Patent application title: Horizontal Axis Logarithmic Spiral Fluid Turbine
Omar Nabil Abass (Lewis Center, OH, US)
IPC8 Class: AF01D514FI
Class name: Fluid reaction surfaces (i.e., impellers) spiral blade or flow passage (360 degree)
Publication date: 2012-03-29
Patent application number: 20120076656
The present invention is a more simplified and efficient design of a
turbine. The use of a logarithmic curve pattern for blade design and an
aerodynamic profile allows the present invention to not only be versatile
in its uses, but also much more efficient at gathering forms of energy
for different purposes.
1. A horizontal axis logarithmic spiral fluid turbine comprises, a
plurality of blades; a rotary axle; a plurality of cylindrical
extensions; a generator; a hall; each blade comprises of a blade surface,
a center, a leading edge, a trailing edge; each blade spiraling around
the rotary axle; and the center of each blade being attached to the
2. The horizontal axis logarithmic spiral fluid turbine as claimed in claim 1 comprises the first cylindrical extension being mounted in front of the plurality of blades; the first cylindrical extension being protruded from the rotary axle; the second cylindrical extension being protruded opposite of the first cylindrical extension on the rotary axle; the hall traversing through the second cylindrical extension; and the hall being connected to the generator.
3. The horizontal axis logarithmic spiral fluid turbine as claimed in claim 1 comprises, the leading edge being narrower than the trailing edge and therefore creating an aerodynamic profile; the trailing edge being perpendicular to the rotary axle; the blade surface being perpendicular to the rotary axle; and the blade surface having a spiral shape with a logarithmic profile.
4. A horizontal axis logarithmic spiral fluid turbine comprises, a plurality of blades; a rotary axle; a cylindrical extension; a hall; a generator; a support bar; a deck; a horizontal pivot component; the support bar being attached to the deck; the deck being attached to the generator; the horizontal pivot component being attached to the deck; each blade comprises of a blade surface, a center, a leading edge, a trailing edge; each blade spiraling around the rotary axle; and the center of each blade being attached to the rotary axle.
5. The horizontal axis logarithmic spiral fluid turbine as claimed in claim 4 comprises, the cylindrical extension being mounted in front of the plurality of blades; the cylindrical extension being protruded from the rotary axle; the cylindrical extension being attached to the generator; the hall traversing through the cylindrical extension; and the hall being connected to the generator.
6. The horizontal axis logarithmic spiral fluid turbine as claimed in claim 4 comprises, the leading edge being narrower than the trailing edge and therefore creating an aerodynamic profile; the trailing edge being perpendicular to the rotary axle; the blade surface being perpendicular to the rotary axle; and the blade surface having a spiral shape with a logarithmic profile.
7. A horizontal axis logarithmic spiral fluid turbine comprises, a plurality of blades; a rotary axle; a cylindrical extension; a hall; a generator; a plurality of cables; each blade comprises of a blade surface, a center, a leading edge, a trailing edge; each blade spiraling around the rotary axle; and the center of each blade being attached to the rotary axle.
8. The horizontal axis logarithmic spiral fluid turbine as claimed in claim 7 comprises, the cylindrical extension being mounted in front of the plurality of blades; the cylindrical extension being protruded from the rotary axle; the hall traversing through the cylindrical extension; the plurality of cables traversing through the hall; and the plurality of cables attaching to the generator.
9. The horizontal axis logarithmic spiral fluid turbine as claimed in claim 7 comprises, the leading edge being narrower than the trailing edge and therefore creating an aerodynamic profile; the trailing edge being perpendicular to the rotary axle; the blade surface being perpendicular to the rotary axle; and the blade surface having a spiral shape with a logarithmic profile.
 The current application claims a priority to the U.S. Provisional
Patent application Ser. No. 61/387,894 filed on Sep. 29, 2010.
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
 The present invention relates generally to turbine for the generation of electrical energy. More specifically, the present invention takes the shape of a logarithmic spiral with a horizontal axis for efficient rotation. The present invention relates to fluid rotors, also called turbines, and pertains particularly to a rotor for flowing water, wind and the like.
 In the World International Patent Organization Application 2010043887A2, the process of attaining vortical flow is achieved using two components involving a turbine mounted to a duct with guide vanes to channel the fluid and change its direction and speed before contact with the said turbine. Thus, the uniqueness and efficiency of this design lies in the presence of the two components together. This turbine works only if facing the fluid current direction. Also, the turbine blades do not specify a logarithmic spiral.
 In the U.S. Pat. No. 4,368,007, the introduced invention in one aspect having the blades mounted in a spiral shape around a central spherically shaped hub has the blades extending outward and facing forward. This forces the fluids to flow inward toward the axle after contact with the blades reducing the fluid velocity. The prior art has an enlarged central hub to force the fluid away from the rotary axle and increase velocity before contact with the blades.
 In the U.S. Pat. No. 7,344,353, the introduced invention consists of a helical turbine mounted on a vertical axis and rotates horizontally. It is mentioned that: "The blades position and shape are substantially unchanged as one move along the vertical axis". Also, in vertical axis turbines, one surface of the blade is always facing the current and torque is acquired through resistance rather than lift.
 In the U.S. Pat. No. 7,494,315, the introduced invention is a turbine with a helical shape as opposed to the logarithmic curve. The fluid flow for this prior art is perpendicular to the vertical rotary axis.
 In the U.S. Pat. No. 6,948,910, the introduced invention is a spiral-based axial flow devices consist of rigid spiral band catenaries around an elongated profiled hub to be used in wind.
 In the U.S. Pat. No. 7,728,454, the introduced invention includes a generally helical turbine blade rotatable mounted on a central shaft, which may be tapered at each end, a flange extending perpendicularly to an edge of the turbine blade. This prior art is designed to work only under water, does not follow the logarithmic spiral, and has a modified helical shape blade with extra parts mounted in front and rear to help self orienting the turbine into the fluid flow direction.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
 The conversion of kinetic energy from flowing fluids, such as flowing water or air, has been a significant source of power for many centuries. Various designs of wind mills and water mills exist today and are used in many regions around the world for producing electric power from the rotation of such turbines.
 The rising cost and decreasing supply of fossil fuels creates a considerable need in harnessing renewable energy such as flowing wind and water more efficiently. In prior arts, there have been many different designs of wind mills and water mills all having various benefits but also disadvantages. For example, water mills that are currently used to generate electric power require a considerable quantity of strong water current to operate efficiently resulting in a need to build costly damns and structures to control the water current flow direction and speed. Presently, wind turbines not only compromise a significant amount of their torque to acquire high speed, but also require a relatively big space and in some cases, they may even be hazardous. Also, they are known to be expensive to construct, maintain, and engineer.
 Accordingly, it is desirable that safer turbines that can withstand higher forces and generate equal or higher energy be available while not subject to the problems of prior arts.
 It is known that all fluids follow one common behavior when in motion, which is a logarithmic spiral. For example, turbulence, hurricanes, and water flowing down the drain all follow a similar logarithmic spiral pattern. The present invention is intended to harness fluids based on this concept of logarithmic spiraling. It may be similar to prior arts like the Archimedean screw, or the 1849 James Francis water turbine, and others, but the present invention is intended to be an improvement in this field.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
 It is accordingly the primary object of the present invention to overcome the above problems of the prior art.
 An objective of the present invention is to provide an improved fluid turbine that is effective in generating more power in a given radius, fluid type, and velocity while at the same time is simple, safe, and inexpensive to construct and maintain.
 In accordance with the primary aspect of the horizontal axis logarithmic spiral fluid turbine, otherwise known as a logarithmic turbine, includes a plurality of blades mounted symmetrically and curve along the axis of rotation in a logarithmic spiral shape. Each blade consists of a logarithmic curve pattern with a certain curve radius and placed around a rotary axis. The surface of the blade is perpendicular to the axis from each point on the spiral. Also, the surface of the blade may be concave at the side of the blade facing the rotation direction in order to give it an aerodynamic shape and increase lift.
 One objective of the present invention is to guide the moving fluid around the logarithmic turbine's rotary axle and between the blades in a manner to collect the fluid kinetic energy more efficiently than in prior arts.
 The logarithmic turbine of the present invention is designed having a relatively smaller radius, slope, angle, and surface in the closest points of contact facing the current and increasing gradually according to the logarithmic spiral formula. The length of the logarithmic spiral is also the leading edge of the turbine, which is relatively long compared with leading edges found in prior arts.
 The rotary axis is attached to an electric power generator from either front end or back end, which allows the logarithmic turbine to transfer the collected energy into usable power.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
 FIG. 1 is a front plan view of another embodiment of the present invention mounted onto a tower.
 FIG. 2 is a rear perspective view of another embodiment of the present invention mounted onto a tower.
 FIG. 3 is a front plan view of the present invention of another embodiment tethered to a generator.
 FIG. 4 is a front plan view of another embodiment of the present invention with a second cylindrical extension and mounted onto a tower.
 FIG. 5 is a front plan view of the plurality of blades and the rotary axle of the present invention.
DETAIL DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
 All illustrations of the drawings are for the purpose of describing selected versions of the present invention and are not intended to limit the scope of the present invention.
 Of the many possible functions of the horizontal axis logarithmic spiral fluid turbine, otherwise known as a logarithmic turbine, one is to transform rotational energy into electric power by rotating an electric generator. This use demonstrates the ability to provide electricity that can be used for a variety of different uses. Another use for the logarithmic turbine is for it to be installed on a fixed tower facing the wind or water flow to generate electric power. It could have a self orientation mechanism to face the current if front is attached by a pivoting bearing to a vertical tower. Also it may be installed on a fast moving object to generate power from relative fluid flow. For example, the logarithmic turbine may be pulled behind a boat or mounted on a vehicle to generate power when object is moving and as a result be able to measure the current speeds of fluids. Other aspects that contribute to the uniqueness of the logarithmic turbine is involved with the design features of different components of the present invention, which contribute to a better functioning and more efficient turbine.
 In reference to FIG. 1 and FIG. 2, the most basic logarithmic turbine comprises of a plurality of blades 1, a rotary axle 9, a first cylindrical extension 10, a generator 18, and a hall 11. In the present embodiment, each of the blades 1 comprise of a blade surface 2, a center 3, a leading edge 4, a trailing edge 5, a curve radius 6, a logarithmic curve pattern 7, and an aerodynamic profile 8. The blades 1 are mounted symmetrically on a horizontal axis known as the rotary axle 9. Specifically the center 3 of the blades 1 is attached directly onto the rotary axle 9. This ensures that the blades 1 are securely attached to the rotary axle 9.
 Unlike the typical vertical mounting of a turbine, the present invention is mounted horizontally, which adds to its better functionality over previous turbine designs. In traditional turbines, a vertical axis upon which the blades rest is perpendicular to the current of the fluid. Having a horizontal axis allows the axis to be parallel to the fluid current, which can improve the efficiency of the logarithmic turbine because it does not have to work against the flow of fluid. This type of horizontal turbine set up can rotate faster than the fluid speed. However, the vertical axis turbines are known to have high torque but it is rather impossible for them to rotate faster than the fluid speed.
 In reference to FIG. 1 and FIG. 2, the specified curve radius 6, which is the distance between an edge of the blade 1 and the center 3, varies along the rotary axle 9. The ratio of the overall spiral height to its radius 6 may be determined according to desired use in terms of present fluid density and velocity. The logarithmic turbine is unique because each blade surface 2 has the configuration of the logarithmic curve 7, otherwise known in mathematics as an equiangular curve or as a golden curve. Also, even though the turbine blades follow the logarithmic curve 7, the radius 6 changes along the horizontal axis. The blades 1 curve gradually around the center 3 and outward in the logarithmic curve pattern 7 rather than having the same radius all along its rotary axle 9. This manner of curving around the center 3 and rotary axle 9 allows the fluid to be pushed outward and around the rotary axle, forming a vortex around the axle and expanding around the turbine. This aspect of the present invention causes the fluids passing inside the turbine closest to the axle 9 to increase in velocity before exiting from the rear because they have to travel a longer distance than surrounding fluids. In a traditional helix curve, the radius of the blade remains constant along the horizontal axis. The present turbine also creates lift behind the blades to help increase the velocity at which the blades are spinning Helical shape turbines rely more on pushing force, which make them slower.
 Referring to FIG. 1, FIG. 2, and FIG. 5, the blades 1 have an aerodynamic profile 8 due to the logarithmic curve 7 it follows in which there is a smaller amount of exposed blade surfaces 2 in the front as opposed to the larger exposed blade surfaces 2 in the rear. Since the blades 1 are shaped to resemble an aerodynamic profile 8, the blades 1 are narrow in the front and taper outwards, creating a larger rear, thus exposing more blade surface 2. Also, the blade surfaces 2, as a result, are concave when facing the direction of rotation 12. The aerodynamic profile 8 will help to create a more efficient logarithmic turbine because of its ability to move the fluid in a more efficient manner by shifting excessive fluid to the larger blade surfaces 2 in the rear of the logarithmic turbine. Another advantage of having this aerodynamic profile 8 of the turbine is simplicity and the low drag especially when tethered or pulled behind a moving object from its front part. The aerodynamic profile 8 is also intended to help point the turbine to self-orient into the fluid current direction. This is achieved by mounting the front part of the turbine to a horizontal pivot point or to a cable, which will be later discussed.
 Again, in reference to FIG. 1, FIG. 2, and FIG. 5, the aerodynamic profile 8 and logarithmic curve pattern 7 of the blades 1 make the logarithmic turbine appear as a cone rather than a disk (which is the case for traditional turbines) when spinning at high velocities. Unlike other turbines with a central hub in the middle, the leading edge 4 of the blades 1 in the front center of the apparatus is relatively parallel to fluid flow direction for better stability. Having the leading edge 4 parallel to the flow direction of fluid will ensure that the logarithmic turbine is efficient in its functionality of gathering kinetic energy. The trailing edge 5 is perpendicular to the rotary axle 9 and has the largest curve radius 6. Since the trailing edge 5 is at the rear of the blade 1, it is a part of the blade 1 that is has the most exposed blade surface 2 and as a result, has the largest curve radius 6. At present, the logarithmic turbine uses lift behind the blades 1 in addition to a push force. Also, the present invention uses lift created from increased fluid velocity passing inside the turbine relative to surrounding fluids.
 Referring to FIG. 1 and FIG. 2, the first cylindrical extension 10, with the hall 11 passing through its center from one side to the other, is a protruded part that stems off the rotary axle 9. The first cylindrical extension 10 is mounted in front of the blades 1. This cylindrical extension 10 serves as a means to transfer the rotation and transform it into other types of energy (such as electrical if attached to an electric power generator).
 In reference to FIG. 4, another variation of the present embodiment involves attaching another hollow cylindrical extension or insert. This second cylindrical extension 17 is mounted on a rear side of the turbine. The placement of the second cylindrical extension 17 is intended so the generator 18 that will be used with the present invention may be placed from behind if desired.
 In reference to FIG. 1, FIG. 2, and FIG. 3, the hall 11 in the cylindrical extension 10 serves two main purposes. One such purpose is to provide ample space to insert a screw to fix it to another cylindrical extension with slightly larger radius. Also, another purpose is so there is space to pass a cable 16 through the hall 11 so the turbine can be tethered or attached to a generator 18. Both are vital in adding variation to the present invention.
 Other variations of the present embodiment are a result from what object it is attached to. One such variation is having the logarithmic turbine attached to a fixed pole or tower and using a self-orientating mean. In reference to FIG. 1 and FIG. 2, a horizontal pivot component 14 part may be used to mount the turbine and generator 18 along any height of a pole or on top of a tower such as a street light, or a boat mast to collect wind energy. The pivot component 14 will help the logarithmic turbine to spin and move as it sees fit depending on fluid flow. The generator 18 and electrical parts may be placed on a deck 15 mounted on top of the pivot component 14. A support bar 13 is able to add an extra support for the first cylindrical extension 10. The support bar 13 rests on top of the deck 15, closing the space between the deck 15 and the first cylindrical extension 10. An axle of the generator 18 passes besides the fixed object (i.e. pole) and connects to the logarithmic turbine located on the opposite side. Placing the generator 18 and components on one side and the logarithmic turbine on the other side creates enough balance needed to apply equal gravitational force on each side of the pivot ring. The pivot component 14 has bearings inside, which allows it to easily pivot horizontally around another smaller ring that is fixed to the pole, thus contributing to the manner in which the logarithmic turbine can self-orient itself horizontally in the fluid current direction. The ability to self-orient helps to optimize the purposes of the turbine.
 Referring to FIG. 3, the next variation of the logarithmic turbine is having it fixed to a moving object, but not using any self-orientation methods. The logarithmic turbine may be attached from its front or rear to an electric generator by the generator's 18 axle and mounted to a vehicle with cables 16 in order to generate power from relative fluid flow. For example, the present invention could be mounted to an electric car to generate electricity and recharge its batteries while the car is traveling. This is an important benefit because there are not many places where an electric car may be recharged because the car itself is still very unique. The variation of adding the present invention to a moving object adds to the versatility of the logarithmic turbine. This allows for multiple ways in which the logarithmic turbine may be used and adds to the convenience of the apparatus.
 In reference to FIG. 3, one other variation includes having the apparatus tethered, in other words, attaching a cable 16 through the hall 11 in the front part of the cylindrical extension 10. The turbine may be placed in a current, or pulled behind a vehicle while the generator is placed on a fixed surface. When tethered, the material used to construct the turbine is an important factor to control its vertical position in relation to the generator, instead of using a poll or tower. Turbine may be constructed from light-weight material to be used in collecting hydrokinetic energy. While tethered to any fixed object under the water surface such as the seabed, the logarithmic turbine is able to collect hydrokinetic energy from jet stream, tidal waves, and similar moving water currents. Also, the turbine may be constructed from heavier material if tethered from a fixed object above the water such as a boat, or a bridge above the river.
 In reference to FIG. 1 and FIG. 2, the logarithmic turbine functions as a regular turbine, regardless of what variation of the present embodiment is being used. While the logarithmic turbine is mounted from its front end, fluid current hits the logarithmic turbine on all blade surfaces 2, the rear part of the blades 1 collect the most kinetic energy, thus pulling the whole logarithmic turbine and self orienting to face the correct fluid direction. The current is almost parallel to the blades' 1 smallest surface in the front part of the turbine. The blades 1 direct the current gradually away from the center 3 of the logarithmic turbine (and blades 1) and around it as it moves towards the rear creating a vortex.
 Again, referring to FIG. 1 and FIG. 2, fluid current in contact with the leading edge 4 is channeled between the blades 1 while pushing on the blades 1 on one side and pulling on the other, in an increasing rate as the surfaces 2 and angle of attack increase toward the rear. The leading edge 4 of each blade 1 is the length of the entire spiral, which is considerably longer than a leading edge of a conventional turbine having the same radius.
 The fluid current traveling through the logarithmic turbine is diverted gradually from its original straight flow direction into a spiral, causing it to travel a longer distance in a given time relative to fluids current surrounding the whole turbine. This causes the fluid inside the logarithmic turbine to increase velocity in order to meet the surrounding flow at the same time while exiting. This increase in fluid velocity inside the logarithmic turbine helps increasing the turbine velocity.
 In reference to FIG. 1 and FIG. 2, the construction material can be varied depending on different design specifications. Many of the specifications for the logarithmic turbine depend on the size of the logarithmic turbine, but material has to be lightweight, sturdy, and with a smooth surface, including, but not limited to any type of plastic, metal, textile, carbon fiber, or any similar material. It must be built to withstand high forces. Materials include but are not limited to fiberglass, sail, and light metal like aluminum, plastic, and a combination of materials or others with similar properties. When used under water, the logarithmic turbine may be a built in gel--like material or water inflated to give it the same density as water so it almost floats. The ability to have the logarithmic turbine float makes it move more efficiently because gravitation forces will be insignificant. When intended to use the apparatus in light winded environments, the blades 1 may be constructed using strong inflatable material to collect kinetic energy from wind. In stronger wind conditions, another way to tether the turbine is by constructing it as a kite making the blades from light-weight strong textile material. The advantages to using the textile material is ease of storage for when the apparatus is not in use and ease of transportation. Also, the blades 1 may be constructed as one whole piece rather than attaching multiple blades together depending on the size, material used, cost, or structural strength needed.
 In reference to FIG. 1 and FIG. 2, the logarithmic turbine design may be modified depending on also the types of fluid and their respective densities and speeds. The number of blades 1 may be modified while keeping the same spiral shape around the axis, preferably in an even number of blades for better balance. The height and radius ratio of the logarithmic spiral created by the design of the blades 1 may be modified to manipulate the rotation speed and torque. Number of spiral turns (essentially, the blades 1 curving around the rotary axle) and their distance from each other may vary in order to control the rotation speed and torque. The design of the present invention may also have different colors, sizes and shapes. It may also be modified in thickness, weight, and material used to withstand higher forces. Colors and drawings may be used to create a visual effect while the turbine is turning serving as decoration in addition to generating power.
 When compared to other turbines, the logarithmic turbine holds many more advantages. The present invention transforms kinetic energy evenly along its blades surface and in a gradual manner. The narrow front of the design facing the fluid direction replaces the fixed nose found in prior art taking advantage of this area. The logarithmic turbine is able to distribute and channel the flowing fluid (thus stress) more evenly between the blades. Also, the logarithmic turbine's elongated leading edge allows for a start-up speed that may be significantly lower than other fluid turbines. Another benefit of the logarithmic turbine, is its ability to withstand higher forces because the total surface of the blades is distributed in a relatively smaller radius and may be built in one whole piece. Another advantage of the logarithmic turbine is that it is inexpensive. Because of its simplicity, very few parts are needed to build, less engineering is involved, and there are low maintenance costs. Also, the logarithmic turbine produces minimal noise because it has fewer moving parts, and turbulence is minimal. Another added benefit to the logarithmic turbine is that it is safer for birds and marine life than the traditional turbines and as a result, less hazardous than conventional wind or water turbines.
 Although the invention has been explained in relation to its preferred embodiment, it is to be understood that many other possible modifications and variations can be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as hereinafter claimed.
Patent applications in class SPIRAL BLADE OR FLOW PASSAGE (360 DEGREE)
Patent applications in all subclasses SPIRAL BLADE OR FLOW PASSAGE (360 DEGREE)