pUCGAAGUAUUCCG CGUACGtt 19 CGUACGCGGAAUACUUCG pUCGAAGUAUUCCG AAA CGUACGUG 20 CGUACGCGGAAUACUUCG pUCGAAGUAUUCCG AAA CGUACGtg 21 CGUACGCGGAAUACUUCG pUCGAAGUAUUCCG AAA CGUACGUU 22 CGUACGCGGAAUACUUCG pUCGAAGUAUUCCG AAA CGUACGtt 23 tCGAAGUAUUCCGC GUACGUULB 24 cGUACGCGGAAUACUUCG tCGAAGUAUUCCGC AUULB GUACGUULB 25 ptCGAAGUAUUCCGC GUACGttLB 26 cGUACGCGGAAUACUUCG ptCGAAGUAUUCCGC AttLB GUACGttLB 27 ptCGAAGUAUUCCGC GUACGttL
 FIG. 11: Single-stranded antisense siRNAs mediate gene silencing in HeLa cells.
 Quantification of lamin A/C knockdown after Western blot analysis. The blot was stripped after lamin A/C probing and reprobed with vimentin antibody. Quantification was performed using a Lumi-Imager (Roche) and LumiAnalyst software to quantitate the ECL signals (Amersham Biosciences), differences in gel loading were corrected relative to non-targeted vimentin protein levels. The levels of lamin A/C protein were normalized to the non-specific GL2 s1RNA duplex.
 FIG. 12. Protein composition of affinity purified RISC.  (A) Silver-stained SDS-PAGE gel of affinity-selected ribonucleoprotein complexes after glycerol gradient (5%-20%) sedimentation. The arrow indicates the band containing eIF2C1 and eIF2C2. Molecular size markers are indicated on the left. The asterisk indicates a fraction for which the protein pellet was lost after precipitation. (B) Target RNA cleavage assay of the collected fractions. RISC activity peaked in fraction 7 and 8; bu, buffer.
 FIG. 13. Mass spectrometric characterization of eIF2C1 and eIF2C2.
 The 100 kDa band was analysed by mass spectrometry. Mass spectrum indicating the peptide peaks corresponding to eIF2C2 (A) and eIF2C1 (B).  (C) Alignment of eIF2C2 and eIF2C1 amino-acid sequences indicating the position of the identified peptides. Sequence differences are indicated by yellow boxes.
 FIG. 14. Predicted amino-acid sequences of the six human Argonaute protein family members.
 FIG. 15. Alignment of the sequences of the six human Argonaute protein family members.
 Predicted sequences of human eIF2C1-4, HILI and HIWI have been aligned using ClustaIX program.
 FIG. 16. Predicted cDNA sequences of the six human Argonaute protein family members.
 FIG. 17. AU members of the Argonaute family but HIWI are expressed in HeLa cells.
 RT-PCR analysis on polyA RNA from HeLa cells. (A) Primers (forward and reverse) used for nested and semi-nested PCR amplification of the different Argonautes and expected length of the PCR products. (B) Agarose gel electrophoresis of the obtained PCR products, confirming the expected length. Left lanes, 100 by DNA ladder.
1. Material and Methods
 1.1 siRNA Synthesis and Biotin Conjugation
 siRNAs were chemically synthesized using RNA phosphoramidites (Proligo, Hamburg, Germany) and deprotected and gel-purified as described previously. 5' aminolinkers were introduced by coupling MMT-C6-aminolinker phosphoramidite (Proligo, Hamburg), 3' C7-aminolinkers were introduced by assembling the oligoribonucleotide chain on 3'-aminomodifier (TFA) C7 Icaa control pore glass support (Cherngenes, Mass., USA). The sequences for GL2 luciferase siRNAs were as described (Elbashir et al., 2001a, supra). If 5'-phosphates were to be introduced, 50 to 100 nmoles of synthetic siRNAs were treated with T4 polynucleotide kinase (300 p1 reaction, 2.5 mM ATP, 70 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.6, 10 mM MgCl2, 5 mM DTT, 30 U T4 PNK, New England Biolabs, 45 min, 37° C.) followed by ethanol precipitation.
 3' Terminal 32pCp labeling (FIG. 3) was performed in a 30 μl reaction (17 μM siRNA, 0.5 μM 32pCp (110 TBq/mmol), 15% DMSO, 20 U T4 RNA ligase, NEB, and 1× NEB-supplied reaction buffer) for 1.5 h at 37° C., and gel-purified. One half of the pCp-labeled RNA was dephosphorylated (25 μl reaction, 500 U alkaline phosphatase, Roche, and Roche-supplied buffer, 30 min, 50° C.), followed by phenol/chloroform extraction and ethanol precipitation. Half of this reaction was 5' phosphorylated (20 μl reaction, 2 units T4 polynucleotide kinase, NEB, 10 mM ATP, NEB-supplied buffer, 60 min, 37° C.). A quarter of the initial pCp-labeled siRNA was also 5' phosphorylated (10 μl reaction, 10 units 3' phosphatase-free T4 polynucleotide kinase, Roche, 10 mM ATP, Roche-supplied buffer, 3 min, 37° C.).
 For conjugation to biotin, 20 to 65 nmoles of fully deprotected aminolinker-modified siRNA were dissolved in 100 μl of 100 mM sodium borate buffer (pH 8.5) and mixed with a solution of 1 mg of EZ-Link NHS-PC-LC-Biotin (Pierce, Ill., USA) in 100 μl of anhydrous dimethylformamide. The solution was incubated for 17 h at 25° C. in the dark. Subsequently, siRNAs were precipitated by the addition of 60 μl 2 M sodium acetate (pH 6.0) and 1 ml ethanol. The RNA pellet was collected by centrifugation and biotin-conjugated siRNA was separated from non-reacted siRNA on a preparative denaturing 18% acrylamide gel (40 cm length) in the dark. The RNA bands were visualized by 254 nm UV shadowing and minimized exposure time. The bands were excised, and the RNA was eluted overnight in 0.3 M NaCl at 4° C. and recovered by ethanol precipitation. siRNA duplexes were formed as previously described (Elbashir et al., Methods 26 (2002), 199-213).
1.2 Preparation of S100 Extracts from HeLa Cells
 Cytoplasm from HeLa cells adapted to grow at high density was prepared following the Dignam protocol for isolation of HeLa cell nuclei (Dignam et al., Nucleic Acids Res. 11 (1983), 1475-1489). The cytoplasmic fraction was supplemented with KCl, MgCl2 and glycerol to final concentrations of 100 mM, 2 mM and 10%, respectively. At this stage, the extracts can be stored frozen at -70° C. after quick-freezing in liquid nitrogen without loss of activity. S100 extracts were prepared by ultracentrifugation at 31.500 rpm for 60 minutes at 4° C. using a Sorvall T-865 rotor. The protein concentration of HeLa S100 extract varied between 4 to 5 mg/ml as determined by Bradford assay.
1.3 Affinity Purification of RISC with 3' Biotinylated siRNA Duplexes
 For affinity purification of siRNA-associated protein complexes from HeLa S100 extracts, 10 nM of a 3' double-biotinylated siRNA duplex were incubated in 0.2 mM ATP, 0.04 mM GTP, 10 U/ml RNasin, 6 μg/ml creatine kinase, and 5 mM creatine phosphate in 60% S100 extract at 30° C. for 30 to 60 min and gentle rotation. Thereafter, 1 ml slurry of Immobilized Neutravidin Biotin Binding Protein (Pierce, IL, USA) was added per 50 ml of reaction solution and the incubation was continued for another 60 to 120 min at 30° C. with gentle rotation. The Neutravidin beads were then collected at 2000 rpm for 2 minutes at 4° C. in a Heraeus Megafuge 1.0 R centrifuge using a swinging bucket rotor type 2704. Effective capturing of RISC components after affinity selection was confirmed by assaying the supernatant for residual RISC activity with and without supplementing fresh siRNA duplexes. The collected Neutravidin beads were washed with 10 volumes of buffer A relative to the bead volume (30 mM HEPES, pH 7.4, 100 mM KCl, 2 mM MgCl2, 0.5 mM DTT, 10% glycerol) followed by washing with 5 volumes of buffer B (same as buffer A with only 3% glycerol content). The beads were transferred to a 0.8×4 cm Poly-Prep chromatography column (BioRad; CA, USA) by resuspending in 3 volumes of buffer B at 4° C., followed by 10 volumes of washing with buffer B. Washing of the beads was continued by 10 volumes of buffer B increased to 300 mM KCl. The column was then reequilibrated with regular buffer B. To recover native siRNA-associated complexes, the column was irradiated in the cold room by placing it at a 2 cm distance surrounded by four 312 nm UV lamps (UV-B tube, 8 W, Herotab, Germany) for 30 minutes. To recover the photocleaved siRNP solution, the column was placed into a 50 ml Falcon tube and centrifuged at 2000 rpm for 1 minute at 4° C. using again the 2704 rotor. For full recovery of siRNPs, the beads were once again resuspended in buffer B followed by a second round of UV treatment for 15 minutes. Both eluates were pooled and assayed for target RNA degradation.
1.4 Target RNA Cleavage Assays
 Cap-labeled target RNA of 177 nt was generated as described (Elbashir et al., EMBO J. 20 (2001 c), 6877-6888) except that his-tagged guanylyl transferase was expressed in E. coli from a plasmid generously provided by J. Wilusz and purified to homogeneity. If not otherwise indicated, 5' phosphorylated siRNA or siRNA duplex was pre-incubated in supplemented HeLa S100 extract at 30° C. for 15 min prior to addition of cap-labeled target RNA. After addition of all components, final concentrations were 100 nM siRNA, 10 nM target RNA, 1 mM ATP, 0.2 mM GTP, 10 U/ml RNasin, 30 μg/ml creatine kinase, 25 mM creatine phosphate, 50% S100 extract. Incubation was continued for 2.5 h. siRNA-mediated target RNA cleavage in D. melanogaster embryo lysate was performed as described (Zamore et al., Cell 101 (2000), 25-33). Affinity-purified RISC in buffer B was assayed for target RNA cleavage without preincubation nor addition of extra siRNA (10 nM target RNA, 1 mM ATP, 0.2 mM GTP, 10 U/ml RNasin, 30 μg/ml creatine kinase, 25 mM creatine phosphate, 50% RISC in buffer B). Cleavage reactions were stopped by the addition of 8 vols of proteinase K buffer (200 mM Tris-HCl pH 7.5, 25 mM EDTA, 300 mM NaCl, 2% w/v SDS). Proteinase K, dissolved in 50 mM Tris-HCl pH 8.0, 5 mM CaCl2, 50% glycerol, was added to a final concentration of 0.6 mg/ml and processed as described (Zamore et al. (2000), supra). Samples were s separated on 6% sequencing gels.
1.5 Analytical Gel Filtration
 UV-eluates in buffer B were fractionated by gel filtration using a Superdex 200 PC 3.2/30 column (Amersham Biosciences) equilibrated with buffer A on a SMART system (Amersham Biosciences). Fractionation was performed by using a flow rate of 40 μl/minute and collecting 100 μl fractions. Fractions were assayed for specific target RNA cleavage. Size calibration was performed using molecular size markers thyroglobulin (669 kDa), ferritin (440 kDa), catalase (232 kDa), aldolase (158 kDa) and BSA (66 kDa) (Amersham Biosciences).
1.6 Glycerol Gradient Sedimentation
 UV-eluates were layered on top of 4 ml linear 5% to 20% (w/w) glycerol gradient adjusted to 30 mM HEPES, pH 7.4, 100 mM KCl, 2 mM MgCl2, 0.5 mM DTT. Centrifugation was performed at 35000 rpm for 14.5 h at 4° C. using a Sorvall SW 60 rotor. Twenty fractions of 0.2 ml volume were removed sequentially from the top and 15 μl aliquots were used to assay for target RNA cleavage.
 2.1 A Human Biochemical System for siRNA Functional Analysis
 We were interested in assaying siRNA-mediated target RNA degradation in human cell extracts, because siRNAs are powerful reagents to knockdown gene expression in human cells but the action of siRNAs in human cells was uncertain. To investigate whether siRNAs guide target RNA degradation in human cells with a similar mechanism to the one observed in D. melanogaster (e.g. Elbashir et al. (2001 b), supra), we prepared substrates for targeted mRNA degradation as described previously (Elbashir et al. (2001 c), supra). A 5═-32P-cap-labeled, 177-nt RNA transcript, derived from a segment of the firefly luciferase gene, was incubated in HeLa cell S100 or D. melanogaster embryo extracts with a 21-nt siRNA duplex in the presence of an ATP regeneration system (FIG. 1A, B). siRNA cleavage assays were performed at 25° C. in D. melanogaster lysate and at 30° C. in HeLa S100 extracts for 2.5 h. After deproteinization using proteinase K, the reaction products were separated on a 6% sequencing gel.
 Similar to the previous observation in D. melanogaster lysate, we observed the appearance of a cleavage product in HeLa S100 extract at exactly the same position, thus indicating that the siRNA duplex guides target RNA cleavage in the human system with the same specificity and mechanism. The cleavage reaction appeared less efficient when compared to the D. melanogaster system, but this could be explained by the 5-fold lower total protein concentration of HeLa S100 extracts (25 mg/ml vs. 5 mg/ml). Similar to D. melanogaster lysates, siRNA duplexes without 5' phosphate were rapidly 5' phosphorylated in HeLa S100 extracts (see below) and the ability to cleave the target RNA was independent of the presence of a 5' phosphate on the synthetic siRNA duplexes.
 Comparative analysis of the efficiency of siRNA duplexes of different length in D. melanogaster lysate and in transfected mammalian cells indicated that the differences in silencing efficiencies between 20- to 25-nt siRNA duplexes were less pronounced in mammalian cells than in D. melanogaster (Elbashir et al. (2002), supra). Duplexes of 24- and 25-nt siRNAs were inactive in D. melanogaster lysate, whereas the same duplexes were quite effective for silencing when introduced by transfection into HeLa cells. We therefore asked whether siRNA duplexes of 20- to 25-nt are able to reconstitute RISC also with approximately equal efficiency. Indeed, we observed no large differences in our biochemical assay, and the position of target RNA cleavage was as predicted according to the cleavage guiding rules established in D. melanogaster lysate (data not shown). Our biochemical results therefore support the in vivo observations.
2.2 5' Modification of the Guide siRNA Inhibits RISC Activity
 Modification of siRNAs at their termini is important for developing siRNA-based affinity purification schemes or for Conjugating reporter tags for biophysical measurements. The most common method for introducing reactive side chains into nucleic acids is by chemical synthesis using aminolinker derivatives (Eckstein (1991), Oligonucleotides and analogues, 2nd Ed., Oxford UK, Oxford University Press). After complete deprotection of the oligonucleotide, the primary amine is typically reacted with the N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester of the desired compound. We have introduced 5' and 3' aminolinkers with six and seven methylene groups as spacers, respectively. The linker-modified siRNA duplexes were tested for mediating target RNA degradation in HeLa S100 extract (FIG. 2A, B). Modification of the 5'-end of the antisense guide siRNA abolished target RNA cleavage, while modification of neither the sense 5'-end nor of both 3'-ends showed any inhibitory effect. In an identical experiment using D. melanogaster embryo lysate, we observed a similar pattern of RISC activity although the duplex carrying the 5' aminolinker-modified antisense siRNA showed some residual activity (data not shown). Presumably, introduction of additional atoms or the change in terminal phosphate electric charge at the 5'-end of the antisense siRNA interfered with its ability to function as guide RNA. The critical function of the guide siRNAs 5' end was previously documented (Elbashir et al. (2001 c), supra).
 The ability to modify siRNAs at their 3'-end suggests that siRNAs do not play a major role for priming dsRNA synthesis and do not act as primers for degenerative PCR. The fate of a siRNA in HeLa S100 extracts was followed directly by incubation of an internally 32pCp-radiolabeled siRNA duplexes. The radiolabeled antisense siRNA strand was also prepared with different 5' and 3' phosphate modifications (FIG. 3A). All described combinations of siRNA duplexes were fully competent for RISC-dependent target RNA degradation (data not shown). As previously observed for D. melanogaster lysates (Nykanen et al. (2001), supra), rapid 5' phosphorylation of siRNA duplexes with free 5' hydroxyl termini was apparent. To our surprise, we noted that a small fraction of the 3' phosphorylated antisense siRNA could be ligated to the opposing 5' hydroxyl of the sense siRNA producing a lower mobility band. The inter-strand ligation was confirmed by changing the length of the unlabeled sense siRNA, which resulted in the expected mobility changes of the ligation product (data not shown). RNA ligase activity was previously observed in HeLa S100 extracts and it is mediated by two enzymatic activities (e.g. Vicente and Filipowicz, Eur. J. Biochem., 176 (1988), 431-439). The 3' terminal phosphate is first converted to a 2',3'-cyclic phosphate requiring ATP and 3' terminal phosphate cyclase. Thereafter, the opposing 5' hydroxyl is ligated to the cyclic phosphate end by an as yet uncharacterized RNA ligase. We chemically synthesized the predicted 5' phosphorylated, 42-nt ligation product and found that it is unable to mediate target RNA cleavage, presumably because it can not form activated RISC. The majority of the 3' phosphorylated duplexes siRNA was gradually dephosphorylated at its 3' end and emerged chemically similar to naturally generated siRNA. Together, these observations indicate that the cell has a mechanism to preserve the integrity of siRNAs. We were unable to detect a proposed siRNA-primed polymerization product (FIG. 3B), suggesting that siRNAs do not function as primers for template-dependent dsRNA synthesis in our system. However, we acknowledge that a proposed RNA-dependent polymerase activity may have been inactivated during preparation of our extracts.
2.3 siRNAs Incorporated into RISC do not Compete with a Pool of Free siRNAs
 In order to analyze RISC assembly and stability, we tested whether target-unspecific siRNA duplexes were able to compete with target-specific siRNA duplexes. When specific and non-specific siRNA duplexes were co-incubated in HeLa S100 extracts, increasing concentrations of unspecific siRNA duplex competed with the formation of target-specific RISC (FIG. 4, left lanes). However, when target-specific siRNAs were pre-incubated in HeLa S100 extract for 15 min in the absence of competitor siRNA duplex, the assembled siRNA in the target-specific RISC could no longer be competed with the target-unspecific siRNA duplex (FIG. 4, right lanes). This result suggests that RISC is formed during the first 15 minutes of incubation and that siRNAs were irreversibly associated with the protein components of RISC during the 2.5 h time window of the experiment.
2.4 Purification of Human RISC
 After having the 3' termini of siRNAs defined as the most suitable position for chemical modification, a photo-cleavable biotin derivative was conjugated to the 3' aminolinker-modified siRNAs. A photo-cleavable biotin derivative was selected because of the advantage of recovering RISC under non-denaturing conditions after capturing complexes on streptavidin-coated affinity supports. 3' Conjugation of biotin to the sense, antisense or to both of the strands did not affect target RNA cleavage when compared to non-biotinylated siRNAs (data not shown). siRNA duplexes with biotin residues on both 3' ends were therefore used for affinity purification (FIG. 5A). The double biotinylated siRNA duplex was incubated in HeLa S100 extracts in the presence of ATP, GTP, creatine phosphate, and creatine kinase for ATP regeneration. Thereafter, streptavidin-conjugated agarose beads were added to capture the biotinylated siRNA ribonucleoprotein complexes (siRNPs) including RISC. After extensive washing of the collected beads, the siRNPs were released by UV irradiation at 312 nm. The eluate cleaved target RNA sequence-specifically, thus indicating that RISC was recovered in its native state from the resin. (FIG. 5B, C, lane UV elu). The flow-through from the affinity selection showed no detectable RISC activity indicating complete binding of RISC by the beads (FIG. 6). The affinity eluate was further analyzed by applying it onto a Superdex 200 gel filtration column (FIG. 5B) as well as a 5%-20% glycerol gradient ultra-centrifugation (FIG. 5C). Individual fractions were collected and assayed for target RNA cleavage without the addition of any further siRNA. RISC activity appeared between the molecular size markers aldolase (158 kDa) and BSA (66 kDa) after gel filtration or glycerol gradient centrifugation (FIG. 5B, C). The molecular size of human RISC is therefore estimated to be between 90 and 160 kDa, significantly smaller than the complex previously analyzed in D. melanogaster lysates (Hammond et al. (2000), supra; Nykanen et al. (2001), supra). The small size of RISC suggests that Dicer (210 kDa) is not contained in RISC and that the formation of RISC from synthetic siRNAs may occur independently of Dicer. While these results do not rule out a role for Dicer during assembly of RISC, they emphasize the absence of Dicer in RISC.
2.5 RISC Contains a Single siRNA Strand and can be Reconstituted Using Single-Stranded siRNAs
 Two models are currently discussed concerning the siRNA strand composition of RISC. The first model suggests that both strands of the initially added siRNA duplex are physically present in RISC, but in an unwound conformation. The second model proposes that RISC carries only a single siRNA strand, implying loss of one of the siRNA strands during assembly. The latter model has been favored based on the analogy to miRNA precursor processing, where only one 21-nt strand accumulated from a dsRNA hairpin precursor. The molecular basis for the asymmetry of the miRNA precursor processing reaction is not yet understood. Because siRNAs have symmetric 2-nt 3'-overhangs it is assumed that siRNA duplexes enter RISC with equal probability for both orientations, thus giving rise to distinct sense and antisense targeting RISCs.
 To address the constitution of siRNAs in RISC, we affinity selected the assembled complexes with siRNA duplexes that were biotinylated at only one of the two constituting strands or both (FIG. 6). If both strands were present together in RISC, the cleavage activity should be affinity selected on Neutravidin independently of the position of the biotin residue. In contrast, we observed target RNA cleavage from UV eluates after streptavidin selection only for siRNA duplexes with biotin conjugated to the antisense strand, but not the sense strand (FIG. 6). RISC activity, assembled on siRNA duplexes with only the sense siRNA biotinylated, remained in the flow-through. These data suggest that RISC contains only a single-stranded RNA molecule.
 To assess whether single-stranded siRNAs may be able to reconstitute RISC, single-stranded 5' phosphorylated siRNAs as well as the siRNA duplex were incubated at concentrations between 1 to 100 nM with cap-labeled target RNA in HeLa S100 extract (FIG. 7A). At 100 nM single-stranded antisense siRNA, we detected RISC-specific target RNA cleavage, thus confirming that single-stranded siRNAs are present in RISC. At lower concentrations of single-stranded siRNAs, RISC formation remained undetectable while duplex siRNAs were effectively forming RISC even at 1 nM concentration. Therefore, a specific pathway exists which converts double-stranded siRNA into single-stranded siRNA containing RISC. Using D. melanogaster embryo lysate, we were unable to detect RISC activity from antisense siRNA (FIG. 78), presumably because of the high load of single-strand specific ribonucleases (Elbashir et al. (2001 b), supra). Furthermore, 5' phosphorylated 20- to 25-nt antisense siRNAs were able to mediate RISC-specific target RNA degradation in HeLa S100 extract producing the same target RNA cleavage sites as duplex siRNAs of this length (data not shown).
 Finally, we tested single-stranded and duplex siRNAs for targeting of an endogenous gene in HeLa cells following our standard protocol previously established for silencing of lamin A/C. 200 nM concentrations of single-stranded siRNAs with and without 5' phosphate and 100 nM concentrations of duplex siRNAs were transfected into HeLa cells. Lamin A/C levels were monitored 48 h later using immunofluorescence (FIG. 8A) and quantitative luminescence-based Western blot analysis (FIG. 8B). non-phosphorylated antisense siRNA caused a substantial knockdown of lamin A/C to about 25% of its normal level while 5' phosphoryled siRNAs reduced the lamin A/C content to less than 5%, similar to the reduction observed with the lamin A/C 5' phosphorylated (data not shown) or non-phosphorylated duplex siRNA (FIG. 8). Sense siRNA and GL2 unspecific siRNA did not affect lamin A/C levels. The levels of non-targeted vimentin protein were monitored and used for normalizing of the loading of the lanes of the lamin A/C Western blots.
 Gene silencing was also observed with phosphorylated as well as non-phosphorylated antisense siRNAs ranging in size between 19 to 29 nt. The phosphorylated antisense siRNAs were consistently better performing than the non-phosphorylated antisense, and their silencing efficiencies were comparable to that of the conventional duplex siRNA (FIG. 11).
2.6 Protein Composition of RISC
 In order to identify the protein components of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) in HeLa S100 extract, the specific affinity selection previously outlined was used. UV eluates were fractionated on a 5-20% glycerol gradient, fractions were recovered from the gradient and analysed for protein composition and target RNA endonucleolytic activity. Two proteins of approximately 100 kDa were identified by mass spectrometry in the peak fraction of the endonucleolytic activity (FIG. 12, fractions 7 and 8), corresponding to eIF2C1 and eIF2C2/GERp95 (FIGS. 13A and B). These proteins are 82% similar and are both members of the Argonaute family (FIG. 13C). The first evidence that Argonaute proteins are part of RISC was provided by classical biochemical fractionation studies using dsRNA-transfected D. melanogaster S2 cells (Hammond et al., 2001, supra). The closest relative to D. melanogaster Argonaute2, D. melanogaster Argonaute1, was recently shown to be required for RNAI (Williams and Rubin, PNAS USA 99 (2002), 6889-6894).
 Mass spectrometry analysis also revealed the presence of three peptides belonging exclusively to the HILI member of the Argonaute family of proteins. The sequences of those peptides are: NKQDFMDLSICTR, is corresponding to positions 17-29 of the protein; TEYVAESFLNCLRR, corresponding to positions 436-449 of the protein, and; YNHDLPARIIVYR, corresponding to positions 591-603 of the protein. This finding suggests that the protein HILI may also be part of RISC.
 In human, the Argonaute family is composed of 6 members, eIF2C1, eIF2C2, eIF2C3, eIF2C4, HILI and HMI (FIG. 14). The alignment of the six predicted amino-acid sequences show a high conservation, in particular between the eIF2C members, and HILI and HIWI (FIG. 15). Predicted cDNA sequences encoding the Argonaute proteins are also shown (FIG. 16).
 The expression of the human Argonaute proteins was also investigated in HeLa cells by RT-PCR analysis using total and poly (A) selected RNA. All members of the family but HIWI were detected (FIG. 17).
 The development of a human biochemical system for analysis of the mechanism of RNAi is important given the recent success of siRNA duplexes for silencing genes expressed in human cultured cells and the potential for becoming a sequence-specific therapeutic agent. Biochemical systems are useful for defining the individual steps of the RNAi process and for evaluating the constitution and molecular requirements of the participating macromolecular complexes. For the analysis of RNAi, several systems were developed, with the D. melanogaster systems being the most comprehensive as they enable to reconstitute dsRNA processing as well as the mRNA targeting. For mammalian systems, reconstitution of the mRNA targeting reaction has not yet been accomplished. Here, we describe the development and application of a biochemical system prepared from the cytoplasmic fraction of human HeLa cells, which is able to reconstitute the human mRNA-targeting RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). Formation of RISC was accomplished using either 5' phosphorylated or non-phosphorylated siRNA duplexes; as well as single-stranded antisense siRNAs; non-phosphorylated siRNA duplexes and presumably also single-stranded antisense siRNAs are rapidly 5' phosphorylated in HeLa cell extracts (FIG. 3).
Biochemical Characterization of siRNA Function
 Reconstitution of RISC activity was only observed using cytoplasmic HeLa extracts. HeLa nuclear extracts assayed under the same conditions did not support siRNA-specific target RNA cleavage, thus suggesting that RISC components are located predominantly in the cytoplasm (data not shown).
 Modifications of the 5' and 3' termini of siRNAs were tested in order to assess the importance of the siRNA termini for the targeting step. It was found that the 5' end modification of the guide siRNA was more inhibitory for target RNA cleavage than 3' end modification. Introduction of the 3' biotin affinity tag into the target-complementary guide siRNA enabled us to affinity select sense-RNA-targeting RISC, whereas 3' biotinylation of the sense siRNA strand resulted in RISC activity in the flowthrough. Furthermore, the single RNA strand composition of RISC was confirmed by reconstituting the sequence-specific endonuclease complex using 5'-phosphorylated single-stranded guide siRNA. The reconstitution of RISC from single-stranded siRNA was however less effective and required 10- to 100-fold higher concentrations compared to duplex siRNA. Reconstitution of RISC from single-stranded siRNA was undetectable using D. melanogaster embryo lysate, which is most likely explained by the high content of 5' to 3' exonucleases in embryo lysate.
 The size of RISC in HeLa lysate was determined by gel filtration as well as glycerol gradient ultracentrifugation after streptavidin affinity purification with 3' biotinylated siRNA duplexes. Sizes for RISC in D. melanogaster systems have been reported within a range of less than 230 to 500 kDa, however size determinations were conducted without having affinity purified RISC. Our affinity-purified RISC sediments in a narrow range between the size makers of 66 and 158 kDa. The differences to the reported sizes for RISC are not species-specific as we observed a similar size for RISC in D. melanogaster S2 cell cytoplasmic extracts after affinity purification (data not shown).
 It has previously been proposed that siRNAs act as primers for target RNA-templated dsRNA synthesis (Lipardi et al., Cell 107 (2001), 297-307) although homologs for such RNA-dependent RNA polymerases known to participate in gene silencing in other systems are not identified in D. melanogaster or mammalian genomes. Analysis of the fate of siRNA duplexes in the HeLa cell system did not provide evidence for such a siRNA-primed activity (FIG. 3), but indicates that the predominant pathway for siRNA-mediated gene silencing is sequence-specific endonucleolytic target RNA degradation.
Single-Stranded 5' Phosphorylated Antisense siRNAs as Triggers of Mammalian Gene Silencing
 It was previously noted that introduction of sense and antisense RNAs of several hundred nucleotides in length into C. elegans was able to sequence-specifically silence homologous genes (Guo and Kemphues, Cell 81 (1995), 611-620). Later, it was suggested that the sense and antisense RNA preparation were contaminated with a small amount of dsRNA, which was responsible for the silencing effect and is a much more potent inducer of gene silencing (Fire et al. (1998), supra). It is however conceivable that antisense RNA directly contributed to initiation of silencing. Indeed, most recently it was shown that antisense RNAs between 22 and 40 nt, but not sense RNAs were able to activate gene silencing in C. elegans (Tijsterman et al., Science 295 (2002), 694-697). The authors, however, favored the hypothesis of siRNA-primed dsRNA synthesis.
 We have shown that modification of the 3' ends of antisense siRNA did not interfere with reconstitution of RISC in the human system. Together, these observations suggest that the driving forces for gene silencing in C. elegans may be predominantly dsRNA synthesis followed by Dicer cleavage, while in human and possibly also in D. melanogaster RISC-specific target mRNA degradation predominates.
 Targeting of endogenously expressed lamin A/C by transfection of duplex siRNA into HeLa cells was the first reported example of siRNA-induced gene silencing. Lamin A/C protein was drastically reduced by a lamin A/C-specific siRNA duplex within two days post transfection, while unspecific siRNA duplexes showed no effect. At the time, transfection of non-phosphorylated sense or antisense siRNA did not reveal a substantial effect on lamin A/C levels, although more recently a minor reduction upon antisense siRNA transfection was noticed when similar concentrations of antisense siRNA were delivered as described in this study. However, the effect was not interpreted as RISC-specific effect. Assaying 5'-phosphorylated antisense siRNAs revealed a substantial increase in lamin A/C silencing. Probably, 5' phosphorylated siRNAs are more stable or enter RISC more rapidly. Alternatively, the 5' end of transfected single-stranded s1RNA may be less rapidly phosphorylated in the cell in comparison to duplex siRNAs.
 Finally, it should be noted that HeLa cells are generally poor in nucleases and represent one of the preferred mammalian systems for studying RNA-processing or transcription reactions in vivo and in vitro. However, it can be expected that 5' phosphorylated single-stranded antisense siRNAs are suitable to knockdown gene expression in other cell types or tissues with a different content of nucleases, since chemical strategies to improve nuclease resistance of single stranded RNA are available. The general silencing ability of various cell types may also depend on the relative levels of siRNA/miRNA-free eIF2C1 and eIF2C2 proteins capable of associating with exogenously delivered siRNAs.
 In summary, single-stranded 5'-phosphorylated antisense siRNAs of 19- to 29-nt in size broaden the use of RNA molecules for gene silencing because they can enter the mammalian RNAi pathway in vitro as well as in vivo through reconstitution of RISC. Human eIF2C1 and/or eIF2C2 seem to play a critical. role in this process. Considering the feasibility of modulating the stability and uptake properties of single-stranded RNAs, 5'-phosphorylated single-stranded antisense siRNAs may further expand the utility of RNAi-based gene silencing technology as tool for functional genomics as well as therapeutic applications.
 Argonaute proteins are a distinct class of proteins, containing a PAZ and Piwi domain (Cerutti et al., 2000, supra) and have been implicated in many processes previously linked to post-transcriptional silencing, however only limited biochemical information is available.
 Human eIF2C2 is the ortholog of rat GERp95, which was identified as a component of the Golgi complex or the endoplasmic reticulum and copurified with intracellular membranes (Cikaluk et al., Mol. Biol. Cell 10 (1999), 3357-3722). More recently, HeLa cell eIF2C2 was shown to be associated with microRNAs and components of the SMN complex, a regulator of ribonucleoprotein assembly, suggesting that eIF2C2 plays a role in miRNA precursor processing or miRNA function (Mourelatos et al., Genes & Dev. 16 (2002), 720-728). A more provocative hypothesis is that miRNAs are also in a RISC-like complex, which could potentially mediate target RNA degradation, if only perfectly matched miRNA target mRNAs existed. Sequence analysis using cloned human and mouse, however, did not reveal the presence of such perfectly complementary sequences in the genomes (Lagos-Quintana et al., Science 294 (2001), 853-858). Therefore, miRNPs may only function as translational regulators of partially mismatched target mRNAs, probably by recruiting additional factors that prevent dissociation from mismatched target mRNAs.
 Human eIF2C1 has not been linked to gene silencing previously, but it is more than 80% similar in sequence to eIF2C2 (Koesters et al., Genomics 61 (1999), 210-218). This similarity may indicate functional redundancy, but it is also conceivable that functional RISC may contain eIF2C1 and eIF2C2 heterodimers. The predicted molecular weight of this heterodimeric complex would be slightly larger than the observed size of 90-160 kDa, but because size fractionation is based on globular shape, we can not disregard this possibility at this time.
 Due to the high conservation between the members of the Argonaute family, it is possible that peptides that derive from regions 100% conserved in the 6 predicted proteins, may belong to members others than eIF2C1 and eIF2C2. In this respect, three peptides were identified with masses corresponding to HILI, meaning that this protein might be also a component of RISC.
 To precisely assess the protein composition of RISC, reconstitution of the siRNA-mediated target RNA cleavage must be achieved by using recombinant proteins which may be obtained by cloning and expression in suitable bacterial or eukaryotic systems.
 We expect that the biochemical characterization or the siRNA-mediated target RNA degradation process will have immediate applications, such as the development of cell lines or transgenic animals overexpressing RISC components. The efficiency in targeting endogenous genes in those lines or organisms will be enhanced. Furthermore, a reconstituted in vitro system for RNAi will allow the design of more potent and specific siRNA to achieve gene silencing.
115115RNAHomo sapiensmisc_featureHeLa S100 antisense siRNA (5'-3') 1ucgaaguauu ccgcg 15221RNAHomo sapiensmisc_featureHeLa S100 antisense siRNA (5'-3') 2ucgaaguauu ccgcguacgu g 21325RNAHomo sapiensmisc_featureHeLa S100 antisense siRNA (5'-3') 3ucgaaguauu ccgcguacgu gaugu 25427RNAHomo sapiensmisc_featureHeLa S100 antisense siRNA (5'-3') 4ucgaaguauu ccgcguacgu gauguuc 27529RNAHomo sapiensmisc_featureHeLa S100 antisense siRNA (5'-3') 5ucgaaguauu ccgcguacgu gauguucac 29615RNAHomo sapiensmisc_featureHeLa S100 antisense siRNA (5'-3') 6ucgaaguauu ccgcg 15721RNAHomo sapiensmisc_featureHeLa S100 antisense siRNA (5'-3') 7ucgaaguauu ccgcguacgu g 21825RNAHomo sapiensmisc_featureHeLa S100 antisense siRNA (5'-3') 8ucgaaguauu ccgcguacgu gaugu 25927RNAHomo sapiensmisc_featureHeLa S100 antisense siRNA (5'-3') 9ucgaaguauu ccgcguacgu gauguuc 271029RNAHomo sapiensmisc_featureHeLa S100 antisense siRNA (5'-3') 10ucgaaguauu ccgcguacgu gauguucac 291121RNAHomo sapiensmisc_featureHeLa S100 antisense siRNA (5'-3') 11ucgaaguauu ccgcguacgu g 211221DNAHomo sapiensmisc_feature(1)..(21)RNA/DNA hybrid 12ucgaaguauu ccgcguacgn n 211321RNAHomo sapiensmisc_featureHeLa S100 antisense siRNA (5'-3') 13ucgaaguauu ccgcguacgu u 211421DNAHomo sapiensmisc_feature(1)..(21)RNA/DNA hybrid 14ucgaaguauu ccgcguacgn n 211521RNAHomo sapiensmisc_featureHeLa S100 antisense siRNA (5'-3') 15ucgaaguauu ccgcguacgu g 211621DNAHomo sapiensmisc_feature(1)..(21)RNA/DNA hybrid 16ucgaaguauu ccgcguacgn n 211721RNAHomo sapiensmisc_featureHeLa S100 antisense siRNA (5'-3') 17ucgaaguauu ccgcguacgu u 211821DNAHomo sapiensmisc_feature(1)..(21)RNA/DNA hybrid 18ucgaaguauu ccgcguacgn n 211921RNAHomo sapiensmisc_featureHeLa S100 sense siRNA (5'-3') 19cguacgcgga auacuucgaa a 212021RNAHomo sapiensmisc_featureHeLa S100 antisense siRNA (5'-3') 20ucgaaguauu ccgcguacgu g 212121RNAHomo sapiensmisc_featureHeLa S100 sense siRNA (5'-3') 21cguacgcgga auacuucgaa a 212221DNAHomo sapiensmisc_feature(1)..(21)RNA/DNA hybrid 22ucgaaguauu ccgcguacgn n 212321RNAHomo sapiensmisc_featureHeLa S100 sense siRNA (5'-3') 23cguacgcgga auacuucgaa a 212421RNAHomo sapiensmisc_featureHeLa S100 antisense siRNA (5'-3') 24ucgaaguauu ccgcguacgu u 212521RNAHomo sapiensmisc_featureHeLa S100 sense siRNA (5'-3') 25cguacgcgga auacuucgaa a 212621DNAHomo sapiensmisc_feature(1)..(21)RNA/DNA hybrid 26ucgaaguauu ccgcguacgn n 212721DNAHomo sapiensmisc_feature(1)..(21)RNA/DNA hybrid 27ncgaaguauu ccgcguacgu u 212821DNAHomo sapiensmisc_feature(1)..(21)RNA/DNA hybrid 28nguacgcgga auacuucgau u 212921DNAHomo sapiensmisc_feature(1)..(21)RNA/DNA hybrid 29ncgaaguauu ccgcguacgu u 213021DNAHomo sapiensmisc_feature(1)..(21)RNA/DNA hybrid 30ncgaaguauu ccgcguacgn n 213121DNAHomo sapiensmisc_feature(1)..(21)RNA/DNA hybrid 31nguacgcgga auacuucgan n 213221DNAHomo sapiensmisc_feature(1)..(21)RNA/DNA hybrid 32ncgaaguauu ccgcguacgn n 213321DNAHomo sapiensmisc_feature(1)..(21)RNA/DNA hybrid 33ncgaaguauu ccgcguacgn n 213413PRTHomo sapiensMISC_FEATUREpeptide fragment of HILI, corresponding to position 17-29 of the protein 34Asn Lys Gln Asp Phe Met Asp Leu Ser Ile Cys Thr Arg1 5 103514PRTHomo sapiensMISC_FEATUREpeptide fragment of HILI, corresponding to position 436-449 of the protein 35Thr Glu Tyr Val Ala Glu Ser Phe Leu Asn Cys Leu Arg Arg1 5 103613PRTHomo sapiensMISC_FEATUREpeptide fragment of HILI, corresponding to position 591-603 of the protein 36Tyr Asn His Asp Leu Pro Ala Arg Ile Ile Val Tyr Arg1 5 103735RNAHomo sapiensmisc_featureHeLa S100 target RNA 37aacaucacgu acgcggaaua cuucgaaaug uccgu 353821RNAHomo sapiensmisc_featureHeLa S100 strand of siRNA duplex 38cguacgcgga auacuucgau u 213921RNAHomo sapiensmisc_featureHeLa S100 strand of siRNA duplex 39ucgaaguauu ccgcguacgu u 214021RNAHomo sapiensmisc_featureHeLa S100 strand of siRNA duplex 40cguacgcgga auacuucgaa a 214120RNAHomo sapiensmisc_featureHeLa S100 strand of siRNA duplex 41ucgaaguauu ccgcguacgu 204212PRTHomo sapiensMISC_FEATUREpeptide fragment of eIF2C2, obtained by mass spectrometry 42Val Leu Gln Pro Pro Ser Ile Leu Tyr Gly Gly Arg1 5 104312PRTHomo sapiensMISC_FEATUREpeptide fragment of eIF2C2, obtained by mass spectrometry 43Gln Glu Ile Ile Gln Asp Leu Ala Ala Met Val Arg1 5 104412PRTHomo sapiensMISC_FEATUREpeptide fragment of eIF2C2, obtained by mass spectrometry 44His Leu Pro Ser Met Arg Tyr Thr Pro Val Gly Arg1 5 104512PRTHomo sapiensMISC_FEATUREpeptide fragment of eIF2C2, obtained by mass spectrometry 45Lys Leu Thr Asp Asn Gln Thr Ser Thr Met Ile Arg1 5 104613PRTHomo sapiensMISC_FEATUREpeptide fragment of eIF2C2, obtained by mass spectrometry 46Tyr Ala Gln Gly Ala Asp Ser Val Glu Pro Met Phe Arg1 5 104714PRTHomo sapiensMISC_FEATUREpeptide fragment of eIF2C2, obtained by mass spectrometry 47Asp Lys Val Glu Leu Glu Val Thr Leu Pro Gly Glu Gly Lys1 5 104814PRTHomo sapiensMISC_FEATUREpeptide fragment of eIF2C2, obtained by mass spectrometry 48Asp Ala Gly Met Pro Ile Gln Gly Gln Pro Cys Phe Cys Lys1 5 104914PRTHomo sapiensMISC_FEATUREpeptide fragment of eIF2C2, obtained by mass spectrometry 49Thr Gln Ile Phe Gly Asp Arg Lys Pro Val Phe Asp Gly Arg1 5 105015PRTHomo sapiensMISC_FEATUREpeptide fragment of eIF2C2, obtained by mass spectrometry 50Ala Thr Ala Arg Ser Ala Pro Asp Arg Gln Glu Glu Ile Ser Lys1 5 10 155114PRTHomo sapiensMISC_FEATUREpeptide fragment of eIF2C2, obtained by mass spectrometry 51Asp Tyr Gln Pro Gly Ile Thr Phe Ile Val Val Gln Lys Arg1 5 105214PRTHomo sapiensMISC_FEATUREpeptide fragment of eIF2C2, obtained by mass spectrometry 52Ser Ala Pro Asp Arg Gln Glu Glu Ile Ser Lys Leu Met Arg1 5 105314PRTHomo sapiensMISC_FEATUREpeptide fragment of eIF2C2, obtained by mass spectrometry 53Tyr Pro His Leu Pro Cys Leu Gln Val Gly Gln Glu Gln Lys1 5 105417PRTHomo sapiensMISC_FEATUREpeptide fragment of eIF2C2, obtained by mass spectrometry 54Ser Phe Phe Thr Ala Ser Glu Gly Cys Ser Asn Pro Leu Gly Gly Gly1 5 10 15Arg5523PRTHomo sapiensMISC_FEATUREpeptide fragment of eIF2C2, obtained by mass spectrometry 55Tyr His Leu Val Asp Lys Glu His Asp Ser Ala Glu Gly Ser His Thr1 5 10 15Ser Gly Gln Ser Asn Gly Arg 205612PRTHomo sapiensMISC_FEATUREpeptide fragment of eIF2C1, obtained by mass spectrometry 56Val Leu Pro Ala Pro Ile Leu Gln Tyr Gly Gly Arg1 5 105712PRTHomo sapiensMISC_FEATUREpeptide fragment of eIF2C1, obtained by mass spectrometry 57Ser Val Ser Ile Pro Ala Pro Ala Tyr Tyr Ala Arg1 5 105812PRTHomo sapiensMISC_FEATUREpeptide fragment of eIF2C1, obtained by mass spectrometry 58Thr Ser Pro Gln Thr Leu Ser Asn Leu Cys Leu Lys1 5 105913PRTHomo sapiensMISC_FEATUREpeptide fragment of eIF2C1, obtained by mass spectrometry 59Tyr Ala Gln Gly Ala Asp Ser Val Glu Pro Met Phe Arg1 5 106014PRTHomo sapiensMISC_FEATUREpeptide fragment of eIF2C1, obtained by mass spectrometry 60Asn Ile Tyr Thr Val Thr Ala Leu Pro Ile Gly Asn Glu Arg1 5 106114PRTHomo sapiensMISC_FEATUREpeptide fragment of eIF2C1, obtained by mass spectrometry 61Val Asp Phe Glu Val Thr Ile Pro Gly Glu Gly Lys Asp Arg1 5 106214PRTHomo sapiensMISC_FEATUREHeLa S100 cells peptide fragment of eIF2C1 obtained by mass spectrometry 62Asp Ala Gly Met Pro Ile Gln Gly Gln Pro Cys Phe Cys Lys1 5 106314PRTHomo sapiensMISC_FEATUREpeptide fragment of eIF2C1, obtained by mass spectrometry 63Asn Ile Asp Glu Gln Pro Lys Pro Leu Thr Asp Ser Gln Arg1 5 106414PRTHomo sapiensMISC_FEATUREpeptide fragment of eIF2C1, obtained by mass spectrometry 64Ser Ala Pro Asp Arg Gln Glu Glu Ile Ser Arg Leu Met Lys1 5 106514PRTHomo sapiensMISC_FEATUREpeptide fragment of eIF2C1, obtained by mass spectrometry 65Asp Tyr Gln Pro Gly Ile Thr Tyr Ile Val Val Gln Lys Arg1 5 106614PRTHomo sapiensMISC_FEATUREpeptide fragment of eIF2C1, obtained by mass spectrometry 66Tyr Pro His Leu Pro Cys Leu Gln Val Gly Gln Glu Gln Lys1 5 106717PRTHomo sapiensMISC_FEATUREpeptide fragment of eIF2C1, obtained by mass spectrometry 67Ser Phe Phe Ser Pro Pro Glu Gly Tyr Tyr His Pro Leu Gly Gly Gly1 5 10 15Arg68857PRTHomo sapiensMISC_FEATUREeIF2C1, predicted protein sequence 68Met Glu Ala Gly Pro Ser Gly Ala Ala Ala Gly Ala Tyr Leu Pro Pro1 5 10 15Leu Gln Gln Val Phe Gln Ala Pro Arg Arg Pro Gly Ile Gly Thr Val 20 25 30Gly Lys Pro Ile Lys Leu Leu Ala Asn Tyr Phe Glu Val Asp Ile Pro 35 40 45Lys Ile Asp Val Tyr His Tyr Glu Val Asp Ile Lys Pro Asp Lys Cys 50 55 60Pro Arg Arg Val Asn Arg Glu Val Val Glu Tyr Met Val Gln His Phe65 70 75 80Lys Pro Gln Ile Phe Gly Asp Arg Lys Pro Val Tyr Asp Gly Lys Lys 85 90 95Asn Ile Tyr Thr Val Thr Ala Leu Pro Ile Gly Asn Glu Arg Val Asp 100 105 110Phe Glu Val Thr Ile Pro Gly Glu Gly Lys Asp Arg Ile Phe Lys Val 115 120 125Ser Ile Lys Trp Leu Ala Ile Val Ser Trp Arg Met Leu His Glu Ala 130 135 140Leu Val Ser Gly Gln Ile Pro Val Pro Leu Glu Ser Val Gln Ala Leu145 150 155 160Asp Val Ala Met Arg His Leu Ala Ser Met Arg Tyr Thr Pro Val Gly 165 170 175Arg Ser Phe Phe Ser Pro Pro Glu Gly Tyr Tyr His Pro Leu Gly Gly 180 185 190Gly Arg Glu Val Trp Phe Gly Phe His Gln Ser Val Arg Pro Ala Met 195 200 205Trp Lys Met Met Leu Asn Ile Asp Val Ser Ala Thr Ala Phe Tyr Lys 210 215 220Ala Gln Pro Val Ile Glu Phe Met Cys Glu Val Leu Asp Ile Arg Asn225 230 235 240Ile Asp Glu Gln Pro Lys Pro Leu Thr Asp Ser Gln Arg Val Arg Phe 245 250 255Thr Lys Glu Ile Lys Gly Leu Lys Val Glu Val Thr His Cys Gly Gln 260 265 270Met Lys Arg Lys Tyr Arg Val Cys Asn Val Thr Arg Arg Pro Ala Ser 275 280 285His Gln Thr Phe Pro Leu Gln Leu Glu Ser Gly Gln Thr Val Glu Cys 290 295 300Thr Val Ala Gln Tyr Phe Lys Gln Lys Tyr Asn Leu Gln Leu Lys Tyr305 310 315 320Pro His Leu Pro Cys Leu Gln Val Gly Gln Glu Gln Lys His Thr Tyr 325 330 335Leu Pro Leu Glu Val Cys Asn Ile Val Ala Gly Gln Arg Cys Ile Lys 340 345 350Lys Leu Thr Asp Asn Gln Thr Ser Thr Met Ile Lys Ala Thr Ala Arg 355 360 365Ser Ala Pro Asp Arg Gln Glu Glu Ile Ser Arg Leu Met Lys Asn Ala 370 375 380Ser Tyr Asn Leu Asp Pro Tyr Ile Gln Glu Phe Gly Ile Lys Val Lys385 390 395 400Asp Asp Met Thr Glu Val Thr Gly Arg Val Leu Pro Ala Pro Ile Leu 405 410 415Gln Tyr Gly Gly Arg Asn Arg Ala Ile Ala Thr Pro Asn Gln Gly Val 420 425 430Trp Asp Met Arg Gly Lys Gln Phe Tyr Asn Gly Ile Glu Ile Lys Val 435 440 445Trp Ala Ile Ala Cys Phe Ala Pro Gln Lys Gln Cys Arg Glu Glu Val 450 455 460Leu Lys Asn Phe Thr Asp Gln Leu Arg Lys Ile Ser Lys Asp Ala Gly465 470 475 480Met Pro Ile Gln Gly Gln Pro Cys Phe Cys Lys Tyr Ala Gln Gly Ala 485 490 495Asp Ser Val Glu Pro Met Phe Arg His Leu Lys Asn Thr Tyr Ser Gly 500 505 510Leu Gln Leu Ile Ile Val Ile Leu Pro Gly Lys Thr Pro Val Tyr Ala 515 520 525Glu Val Lys Arg Val Gly Asp Thr Leu Leu Gly Met Ala Thr Gln Cys 530 535 540Val Gln Val Lys Asn Val Val Lys Thr Ser Pro Gln Thr Leu Ser Asn545 550 555 560Leu Cys Leu Lys Ile Asn Val Lys Leu Gly Gly Ile Asn Asn Ile Leu 565 570 575Val Pro His Gln Arg Ser Ala Val Phe Gln Gln Pro Val Ile Phe Leu 580 585 590Gly Ala Asp Val Thr His Pro Pro Ala Gly Asp Gly Lys Lys Pro Ser 595 600 605Ile Thr Ala Val Val Gly Ser Met Asp Ala His Pro Ser Arg Tyr Cys 610 615 620Ala Thr Val Arg Val Gln Arg Pro Arg Gln Glu Ile Ile Glu Asp Leu625 630 635 640Ser Tyr Met Val Arg Glu Leu Leu Ile Gln Phe Tyr Lys Ser Thr Arg 645 650 655Phe Lys Pro Thr Arg Ile Ile Phe Tyr Arg Asp Gly Val Pro Glu Gly 660 665 670Gln Leu Pro Gln Ile Leu His Tyr Glu Leu Leu Ala Ile Arg Asp Ala 675 680 685Cys Ile Lys Leu Glu Lys Asp Tyr Gln Pro Gly Ile Thr Tyr Ile Val 690 695 700Val Gln Lys Arg His His Thr Arg Leu Phe Cys Ala Asp Lys Asn Glu705 710 715 720Arg Ile Gly Lys Ser Gly Asn Ile Pro Ala Gly Thr Thr Val Asp Thr 725 730 735Asn Ile Thr His Pro Phe Glu Phe Asp Phe Tyr Leu Cys Ser His Ala 740 745 750Gly Ile Gln Gly Thr Ser Arg Pro Ser His Tyr Tyr Val Leu Trp Asp 755 760 765Asp Asn Arg Phe Thr Ala Asp Glu Leu Gln Ile Leu Thr Tyr Gln Leu 770 775 780Cys His Thr Tyr Val Arg Cys Thr Arg Ser Val Ser Ile Pro Ala Pro785 790 795 800Ala Tyr Tyr Ala Arg Leu Val Ala Phe Arg Ala Arg Tyr His Leu Val 805 810 815Asp Lys Glu His Asp Ser Gly Glu Gly Ser His Ile Ser Gly Gln Ser 820 825 830Asn Gly Arg Asp Pro Gln Ala Leu Ala Lys Ala Val Gln Val His Gln 835 840 845Asp Thr Leu Arg Thr Met Tyr Phe Ala 850 85569860PRTHomo sapiensMISC_FEATUREeIF2C2, predicted protein sequence 69Met Gly Val Leu Ser Ala Ile Pro Ala Leu Ala Pro Pro Ala Pro Pro1 5 10 15Pro Pro Ile Gln Gly Tyr Ala Phe Lys Pro Pro Pro Arg Pro Asp Phe 20 25 30Gly Thr Ser Gly Arg Thr Ile Lys Leu Gln Ala Asn Phe Phe Glu Met 35 40 45Asp Ile Pro Lys Ile Asp Ile Tyr His Tyr Glu Leu Asp Ile Lys Pro 50 55 60Glu Lys Cys Pro Arg Arg Val Asn Arg
Glu Ile Val Glu His Met Val65 70 75 80Gln His Phe Lys Thr Gln Ile Phe Gly Asp Arg Lys Pro Val Phe Asp 85 90 95Gly Arg Lys Asn Leu Tyr Thr Ala Met Pro Leu Pro Ile Gly Arg Asp 100 105 110Lys Val Glu Leu Glu Val Thr Leu Pro Gly Glu Gly Lys Asp Arg Ile 115 120 125Phe Lys Val Ser Ile Lys Trp Val Ser Cys Val Ser Leu Gln Ala Leu 130 135 140His Asp Ala Leu Ser Gly Arg Leu Pro Ser Val Pro Phe Glu Thr Ile145 150 155 160Gln Ala Leu Asp Val Val Met Arg His Leu Pro Ser Met Arg Tyr Thr 165 170 175Pro Val Gly Arg Ser Phe Phe Thr Ala Ser Glu Gly Cys Ser Asn Pro 180 185 190Leu Gly Gly Gly Arg Glu Val Trp Phe Gly Phe His Gln Ser Val Arg 195 200 205Pro Ser Leu Trp Lys Met Met Leu Asn Ile Asp Val Ser Ala Thr Ala 210 215 220Phe Tyr Lys Ala Gln Pro Val Ile Glu Phe Val Cys Glu Val Leu Asp225 230 235 240Phe Lys Ser Ile Glu Glu Gln Gln Lys Pro Leu Thr Asp Ser Gln Arg 245 250 255Val Lys Phe Thr Lys Glu Ile Lys Gly Leu Lys Val Glu Ile Thr His 260 265 270Cys Gly Gln Met Lys Arg Lys Tyr Arg Val Cys Asn Val Thr Arg Arg 275 280 285Pro Ala Ser His Gln Thr Phe Pro Leu Gln Gln Glu Ser Gly Gln Thr 290 295 300Val Glu Cys Thr Val Ala Gln Tyr Phe Lys Asp Arg His Lys Leu Val305 310 315 320Leu Arg Tyr Pro His Leu Pro Cys Leu Gln Val Gly Gln Glu Gln Lys 325 330 335His Thr Tyr Leu Pro Leu Glu Val Cys Asn Ile Val Ala Gly Gln Arg 340 345 350Cys Ile Lys Lys Leu Thr Asp Asn Gln Thr Ser Thr Met Ile Arg Ala 355 360 365Thr Ala Arg Ser Ala Pro Asp Arg Gln Glu Glu Ile Ser Lys Leu Met 370 375 380Arg Ser Ala Ser Phe Asn Thr Asp Pro Tyr Val Arg Glu Phe Gly Ile385 390 395 400Met Val Lys Asp Glu Met Thr Asp Val Thr Gly Arg Val Leu Gln Pro 405 410 415Pro Ser Ile Leu Tyr Gly Gly Arg Asn Lys Ala Ile Ala Thr Pro Val 420 425 430Gln Gly Val Trp Asp Met Arg Asn Lys Gln Phe His Thr Gly Ile Glu 435 440 445Ile Lys Val Trp Ala Ile Ala Cys Phe Ala Pro Gln Arg Gln Cys Thr 450 455 460Glu Val His Leu Lys Ser Phe Thr Glu Gln Leu Arg Lys Ile Ser Arg465 470 475 480Asp Ala Gly Met Pro Ile Gln Gly Gln Pro Cys Phe Cys Lys Tyr Ala 485 490 495Gln Gly Ala Asp Ser Val Glu Pro Met Phe Arg His Leu Lys Asn Thr 500 505 510Tyr Ala Gly Leu Gln Leu Val Val Val Ile Leu Pro Gly Lys Thr Pro 515 520 525Val Tyr Ala Glu Val Lys Arg Val Gly Asp Thr Val Leu Gly Met Ala 530 535 540Thr Gln Cys Val Gln Met Lys Asn Val Gln Arg Thr Thr Pro Gln Thr545 550 555 560Leu Ser Asn Leu Cys Leu Lys Ile Asn Val Lys Leu Gly Gly Val Asn 565 570 575Asn Ile Leu Leu Pro Gln Gly Arg Pro Pro Val Phe Gln Gln Pro Val 580 585 590Ile Phe Leu Gly Ala Asp Val Thr His Pro Pro Ala Gly Asp Gly Lys 595 600 605Lys Pro Ser Ile Ala Ala Val Val Gly Ser Met Asp Ala His Pro Asn 610 615 620Arg Tyr Cys Ala Thr Val Arg Val Gln Gln His Arg Gln Glu Ile Ile625 630 635 640Gln Asp Leu Ala Ala Met Val Arg Glu Leu Leu Ile Gln Phe Tyr Lys 645 650 655Ser Thr Arg Phe Lys Pro Thr Arg Ile Ile Phe Tyr Arg Asp Gly Val 660 665 670Ser Glu Gly Gln Phe Gln Gln Val Leu His His Glu Leu Leu Ala Ile 675 680 685Arg Glu Ala Cys Ile Lys Leu Glu Lys Asp Tyr Gln Pro Gly Ile Thr 690 695 700Phe Ile Val Val Gln Lys Arg His His Thr Arg Leu Phe Cys Thr Asp705 710 715 720Lys Asn Glu Arg Val Gly Lys Ser Gly Asn Ile Pro Ala Gly Thr Thr 725 730 735Val Asp Thr Lys Ile Thr His Pro Thr Glu Phe Asp Phe Tyr Leu Cys 740 745 750Ser His Ala Gly Ile Gln Gly Thr Ser Arg Pro Ser His Tyr His Val 755 760 765Leu Trp Asp Asp Asn Arg Phe Ser Ser Asp Glu Leu Gln Ile Leu Thr 770 775 780Tyr Gln Leu Cys His Thr Tyr Val Arg Cys Thr Arg Ser Val Ser Ile785 790 795 800Pro Ala Pro Ala Tyr Tyr Ala His Leu Val Ala Phe Arg Ala Arg Tyr 805 810 815His Leu Val Asp Lys Glu His Asp Ser Ala Glu Gly Ser His Thr Ser 820 825 830Gly Gln Ser Asn Gly Arg Asp His Gln Ala Leu Ala Lys Ala Val Gln 835 840 845Val His Gln Asp Thr Leu Arg Thr Met Tyr Phe Ala 850 855 86070924PRTHomo sapiensMISC_FEATUREeIF2C3, predicted protein sequence 70Ser Arg Ser Arg Val Pro Val Pro Gly Pro Gly Ala Ala Ala Ala Pro1 5 10 15Cys Pro Ala Pro Ala Ser Pro Arg Arg His Pro Ser Ala Asn Ile Pro 20 25 30Glu Ile Lys Arg Tyr Ala Ala Ala Ala Ala Ala Ala Ala Gly Pro Gly 35 40 45Ala Gly Gly Ala Gly Asp Arg Gly Glu Ala Ala Pro Ala Ala Ala Met 50 55 60Glu Ala Leu Gly Pro Gly Pro Pro Ala Ser Leu Phe Gln Pro Pro Arg65 70 75 80Arg Pro Gly Leu Gly Thr Val Gly Lys Pro Ile Arg Leu Leu Ala Asn 85 90 95His Phe Gln Val Gln Ile Pro Lys Ile Asp Val Tyr His Tyr Asp Val 100 105 110Asp Ile Lys Pro Glu Lys Arg Pro Arg Arg Val Asn Arg Glu Val Val 115 120 125Asp Thr Met Val Arg His Phe Lys Met Gln Ile Phe Gly Asp Arg Gln 130 135 140Pro Gly Tyr Asp Gly Lys Arg Asn Met Tyr Thr Ala His Pro Leu Pro145 150 155 160Ile Gly Arg Asp Arg Val Asp Met Glu Val Thr Leu Pro Gly Glu Gly 165 170 175Lys Asp Gln Thr Phe Lys Val Ser Val Gln Trp Val Ser Val Val Ser 180 185 190Leu Gln Leu Leu Leu Glu Ala Leu Ala Gly His Leu Asn Glu Val Pro 195 200 205Asp Asp Ser Val Gln Ala Leu Asp Val Ile Thr Arg His Leu Pro Ser 210 215 220Met Arg Tyr Thr Pro Val Gly Arg Ser Phe Phe Ser Pro Pro Glu Gly225 230 235 240Tyr Tyr His Pro Leu Gly Gly Gly Arg Glu Val Trp Phe Gly Phe His 245 250 255Gln Ser Val Arg Pro Ala Met Trp Asn Met Met Leu Asn Ile Asp Val 260 265 270Ser Ala Thr Ala Phe Tyr Arg Ala Gln Pro Ile Ile Glu Phe Met Cys 275 280 285Glu Val Leu Asp Ile Gln Asn Ile Asn Glu Gln Thr Lys Pro Leu Thr 290 295 300Asp Ser Gln Arg Val Lys Phe Thr Lys Glu Ile Arg Gly Leu Lys Val305 310 315 320Glu Val Thr His Cys Gly Gln Met Lys Arg Lys Tyr Arg Val Cys Asn 325 330 335Val Thr Arg Arg Pro Ala Ser His Gln Thr Phe Pro Leu Gln Leu Glu 340 345 350Asn Gly Gln Ala Met Glu Cys Thr Val Ala Gln Tyr Phe Lys Gln Lys 355 360 365Tyr Ser Leu Gln Leu Lys Tyr Pro His Leu Pro Cys Leu Gln Val Gly 370 375 380Gln Glu Gln Lys His Thr Tyr Leu Pro Leu Glu Val Cys Asn Ile Val385 390 395 400Ala Gly Gln Arg Cys Ile Lys Lys Leu Thr Asp Asn Gln Thr Ser Thr 405 410 415Met Ile Lys Ala Thr Ala Arg Ser Ala Pro Asp Arg Gln Glu Glu Ile 420 425 430Ser Arg Leu Val Lys Ser Asn Ser Met Val Gly Gly Pro Asp Pro Tyr 435 440 445Leu Lys Glu Phe Gly Ile Val Val His Asn Glu Met Thr Glu Leu Thr 450 455 460Gly Arg Val Leu Pro Ala Pro Met Leu Gln Tyr Gly Gly Arg Asn Lys465 470 475 480Thr Val Ala Thr Pro Asn Gln Gly Val Trp Asp Met Arg Gly Lys Gln 485 490 495Phe Tyr Ala Gly Ile Glu Ile Lys Val Trp Ala Val Ala Cys Phe Ala 500 505 510Pro Gln Lys Gln Cys Arg Glu Asp Leu Leu Lys Ser Phe Thr Asp Gln 515 520 525Leu Arg Lys Ile Ser Lys Asp Ala Gly Met Pro Ile Gln Gly Gln Pro 530 535 540Cys Phe Cys Lys Tyr Ala Gln Gly Ala Asp Ser Val Glu Pro Met Phe545 550 555 560Lys His Leu Lys Met Thr Tyr Val Gly Leu Gln Leu Ile Val Val Ile 565 570 575Leu Pro Gly Lys Thr Pro Val Tyr Ala Glu Val Lys Arg Val Gly Asp 580 585 590Thr Leu Leu Gly Met Ala Thr Gln Cys Val Gln Val Lys Asn Val Val 595 600 605Lys Thr Ser Pro Gln Thr Leu Ser Asn Leu Cys Leu Lys Ile Asn Ala 610 615 620Lys Leu Gly Gly Ile Asn Asn Val Leu Val Pro His Gln Arg Pro Ser625 630 635 640Val Phe Gln Gln Pro Val Ile Phe Leu Gly Ala Asp Val Thr His Pro 645 650 655Pro Ala Gly Asp Gly Lys Lys Pro Ser Ile Ala Ala Val Val Gly Ser 660 665 670Met Asp Gly His Pro Ser Arg Tyr Cys Ala Thr Val Arg Val Gln Thr 675 680 685Ser Arg Gln Glu Ile Ser Gln Glu Leu Leu Tyr Ser Gln Glu Val Ile 690 695 700Gln Asp Leu Thr Asn Met Val Arg Glu Leu Leu Ile Gln Phe Tyr Lys705 710 715 720Ser Thr Arg Phe Lys Pro Thr Arg Ile Ile Tyr Tyr Arg Gly Gly Val 725 730 735Ser Glu Gly Gln Met Lys Gln Val Ala Trp Pro Glu Leu Ile Ala Ile 740 745 750Arg Lys Ala Cys Ile Ser Leu Glu Glu Asp Tyr Arg Pro Gly Ile Thr 755 760 765Tyr Ile Val Val Gln Lys Arg His His Thr Arg Leu Phe Cys Ala Asp 770 775 780Lys Thr Glu Arg Val Gly Lys Ser Gly Asn Val Pro Ala Gly Thr Thr785 790 795 800Val Asp Ser Thr Ile Thr His Pro Ser Glu Phe Asp Phe Tyr Leu Cys 805 810 815Ser His Ala Gly Ile Gln Gly Thr Ser Arg Pro Ser His Tyr Gln Val 820 825 830Leu Trp Asp Asp Asn Cys Phe Thr Ala Asp Glu Leu Gln Leu Leu Thr 835 840 845Tyr Gln Leu Cys His Thr Tyr Val Arg Cys Thr Arg Ser Val Ser Ile 850 855 860Pro Ala Pro Ala Tyr Tyr Ala Arg Leu Val Ala Phe Arg Ala Arg Tyr865 870 875 880His Leu Val Asp Lys Asp His Asp Ser Ala Glu Gly Ser His Val Ser 885 890 895Gly Gln Ser Asn Gly Arg Asp Pro Gln Ala Leu Ala Lys Ala Val Gln 900 905 910Ile His His Asp Thr Gln His Thr Met Tyr Phe Ala 915 92071855PRTHomo sapiensMISC_FEATUREeIF2C4, predicted protein sequence 71Ala Gly Pro Ala Gly Ala Gln Pro Leu Leu Met Val Pro Arg Arg Pro1 5 10 15Gly Tyr Gly Thr Met Gly Lys Pro Ile Lys Leu Leu Ala Asn Cys Phe 20 25 30Gln Val Glu Ile Pro Lys Ile Asp Val Tyr Leu Tyr Glu Val Asp Ile 35 40 45Lys Pro Asp Lys Cys Pro Arg Arg Val Asn Arg Glu Val Val Asp Ser 50 55 60Met Val Gln His Phe Lys Val Thr Ile Phe Gly Asp Arg Arg Pro Val65 70 75 80Tyr Asp Gly Lys Arg Ser Leu Tyr Thr Ala Asn Pro Leu Pro Val Ala 85 90 95Thr Thr Gly Val Asp Leu Asp Val Thr Leu Pro Gly Glu Gly Gly Lys 100 105 110Asp Arg Pro Phe Lys Val Ser Ile Lys Phe Val Ser Arg Val Ser Trp 115 120 125His Leu Leu His Glu Val Leu Thr Gly Arg Thr Leu Pro Glu Pro Leu 130 135 140Glu Leu Asp Lys Pro Ile Ser Thr Asn Pro Val His Ala Val Asp Val145 150 155 160Val Leu Arg His Leu Pro Ser Met Lys Tyr Thr Pro Val Gly Arg Ser 165 170 175Phe Phe Ser Ala Pro Glu Gly Tyr Asp His Pro Leu Gly Gly Gly Arg 180 185 190Glu Val Trp Phe Gly Phe His Gln Ser Val Arg Pro Ala Met Trp Lys 195 200 205Met Met Leu Asn Ile Asp Val Ser Ala Thr Ala Phe Tyr Lys Ala Gln 210 215 220Pro Val Ile Gln Phe Met Cys Glu Val Leu Asp Ile His Asn Ile Asp225 230 235 240Glu Gln Pro Arg Pro Leu Thr Asp Ser His Arg Val Lys Phe Thr Lys 245 250 255Glu Ile Lys Gly Leu Lys Val Glu Val Thr His Cys Gly Thr Met Arg 260 265 270Arg Lys Tyr Arg Val Cys Asn Val Thr Arg Arg Pro Ala Ser His Gln 275 280 285Thr Phe Pro Leu Gln Leu Glu Asn Gly Gln Thr Val Glu Arg Thr Val 290 295 300Ala Gln Tyr Phe Arg Glu Lys Tyr Thr Leu Gln Leu Lys Tyr Pro His305 310 315 320Leu Pro Cys Leu Gln Val Gly Gln Glu Gln Lys His Thr Tyr Leu Pro 325 330 335Leu Glu Val Cys Asn Ile Val Ala Gly Gln Arg Cys Ile Lys Lys Leu 340 345 350Thr Asp Asn Gln Thr Ser Thr Met Ile Lys Ala Thr Ala Arg Ser Ala 355 360 365Pro Asp Arg Gln Glu Glu Ile Ser Arg Leu Val Arg Ser Ala Asn Tyr 370 375 380Glu Thr Asp Pro Phe Val Gln Glu Phe Gln Phe Lys Val Arg Asp Glu385 390 395 400Met Ala His Val Thr Gly Arg Val Leu Pro Ala Pro Met Leu Gln Tyr 405 410 415Gly Gly Arg Asn Arg Thr Val Ala Thr Pro Ser His Gly Val Trp Asp 420 425 430Met Arg Gly Lys Gln Phe His Thr Gly Val Glu Ile Lys Met Trp Ala 435 440 445Ile Ala Cys Phe Ala Thr Gln Arg Gln Cys Arg Glu Glu Ile Leu Lys 450 455 460Gly Phe Thr Asp Gln Leu Arg Lys Ile Ser Lys Asp Ala Gly Met Pro465 470 475 480Ile Gln Gly Gln Pro Cys Phe Cys Lys Tyr Ala Gln Gly Ala Asp Ser 485 490 495Val Glu Pro Met Phe Arg His Leu Lys Asn Thr Tyr Ser Gly Leu Gln 500 505 510Leu Ile Ile Val Ile Leu Pro Gly Lys Thr Pro Val Tyr Ala Glu Val 515 520 525Lys Arg Val Gly Asp Thr Leu Leu Gly Met Ala Thr Gln Cys Val Gln 530 535 540Val Lys Asn Val Ile Lys Thr Ser Pro Gln Thr Leu Ser Asn Leu Cys545 550 555 560Leu Lys Ile Asn Val Lys Leu Gly Gly Ile Asn Asn Ile Leu Val Pro 565 570 575His Gln Arg Pro Ser Val Phe Gln Gln Pro Val Ile Phe Leu Gly Ala 580 585 590Asp Val Thr His Pro Pro Ala Gly Asp Gly Lys Lys Pro Ser Ile Ala 595 600 605Ala Val Val Gly Ser Met Asp Ala His Pro Ser Arg Tyr Cys Ala Thr 610 615 620Val Arg Val Gln Arg Pro Arg Gln Glu Ile Ile Gln Asp Leu Ala Ser625 630 635 640Met Val Arg Glu Leu Leu Ile Gln Phe Tyr Lys Ser Thr Arg Phe Lys 645 650 655Pro Thr Arg Ile Ile Phe Tyr Arg Asp Gly Val Ser Glu Gly Gln Phe 660 665 670Arg Gln Val Leu Tyr Tyr Glu Leu Leu Ala Ile Arg Glu Ala Cys Ile 675 680 685Ser Leu Glu Lys Asp Tyr Gln Pro Gly Ile Thr Tyr Ile Val Val Gln 690 695 700Lys Arg His His Thr Arg Leu Phe Cys Ala Asp Arg Thr Glu Arg Val705 710 715 720Gly Arg Ser Gly Asn Ile Pro Ala Gly Thr Thr Val Asp Thr Asp Ile 725 730
735Thr His Pro Tyr Glu Phe Asp Phe Tyr Leu Cys Ser His Ala Gly Ile 740 745 750Gln Gly Thr Ser Arg Pro Ser His Tyr His Val Leu Trp Asp Asp Asn 755 760 765Cys Phe Thr Ala Asp Glu Leu Gln Leu Leu Thr Tyr Gln Leu Cys His 770 775 780Thr Tyr Val Arg Cys Thr Arg Ser Val Ser Ile Pro Ala Pro Ala Tyr785 790 795 800Tyr Ala His Leu Val Ala Phe Arg Ala Arg Tyr His Leu Val Asp Lys 805 810 815Glu His Asp Ser Ala Glu Gly Ser His Val Ser Gly Gln Ser Asn Gly 820 825 830Arg Asp Pro Gln Ala Leu Ala Lys Ala Val Gln Ile His Gln Asp Thr 835 840 845Leu Arg Thr Met Tyr Phe Ala 850 85572764PRTHomo sapiensMISC_FEATUREHILI, predicted protein sequence 72Ile Ser Ser Gly Asp Ala Gly Ser Thr Phe Met Glu Arg Gly Val Lys1 5 10 15Asn Lys Gln Asp Phe Met Asp Leu Ser Ile Cys Thr Arg Glu Lys Leu 20 25 30Ala His Val Arg Asn Cys Lys Thr Gly Ser Ser Gly Ile Pro Val Lys 35 40 45Leu Val Thr Asn Leu Phe Asn Leu Asp Phe Pro Gln Asp Trp Gln Leu 50 55 60Tyr Gln Tyr His Val Thr Tyr Ile Pro Asp Leu Ala Ser Arg Arg Leu65 70 75 80Arg Ile Ala Leu Leu Tyr Ser His Ser Glu Leu Ser Asn Lys Ala Lys 85 90 95Ala Phe Asp Gly Ala Ile Leu Phe Leu Ser Gln Lys Leu Glu Glu Lys 100 105 110Val Thr Glu Leu Ser Ser Glu Thr Gln Arg Gly Glu Thr Ile Lys Met 115 120 125Thr Ile Thr Leu Lys Arg Glu Leu Pro Ser Ser Ser Pro Val Cys Ile 130 135 140Gln Val Phe Asn Ile Ile Phe Arg Lys Ile Leu Lys Lys Leu Ser Met145 150 155 160Tyr Gln Ile Gly Arg Asn Phe Tyr Asn Pro Ser Glu Pro Met Glu Ile 165 170 175Pro Gln His Lys Leu Ser Leu Trp Pro Gly Phe Ala Ile Ser Val Ser 180 185 190Tyr Phe Glu Arg Lys Leu Leu Phe Ser Ala Asp Val Ser Tyr Lys Val 195 200 205Leu Arg Asn Glu Thr Val Leu Glu Phe Met Thr Ala Leu Cys Gln Arg 210 215 220Thr Gly Leu Ser Cys Phe Thr Gln Thr Cys Glu Lys Gln Leu Ile Gly225 230 235 240Leu Ile Val Leu Thr Arg Tyr Asn Asn Arg Thr Tyr Ser Ile Asp Asp 245 250 255Ile Asp Trp Ser Val Lys Pro Thr His Thr Phe Gln Lys Arg Asp Gly 260 265 270Thr Glu Ile Thr Tyr Val Asp Tyr Tyr Lys Gln Gln Tyr Asp Ile Thr 275 280 285Val Ser Asp Leu Asn Gln Pro Met Leu Val Ser Leu Leu Lys Lys Lys 290 295 300Arg Asn Asp Asn Ser Glu Ala Gln Leu Ala His Leu Ile Pro Glu Leu305 310 315 320Cys Phe Leu Thr Gly Leu Thr Asp Gln Ala Thr Ser Asp Phe Gln Leu 325 330 335Met Lys Ala Val Ala Glu Lys Thr Arg Leu Ser Pro Ser Gly Arg Gln 340 345 350Gln Arg Leu Ala Arg Leu Val Asp Asn Ile Gln Arg Asn Thr Asn Ala 355 360 365Arg Phe Glu Leu Glu Thr Trp Gly Leu His Phe Gly Ser Gln Ile Ser 370 375 380Leu Thr Gly Arg Ile Val Pro Ser Glu Lys Ile Leu Met Gln Asp His385 390 395 400Ile Cys Gln Pro Val Ser Ala Ala Asp Trp Ser Lys Asp Ile Arg Thr 405 410 415Cys Lys Ile Leu Asn Ala Gln Ser Leu Asn Thr Trp Leu Ile Leu Cys 420 425 430Ser Asp Arg Thr Glu Tyr Val Ala Glu Ser Phe Leu Asn Cys Leu Arg 435 440 445Arg Val Ala Gly Ser Met Gly Phe Asn Val Met Cys Ile Leu Pro Ser 450 455 460Asn Gln Lys Thr Tyr Tyr Asp Ser Ile Lys Lys Tyr Leu Ser Ser Asp465 470 475 480Cys Pro Val Pro Ser Gln Cys Val Leu Ala Arg Thr Leu Asn Lys Gln 485 490 495Gly Met Met Met Ser Ile Ala Thr Lys Ile Ala Met Gln Met Thr Cys 500 505 510Lys Leu Gly Gly Glu Leu Trp Ala Val Glu Ile Pro Leu Lys Ser Leu 515 520 525Met Val Val Gly Ile Asp Val Cys Lys Asp Ala Leu Ser Lys Asp Val 530 535 540Met Val Val Gly Cys Val Ala Ser Val Asn Pro Arg Ile Thr Arg Trp545 550 555 560Phe Ser Arg Cys Ile Leu Gln Arg Thr Met Thr Asp Val Ala Asp Cys 565 570 575Leu Lys Val Phe Met Thr Gly Ala Leu Asn Lys Trp Tyr Lys Tyr Asn 580 585 590His Asp Leu Pro Ala Arg Ile Ile Val Tyr Arg Ala Gly Val Gly Asp 595 600 605Gly Gln Leu Lys Thr Leu Ile Glu Tyr Glu Val Pro Gln Leu Leu Ser 610 615 620Ser Val Ala Glu Ser Ser Ser Asn Thr Ser Ser Arg Leu Ser Val Ile625 630 635 640Val Val Arg Lys Lys Cys Met Pro Arg Phe Phe Thr Glu Met Asn Arg 645 650 655Thr Val Gln Asn Pro Pro Leu Gly Thr Val Val Asp Ser Glu Ala Thr 660 665 670Arg Asn Glu Trp Gln Tyr Asp Phe Tyr Leu Ile Ser Gln Val Ala Cys 675 680 685Arg Gly Thr Val Ser Pro Thr Tyr Tyr Asn Val Ile Tyr Asp Asp Asn 690 695 700Gly Leu Lys Pro Asp His Met Gln Arg Leu Thr Phe Lys Leu Cys His705 710 715 720Leu Tyr Tyr Asn Trp Pro Gly Ile Val Ser Val Pro Ala Pro Cys Gln 725 730 735Tyr Ala His Lys Leu Thr Phe Leu Val Ala Gln Ser Ile His Lys Glu 740 745 750Pro Ser Leu Glu Leu Ala Asn His Leu Phe Tyr Leu 755 76073861PRTHomo sapiensMISC_FEATUREHIWI, predicted protein sequence 73Met Thr Gly Arg Ala Arg Ala Arg Ala Arg Gly Arg Ala Arg Gly Gln1 5 10 15Glu Thr Ala Gln Leu Val Gly Ser Thr Ala Ser Gln Gln Pro Gly Tyr 20 25 30Ile Gln Pro Arg Pro Gln Pro Pro Pro Ala Glu Gly Glu Leu Phe Gly 35 40 45Arg Gly Arg Gln Arg Gly Thr Ala Gly Gly Thr Ala Lys Ser Gln Gly 50 55 60Leu Gln Ile Ser Ala Gly Phe Gln Glu Leu Ser Leu Ala Glu Arg Gly65 70 75 80Gly Arg Arg Arg Asp Phe His Asp Leu Gly Val Asn Thr Arg Gln Asn 85 90 95Leu Asp His Val Lys Glu Ser Lys Thr Gly Ser Ser Gly Ile Ile Val 100 105 110Arg Leu Ser Thr Asn His Phe Arg Leu Thr Ser Arg Pro Gln Trp Ala 115 120 125Leu Tyr Gln Tyr His Ile Asp Tyr Asn Pro Leu Met Glu Ala Arg Arg 130 135 140Leu Arg Ser Ala Leu Leu Phe Gln His Glu Asp Leu Ile Gly Lys Cys145 150 155 160His Ala Phe Asp Gly Thr Ile Leu Phe Leu Pro Lys Arg Leu Gln Gln 165 170 175Lys Val Thr Glu Val Phe Ser Lys Thr Arg Asn Gly Glu Asp Val Arg 180 185 190Ile Thr Ile Thr Leu Thr Asn Glu Leu Pro Pro Thr Ser Pro Thr Cys 195 200 205Leu Gln Phe Tyr Asn Ile Ile Phe Arg Arg Leu Leu Lys Ile Met Asn 210 215 220Leu Gln Gln Ile Gly Arg Asn Tyr Tyr Asn Pro Asn Asp Pro Ile Asp225 230 235 240Ile Pro Ser His Arg Leu Val Ile Trp Pro Gly Phe Thr Thr Ser Ile 245 250 255Leu Gln Tyr Glu Asn Ser Ile Met Leu Cys Thr Asp Val Ser His Lys 260 265 270Val Leu Arg Ser Glu Thr Val Leu Asp Phe Met Phe Asn Phe Tyr His 275 280 285Gln Thr Glu Glu His Lys Phe Gln Glu Gln Val Ser Lys Glu Leu Ile 290 295 300Gly Leu Val Val Leu Thr Lys Tyr Asn Asn Lys Thr Tyr Arg Val Asp305 310 315 320Asp Ile Asp Trp Asp Gln Asn Pro Lys Ser Thr Phe Lys Lys Ala Asp 325 330 335Gly Ser Glu Val Ser Phe Leu Glu Tyr Tyr Arg Lys Gln Tyr Asn Gln 340 345 350Glu Ile Thr Asp Leu Lys Gln Pro Val Leu Val Ser Gln Pro Lys Arg 355 360 365Arg Arg Gly Pro Gly Gly Thr Leu Pro Gly Pro Ala Met Leu Ile Pro 370 375 380Glu Leu Cys Tyr Leu Thr Gly Leu Thr Asp Lys Met Arg Asn Asp Phe385 390 395 400Asn Val Met Lys Asp Leu Ala Val His Thr Arg Leu Thr Pro Glu Gln 405 410 415Arg Gln Arg Glu Val Gly Arg Leu Ile Asp Tyr Ile His Lys Asn Asp 420 425 430Asn Val Gln Arg Glu Leu Arg Asp Trp Gly Leu Ser Phe Asp Ser Asn 435 440 445Leu Leu Ser Phe Ser Gly Arg Ile Leu Gln Thr Glu Lys Ile His Gln 450 455 460Gly Gly Lys Thr Phe Asp Tyr Asn Pro Gln Phe Ala Asp Trp Ser Lys465 470 475 480Glu Thr Arg Gly Ala Pro Leu Ile Ser Val Lys Pro Leu Asp Asn Trp 485 490 495Leu Leu Ile Tyr Thr Arg Arg Asn Tyr Glu Ala Ala Asn Ser Leu Ile 500 505 510Gln Asn Leu Phe Lys Val Thr Pro Ala Met Gly Met Gln Met Arg Lys 515 520 525Ala Ile Met Ile Glu Val Asp Asp Arg Thr Glu Ala Tyr Leu Arg Val 530 535 540Leu Gln Gln Lys Val Thr Ala Asp Thr Gln Ile Val Val Cys Leu Leu545 550 555 560Ser Ser Asn Arg Lys Asp Lys Tyr Asp Ala Ile Lys Lys Tyr Leu Cys 565 570 575Thr Asp Cys Pro Thr Pro Ser Gln Cys Val Val Ala Arg Thr Leu Gly 580 585 590Lys Gln Gln Thr Val Met Ala Ile Ala Thr Lys Ile Ala Leu Gln Met 595 600 605Asn Cys Lys Met Gly Gly Glu Leu Trp Arg Val Asp Ile Pro Leu Lys 610 615 620Leu Val Met Ile Val Gly Ile Asp Cys Tyr His Asp Met Thr Ala Gly625 630 635 640Arg Arg Ser Ile Ala Gly Phe Val Ala Ser Ile Asn Glu Gly Met Thr 645 650 655Arg Trp Phe Ser Arg Cys Ile Phe Gln Asp Arg Gly Gln Glu Leu Val 660 665 670Asp Gly Leu Lys Val Cys Leu Gln Ala Ala Leu Arg Ala Trp Asn Ser 675 680 685Cys Asn Glu Tyr Met Pro Ser Arg Ile Ile Val Tyr Arg Asp Gly Val 690 695 700Gly Asp Gly Gln Leu Lys Thr Leu Val Asn Tyr Glu Val Pro Gln Phe705 710 715 720Leu Asp Cys Leu Lys Ser Ile Gly Arg Gly Tyr Asn Pro Arg Leu Thr 725 730 735Val Ile Val Val Lys Lys Arg Val Asn Thr Arg Phe Phe Ala Gln Ser 740 745 750Gly Gly Arg Leu Gln Asn Pro Leu Pro Gly Thr Val Ile Asp Val Glu 755 760 765Val Thr Arg Pro Glu Trp Tyr Asp Phe Phe Ile Val Ser Gln Ala Val 770 775 780Arg Ser Gly Ser Val Ser Pro Thr His Tyr Asn Val Ile Tyr Asp Asn785 790 795 800Ser Gly Leu Lys Pro Asp His Ile Gln Arg Leu Thr Tyr Lys Leu Cys 805 810 815His Ile Tyr Tyr Asn Trp Pro Gly Val Ile Arg Val Pro Ala Pro Cys 820 825 830Gln Tyr Ala His Lys Leu Ala Phe Leu Val Gly Gln Ser Ile His Arg 835 840 845Glu Pro Asn Leu Ser Leu Ser Asn Arg Leu Tyr Tyr Leu 850 855 860742571DNAHomo sapiensmisc_featureeIF2C1, cDNA sequence of predicted ORF 74atggaagcgg gaccctcggg agcagctgcg ggcgcttacc tgccccccct gcagcaggtg 60ttccaggcac ctcgccggcc tggcattggc actgtgggga aaccaatcaa gctcctggcc 120aattactttg aggtggacat ccctaagatc gacgtgtacc actacgaggt ggacatcaag 180ccggataagt gtccccgtag agtcaaccgg gaagtggtgg aatacatggt ccagcatttc 240aagcctcaga tctttggtga tcgcaagcct gtgtatgatg gaaagaagaa catttacact 300gtcacagcac tgcccattgg caacgaacgg gtcgactttg aggtgacaat ccctggggaa 360gggaaggatc gaatctttaa ggtctccatc aagtggctag ccattgtgag ctggcgaatg 420ctgcatgagg ccctggtcag cggccagatc cctgttccct tggagtctgt gcaagccctg 480gatgtggcca tgaggcacct ggcatccatg aggtacaccc ctgtgggccg ctccttcttc 540tcaccgcctg agggctacta ccacccgctg gggggtgggc gcgaggtctg gttcggcttt 600caccagtctg tgcgccctgc catgtggaag atgatgctca acattgatgt ctcagccact 660gccttttata aggcacagcc agtgattgag ttcatgtgtg aggtgctgga catcaggaac 720atagatgagc agcccaagcc cctcacggac tctcagcgcg ttcgcttcac caaggagatc 780aagggcctga aggtggaagt cacccactgt ggacagatga agaggaagta ccgcgtgtgt 840aatgttaccc gtcgccctgc tagccatcag acattcccct tacagctgga gagtggacag 900actgtggagt gcacagtggc acagtatttc aagcagaaat ataaccttca gctcaagtat 960ccccatctgc cctgcctaca agttggccag gaacaaaagc atacctacct tcccctagag 1020gtctgtaaca ttgtggctgg gcagcgctgt attaaaaagc tgaccgacaa ccagacctcg 1080accatgataa aggccacagc tagatccgct ccagacagac aggaggagat cagtcgcctg 1140atgaagaatg ccagctacaa cttagatccc tacatccagg aatttgggat caaagtgaag 1200gatgacatga cggaggtgac agggcgagtg ctgccggcgc ccatcttgca gtacggcggc 1260cggaaccggg ccattgccac acccaatcag ggtgtctggg acatgcgggg gaaacagttc 1320tacaatggga ttgagatcaa agtctgggcc atcgcctgct tcgcacccca aaaacagtgt 1380cgagaagagg tgctcaagaa cttcacagac cagctgcgga agatttccaa ggatgcgggg 1440atgcctatcc agggtcaacc ttgtttctgc aaatatgcac agggggcaga cagcgtggag 1500cctatgttcc ggcatctcaa gaacacctac tcagggctgc agctcattat tgtcatcctg 1560ccagggaaga cgccggtgta tgctgaggtg aaacgtgtcg gagatacact cttgggaatg 1620gctacgcagt gtgtgcaggt gaagaacgtg gtcaagacct cacctcagac tctgtccaac 1680ctctgcctca agatcaatgt caaacttggt ggcattaaca acatcctagt cccacaccag 1740cgctctgccg tttttcaaca gccagtgata ttcctgggag cagatgttac acacccccca 1800gcaggggatg ggaaaaaacc ttctatcaca gcagtggtag gcagtatgga tgcccacccc 1860agccgatact gtgctactgt gcgggtacag cgaccacggc aagagatcat tgaagacttg 1920tcctacatgg tgcgtgagct cctcatccaa ttctacaagt ccacccgttt caagcctacc 1980cgcatcatct tctaccgaga tggggtgcct gaaggccagc taccccagat actccactat 2040gagctactgg ccattcgtga tgcctgcatc aaactggaaa aggactacca gcctgggatc 2100acttatattg tggtgcagaa acgccatcac acccgccttt tctgtgctga caagaatgag 2160cgaattggga agagtggtaa catcccagct gggaccacag tggacaccaa catcacccac 2220ccatttgagt ttgacttcta tctgtgcagc cacgcaggca tccagggcac cagccgacca 2280tcccattact atgttctttg ggatgacaac cgtttcacag cagatgagct ccagatcctg 2340acgtaccagc tgtgccacac ttacgtacga tgcacacgct ctgtctctat cccagcacct 2400gcctactatg cccgcctggt ggctttccgg gcacgatacc acctggtgga caaggagcat 2460gacagtggag aggggagcca catatcgggg cagagcaatg ggcgggaccc ccaggccctg 2520gccaaagccg tgcaggttca ccaggatact ctgcgcacca tgtacttcgc t 2571752580DNAHomo sapiensmisc_featureeIF2C2, cDNA sequence of predicted ORF 75atgggtgttc tctctgccat tcccgcactt gcacctcctg cgccgccgcc ccccatccaa 60ggatatgcct tcaagcctcc acctagaccc gactttggga cctccgggag aacaatcaaa 120ttacaggcca atttcttcga aatggacatc cccaaaattg acatctatca ttatgaattg 180gatatcaagc cagagaagtg cccgaggaga gttaacaggg aaatcgtgga acacatggtc 240cagcacttta aaacacagat ctttggggat cggaagcccg tgtttgacgg caggaagaat 300ctatacacag ccatgcccct tccgattggg agggacaagg tggagctgga ggtcacgctg 360ccaggagaag gcaaggatcg catcttcaag gtgtccatca agtgggtgtc ctgcgtgagc 420ttgcaggcgt tacacgatgc actttcaggg cggctgccca gcgtcccttt tgagacgatc 480caggccctgg acgtggtcat gaggcacttg ccatccatga ggtacacccc cgtgggccgc 540tccttcttca ccgcgtccga aggctgctct aaccctcttg gcgggggccg agaagtgtgg 600tttggcttcc atcagtccgt ccggccttct ctctggaaaa tgatgctgaa tattgatgtg 660tcagcaacag cgttttacaa ggcacagcca gtaatcgagt ttgtttgtga agttttggat 720tttaaaagta ttgaagaaca acaaaaacct ctgacagatt cccaaagggt aaagtttacc 780aaagaaatta aaggtctaaa ggtggagata acgcactgtg ggcagatgaa gaggaagtac 840cgtgtctgca atgtgacccg gcggcccgcc agtcaccaaa cattcccgct gcagcaggag 900agcgggcaga cggtggagtg cacggtggcc cagtatttca aggacaggca caagttggtt 960ctgcgctacc cccacctccc atgtttacaa gtcggacagg agcagaaaca cacctacctt 1020cccctggagg tctgtaacat tgtggcagga caaagatgta ttaaaaaatt aacggacaat 1080cagacctcaa ccatgatcag agcaactgct aggtcggcgc ccgatcggca agaagagatt 1140agcaaattga tgcgaagtgc aagtttcaac acagatccat acgtccgtga atttggaatc 1200atggtcaaag atgagatgac agacgtgact gggcgggtgc tgcagccgcc ctccatcctc 1260tacgggggca ggaataaagc tattgcgacc cctgtccagg gcgtctggga catgcggaac 1320aagcagttcc acacgggcat cgagatcaag gtgtgggcca ttgcgtgctt cgccccccag 1380cgccagtgca cggaagtcca tctgaagtcc ttcacagagc agctcagaaa gatctcgaga 1440gacgctggca tgcccatcca gggccagccg tgcttctgca aatacgcgca gggggcggac 1500agcgtggagc ccatgttccg gcacctgaag aacacgtatg cgggcctgca gctggtggtg 1560gtcatcctgc ccggcaagac gcccgtgtac gccgaggtca agcgcgtggg agacacggtg
1620ctggggatgg ccacgcagtg cgtgcagatg aagaacgtgc agaggaccac gccacagacc 1680ctgtccaacc tttgcctgaa gatcaacgtc aagctgggag gcgtgaacaa catcctgctg 1740ccccagggca ggccgccggt gttccagcag cccgtcatct ttctgggagc agacgtcact 1800cacccccccg ccggggatgg gaagaagccc tccattgccg ccgtggtggg cagcatggac 1860gcccacccca atcgctactg cgccaccgtg cgcgtgcagc agcaccggca ggagatcata 1920caagacctgg ccgccatggt ccgcgagctc ctcatccagt tctacaagtc cacgcgcttc 1980aagcccaccc gcatcatctt ctaccgcgac ggtgtctctg aaggccagtt ccagcaggtt 2040ctccaccacg agttgctggc catccgtgag gcctgtatca agctagaaaa agactaccag 2100cccgggatca ccttcatcgt ggtgcagaag aggcaccaca cccggctctt ctgcactgac 2160aagaacgagc gggttgggaa aagtggaaac attccagcag gcacgactgt ggacacgaaa 2220atcacccacc ccaccgagtt cgacttctac ctgtgtagtc acgctggcat ccaggggaca 2280agcaggcctt cgcactatca cgtcctctgg gacgacaatc gtttctcctc tgatgagctg 2340cagatcctaa cctaccagct gtgtcacacc tacgtgcgct gcacacgctc cgtgtccatc 2400ccagcgccag catactacgc tcacctggtg gccttccggg ccaggtacca cctggtggat 2460aaggaacatg acagtgctga aggaagccat acctctgggc agagtaacgg gcgagaccac 2520caagcactgg ccaaggcggt ccaggttcac caagacactc tgcgcaccat gtactttgct 2580762772DNAHomo sapiensmisc_featureeIF2C3, cDNA sequence of predicted ORF 76agccggagcc gggtccctgt ccccgggccg ggcgccgccg ccgccccctg cccagcgccc 60gcgtctccgc ggcgccaccc cagcgccaat attccggaga tcaagcgtta cgcggcggcg 120gcggcggcgg cggcggggcc cggagcggga ggcgccgggg accggggcga ggcggccccc 180gccgccgcca tggaggcgct gggacccgga cctccggcta gcctgtttca gccacctcgt 240cgtcctggcc ttggaactgt tggaaaacca attcgactgt tagccaatca ttttcaggtt 300cagattccta aaatagatgt gtatcactat gatgtggata ttaagcctga aaaacggcct 360cgtagagtca acagggaggt agtagataca atggtgcggc acttcaagat gcaaatattt 420ggtgatcggc agcctgggta tgatggcaaa agaaacatgt acacagcaca tccactacca 480attggacggg atagggttga tatggaggtg actcttccag gcgagggtaa agaccaaaca 540tttaaagtgt ctgttcagtg ggtgtcagtt gtgagccttc agttgctttt agaagctttg 600gctgggcact tgaatgaagt cccagatgac tcagtacaag cacttgatgt tatcacaaga 660caccttccct ccatgaggta caccccagtg ggccgttcct ttttctcacc cccggaaggt 720tactaccacc ctctgggagg gggcagggag gtctggtttg gttttcatca gtctgtgaga 780cctgccatgt ggaatatgat gctcaacatt gatgtatctg caactgcttt ctaccgggct 840cagcctatca ttgagttcat gtgtgaggtt ttagacattc agaacatcaa tgaacagacc 900aaacctctaa cagactccca gcgtgtcaaa tttaccaaag aaatcagagg tctcaaagtt 960gaggtgaccc actgtggaca gatgaaacga aaataccgag tttgtaatgt gactagacgg 1020ccagccagtc atcaaacttt tcctttgcag ctagaaaacg gtcaagctat ggaatgtaca 1080gtagctcaat attttaagca aaagtatagt ctgcaactga aataccccca tcttccctgt 1140ctccaagtgg gacaagaaca aaagcataca tacttgccac tcgaggtctg taatatagtg 1200gcaggacagc gatgtatcaa gaagctcaca gacaatcaga cttccacaat gatcaaagct 1260acagcaagat ctgctcctga cagacaggaa gagatcagta gactggtgaa gagcaacagt 1320atggtgggtg gacctgatcc ataccttaaa gaatttggta ttgttgtcca caatgaaatg 1380acagagctca caggcagggt acttccagca ccaatgctgc aatatggagg ccggaataaa 1440acagtagcca cacccaacca gggtgtctgg gacatgcgag gaaagcagtt ttatgctggc 1500attgaaatta aagtttgggc agttgcttgt tttgcacctc agaaacaatg tagggaagat 1560ttactaaaga gtttcactga ccagctgcgt aaaatctcta aggatgcagg aatgcccatc 1620cagggtcagc catgtttctg caagtatgca caaggtgcag acagtgtgga gcctatgttt 1680aaacatctga aaatgactta tgtgggccta cagctaatag tggttatcct gcctggaaag 1740acaccagtat atgcggaggt gaaacgtgtt ggagataccc ttctaggtat ggccacacag 1800tgtgtccagg taaaaaatgt agtgaagacc tcacctcaaa ccctttccaa tctttgcctg 1860aagataaatg caaaacttgg aggaattaac aatgtgcttg tgcctcatca aaggccctcg 1920gtgttccagc agcctgtcat cttcctggga gcggatgtca cacacccccc agcaggggat 1980gggaagaaac cttccattgc tgctgtggtt ggcagtatgg atggccaccc cagccggtac 2040tgtgccaccg ttcgggtgca gacttcccgg caggagatct cccaagagct cctctacagt 2100caagaggtca tccaggacct gactaacatg gttcgagagc tgctgattca gttctacaaa 2160tccacacgct tcaaacccac tcggatcatc tattaccgtg gaggggtatc tgagggacaa 2220atgaaacagg tagcttggcc agaactaata gcaattcgaa aggcatgtat tagcttggaa 2280gaagattacc ggccaggaat aacttatatt gtggtgcaaa aaagacatca cacacgactc 2340ttctgtgcag ataaaacaga aagggtaggg aaaagtggca atgtaccagc aggcactaca 2400gtggatagta ccatcacaca tccatctgag tttgactttt acctctgtag tcatgcagga 2460attcagggaa ccagccgtcc ctcacattac caggtcttgt gggatgacaa ctgcttcact 2520gcagatgaac tccagctact gacttaccag ctgtgtcaca cctatgtgag gtgcactcgc 2580tcagtctcta ttccagcccc tgcatattat gcccggcttg tagcatttag ggcaaggtat 2640catctggtgg ataaagatca tgacagtgcg gaaggcagtc atgtgtcagg acagagcaac 2700ggccgggatc ctcaggcctt ggctaaggct gtgcaaatcc accatgatac ccagcacacg 2760atgtattttg cc 2772772568DNAHomo sapiensmisc_featureeIF2C4, cDNA sequence of predicted ORF 77gcaggacccg ctggggccca gcccctactc atggtgccca gaagacctgg ctatggcacc 60atgggcaaac ccattaaact gctggctaac tgttttcaag ttgaaatccc aaagattgat 120gtctacctct atgaggtaga tattaaacca gacaagtgtc ctaggagagt gaacagggag 180gtggttgact caatggttca gcattttaaa gtaactatat ttggagaccg tagaccagtt 240tatgatggaa aaagaagtct ttacaccgcc aatccacttc ctgtggcaac tacaggggta 300gatttagacg ttactttacc tggggaaggt ggaaaagatc gacctttcaa ggtgtcaatc 360aaatttgtct ctcgggtgag ttggcaccta ctgcatgaag tactgacagg acggaccttg 420cctgagccac tggaattaga caagccaatc agcactaacc ctgtccatgc cgttgatgtg 480gtgctacgac atctgccctc catgaaatac acacctgtgg ggcgttcatt tttctccgct 540ccagaaggat atgaccaccc tctgggaggg ggcagggaag tgtggtttgg attccatcag 600tctgttcggc ctgccatgtg gaaaatgatg cttaatatcg atgtttctgc cactgccttc 660tacaaagcac aacctgtaat tcagttcatg tgtgaagttc ttgatattca taatattgat 720gagcaaccaa gacctctgac tgattctcat cgggtaaaat tcaccaaaga gataaaaggt 780ttgaaggttg aagtgactca ttgtggaaca atgagacgga aataccgtgt ttgtaatgta 840acaaggaggc ctgccagtca tcaaaccttt cctttacagt tagaaaacgg ccaaactgtg 900gagagaacag tagcgcagta tttcagagaa aagtatactc ttcagctgaa gtacccgcac 960cttccctgtc tgcaagtcgg gcaggaacag aaacacacct acctgccact agaagtctgt 1020aatattgtgg cagggcaacg atgtatcaag aagctaacag acaatcagac ttccactatg 1080atcaaggcaa cagcaagatc tgcaccagat agacaagagg aaattagcag attggtaaga 1140agtgcaaatt atgaaacaga tccatttgtt caggagtttc aatttaaagt tcgggatgaa 1200atggctcatg taactggacg cgtacttcca gcacctatgc tccagtatgg aggacggaat 1260cggacagtag caacaccgag ccatggagta tgggacatgc gagggaaaca attccacaca 1320ggagttgaaa tcaaaatgtg ggctatcgct tgttttgcca cacagaggca gtgcagagaa 1380gaaatattga agggtttcac agaccagctg cgtaagattt ctaaggatgc agggatgccc 1440atccagggcc agccatgctt ctgcaaatat gcacaggggg cagacagcgt agagcccatg 1500ttccggcatc tcaagaacac atattctggc ctacagctta ttatcgtcat cctgccgggg 1560aagacaccag tgtatgcgga agtgaaacgt gtaggagaca cacttttggg tatggctaca 1620caatgtgttc aagtcaagaa tgtaataaaa acatctcctc aaactctgtc aaacttgtgc 1680ctaaagataa atgttaaact cggagggatc aataatattc ttgtacctca tcaaagacct 1740tctgtgttcc agcaaccagt gatctttttg ggagccgatg tcactcatcc acctgctggt 1800gatggaaaga agccttctat tgctgctgtt gtaggtagta tggatgcaca cccaagcaga 1860tactgtgcca cagtaagagt tcagagaccc cgacaggaga tcatccagga cttggcctcc 1920atggtccggg aacttcttat tcaattttat aagtcaactc ggttcaagcc tactcgtatc 1980atcttttatc gggatggtgt ttcagagggg cagtttaggc aggtattata ttatgaacta 2040ctagcaattc gagaagcctg catcagtttg gagaaagact atcaacctgg aataacctac 2100attgtagttc agaagagaca tcacactcga ttattttgtg ctgataggac agaaagggtt 2160ggaagaagtg gcaatatccc agctggaaca acagttgata cagacattac acacccatat 2220gagttcgatt tttacctctg tagccatgct ggaatacagg gtaccagtcg tccttcacac 2280tatcatgttt tatgggatga taactgcttt actgcagatg aacttcagct gctaacttac 2340cagctctgcc acacttacgt acgctgtaca cgatctgttt ctatacctgc accagcgtat 2400tatgctcacc tggtagcatt tagagccaga tatcatcttg tggacaaaga acatgacagt 2460gctgaaggaa gtcacgtttc aggacaaagc aatgggcgag atccacaagc tcttgccaag 2520gctgtacaga ttcaccaaga taccttacgc acaatgtact tcgcttaa 2568782292DNAHomo sapiensmisc_featureHILI, cDNA sequence of predicted ORF 78atatcttctg gtgatgctgg aagtaccttc atggaaagag gtgtgaaaaa caaacaggac 60tttatggatt tgagtatctg taccagagaa aaattggcac atgtgagaaa ttgtaaaaca 120ggttccagtg gaatacctgt gaaactggtt acaaacctct ttaacttaga ttttccccaa 180gactggcagc tataccagta ccatgtgaca tatattccag atttagcatc tagaaggctg 240agaattgctt tactttatag tcatagtgaa ctttccaaca aagcaaaagc attcgacggt 300gccatccttt ttctgtcaca aaagctagaa gaaaaggtca cagagttgtc aagtgaaact 360caaagaggtg agactataaa gatgactatc accctgaaga gggagctgcc atcaagttct 420cccgtgtgca tccaggtctt caatatcatc ttcagaaaga tcctcaaaaa gttgtccatg 480taccaaattg gacggaactt ctataatcct tcagagccaa tggaaattcc ccagcacaaa 540ttatcccttt ggcctgggtt tgccatttct gtgtcatatt ttgaaaggaa gctcctgttt 600agtgctgatg tgagttacaa agtcctccgg aatgagacgg ttctggaatt catgactgct 660ctctgtcaaa gaactggctt gtcctgtttc acccagacgt gtgagaagca gctaataggg 720ctcattgtcc ttacaagata caataacaga acctactcca ttgatgacat tgactggtca 780gtgaagccca cacacacctt tcagaagcgg gatggcaccg agatcaccta tgtggattac 840tacaagcagc agtatgatat tactgtatcg gacctgaatc agcccatgct tgttagtctg 900ttaaagaaga agagaaatga caacagtgag gctcagctcg cccacctgat acctgagctc 960tgctttctaa cagggctgac tgaccaggca acatctgatt tccagctgat gaaggctgtg 1020gctgaaaaga cacgtctcag tccttcaggc cggcagcagc gcctggccag gcttgtggac 1080aacatccaga ggaataccaa tgctcgcttt gaactagaga cctggggact gcattttgga 1140agccagatat ctctgactgg ccggattgtg ccttcagaaa aaatattaat gcaagaccac 1200atatgtcaac ctgtgtctgc tgctgactgg tccaaggata ttcgaacttg caagatttta 1260aatgcacagt ctttgaatac ctggttgatt ttatgtagcg acagaactga atatgttgcc 1320gagagctttc tgaactgctt gagaagagtt gcaggttcca tgggatttaa tgtaatgtgc 1380attctgcctt ctaatcagaa gacctattat gattccatta aaaaatattt gagctcagac 1440tgcccagtcc caagccaatg tgtgcttgct cggaccttga ataaacaggg catgatgatg 1500agtatcgcca ccaagatcgc tatgcagatg acttgcaagc tcggaggcga gctgtgggct 1560gtggaaatac ctttaaagtc cctgatggtg gtcggtattg atgtctgtaa agatgcactc 1620agcaaggacg tgatggttgt tggatgcgtg gccagtgtta accccagaat caccaggtgg 1680ttttcccgct gtatccttca gagaacaatg actgatgttg cagattgctt gaaagttttc 1740atgactggag cactcaacaa atggtacaag tacaatcatg atttgccagc acggataatt 1800gtgtaccgtg ctggtgtagg ggatggtcag ctgaaaacac ttattgaata tgaagtccca 1860cagctgctga gcagtgtggc agaatccagc tcaaatacca gctcaagact gtcggtgatt 1920gtggtcagga agaagtgcat gccacgattc tttaccgaaa tgaaccgcac tgtacagaac 1980cccccacttg gcactgttgt ggattcagaa gcaacacgta acgaatggca gtatgacttt 2040tatctgatca gccaggtggc ctgccgggga actgttagtc ctacctacta taatgtcatc 2100tatgatgaca acggcttgaa gcccgaccat atgcagagac ttacattcaa attgtgccac 2160ctgtactaca actggccggg catagtcagt gtcccagcac catgtcagta tgctcacaag 2220ctgacctttc tggtggcaca aagcattcat aaagaaccca gtctggaatt agccaaccat 2280ctcttctacc tg 2292792583DNAHomo sapiensmisc_featureHIWI, cDNA sequence of predicted ORF 79atgactggga gagcccgagc cagagccaga ggaagggccc gcggtcagga gacagcgcag 60ctggtgggct ccactgccag tcagcaacct ggttatattc agcctaggcc tcagccgcca 120ccagcagagg gggaattatt tggccgtgga cggcagagag gaacagcagg aggaacagcc 180aagtcacaag gactccagat atctgctgga tttcaggagt tatcgttagc agagagagga 240ggtcgtcgta gagattttca tgatcttggt gtgaatacaa ggcagaacct agaccatgtt 300aaagaatcaa aaacaggttc ttcaggcatt atagtaaggt taagcactaa ccatttccgg 360ctgacatccc gtccccagtg ggccttatat cagtatcaca ttgactataa cccactgatg 420gaagccagaa gactccgttc agctcttctt tttcaacacg aagatctaat tggaaagtgc 480catgcttttg atggaacgat attattttta cctaaaagac tacagcaaaa ggttactgaa 540gtttttagta agacccggaa tggagaggat gtgaggataa cgatcacttt aacaaatgaa 600cttccaccta catcaccaac ttgtttgcag ttctataata ttattttcag gaggcttttg 660aaaatcatga atttgcaaca aattggacga aattattata acccaaatga cccaattgat 720attccaagtc acaggttggt gatttggcct ggcttcacta cttccatcct tcagtatgaa 780aacagcatca tgctctgcac tgacgttagc cataaagtcc ttcgaagtga gactgttttg 840gatttcatgt tcaactttta tcatcagaca gaagaacata aatttcaaga acaagtttcc 900aaagaactaa taggtttagt tgttcttacc aagtataaca ataagacata cagagtggat 960gatattgact gggaccagaa tcccaagagc acctttaaga aagccgacgg ctctgaagtc 1020agcttcttag aatactacag gaagcaatac aaccaagaga tcaccgactt gaagcagcct 1080gtcttggtca gccagcccaa gagaaggcgg ggccctgggg ggacactgcc agggcctgcc 1140atgctcattc ctgagctctg ctatcttaca ggtctaactg ataaaatgcg taatgatttt 1200aacgtgatga aagacttagc cgttcataca agactaactc cagagcaaag gcagcgtgaa 1260gtgggacgac tcattgatta cattcataaa aacgataatg ttcaaaggga gcttcgagac 1320tggggtttga gctttgattc caacttactg tccttctcag gaagaatttt gcaaacagaa 1380aagattcacc aaggtggaaa aacatttgat tacaatccac aatttgcaga ttggtccaaa 1440gaaacaagag gtgcaccatt aattagtgtt aagccactag ataactggct gttgatctat 1500acgcgaagaa attatgaagc agccaattca ttgatacaaa atctatttaa agttacacca 1560gccatgggca tgcaaatgag aaaagcaata atgattgaag tggatgacag aactgaagcc 1620tacttaagag tcttacagca aaaggtcaca gcagacaccc agatagttgt ctgtctgttg 1680tcaagtaatc ggaaggacaa atacgatgct attaaaaaat acctgtgtac agattgccct 1740accccaagtc agtgtgtggt ggcccgaacc ttaggcaaac agcaaactgt catggccatt 1800gctacaaaga ttgccctaca gatgaactgc aagatgggag gagagctctg gagggtggac 1860atccccctga agctcgtgat gatcgttggc atcgattgtt accatgacat gacagctggg 1920cggaggtcaa tcgcaggatt tgttgccagc atcaatgaag ggatgacccg ctggttctca 1980cgctgcatat ttcaggatag aggacaggag ctggtagatg ggctcaaagt ctgcctgcaa 2040gcggctctga gggcttggaa tagctgcaat gagtacatgc ccagccggat catcgtgtac 2100cgcgatggcg taggagacgg ccagctgaaa acactggtga actacgaagt gccacagttt 2160ttggattgtc taaaatccat tggtagaggt tacaacccta gactaacggt aattgtggtg 2220aagaaaagag tgaacaccag attttttgct cagtctggag gaagacttca gaatccactt 2280cctggaacag ttattgatgt agaggttacc agaccagaat ggtatgactt ttttatcgtg 2340agccaggctg tgagaagtgg tagtgtttct cccacacatt acaatgtcat ctatgacaac 2400agcggcctga agccagacca catacagcgc ttgacctaca agctgtgcca catctattac 2460aactggccag gtgtcattcg tgttcctgct ccttgccagt acgcccacaa gctggctttt 2520cttgttggcc agagtattca cagagagcca aatctgtcac tgtcaaaccg cctttactac 2580ctc 25838020DNAArtificial SequenceOligodeoxynucleotide with homology to human gene 80gaggtctgta acattgtggc 208120DNAArtificial SequenceOligodeoxynucleotide with homology to human gene 81cggtagaaga tgatgcgggt 208220DNAArtificial SequenceOligodeoxynucleotide with homology to human gene 82gaggtctgta acattgtggc 208324DNAArtificial SequenceOligodeoxynucleotide with homology to human gene 83aagttcttga gcacctcttc tcga 248420DNAArtificial SequenceOligodeoxynucleotide with homology to human gene 84gaggtctgta acattgtggc 208520DNAArtificial SequenceOligodeoxynucleotide with homology to human gene 85cggtagaaga tgatgcgggt 208618DNAArtificial SequenceOligodeoxynucleotide with homology to human gene 86ccacaccagc gctctgcc 188718DNAArtificial SequenceOligodeoxynucleotide with homology to human gene 87ctcacgcacc atgtagga 188820DNAArtificial SequenceOligodeoxynucleotide with homology to human gene 88gaggtctgta acattgtggc 208920DNAArtificial SequenceOligodeoxynucleotide with homology to human gene 89cggtagaaga tgatgcgggt 209018DNAArtificial SequenceOligodeoxynucleotide with homology to human gene 90atcctgctgc cccaaggg 189118DNAArtificial SequenceOligodeoxynucleotide with homology to human gene 91gatctcctgc cggtgctg 189220DNAArtificial SequenceOligodeoxynucleotide with homology to human gene 92gaggtctgta acattgtggc 209320DNAArtificial SequenceOligodeoxynucleotide with homology to human gene 93cggtagaaga tgatgcgggt 209420DNAArtificial SequenceOligodeoxynucleotide with homology to human gene 94gaggtctgta acattgtggc 209518DNAArtificial SequenceOligodeoxynucleotide with homology to human gene 95gatctcctgc cggtgctg 189624DNAArtificial SequenceOligodeoxynucleotide with homology to human gene 96agagcaacag tatggtgggt ggac 249718DNAArtificial SequenceOligodeoxynucleotide with homology to human gene 97tggatgtgtg atggtact 189818DNAArtificial SequenceOligodeoxynucleotide with homology to human gene 98cctctacagt caagaggt 189918DNAArtificial SequenceOligodeoxynucleotide with homology to human gene 99tggatgtgtg atggtact 1810018DNAArtificial SequenceOligodeoxynucleotide with homology to human gene 100cacttgaatg aagtccca 1810124DNAArtificial SequenceOligodeoxynucleotide with homology to human gene 101tcctggatga cctcttgact gtag 2410224DNAArtificial SequenceOligodeoxynucleotide with homology to human gene 102agagcaacag tatggtgggt ggac 2410324DNAArtificial SequenceOligodeoxynucleotide with homology to human gene 103tcctggatga cctcttgact gtag 2410426DNAArtificial SequenceOligodeoxynucleotide with homology to human gene 104tccggcatct caagaacaca tattct 2610526DNAArtificial SequenceOligodeoxynucleotide with homology to human gene 105gaactcatat gggtgtgtaa tgtctg
2610618DNAArtificial SequenceOligodeoxynucleotide with homology to human gene 106atccaggact tggcctcc 1810726DNAArtificial SequenceOligodeoxynucleotide with homology to human gene 107gaactcatat gggtgtgtaa tgtctg 2610818DNAArtificial SequenceOligodeoxynucleotide with homology to human gene 108cagcacaaat tatccctt 1810923DNAArtificial SequenceOligodeoxynucleotide with homology to human gene 109cggcctgaag gactgagacg tgt 2311018DNAArtificial SequenceOligodeoxynucleotide with homology to human gene 110cagcacaaat tatccctt 1811118DNAArtificial SequenceOligodeoxynucleotide with homology to human gene 111gtgtgtgggc ttcactga 1811226DNAArtificial SequenceOligodeoxynucleotide with homology to human gene 112tctctgtcaa agaactggct tgtcct 2611318DNAArtificial SequenceOligodeoxynucleotide with homology to human gene 113ctgtacagtg cggttcat 1811426DNAArtificial SequenceOligodeoxynucleotide with homology to human gene 114tctctgtcaa agaactggct tgtcct 2611523DNAArtificial SequenceOligodeoxynucleotide with homology to human gene 115cggcctgaag gactgagacg tgt 23
Patent applications by Thomas Tuschl, New York, NY US
Patent applications by Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Foerderung der Wissenschaften e.V.
Patent applications in class Transgenic nonhuman animal (e.g., mollusks, etc.)
Patent applications in all subclasses Transgenic nonhuman animal (e.g., mollusks, etc.)