Patent application title: HIGH INTENSITY REPETITIOUS TRAINING
Ronald F. Demeo (Fort Lauderdale, FL, US)
Meridian Research and Development, Inc.
IPC8 Class: AA63B2100FI
Class name: Exercise devices user manipulated force resisting apparatus, component thereof, or accessory therefor
Publication date: 2012-05-03
Patent application number: 20120108400
High Intensity Repetitious Training (HIRT) is an exercise regimen
consisting of approximately three minutes of intense exercise that puts
an exerciser at the end of the anaerobic energy transfer system and
prevents the exerciser from entering the aerobic energy transfer system.
The HIRT Program exercise regimen subjects the muscles to high frequency
intense muscle contractions for approximately three minutes to the point
that the lactic system reaches a maximum followed by a period of rest for
at least one to two minutes to restore creatinine and remove some of the
lactate acid out of the blood stream. The HIRT exercise regimen enhances
the benefits of lactate accumulation, post-exercise insulin and growth
hormone release with lipolysis or fat reduction.
1. A method of exercising, comprising the steps of generating high
frequency intense muscle contractions; performing said muscle
contractions with weights that are a fraction of maximum pressing weight;
exercising said muscles at a highly repetitious rate during a short
exercise set; resting said muscles for a short rest period after said
exercise set; repeating said exercise set and rest period for said
2. The method of claim 1 wherein said muscle contractions are maintained for 3 minutes.
3. The methods of claim 1 wherein said high frequency intense muscle contractions comprise a rate of 100 to 120 repetitions per said 3 minutes.
4. The method of claim 1 wherein said rest period is 1-2 minutes after said exercise set.
5. The method of claim 1 wherein said high frequency intense muscle contractions are moved to another muscle in either the upper or lower body muscle groups.
6. The method of claim 1 wherein a regimen of said exercise sets is performed at a low of 4-5 bouts and a high of 8-10 bouts within similar muscles with either the upper or lower body muscle groups.
7. The method of claim 1 wherein said regimen of exercise sets last for at least 45 minutes.
8. The method of claim 1 wherein said fraction of maximum pressing weight is 30%.
9. The method of claim 1 further comprising a recovery time of at least 24 to 48 hours between the regimen of exercise sets of either upper or lower body muscle groups.
10. The method of claim 1 further comprising no aerobic activity for at least 6-8 hours after a regimen of exercise sets with similar muscle groups.
FIELD OF INVENTION
 The present invention relates to exercise systems and methods. More specifically, the present invention relates to an exercise method that produces high frequency intense muscle contractions for maximum weight loss while increasing muscle strength, muscle definition and endurance during a short period of time.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
 Conventional wisdom and literature describes two basic exercise regimens. These two exercise regimens are based on two major energy systems or pathways. Weight resistance exercise produces muscle strength and uses the anaerobic energy system. In contrast, lower intensity and higher duration exercise produces cardiovascular endurance and uses the aerobic energy system. In general, the literature states that these two systems are mutually exclusive of one another. Over the years, exercise regimens have been developed to elicit one or the other system, but rarely both.
 According to the published technical literature, short high intensity exercise requires immediate energy from the intramuscular high phosphates, or phosphagens, including adenosine triphospate (ATP) and phosphocreatine (PCR). This is the anaerobic or phosphagen energy transfer system. Since skeletal muscle can only store small amounts, ATP can be depreciated in as little as 10 seconds, especially during high-intense activity. Utilizing this energy system, athletes can only rely on the first 10 second for a burst of energy to carry them through sports like sprinting, diving, weight-lifting, football, track and field, gymnastic, ski-jumping and golf. To re-generate ATP, the body takes the ADP by-product and adds PCR to reform ATP. Although the supply of PCR can be decreased by 50-70% in as little as 5 seconds of high-intensity exercise, the replenishment of PCR occurs quite rapidly with about seventy percent of depleted ATP restored within the first 30 seconds and total restoration within 2-3 minutes. Sustaining exercise beyond this brief period and without recovery requires an additional energy source to replenish ATP. If this does not occur, the fuel supply diminishes and high-intensity movement ceases.
 The classical energy transfer theory states that the re-synthesis of the high-energy phosphates proceeds at a rapid rate during strenuous exercise with the re-phosphorylation of ADP coming from stored muscle glycogen. This is the short-term lactic acid system or glycolysis. Like the phosphogen system above, it also occurs within the anaerobic pathway and is activated at about 20 seconds and lasts for about 2-3 minutes. Its energy comes from the breakdown of glucose and glycogen that is converted to ATP. During this conversion, lactic acid or lactate is generated. If generated too rapidly and there is insufficient oxygen, the body's ability to neutralize lactic acids or lactate is impaired resulting in fatigue and a burning sensation to the muscles. When exercise lasts between 60 to 180 seconds, there is a rapid and large accumulation of blood lactate. In most cases, a person's oxygen consumption is usually adequate to re-generate ATP and lactate is rapidly oxidized by muscle fibers. When lactate oxidation equals its production, blood lactate levels remain stable. If exercise continues, blood lactate however accumulates and rises in an exponential fashion as shown in FIG. 1. When the muscle cell can neither meet the additional energy demands aerobically nor oxidize lactate at its rate of production, the anaerobic pathway shifts into the aerobic energy transfer system.
 It is the long-term aerobic system that provides most of the energy transfer when intense exercise exceeds several minutes. Within this aerobic energy system, oxygen supplies energy by either oxidizing lactate and/or reconverting it to glucose. In general, no blood lactate accumulates under aerobic conditions because a body's oxygen consumption rises exponentially during the first minutes of exercise and achieves a plateau between the third and fourth minutes. From then on, it remains relatively stable for the duration of the effort. Once this steady rate of aerobic metabolism occurs, exercise can be sustained indefinitely, theoretically.
 According to the literature, these different and distinct energy transfer systems can also be seen in the functional and structural characteristics of human skeletal muscle where two distinct types of muscle fiber exist. A fast-twitch muscle (type II fiber) possesses rapid contraction speed and high ATP production. It becomes active during change of pace and stop/go activities such as basketball, field hockey, lacrosse, soccer and ice hockey. Weight resistance training is simply the recruitment of such type II fibers resulting in an increase of lean mass or hypertrophy of those fibers.
 The second fiber type is the slow-twitch (type I fiber). Type I fibers generate energy primarily through aerobic pathways and have a relatively slow contraction speed compared to type II fiber. Its predominance contributes to high blood lactate threshold shown in elite endurance athletes. In comparison, a 50-meter sprint champion muscle's are nearly 80% of type II muscle fiber whereas the endurance cyclist have 80% type I fibers.
 From a practical perspective, most sports require slow, sustained muscle action interspersed with burst of powerful effort. These activities require activation of both muscle types. To perform well, it requires a well-developed capacity for both anaerobic and aerobic metabolism. Conventional wisdom, reinforced by an abundance of data and experience, holds that for an athlete to do well he/she must address his/her particular sport activity and its specific energy component. To improve, current training strategies enlist this linear energy transfer system with a choice of exercises, duration and order to maximize their physiologic and metabolic functions. In other words, an improved capacity for energy transfer translates into improved exercise performance.
 These energy transfer systems can also be exemplified by different sports. Sprinting, throwing, weight lifting, golf and gymnastics have very short durations of 10 second or less and use the first phase of the anaerobic system. Beyond 10 seconds and upwards to 40 seconds, athletes that are sprinting, speed skating, performing track, cycling and 50-meter swimming begin to utilize the lactic acid system and are in the second phase of the anaerobic energy system. At two minutes, athletes that continue utilizing the lactic system are the 100-meter swimmers, 1500 speed skaters and floor gymnasts and alpine skiers. From three to four minutes, there are boxers, wrestlers, marital artists and figure skaters. Beyond this point, there are the cross-country skiers, rowers, cyclists and marathon runners where the energy transfer system is purely aerobic.
 In anaerobic and aerobic athletes, their physiques are based on the muscle fiber type used during their sport. The physiques of weight lifting and javelin throwers possess a great deal of muscle hypertrophy and thus type II muscle fiber dominant. Their exercise regimen consists of very heavy amounts of weights with short repetitions and long rest intervals. The sprinters and speed skaters require a combination of both type II and type I muscle types, given that they use the lactic acid as well as the ATP systems. As their sport time increases, athletes have to train for greater periods of time to increase their muscle endurance. At this point, there is an increase in the leanness of the individual because of the dominance of type I muscle fiber. Beyond three minutes of continuous exercise, aerobic activity is increased to the point that athletes become so much more lean that the aerobic system uses protein as an energy source thereby reducing both muscle mass and tone. This is exemplified between an 800-meter track runner and a cross-country or marathon runner where there is a stark contrast between their leanness and muscle bulk. In brief, athletes go through one or several of these energy pathways to develop the corresponding muscle type so as to get the best performance from their sport. To many trainers, these two energy pathways are mutually inhibitory.
 To help understand the new exercise system described herein, it is also important to review the established science relating to recovery. It is the recovery period that resets these energy transfer systems. As mentioned above, the capacity to perform all-out exercise for up to 60 seconds depends on ATP that is re-generated by the immediate and short-term anaerobic systems. If one engages specific muscles in repeated 5-to-10 second maximum burst of efforts, one overloads the energy transfer from the phosphagen pool. During this intense short exercise regimen, only small amounts of lactate accumulate and therefore recovery progresses rapidly. In most cases, exercise can begin again after a 30-second rest period. This is happens in American football, weight lifting, and other brief sprint-power sports.
 To improve short-term energy transfer, training must overload the lactic acid system and is done by exercising up to 1-minute and stopping 30 seconds before exhaustion. During such a regimen, blood lactate is raised to near-maximum levels. With only 3-5 minutes of recovery, the individual can repeat the exercise bout. This regimen is called "lactate stacking" and produces a higher blood lactate level than just one all-out exhaustive effort. Such a regimen conditions the body to achieve short burst of activity such as sprinting and speed skating.
 Along similar lines, endurance or aerobic training must also overlap the components of oxygen transport and use. To start, relatively brief bouts of repeated exercise are followed by continuous, long-duration exertion (approximately 20 minutes). With longer recovery periods, the body does not become systemically exhausted. This is what happens in cross-country or marathon runners.
 When trying to combine the energy transfer systems such as for interval training, recovery becomes very important. In interval training, repeated 10-second bouts permit lactate buildup. Such exercise intervals are followed with a brief rest. In interval training, the intensity of the exercise only activates the particular energy system that requires improvement. For example, during a 60- to 90-second high-intensity exercise interval, oxygen consumption increases rapidly to a high level but remains insufficient to meet exercise energy requirements. The recommended relief interval causes the succeeding exercise interval to begin before complete recovery. This ensures that cardiovascular and aerobic metabolic stress reach near peak levels. The duration of the rest interval takes on less importance with longer periods of intermittent exercise because sufficient time exists for adjustments in metabolic and circulatory parameters during exercise.
 During recovery, bodily processes begin to recover but do not immediately return to resting levels. With mild aerobic exercise, about one half of the total recovery oxygen consumption occurs within 30 seconds, with complete recovery within several minutes. This decline in oxygen consumption is termed the fast component. With strenuous exercise, recovery is a lot different because blood lactate, body temperature and thermogenic hormone levels increase substantially. To recover from strenuous exercise, a second phase of recovery called the slow component occurs. Depending on the intensity and duration, the slow component can take up to 24 hours to return to pre-exercise conditions.
 During strenuous exercise, the concept of excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) explains how an elevated aerobic metabolism begins to restore the body to its pre-exercise condition. During and after strenuous exercise, there is a prolonged increase in oxygen consumption leading to increased fatty acid oxidation, lipolysis or fat loss. With anaerobic exercise and lactate accumulation, only a small portion of oxygen re-synthesizes lactate to glycogen because the main source for replenishing glycogen remains dietary carbohydrate and not re-synthesized lactate. In high-intensity aerobic exercise of longer duration (>60 minutes), oxygen consumption remains elevated considerably longer. Body temperature, for example, rises during a long bout of intense aerobic exercise and can remain elevated for several hours in recovery. In turn, elevated body temperatures directly stimulates metabolism to increase oxygen consumption that again leads to increased fatty acid oxidation and lipolysis. Along with maximizing the particular energy transfer system unique to one's sport, the dynamics of EPOC provides the basis for structuring exercise intervals and optimizing recovery.
 The transition from one-energy transfer system to another and their overlapping biochemical components is illustrated in FIG. 1. FIG. 1 shows how the concentration of pyruvate increases substantially during the first minute of exercise. During this first minute, the anaerobic energy transfer system is breaking down glucose. One molecule of glucose breaks down into two molecules of pyruvate. The energy released in this glycolysis process re-forms the high-energy phosphogens. If oxygen is not available within the first ten seconds and exercise continues, pyruvate is quickly broken down anaerobically, creating lactate in both the muscles and blood stream. The concentration of lactate then rises briskly during the first and second minute (see FIG. 1). If strenuous exercise continues beyond two minutes, oxygen consumption starts and, in the presence of oxygen, pyruvate and lactate are converted to carbohydrates via gluconeogensis to fatty acids. Beyond three minutes, sufficient levels of oxygen now use the natural stores of glycogen from the aerobic energy system.
 By exploiting such energy transfer systems and optimizing their recovery, a conventional training regimen system is designed to give maximum athletic performance. If manipulated correctly, exercise also enhances the release of endogenous hormones. Endogenous hormones, such as insulin-like growth hormone, increases lean body mass and reduces fat but they are only released at a training intensity above the individual's lactate threshold. Endogenous hormones, for example, benefit muscles, bone and connective tissue growth and remodeling. During exercise, hormones optimize the fuel mixture during exercise, principally decreasing tissue glucose uptake, increasing free fatty acid mobilization, and enhancing liver gluconeogenesis. Growth hormone, for example, slows carbohydrate formation and initiates subsequent mobilization and use of fat as an energy source.
 All of these conventional theories have a common theme. Since lactate induces a fatiguing effect on skeletal muscle, any exercise and recovery regimen that accelerates lactate removal is believed to augment subsequent exercise performance. In contrast, the novel exercise method of the present invention refutes this conventional theory of exercise. It proposes a new exercise and recovery regimen that builds, maintains and promotes high levels of lactate. Contrary to conventional theories, it promotes the advantages and benefits of achieving and maintaining high blood levels of lactate as long as possible. Unlike conventional exercise regimen, this new exercise system positions and maintains the exerciser between the two classical energy pathways.
 In brief, the present invention satisfies a desire in the industry for a more efficient exercise regimen that results in greater benefits and shorter duration than conventional exercise regimens, especially for the non-athletic population.
BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTIONS
 High Intensity Repetitious Training or "HIRT" is an intense exercise regimen that places the exerciser at the end of the anaerobic energy transfer system and prevents them from entering the aerobic energy transfer systems. The present HIRT invention subjects muscles to high frequency intense muscle contractions for approximately three minutes when lactic system reaches a maximum threshold. It is then followed by a period of rest for at least one to two minutes to restore PCr and remove some of the lactate out of the blood stream.
 To select the anaerobic pathway, the exercise repetitions in the present invention must be kept at a very high rate so that anaerobic lipolysis is achieved quickly. The repetition rate of the current invention is extraordinary and is preferably between 100 to 120 repetitions per minute. At about the three-minute mark, a state between the anaerobic and aerobic pathway is reached where a rest period of one to two minutes is preferably commenced. Too short of rest period will keep the exerciser in the anaerobic pathway. Too long of exercise will move the energy transfer pathway into the aerobic system.
 The present invention selects fast twitch or type II fibers over slow twitch or type I muscle fibers. It does so by not just resistance training but also the rate by which the exercise repetitions are performed. Type II fibers are selected by increasing the frequency or speed of the weight of movement. Performing exercise in a more rapid fashion also requires a dramatic reduction in the amount of weight lifted to reduce the risk of injury. The resistance weight of the current invention is preferably approximately 30% of the maximum pressing weight for a particular muscle but can range from 10% to 80% of maximum pressing weight.
 The present HIRT invention causes considerable muscle breakdown and protein depletion. As such, it is preferable to consume a protein carbohydrate drink after performing HIRT. This reduces the post-exercise muscle damage and soreness as well increases the post-exercise growth hormone response. To allow complete muscle recovery, a rest period of 24 to 48 hours is desirable.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
 FIG. 1 shows a graph of concentrations of metabolic compounds produced during the first three minutes of exercising.
 FIG. 2 shows a typical exercise and weight resistance machine.
 FIG. 3 shows an exerciser performing a leg press on a Smith exercise machine.
 FIG. 4 shows an exerciser performing a boxing bout on a weight resistance exercise machine using cables attached to variable weight plates.
 FIG. 5 shows a graph of how increasing concentrations of lactate and higher body heat releases endogenous hormones.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
 The HIRT exercise regimen subjects the muscles to high frequency intense muscle contractions for approximately three minutes to the point where the lactic system reaches a maximum followed by a period of rest for at least one to two minutes to restore PCR and remove some of the lactic acid out of the blood stream. In doing so, it selects the anaerobic energy pathway, especially the second half (lactic acid), and avoids entering the aerobic energy system.
 To select the anaerobic pathway, repetitions in the present invention should be kept at a very high rate so that anaerobic lipolysis is achieved quickly. Such a repetition rate is extraordinary and is preferably between 100 to 120 repetitions per minute. At the three-minute mark, the exerciser is between the anaerobic and aerobic pathways. If the exercise regimen is kept under three minutes and stays within the anaerobic pathway, the fast twitch or type II fibers begin increasing blood lactate levels.
 To select the fast twitch or type II fibers, one must maintain high repetitions until the last minute to select the anaerobic over the aerobic metabolism. The present invention generates enormous amounts of blood lactate and reaches the maximum blood lactate threshold quickly. Once the maximum lactate threshold is reached, a period of rest is taken preferably for at least one to two minutes. This rest period effectively removes and lowers blood lactate. Such high frequency intense repetitions and short rest period puts the exerciser at the end of anaerobic pathway and avoids the aerobic energy system.
 Whereas traditional lactate removal metabolism occurs within one to four minutes, lactate removal during the present invention occurs quite rapidly. The present invention generates a massive amount of lactate. In turn, the body's response is to buffer and neutralize this lactic acid as quickly as possible. As the exercise continues, the body's ability to buffer this lactate diminishes, typically requiring the interval of rest to be increased as the training progresses. In a typical program of a three-minute set, lactic acid is felt at approximately 30-40 seconds. The present invention produces this lactate threshold very rapidly and maintains such as threshold as long as possible.
 "ADP" refers to adenosine di-phosphate, an intramuscular high-energy phosphate chemical consisting of two phosphate groups. It is a formed when a phosphate group is cleaved from adenosine tri-phosphate resulting in a release of chemical energy.
 "Aerobic" refers to a long-term, endurance exercise that uses oxygen as the body's energy-generating process.
 "Anaerobic" refers to a short-term, high-intensity exercise lasting from mere seconds to about 2 minutes.
 "ATP" refers to adenosine tri-phosphate, an intramuscular high-energy phosphate chemical consisting of three phosphate groups. The term "anabolic or anabolism" refers to increasing, building or growing muscles.
 "Energy transfer system" refers to several different biochemical energy pathways to replenish ATP, including the anaerobic and aerobic biochemical pathways. The terms "energy transfer system," "energy system" or "pathway" are used interchangeably.
 "Endogenous" refers to originating or grown within the organism and herein refers to hormones produced within the body versus exogenous hormones that are artificially produced and injected into the body.
 The acronym "EPOC" refers to "excess post-exercise oxygen consumption" and is the increased rate of oxygen intake following strenuous activity to erase the body's oxygen debt in order to restore the body to the resting state by balancing hormones, replenishing fuel stores, repairing cells, restoring innervation and promoting anabolism.
 The term "fast-twitch" refers to type II muscle fibers that possess rapid contraction speed and high ATP production from glycolysis.
 "Glycolysis" refers to a metabolic pathway that converts glucose into pyruvate forming ATP.
 The term "glucose" is a simple sugar or carbohydrate used as a source of energy.
 "Gluconeogenesis" refers to the generation of glucose from non-carbohydrate carbons substrates such as lactate.
 "Growth hormone" is a protein-based peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction and regeneration.
 The term "high frequency intense muscle contractions" refers to performing a set of approximately 100-120 high frequency repetitious contractions on selected muscles.
 The acronym "HIRT" refers to high intensity repetitious training.
 "Insulin-like growth hormone" refers to protein that promotes childhood growth and has anabolic effects in adults. It is stimulated by growth hormone.
 "Lactate" refers to a salt of lactic acid that loses a proton or hydrogen molecule when in a solution, such as blood. It is produced from pyruvate during exercise and is removed by oxidization or gluconeogenesis.
 "Lactic acid" is a carboxylic acid produced from pyruvate during exercise. The terms lactic acid and lactate are used interchangeably.
 "Lipolysis" is hydrolysis or breakdown of triglycerides into free fatty acids.
 The term "maximum pressing weight" refers to the maximum weight that a muscle can lift in an exerciser's typical weight lifting program.
 "Muscle" used herein refers to a single skeletal muscle (e.g., chest muscle or pectoral).
 "Muscle group" used herein refers to a group of related (e.g., biceps, triceps, deltoids) and similarly positional skeletal muscles (e.g., upper body, abdominal or lower body muscles).
 "Oxidization" refers to cellular respiration where sugars are oxidized to produce carbon dioxide and water.
 "Phosphocreatine" or "PCR" refers to a phosphorylated creatine molecule that donates a phosphate group to ADP to form ATP.
 "Phosphogens" are the intramuscular phosphates such as ATP and PCR that are used for very short energy durations (10 seconds) and, if oxygen is unavailable, produce lactic acid.
 The term "regimen" refers to a prescribed course of exercise.
 "Round" used herein refers to a period of intense exercise consisting of three HIRT exercise sets that is performed on a single primary muscle (e.g., biceps) or related secondary muscles (i.e., triceps, deltoids).
 "Session" is defined as a complete regimen of HIRT within a muscle group (e.g., upper body) usually comprising of several rounds of HIRT.
 "Set" refers to a complete set of approximately 100-120 repetitions.
 "Slow-twitch" or "type I" muscle refers to a muscle fiber with relatively slow contraction speed that generates ATP aerobically with its rich mitrochondria, high levels of enzymes, fatty acid catabolism and dense blood capillaries.
 The present invention may be performed on a variety weight resistance machines such as that illustrated in FIG. 2. FIG. 2 shows a gym machine 2 with either stack or plated loaded weights 4. Such a machine may be multi-functional with a combination of cables 6 that connect the handle 8 to the weight 4 stacks running through adjustable pulleys 10. These pulleys 10 can be fixed at any height to allow a variety of exercises to be performed on the apparatus.
 For example, FIG. 2 shows an exerciser 12 performing preacher or hammer curls 14. There are many other commercial exercise machines that be used with the present invention. In FIG. 3, for example, a Smith machine 16 uses standard barbell 18 plates instead of captive weight 4 stacks of plates. It uses a barbell 18 that is fixed within steel rails 20, allowing only vertical movement. A Smith machine is excellent for a leg press 22 where an athlete 24 pushes up. A leg press 22 can also be performed on a vertical sled type leg press, a cable or seated leg press found on many other types of multi-gym machines.
 There are also many types of multi-gym machines that are devoted to specific types of exercise, like that shown in FIG. 4. FIG. 4 shows a cable weight resistance machine 26 with a boxer 28 performing a standing chest press 30. Newer type of weight resistance machines, such as the BlowFlex®, use polymer rods instead of conventional weights and pulley machines to create resistance.
 A variety of muscle resistance exercises can be performed on the gym machines shown in FIGS. 2, 3 and 4. For the lower body muscle group, squats, leg press, dead lift and leg extensions can be performed on the quadriceps (front of legs). The leg curl exercise on the hamstrings is useful for the back of the legs. Standing or seated calf raises exercise the calve muscles. Hip abduction or adduction exercises are good for the hips. For the upper body group, the bench press or chest fly works well on the pectorals (chest). The pulldown, pull-up, bent-over row are excellent exercises for the lats (lower back). The upright row, shoulder press, military press, lateral raise work well for the deltoids (shoulders). The pushdown and tricep extension are good for the triceps (back of arms). The preacher curl or hammer curl are excellent for the biceps (front of arms). For the abdominals, the crunch or leg raise work well. The dead lift and good-morning are good weight training exercise for the back.
IV. Exercise Protocol
 The general protocol of the present invention using the types of machines shown in FIGS. 2-4 and related exercises is outlined as follows:
 1. Exercises can be performed on a typical cable or weight resistance gym machine such as shown in FIG. 2.
 2. Weight resistance exercises (extension/contraction) are performed first on related muscle groups such as muscles in the upper body (arms, back, chest, shoulders), abdominal or lower (legs) body muscle groups.
 3. Exercise resistance weight is preferably approximately 30% of an exerciser's maximum pressing weight for a targeted muscle but can range from 10% to 80% of maximum pressing weight.
 4. Repetitive exercise is performed on a specific primary muscle (e.g. pectorals) and related secondary muscles (biceps, triceps).
 5. A set consisting of approximately 100-120 high frequency repetitions is performed on such primary and secondary muscles.
 6. Each single repetition is preferably completed within 11/2 to 2 seconds.
 7. A set of approximately 100-120 repetitions is performed in under 3 minutes.
 8. All movements are performed in a fast, intense manner.
 9. Intense and fast movement is consistent throughout entire exercise set, especially the last 30 seconds.
 10. First exercise set is stopped at about 3 minutes.
 11. Exercise set is generally not to continue beyond 3 minutes.
 12. Primary and secondary muscles are rested for 1-2 minutes depending on heart rate.
 13. Another set is repeated on primary and second muscles.
 14. A total of 3 exercise sets or one round is performed on the primary and related secondary muscles.
 15. Upon completion of 3 exercise sets, one HIRT round is performed.
 16. Exercise is moved to a new muscle (e.g., biceps brachii) preferably within the same muscle group (e.g., chest) and a HIRT round is performed for another primary and related secondary muscles within same muscle group (e.g., upper body).
 17. For beginners, no more than 4 to 5 rounds constituting one HIRT session are performed.
 18. For more experienced athletes, 6 to 8 rounds are possible.
 19. Rest entire muscle group (i.e., upper body) for 4-6 hours before any additional exercise (e.g., aerobic).
 20. Full recovery time is preferably prescribed between 24-48 hours per session.
 21. Perform two sessions on a muscle group (i.e., upper body) per week.
 22. After recovery period of 24-48 hours, a new session can be performed on different muscle group (e.g., lower body).
 23. Three or four sessions (upper body, abdominals, lower body) are performed per week.
 It should be noted that many other variations may be implemented according to the high intensity repetitious training method of the present invention illustrated below by the following examples.
 The present invention may be more readily understood by reference to the following examples, which are included merely for purposes of illustration of certain aspects and embodiments of the present invention, and are not intended to limit the invention, as one skilled in the art would recognize from the teachings herein and the following examples.
 The following example is a general application of the HIRT exercise regimen to the upper body. A HIRT set may be performed on a weight machine shown in FIG. 2 and may include weight resistance exercises such as the bench press, pectoral fly, lateral pulldowns, tricep pressdowns, leg extensions, leg curls, abdominal crunches and tricep extensions on the high pulley station. On the low pulley station, HIRT exercises may be curls, seated row, shrugs, oblique bends, upright rows, bent over rows, adduction, abduction and front/side deltoid raises. The amount of weight an individual uses is approximately 30% of their established maximum weight training. If a person performing traditional weight resistance does a bench press at 100 pounds for 3 sets of 10, the HIRT program will typically start at a weight of 30 pounds. In a HIRT session, the exerciser will perform one full repetition every one and a half to two seconds for a total of 100-120 repetitions during a 3-minute exercise set. Using this formula, lactate levels should be felt at approximately 45 seconds. Since the weight is lower and repetitions higher than conventional exercise regimens, repetitions have to be maintained for approximately, three minutes to get the full effect of the lactate metabolic pathway. The last 30 seconds will be extremely difficult, but it is important to maintain motion even if a reduction of resistance or weight is required. This last 30 seconds is contrary to the conventional conditioning exercise where it is used for a period to clear lactate levels.
 As the body buffers the lactate, the heart rate will signal the body that recovery is beginning. Once the heart rate returns to baseline, lactate will be effectively neutralized. It is important, however, to immediately start the second set. Exercise should normally not go beyond the 3-minute mark because there is the risk of moving the energy transfer system into the aerobic system. Exercise beyond the 3-minutes or restarting exercise before the lactate has been neutralized will likely lead to a shift to the aerobic system which is counterproductive to HIRT.
 Once the three sets are done, HIRT is repeated in a new muscle group. Such muscular movement is preferably performed in a particular body area such as the chest or upper back. Once the lactate doses have been reached in a particular muscle group, exercise may cease for at least 4-6 hours to allow full neutralization of lactate. During this recovery period, the release of hormones and EPOC will continue throughout the post-exercise period.
 Since there will be muscle damage from such high repetition intense training, it is important to replace protein. A protein shake with low fat and carbohydrates will aid in recovery. It is also suggested that HIRT can be started on an empty stomach so that the body can use stored energy sources rather than energy sources that in the blood stream. Following a HIRT program, complete muscle recovery may take several days and it is recommended that similar exercised muscle groups not be repeated for at least 48-72 hours.
 Such a HIRT session, for example, may be performed on the upper body on Monday and Thursday and lower body on Tuesday and Friday. Since stiffness will ensue from HIRT, small bouts of aerobic training can be incorporated but only as a split routine where at least 6-8 hours have passed between the HIRT sessions. If a HIRT session occurs in the morning, aerobic activity such as basketball, running, jogging or boxing can occur in the afternoon or early evening. This allows a reduction in stiffness and increased cardiovascular endurance.
 Some general exercise considerations include a clock or timer to maintain the exercise pace and also to know when to stop. Drinking plenty of water is important and starting the exercise on an empty stomach is helpful. If blood glucose levels are high prior to exercise, the body will use the blood glucose instead of the fat stores, thereby defeating the HIRT benefit of lipolysis or fat loss. To replace protein loss, a protein drink can be drunk within 1-2 hours of exercising to promote recovery. In all examples, exercise may go as long as 45 minutes with 20-25 minutes each on the upper or lower body.
 The following example using the equipment shown in FIG. 4 is a more specific application of the HIRT exercise regimen and may incorporate the following full body-training regimen. Such a HIRT regimen may start with a standing chest press 30 with standing cables 32 where the boxer 28 takes a traditional boxing stance with a left foot 34 forward with the cable handle 36 in the right arm. This is a very good exercise for helping shape the chest by not only exercising the primary pectoralis muscles but also exercising additional muscles, such as the triceps brachii and deltoid muscles. It therefore enlists three major muscles in the upper muscle group. To begin the exercise, the exerciser stimulates a punching movement with a forward punch while stepping slightly forward and twisting the abdomen. In twisting the abdomen, the primary abdominal obliques muscles are used along with the deltoid muscles in the arms. Such punching movement is repeated about 100-120 times for three minutes. With a short period only to change arms, the same exercise would ensue with the left arm. Depending on the exerciser's heart rate, a rest period of 1-2 minutes will follow before moving on to, for example, upper back exercises. A number of exercises, such as cable close grip pull downs with repetitions of 40 per minute for approximately 100-120 repetitions in a 3-minute period, can be performed. Such pulls downs exercise the upper back latissimus dorsi muscles while also enlisting the brachialis and trapezius muscles. As described, the weights for such a HIRT regimen is preferably about 30% of the maximum weight normally tolerated for weight resistance training. As the lactate begins to build in the exerciser's upper body, an abdominal strengthening exercise, such as crunches or a ball sit up, may follow. Such abdominal ball crunches exercises the rectus abdominis and also enlists the oblique and lower back muscles. It also allows the upper body musculature to recover. The abdominal exercises can be followed by a combination of biceps and shoulder exercises utilizing a pair of dumb bells or cables. A dumbbell shoulder press, for example, exercises the deltoids, rotator cuff and trapezius muscle groups. A hammer curl exercising the brachialis muscles group can, for example, be followed with a dumbbell wrist twist by each hand for again, approximately 100-120 repetitions at 30% weight capacity for 3 minutes. A rest period of 1-3 minutes may be followed by a cable tricep overhead extension of 100-120 repetitions for 3 minutes followed by an additional rest period of 2-3 minutes or longer depending on the heart rate. If a beginner, this completes the upper body session. For an intermediate or advanced HIRT exerciser, a second round of chest, upper back, biceps and triceps routine may be added, extending the HIRT session from approximately 25 minutes to an hour. Most individuals may not be able to tolerate more than 8-10 rounds of HIRT sessions. Upon completion, it is advisable to have at least 20 grams of protein in either a protein or chocolate milk drink within one to two hours post HIRT exercise to aid recovery. Furthermore, copious amount of water are suggested to reduce the risk of heat stress as well as to increase urine flow and fluid loss during the HIRT exercise program.
 The following example is a further application of the HIRT exercise regimen to a new muscle group such as the lower body. A lower body HIRT session can be performed on a different day (e.g., the following day) from an upper body HIRT session. This HIRT session may start with the largest leg muscle group or the quadriceps. Squats or leg press 22 on the quadriceps can be done with a weighted bar or a Smith machine 16 shown in FIG. 3. In this case, the Smith machine 16 offers increased stability and safety for the rapid repetitions. Cables and machines are useful since they allow frequent reductions and changing of weights without interruptions. The barbell 18 squat or leg press 22 works on the primary quadriceps and secondary gluten muscles. Additionally, a cable hamstring curl is a good exercise to develop strength and balance on the hamstrings. Furthermore, a simple calf raise uses the gastrocenmius and soleus muscle of the lower legs. As the largest muscle, the quadriceps generate the most lactate and, if lactate buildup is so severe that movement cannot occur, the exercise can be stopped for approximately 10 second with a reduction in the amount of weight resistance but needs to be restarted after those 10 seconds. This allows some removal of the lactic acid as well as the recovery of the pyruvate cycle. These repetitions are maintained for approximately three minutes. After those three minutes, the exercises can stop, as continuation would lead to aerobic metabolism that should be avoided for the HIRT program to be successful. Again, all of these exercise sets start with about 100-120 repetitions at approximately 30% maximum weight capacity with 1-2 minutes of rest between intervals. Since a large amount of lactate is produced by the leg squats, a longer period of lactic acid buffering may be necessary, thereby increasing the reset or recovery period. To allow recovery in the legs, an abdominal exercise, such as the cable stable crunch using the rectus abdominis muscles, may follow. Following an abdominal exercise, a leg extension and flexion set would continue for another 120 repetitions for 3-minutes followed by a rest period. This final leg extension and flexion round can be followed by thigh and then hamstring extensions. These thigh and hamstring exercises can be followed for another additional abdominal exercise set. For more experienced HIRT trainers, the squat exercise can be re-engaged with about a 20% reduction in weight capacity while maintaining the rate of 100-120 repetitions for 3 minutes. For beginners, no more than 4 to 5 rounds may be necessary. For more experienced athletes, 6 to 8 rounds of leg exercises are possible. Following this HIRT regimen, a period of 48-72 hour rest period is suggested to allow for recovery of the leg musculature. During such period, no aerobic activity is recommended for at least 6-8 hours.
 The following example is a HIRT pilot study where blood serum concentration of blood sugar, lactate, heart rate, core body temperature and hormone levels of an exerciser were monitored while performing the HIRT exercise regimen described in Example 2. Blood samples were taken at 0 (control), 30, 120 and 180 seconds. The resting heart rate, for example, was 84 beats per minute. After 30, 120 and 180 seconds, the heart rate rose to 92, 94 and 109 beats-per-minute, respectively. The body core temperature started at 96.7° F. and rose to 96.5° F. at 30 seconds. At 120 seconds, there was a large 2° F. jump to 98.6° F. with the body core temperature finally leveling out to 99.2° F. at 180 seconds. The blood sugar levels started at 78 mg/dL and rose significantly to 105 mg/dL at 30 seconds. The blood sugar then fell to 89 and 40 mg/dL at 120 and 180 seconds, respectively. In this study, the level of lactate was taken at two different sites. There was a finger stick to determine the systemic lactate and second, a chest stick to give an intramuscular lactate level. The systemic level of lactate started at 1.1 mmol/L, rose to 5.8 mmol/L at 30 seconds, leveled out at 7.6 mmol/L at 120 seconds but fell to 6.1 mmol/L at 180 seconds. For the intramuscular concentrations, the control started at 2 ng/dL, doubled to 4 ng/dL at 30 seconds, rose slightly to 4.3 ng/dL at 120 seconds and jumped to 9.2 ng/dL after 180 seconds. As for the hormones, testosterone started at 474 ng/dL and rose gradually to 538, 604, and 630 ng/dL at 30, 120, 180 seconds, respectively. The insulin-like growth hormone followed a slower gradual increase from 253 ng/mL to 260, 266, and 264 ng/mL at 0, 30, 120, and 180 seconds, respectively. All of this data is summarized schematically in FIG. 5. As shown, increasing blood lactate levels in the first minute is followed by higher concentrations of first insulin-like grown hormone and body core temperatures. As the concentration of lactate begins decrease after the first minute, the levels of insulin-like growth hormone peak at two minutes but falls similarly with lactate. Between two to three minutes, pyruvate and lactate begins to be converted (see FIG. 1) with insulin-like growth factor continuing to be present but decreasing to zero right after the 3-minute mark (FIG. 5). In the meantime, the core body temperature begins to increase at about the one-minute mark and continues to increase until the 3-minute mark where it begins to slowly decrease and level off.
 As illustrated in Example 4, the data suggests that the present HIRT invention does generate peak levels of lactic acidosis. Furthermore, the HIRT exercise regimen pushes the levels of lactate beyond its threshold and holds it there for a full three-minutes. During such levels of lactic acidosis, the data shows how the heart rate and core body temperatures are correlated, showing that the heart rate is a useful way to measure lactic acid. As such, sophisticated machinery and measurements are not necessary to monitor HIRT.
 The data also confirms that strenuous exercise like HIRT releases hormones such as growth and insulin-like growth hormones especially after resistance training, but begins to decline during the aerobic phase. As the data suggests and FIG. 5 graphically illustrates, the present HIRT invention promotes the release of a large amount of blood lactate, creating higher body temperature and releasing hormones such as insulin-like growth hormone and testosterone. In turn, such hormone release becomes intensely anabolic (muscle building) as well as litholitic (fat burning).
 The data also confirms a slower but prolonged increase in oxygen consumption (EPOC). This can be seen in the gradual increase in core body temperature. This, of course, leads to increased fatty acid oxidation and utilization. When high repetitious intensity training was compared to low repetitious exercise, the literature states that EPOC was found to greater degrees during high repetitious intensity training. It is therefore evident that performing high-intensity repetitious training such as the present HIRT invention within the anabolic pathway allows muscle preservation, fat loss, growth hormone release and EPOC enhancement. Such benefits are, of course, desirable and perhaps superior to the traditional low-repetitious resistance training and aerobic training methods.
 The benefits of both aerobic training and resistance training are now widely accepted since there is a consensus that aerobic activity prevents the long-term development of cardiovascular diseases and resistance anaerobic training promotes muscular skeletal fitness and metabolic improvements in insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism (i.e., diabetes). The present HIRT invention achieves both of these benefits through an unconventional exercise regimen in a much shorter period of time.
Patent applications by Ronald F. Demeo, Fort Lauderdale, FL US
Patent applications by Meridian Research and Development, Inc.
Patent applications in class USER MANIPULATED FORCE RESISTING APPARATUS, COMPONENT THEREOF, OR ACCESSORY THEREFOR
Patent applications in all subclasses USER MANIPULATED FORCE RESISTING APPARATUS, COMPONENT THEREOF, OR ACCESSORY THEREFOR