Patent application title: Polyhedra Building System with Composite walls
Miguel Correa (Guaynabo, PR, US)
IPC8 Class: AE04B119FI
Class name: Static structures (e.g., buildings) conical or radially ribbed cover
Publication date: 2012-02-16
Patent application number: 20120036795
A structure for a polyhedral building has a novel frame including a
central column supporting suspended floors and roof members. The frame is
adapted to receive prefabricated sandwich-type panels for both roof and
walls, and these are joined securely to the frame created by this
structure, resulting in a semi-monocoque structure resistant to torsion
from wind and other outside forces.
1. A polyhedral building structure comprising; a base secured to the
datum; a central column secured to said base; one of more floor platforms
mounted on said column at one or more points above said datum, extending
radially from said column in a horizontal and significantly level
fashion; a topmost roof platform mounted on said column at or near it
highest point above said datum, said roof platform extending radially
from said column; and three or more wall panels secured to the periphery
of two or more neighboring floor platforms, or to the periphery of the
topmost floor platform and the roof platform, said wall member being also
connected at their ends to each other.
2. the building structure of claim 1 wherein; three or more polyhedral building structures as described are linked by three or more crosslink beams, with each column being linked to another column by one or more said beams;
3. the building structure of claim 2 wherein; at least one of the peripheries of the platform from one or more polyhedral structures is mechanically linked to the periphery of another polyhedral building structure.
4. the building structure of claim 3 wherein; the base is sunk into concrete.
5. the building structure of claim 1 wherein; the base is sunk into concrete.
6. the building structure of claim 1 wherein; the wall panels are comprised of one or more composite wall panels.
7. the building structure of claim 6 wherein; three or more polyhedral building structures as described are linked by three or more crosslink beams, with each column being linked to another column by one or more said beams;
8. the building structure of claim 7 wherein; at least one of the peripheries of the platform from one or more polyhedral structures is mechanically linked to the periphery of another polyhedral building structure.
9. the building structure of claim 8 wherein; the base is sunk into a concrete.
10. a composite wall structure comprising; two fibre cement panels; a plurality of studs, spaced within its envelope and securely attached to said panels; three or more internal reinforcement bars installed height-wise within the cavity formed by two neighboring studs and said panels, the extensions of said bars protruding beyond the cavity having mechanical means for their attachment to either platform peripheries or the bars from other walls; a plurality of said cavities are filled with a hardening composite; and the ends of each said panel having one male and one female ending.
11. the composite wall of claim 10 wherein; the reinforcement bars are comprised of metal and the hardening substance is a concrete mixture.
12. the composite wall of claim 11 wherein; one or more cavity walls are layered with an insulating material.
13. the composite wall of claim 10 wherein; the reinforcement bars are comprised of KEVLAR® or a similar composite.
14. a method for erecting a polyhedral building comprising; attaching a central column to a base secured to the datum; mounting one of more floor platforms on said column at one or more points above said datum,; mounting a topmost roof platform on said column at or near it highest point above said datum; and attaching three or more wall panels the periphery of two or more neighboring floor platforms, or to the periphery of the topmost floor platform and the roof platform.
CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
 This application claims priority to co-pending U.S. provisional patent application Ser. No. 61/358,424 titled "Polyhedra Building System" filed on Jun. 25, 2010, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
 The following documents and references are incorporated by reference in their entirety, Porter (U.S. Pat. No. 4,275,534) and Anderson (U.S. Pat. No. 5,088,245)
 The present invention generally relates to structural building elements, in particular to structures that may provide shelter.
 Building structures in the shape of a hexagon have generally included six spaced support columns coupled at respective upper ends thereof by means of horizontal eave beams. An example of such hexagonal building structures can be found in Porter (U.S. Pat. No. 4,275,534) as well as in Anderson (U.S. Pat. No. 5,088,245). In many cases for structural and aesthetic reasons, it is desirable to construct hexagonal building structures in an adjoining fashion to form an integrated structure comprised of a pair of adjacent, abutting hexagonal structures. In some cases the adjacent hexagons are connected together, while in other cases each hexagon is free standing with no connection to any other hexagonal building structure.
 In addition, when some of these structures are constructed in areas subject to adverse weather conditions, the use of composite wall structures may assist in their survivability to the elements.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
 This section is for the purpose of summarizing some aspects of the present invention and to briefly introduce some preferred embodiments. Simplifications or omissions may be made to avoid obscuring the purpose of the section. Such simplifications or omissions are not intended to limit the scope of the present invention.
 In ones aspect, the invention is about a polyhedral building structure comprising a base secured to the datum, a central column secured to said base, one of more floor platforms mounted on said column at one or more points above said datum, extending radially from said column in a horizontal and significantly level fashion, a topmost roof platform mounted on said column at or near it highest point above said datum, said roof platform extending radially from said column and three or more wall panels secured to the periphery of two or more neighboring floor platforms, or to the periphery of the topmost floor platform and the roof platform, said wall member being also connected at their ends to each other.
 In another aspect, three or more polyhedral building structures as described are linked by three or more crosslink beams, with each column being linked to another column by one or more said beams. In one aspect, at least one of the peripheries of the platform from one or more polyhedral structures is mechanically linked to the periphery of another polyhedral building structure. In another aspect, the base is sunk into concrete or the wall panels are comprised of one or more composite wall panels.
 In another aspect, the invention is about a composite wall structure comprising two fibre cement panels, a plurality of studs, spaced within its envelope and securely attached to said panels, three or more internal reinforcement bars installed height-wise within the cavity formed by two neighboring studs and said panels, the extensions of said bars protruding beyond the cavity having mechanical means for their attachment to either platform peripheries or the bars from other walls, a plurality of said cavities are filled with a hardening composite; and the ends of each said panel having one male and one female ending. In another aspect, the reinforcement bars are comprised of metal and the hardening substance is a concrete mixture, one or more cavity walls are layered with an insulating material. In yet another aspect, the reinforcement bars are comprised of KEVLAR® or a similar composite.
 In one aspect, the invention is about a method for erecting a polyhedral building comprising attaching a central column to a base secured to the datum, mounting one of more floor platforms on said column at one or more points above said datum, mounting a topmost roof platform on said column at or near it highest point above said datum and attaching three or more wall panels the periphery of two or more neighboring floor platforms, or to the periphery of the topmost floor platform and the roof platform.
 Other features and advantages of the present invention will become apparent upon examining the following detailed description of an embodiment thereof, taken in conjunction with the attached drawings.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
 FIGS. 1A and 1B show isometric views of building infrastructures according to illustrative embodiments of the invention.
 FIGS. 2, 3 and 4 show plan views of building structures according to illustrative embodiments of the invention.
 FIGS. 5, 6, 7 and 8 show illustrations of building structures according to illustrative embodiments of the invention.
 FIGS. 9A, 9B, 10, 11, 12A, 12B, 12C, 13, 14A and 14B show various views isometric views of the composite wall assembly structure according to illustrative embodiments of the invention.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT
 To provide an overall understanding of the invention, certain illustrative embodiments and examples will now be described. However, it will be understood by one of ordinary skill in the art that the same or equivalent functions and sequences may be accomplished by different embodiments that are also intended to be encompassed within the spirit and scope of the disclosure. The compositions, apparatuses, systems and/or methods described herein may be adapted and modified as is appropriate for the application being addressed and that those described herein may be employed in other suitable applications, and that such other additions and modifications will not depart from the scope hereof
 Pentagonal, Hexagonal, and further sided construction structures provide significant advantages over traditional quadrilateral homes and shelters. In particular, hexagonal structures have the advantage of being able to be built with shorter length beam elements, particularly when a central support column is used. In addition, the use of a central column obviates the need for leveling of the construction site.
 Referring to FIGS. 1A-1B, a hexagonal structure 100 supported on a central column 104 has a number of advantages. The central column 104 provides a structure on which to mount one or more floors 102. Similarly, the top structural platform 106 serves as a support for the building's roof and living space ceiling. The floors and ceilings are naturally leveled off the central column 104 by having their radially extending beams placed orthogonal to the central column 104 and supported on it.
 The column 104 itself is mounted on a base 108, which may be comprised of a concrete, rock, metal or other composite base embedded into the datum or soil. In situations where the datum allows it, the base 108 may be driven into rock or other solid support within the datum at minimal cost to the base 108 structure.
 Two or more of the hexagonal structures may be connected (FIG. 1B), by placing the bases (108, 150, 152) so that the perimeters of the various hexagonal structures are joined or connected. In one embodiment, additional support may be created by further mechanical linking of the columns (104, 160, 162) via crosslink beams (154, 156, 158). The resulting interlinked structure provides for a torsion resistant structure capable of surviving significant natural forces.
 Note the crosslink beams 154, 156, 158 need not be all placed at the same elevation or angle to accomplish their stabilizing mission. In on embodiment, one or more of the crosslink beams is segmented as a truss in an angle, to facilitate entry/exit of persons/animals/vehicles into the volume inside. In another embodiment, the crosslink beams are placed under the datum so as to not impede any entry/exit to the volume. In one embodiment, the crosslink beams are not co-planar in the horizontal, each being placed at a different height and/or different angle.
 When two or more structures are linked (FIG. 2), the crosslink beams interconnection, coupled with the interconnection of the unit floor platforms 164, 166, 168 at or near their neighboring peripheries 170 provide for the formation of an internal stability "box" or "frame" which resists torsional forces. Note that in one embodiment, the floor platforms connected may be those at different levels in the neighboring units. For example, on a sloped assembly, the "2nd floor" platform may be connected to the "1st floor" platform of one neighbor, and to the "roof" of another.
 In one embodiment, the building's walls or panels are securely attached at both top and bottom to the floor frame periphery via bolts, chemical means or welding. By being attached to the internal frame described above, we create a hybrid semi-monocoque type structure that transfers stability through forces within both its internal stability frame as well as the wall structural elements. In this fashion, the structure becomes a volumetric cinch, being held together by both tensile and compressive forces when flexed.
 Referring to FIGS. 2-4, the basic hexagonal plan may be combined in a number of exemplary embodiments. One is a multi-dimensional (in X, Y and Z) longitudinal 200 assembly where various single column units 202, 204, 206, + are interconnected on one of their hexagonal sides, for example 216. A primary advantage of the invention is evident when looking at the datum 208. No leveling of it was necessary, yet the floors of the various structures are contiguous. Similarly, the bases 210, 212, 214 of the various units may be driven into the datum 208 at different depths, to account for the variations in the soil structure below the datum 208.
 In an alternate embodiment, the height of the various units 202, 204, 206 may be varied, in order to provide additional privacy, and the used of the various adjoining roofs as potential deck mounting locations. Services (including water, electricity, waste, heating and cooling), may be routed via the inside of the support column 104, or through an outside "skin" surrounding it (to protect these from vandals and others).
 In one embodiment, the device structural elements 300 are made of metal (FIG. 3), such as steel, aluminum or other such material. In an alternate embodiment, the complete assembly may be made of wood or wood composites. In one embodiment, combinations of the above materials, plus the use of others such as concrete, plastic, carbon composite or others may be envisioned. In such an embodiment, the central beam may be steel, but the supporting beam members may be wood, with tar tiles for a roof surface.
 In one embodiment, the structure is built as a combination of steel and concrete (also colloquially known as cement within the construction business). Besides having durability advantages, such a structure also claims the advantage of being fairly vandal-proof, especially in environments where the theft of wood products is rampant. Once the structural elements are lain (central beam 104, floor platform 102), in one embodiment a 10-15 cm concrete floor is laid on top of the floor platform 102, ensuring that dowels and associated structures to support the structure's walls are positioned. The walls are then attached around the periphery of the platform (as well as internally as required), and attached to the ceiling and roof structure. In one embodiment, the roof is created the same way, although it may be angled to facilitate drainage.
 One of the intrinsic properties of the invention, is the fact that whereas the basic elements are hexagonal, the living spaces need not be. As seen in FIG. 4, while the outside of the "Vieques" Model are hexagons, the dining room 402 has a rectangular feel, with only one wall having angles that differ from 90 degrees. This is critical to humans, most of whom have spent their entire lives living in quadrilateral homes. FIG. 5 includes a number of images of interior/exterior shots of such structures. FIGS. 6-8 illustrate other exemplary embodiments of the structure, as a multi-room single dwelling, as well as a school.
 Referring to FIGS. 9A and 9B we illustrate another critical component of the invention, a composite reinforced structural wall member or wall panel 900 for use in the inherent strengthening of the structures walls, as well as in creating the semi-monocoque fuselage effect which takes advantage of the rigidity of the walls in giving the complete structure added strength. The STRONGWALL® wall segment 900 element begins with two fiber cement side panels 904, 906 forming the sides of a volume. In one embodiment, these side panels may be formed of any material capable of holding the expanding pressure and weight of the concrete members, including wood, gypsum, reinforced walls of these with additional fibers.
 The ends are formed into a male 912 and female 914 ends designed to nest against one another, and have lateral openings along its length for attachment of one to another. These ends allow for the nesting of consecutive panels to be secured to one another. In one embodiment, the segments or panels are sized to match the standard 2.4×1.4 meters (or its analogous North American 8×4 ft. panels). The side panels 904, 906 are joined (and spaced) by two or more studs 902. The studs are attached to the panels by screws, bolts, chemical means, welding, etc. In one embodiment, the wall segment 900 is divided into nine chambers 916, each chamber being formed by two neighboring studs and the panels, and being a height wise and widthwise element within the segment 900.
 One or more of the chambers has a reinforcement bar (rebar) 910 installed in it height wise. In one embodiment, the rebar 910 is made of iron, steel or any other suitable metal, carbon fiber or such para-aramid synthetic fibers as KEVLAR®, NOMEX® or TECHNORA®. In one embodiment, the rebars are staggered as shown, although any combination thereof may be suitable. In one embodiment, the top and bottom rebar ends have portions left exposed, in order to allow for their interconnection to other panels and/or to the periphery of the bottom/top platforms 102, 106, etc..
 In one embodiment, all chambers 916 are then filled with a suitable concrete mixture and allowed to cure and harden. In an alternate embodiment, other chemical boding means are used, including the use of special glues and concretes. Such a mix may include cement (Portland or other cementitious material), coarse and fine aggregates, water and chemical admixtures. These may include regular, high-strength, stamped, self-consolidating, vacuum, shotcrete or pervious concrete. A particularly attractive mix would be one formed by a light concrete and the addition of an insulating layer (such as rubber or foam) at either side. Such a wall would provide both insulation and strength.
 Regular concrete is the lay term describing concrete that is produced by following the mixing instructions that are commonly published on packets of cement, typically using sand or other common material as the aggregate, and often mixed in improvised containers. High-strength concrete is made by lowering the water-cement (W/C) ratio to 0.35 or lower. Often silica fume is added to prevent the formation of free calcium hydroxide crystals in the cement matrix, which might reduce the strength at the cement-aggregate bond.
 Stamped concrete is an architectural concrete which has a superior surface finish. Self-consolidating concretes Self-consolidating or self-compacting concrete (SCCs) is characterized by extreme fluidity, no need for vibrators to compact the concrete, no bleed water, or aggregate segregation and increased Liquid Head Pressure. Vacuum concretes are created by the use of steam to produce a vacuum inside of concrete mixing truck to release air bubbles inside the concrete. Shotcrete (also known by the trade name Gunite) uses compressed air to shoot concrete onto (or into) a frame or structure.
 Pervious concrete contains a network of holes or voids, to allow air or water to move through the concrete. This allows water to drain naturally through it, and can both remove the normal surface-water drainage infrastructure, and allow replenishment of groundwater when conventional concrete does not. It is formed by leaving out some or all of the fine aggregate (fines). The remaining large aggregate then is bound by a relatively small amount of Portland cement.
 Cellular concrete may be produced by the addition of an air-entraining agent to the concrete (or a lightweight aggregate like expanded clay pellets or cork granules and vermiculite) is sometimes called cellular concrete, lightweight aerated concrete, variable density concrete, foamed concrete and lightweight or ultra-lightweight concrete, not to be confused with aerated autoclaved concrete, which is manufactured off-site using an entirely different method. These may include Cork composites or glass elements added to the concrete.
 The segment 900 is thus a reinforced concrete wall capable of being linked to other such walls, and to be used as a building element in a reinforced structure. FIGS. 10-14 illustrate alternate embodiments using these panels as its structural elements. As seen in FIGS. 12B and 13, the rebars 910 and studs 916 may be adjusted to include space for windows 1200 and doors 1204. In addition, where external or internal corners, or wall processes end, it is possible to finish the wall structure by either cutting it short, or placing a cover over the exposed corner 1302.
 In concluding the detailed description, it should be noted that it would be obvious to those skilled in the art that many variations and modifications can be made to the preferred embodiment without substantially departing from the principles of the present invention. Also, such variations and modifications are intended to be included herein within the scope of the present invention as set forth in the appended claims. Further, in the claims hereafter, the structures, materials, acts and equivalents of all means or step-plus function elements are intended to include any structure, materials or acts for performing their cited functions.
 It should be emphasized that the above-described embodiments of the present invention, particularly any "preferred embodiments" are merely possible examples of the implementations, merely set forth for a clear understanding of the principles of the invention. Any variations and modifications may be made to the above-described embodiments of the invention without departing substantially from the spirit of the principles of the invention. All such modifications and variations are intended to be included herein within the scope of the disclosure and present invention and protected by the following claims.
 The present invention has been described in sufficient detail with a certain degree of particularity. The utilities thereof are appreciated by those skilled in the art. It is understood to those skilled in the art that the present disclosure of embodiments has been made by way of examples only and that numerous changes in the arrangement and combination of parts may be resorted without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as claimed. Accordingly, the scope of the present invention is defined by the appended claims rather than the forgoing description of embodiments.
Patent applications in class CONICAL OR RADIALLY RIBBED COVER
Patent applications in all subclasses CONICAL OR RADIALLY RIBBED COVER