Patent application title: System and Method for Obtaining Clean Coal Tars from Pyrolized Coal and Biomass
Peter Rugg (New York, NY, US)
Robert J. Von Gutfeld (New York, NY, US)
Ann Engelkemeir (East Lyme, CT, US)
IPC8 Class: AF23J1500FI
Class name: Furnaces with exhaust gas treatment means
Publication date: 2012-02-02
Patent application number: 20120024204
A system and method for collecting hot coal tar gases emanating from a
coal containing pyrolytic kiln are described. The hot coal tar gases,
comprising a variety of different hydrocarbons as well as inorganic gases
arising from the kiln thermal processing are transferred by diffusion and
forced convection to a thermal duct in which the temperature is
controlled to be maintained at a temperature below that of the kiln. The
gaseous hydrocarbon with the highest condensation temperature is the
first to liquefy. Additional useful hydrocarbons liquefy as the
temperature of the gas continues to cool from the kiln temperature of
˜5000 C to one approaching the minimum duct temperature,
˜175° C. After a number of desirable hydrocarbons present in
the coal tar gas have liquefied, the liquid contents are collected,
either separately or as a combination of liquid hydrocarbons. The several
remaining inorganic and some hydrocarbons gases with condensation
temperatures below the minimum duct temperature are separately collected
in gaseous form for further processing and/or safe disposal.
1. A system for reclaiming hot coal tar gases and hydrocarbon coal gas
components in a condensed state comprising: a pyrolytic kiln containing
hot coal gases, said kiln having at least one open end, an outer shell
and an inner core, further comprising means for temperature regulation of
said kiln; a duct with a proximal open end, said one open end of said
duct and said distal open end of said kiln fixedly connected by a
rotatable flange; heating coils in intimate thermal contact with said
duct for regulating temperature of said duct, a master control unit; at
least one thermal sensor mounted respectively within said kiln and said
duct; at least one drain spout coupled to at least one opening on the
underside of said duct; at least one collection chamber in close
proximity to said drain spout; a fan positioned within said duct;
uncondensed hot coal and biomass gases in said kiln core, wherein said
gases are driven into said duct by said fan, said condensed gases in said
duct collected by at least one collection chamber; a collection drum for
collecting uncondensed gases.
2. A system as in claim 1, wherein said duct has a proximal end, a distal end, a top side and an underside.
3. A system as in claim 1 wherein said kiln core is mounted concentrically within said outer shell.
4. A system as in claim 1 where in said distal open end of said kiln core and open end of said duct provide means for hot coal gases to enter said duct from said kiln core.
5. A system as in claim 1 wherein said duct coils control the temperature of said duct by thermal conduction, convection and radiation between said coils and said duct.
6. A system as in claim 1 wherein said fan is positioned near the distal end of said duct.
7. A system as in claim 1 where in said collection chamber is attached to the underside of said duct.
8. A system as in claim 1, wherein said duct has a length as measured along its outer perimeter along said underside of said duct, said length in the range 1-500 feet.
9. A system as in claim 1 wherein said duct has an interior cross sectional area of arbitrary geometry in the range of 1 to 100 square feet.
10. A system as in claim 1 wherein said duct is maintained in the temperature range 175-350 C.
11. A system as in claim 1 wherein said duct temperature can be a uniform temperature along its entire length.
12. A system as in claim 1, wherein said length dimension of said duct is selected from the group consisting of a linear length and a non-linear length, wherein said duct with said non-linear length dimension has one section lower in height with respect to ground level compared to other lengthwise portions of said non-linear duct.
13. A system as in claim 1, wherein said hot gases flow from said kiln core into said duct.
14. A system as in claim 1, wherein the temperature of said heating coils are determined by said master control unit and at least one thermal sensor.
15. A system as in claim 1, wherein the components of said gases are hydrocarbons with the chemical formula CxHy where x is greater than 9 and y greater than 10.
16. A system as in claim 1, wherein components of said hot hydrocarbon gases in said kiln enter said duct from the distal end of said kiln core at a temperature up to ˜500 C and condense in said duct at a temperature determined by the individual thermodynamic properties of said gas component.
17. A system as in claim 1 wherein recoverable hydrocarbon gases condense in said duct in the temperature range ˜175-350 C.
18. A system as in claim 1, wherein at least one opening on underside of said duct further comprises a shutter, said shutter comprising means for controlling the opening and closing of said underside openings.
19. A system as in claim 1, wherein said drain spout is rigidly attached to each of said openings on said underside of said duct.
20. A system as in claim 1 wherein said drain spout empties condensed gas components into a collection chamber with said shutter in said open position.
21. A system as in claim 1 wherein said fan drives said uncondensed gas components in said duct into said drum.
22. A method for retrieving condensed fractions of hydrocarbon coal gases emanating from a heated kiln, the steps comprising: heating coal and biomass in a pyrolytic oxygen free kiln to a temperature at which coal emits a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbons; capturing said set of gaseous hydrocarbons in a duct, said duct having a top and bottom surface; a flange intimately connecting said duct to one end of said kiln; fastening at least one drain spout near the center of said duct, said drain spout opening controlled by a shutter mounted on said drain spout; positioning a collection chamber under said set of spouts; wrapping heating coils along length of said duct thereby providing a fixed temperatures along length of said duct; controlling said temperature of heating coils and duct by way of a master control unit, positioning at least one thermal sensor in the interior of said duct, said thermal sensor sending temperature information to said computer control system, liquefying individual fractions of gaseous hydrocarbons by cooling at temperatures corresponding to the condensation temperature of said hydrocarbon; positioning a fan mounted within far end of said duct; attaching a collection drum to far end of said duct in close proximity to said fan for sequestering uncondensed gas.
23. The method of claim 21 further including collecting said liquefied hydrocarbons from said duct through said drain spouts.
24. The method of claim 22 comprising directing said liquefied gases from each said drain spout into an individual collection chamber, further comprising the method of driving uncondensed said gaseous hydrocarbons at the distal end of said duct into said collection drum.
CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
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STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT
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REFERENCE TO SEQUENCE LISTING, A TABLE, OR A COMPUTER PROGRAM LISTING COMPACT DISK APPENDIX
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FIELD OF INVENTION
 Recently, there has been an increasing effort to obtain `clean` coal by processing the coal, as mined, at moderate temperatures in a pyrolytic kiln to drive off harmful, polluting gases. The need for clean coal has been mandated and incorporated in numerous National and International pollution standards in order to prevent health hazards as well as crop hazards such as acid rain. The present invention describes methods for pyrolyzing coal both to drive off harmful gases that can be sequestered, and also to recapture condensed gases that can be further used for clean oxidation, providing useful non-polluting or minimally polluting thermal energy. These gases are recovered in liquid form in a special temperature controlled duct.
 Coal pyrolysis, in which a portion of coal is converted into a series of gases, was first developed as early as the eighteenth century. However, commercial pyrolysis became more widespread in the early 1900's. Intense renewed interest in pyrolysis of a variety of raw coals was spurred by the tensions between the West and the oil rich nations of the Middle Eastern countries in the 1970's. In general, depending on the nature of the raw coal and the exact nature of the pyrolysis process, the gas from coal pyrolysis may contain water vapor, compounds of chlorine, mercury, other heavy metals, hydrogen sulfide, and a range of hydrocarbon volatiles. The solid, non-volatized coal char will contain carbon, a range of hydrocarbon compounds, and traces of other minerals and elemental compounds. The volatized gases can be separated and the individual gaseous products can be further processed for useful chemical applications. At the same time, burning coals that have been properly pyrolyzed reduce air pollutions and hence human health hazards such as emphysema, asthma, and lung cancer. The large number of issued patents involving pyrolysis gives a broad picture of the utility and profitability of gasification of coal by pyrolysis to achieve a cleaner coal.
 The history and detailed time-line of coal pyrolysis are well documented and found on a variety of websites. Details of a pyrolysis process can be found, for example, in "Kinetic Studies of Gas Evolution During Pyrolysis of Subbituminous Coal," by J. H. Campbell et al., a paper published May 11, 1976 at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Livermore, Calif. Numerous issued U.S. patents describe methods for the reduction of sulfur in coal, for example, U.S. Pat. No. 7,056,359 by Somerville et al. Their process involves grinding coal to a small particle size, then blending the ground coal with hydrated lime and water, followed by drying the blend at 300-400 degrees F. U.S. Pat. No. 5,037,450 by Keener et al. utilizes a unique pyrolysis process for denitrifying and desulfurizing coal. Here the sulfur and nitrogen content of coal is again driven off in gaseous form and sequestered for possible further use.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
 A system and method for collecting hot coal tar gases emanating from a coal containing pyrolytic kiln are described. First, water vapor and small quantities of oxygen are removed while operating the kiln at moderate temperatures in the range of ˜275 to 500° C. At the upper end of this range, hot coal tar gases are driven from the coal consisting of a variety of useful hydrocarbons as well as inorganic gases. The hot gases are then transferred by way of diffusion and forced convection to a thermal duct in which the temperature is computer controlled to remain at a temperature below that of the kiln, causing certain hydrocarbons to liquefy. The gaseous hydrocarbon with the highest condensation temperature is the first to liquefy as it enters the proximal end of the duct which is kept at the lowest temperature of the duct. Additional useful hydrocarbons liquefy as the temperature of the gas continues to cool from the moderate kiln temperature of ˜5000 C to one approaching the duct temperature, in the range ˜175 C-350 C at the proximal end of the duct. The hydrocarbons with a lower condensation temperature liquefy further down the duct from their original entry point from the kiln. Cooling of the gases occur as the gases flow from the kiln distal end (temperature of ˜500 C) towards the distal end of the duct. After a number of desirable hydrocarbons present in the coal tar gas have liquefied, the liquid contents are collected while several remaining inorganic gases and almost all the water vapor and some gaseous hydrocarbons with lower condensation temperatures remain as gases and are separately sequestered in gaseous form for further processing and/or safe disposal.
DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES
 FIG. 1a shows a pyrolytic kiln with coal, operated to create coal tar gases, the gases then entering a temperature controlled duct in which certain of the gases become liquefied. The liquefied gases are then transferred to a single collection chamber for use as a fuel, or other useful purposes.
 FIG. 1b shows the rotation gear and its connection to the kiln core to provide core rotation.
 FIG. 1c depicts the duct in which the hot gases from the kiln are cooled, liquefied and collected.
 FIG. 2 is an alternate duct embodiment with a feature that permits collection of a number of different condensable gases in separate chambers determined by the temperature of the duct.
 FIG. 3 is the master control unit that controls the angular rotation of the core, the speed of the vapor/gas extractor and reacts to the thermal sensing units of the kiln core and the duct to regulate the temperature of the respective temperature control elements surrounding the core and the duct thereby regulating the temperature of the core and the duct by passive convection, conduction and radiation. Additional cooling, if desirable can be supplied by passing water or other coolants through the heater elements of the kiln and the duct.
 FIG. 4. is a sketch showing the interconnections of both the kiln core and kiln shell to the duct as well as the connection of the control unit to kiln core, kiln shell and duct.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
 The present invention describes a system and a process for obtaining reusable hydrocarbons from coal that undergo a pyrolysis process. The process is particularly advantageous since it requires no wasteful oxidation of the coal but rather utilizes heat in a near oxygen free atmosphere to drive off gases from the coal, especially numerous hydrocarbon gases, many of which can be oxidized at a later time to obtain useful thermal energy. The present invention describes an alternative to conventional methods for eliminating pollutants from coal by using a unique pyrolysis system and process for driving off and capturing many of the gases which are considered to be pollutants, i.e. mercury, sulfur, hydrogen sulfide and the like. At the same time, the invention provides means for capturing and retaining the valuable hydrocarbons that are desired for future use as fuel.
 The invention uses a pyrolysis process whereby the coal is not burned, but heated to a moderate temperature in a near oxygen free atmosphere in a pyrolytic kiln. The gases driven off in this manner can be separated from the coal and drawn off for future combustible use, safe disposal or re-processing for future use. Certain other gases that are driven off in the pyrolysis kiln are non-condensable in the present invention such as H2, CO, CO2, C2H6, C3H8 and C2H4 (J. H. Campbell, Fuel, 57, 217 (1978). Even though not condensable in the present invention, this invention collects these gases for re-processing by other means since many such gases continue to have other intrinsic value.
 The uniqueness of the present invention lies in part to a method for liquefying the useful hydrocarbons emanating from a hot pyrolysis kiln for pyrolyzing coal without a coal combustion process, then mixing the useful liquefied coal tars (that is, those that can be oxidized at a future time) to the remaining char in the kiln so that both the char and the recovered hydrocarbons can be used for useful clean energy upon oxidation (burning).
 The system of the present invention is designed for reclaiming and collecting/capturing hot coal tar gases and coal gas components in a condensed state from a vapor state by utilizing a near oxygen free pyrolytic kiln to heat the coal causing gaseous volatiles to be driven off from the coal and or coal/biomass.
 A computerized temperature control unit receives controlling signals from at least one thermal sensor mounted within the duct, the thermal sensor also connected to the computer control unit for regulating the duct temperature. The condensed products are released from the duct by way of at least one drain spout coupled or attached to the duct with the duct draining the condensate into a collection chamber through the drain spout. The condensate, in liquid form, is drained from the duct when a slidable shutter, mounted on the drain spout or over the openings on the undersides of the duct, is in the open position. At other times, the slidable spout shutter is in a closed position. The gases cool in the duct and condense along different portions of the duct as they traverse the length of the duct from the kiln. The position along the duct at which they condense will depend on their individual thermodynamic property, that is, the gas with the highest condensation temperature will cool closest to the flange, the one with the lowest, further from the flange as determined by the thermodynamic property of the individual gas.
 Depending on the duct configuration, more than one drain spout can be attached to the duct and for each drain spout and its corresponding slidable shutter; there is a collection chamber in close proximity to the sprout. A fan for the vapor/gas extractor is mounted within the duct at the far or distal end of the duct, opposite to the proximal end connected to the kiln by way the flange. The fan drives uncondensed coal gases from the duct into a collection drum which serves as the vapor/gas extractor which also has a slidable shutter. The contents of the drum can be further processed at a different processing station.
 The duct has a near end, a far end, a top side and an underside, a length in the range from of 1-500 feet. Since the duct need not be linear in length and can be made from sections so that the effective length is non-linear in shape/contour, the total length is measured along the perimeter of the underside of the duct. For a non-linear shaped duct, there is one region of the duct that is lower with respect to ground level than any other portion of the duct to allow for efficient drainage. The drain spouts are rigidly attached and mounted on the underside of the duct. Typical cross-sections of the duct are of arbitrary geometry but have an area in the range 1-100 square feet. The temperature of the duct is maintained at a temperature in the range 175-350 C but can also be set to a uniform temperature, desirable under certain conditions. A uniform temperature along the duct length is useful when condensates are being separately collected in separate or individual collection chambers.
 There are numerous components of coal gas, many of which are useable hydrocarbons when condensed and re-captured in liquid form. The most useful ones include the carbon-hydrogen chemical form CxHy where x is greater than 9 and y greater than 10. The hydrocarbons that condense and are recoverable will have condensation temperatures in the range from approximately ˜175 to 500 C, more specifically, between the minimum temperature set for the condensation duct, and the exit temperature of the gases set at the distal end of the kiln.
 Generally, in the pyrolysis of coal and/or biomass, it is useful to eliminate as much water as possible during the pyrolytic process. FIG. 1a is a drawing depicting a near oxygen free pyrolysis kiln and char outlet for obtaining combustible fuels free of a variety of contaminants. The process separates gases from solids in the kiln and then condenses valuable fuels without pollutants in the condensation duct 102 shown as part of unit 1001, in FIG. 1c. The duct unit 102 is attached to the proximal end of kiln in FIG. 1a where the duct reverts/condenses the useful biofuel gases into liquids. Continuing with FIG. 1a, where the pyrolysis process starts at the proximal end of kiln 1000, the kiln consisting of pyrolytic kiln outer shell 10 and pyrolytic kiln core 11. Both shell 10 and core 11 have an inner surface, an outer surface a proximal and a distal end as well as a diameter that can be in the range of from 1 to 18 feet. Core 11 receives coal and/or biomass loaded through input airlock 12 mounted to core 11 by a flexible rotary seal. Core 11 also has a helical steel rail 15a rigidly affixed within the length of the inner surface of core 11. In addition, core 11 is mounted concentrically within shell 10 and rotates within shell 10 by way of gear 11a as shown in FIG. 1b with 11a rigidly attached to the surrounding circumference of the outer surface of core 11 at its proximal end. For rotation of core 11 to occur, gear 11a is engaged with gear 170, FIG. 1b. Upon rotation of core 11, heated coal/biomass 15 in FIG. 1a is moved from the proximal to the distal end of core 11 by way of the rotating action of ribbed steel rail 11b. As shown in FIG. 1a, core 11 is heated by heater elements straps 13 affixed to the interior surface of kiln shell 10 with heat transferred to the interior of core 11 by thermal conduction, thermal convection and radiation. Coal 15 in core 11 has an initial temperature at or near room or outdoor ambient temperature at the proximal end of core 11. As coal 15 progresses toward the distal end of core 11, core 11 and coal 15 approach a temperature up to approximately 500 C. The increasingly higher temperatures in kiln core 11 causes coal gases 100d to evolve from heated coal 15 within core 11 in FIG. 1a which enter duct 102 at a temperature up to ˜500 C. Gases 100 2d pass from core 11 to duct 102, FIG. 1c, wherein duct 102 is attached to kiln core 10 and shell 11 by way of flange 101 with a flexible rotating seal to allow for rotation of core and shell 10 and 11 respectively. Flange 101 is rigidly attached to the distal end of core 11 and to the proximal end of duct 102. The portion of heated coal/biomass that is not gasified by the heat within core 11 remains as solid char 15b and is discharged through a second airlock 14 which is rigidly attached to core 11 by means of a flexible rotating seal. The char at the distal end of core 11 is emptied into container 15c for subsequent use as fuel.
 Thermal sensors 16 in FIG. 1a are spaced between the inner surface of shell 10 and the outer surface of core 11 along the length of outer kiln shell 10 and core 11 to relay temperatures within the kiln shell 10 to master control unit 3000 shown in FIG. 3. Master control 3000 in turn adjusts current to heat straps 13 to provide a predetermined desired temperature in kiln core 10. Typically desired kiln temperatures are in the range 275 C to 500 C.
 In duct 102, duct temperature control elements 120 are rigidly affixed to the exterior surface of duct 102 and are also set to any desired temperature via the same master control unit 3000 of FIG. 3 by way of temperatures relayed to unit 3000 by way of the temperature or duct heat sensor 104a in duct 102. Gases 102d that volatilize in core 11 are drawn into duct 102 by thermal diffusion and by fan 109 mounted near the distal end of duct 102. Coal and/or biomass 15 are transported from the proximal end to the distal end of core 11 by rotation of kiln 11 with the help of the helical strap 15a mounted on the inner surface of core 11. The remaining coal/biomass that has not volatilized in core 11 empties into vessel 15c through a second airlock 14 mounted on a rotary seal at the distal end of core 11.
 During the heating process of coal/biomass 15, kiln core 11 is rotated by details shown in FIG. 1b. Motor 17 is attached to a rotating gear 170. Rotation of core 11 occurs when gear 170 is engaged with gear 11a and gear 170 is made to rotate by way of motor 17. FIG. 3 illustrates the kiln and duct master control unit 3000 which receives signals from thermal sensor 16 to regulate the temperature of kiln heater straps 13, duct heat sensor 104a to regulate heater coils 103 positioned around outer surface of duct 102. In addition unit 3000, shown in FIG. 3 is programmed to regulate the speed of duct fan 109 and the speed of gear motor 17.
 FIG. 1c further describes the details of duct 102. Duct 102 is maintained in a range of temperatures between 175-350 C by way of heater coils 103 wrapped around duct 102. Heater coils 103 control the temperature of duct 102 by way of thermal conduction to a desired temperature or temperature gradient in conjunction with master control unit 3000 shown in FIG. 3. Unit 3000 provides temperature regulation and maintains the temperature of duct 102 at a uniform temperature or temperature gradient along the length of duct 102 and can also be is made to vary as a function of time. Preferably, duct 102 will cycle from its highest temperature to condense and retrieve the highest condensation temperature volatiles and where the temperature of duct 102 is lower, lower condensation temperature volatiles will condense. Duct 102 may be of arbitrary cross sectional geometry with a cross sectional area in the range 1-100 square feet. The length of the duct 102, which may be linear or non-linear in length from end to end, when measured along its outer perimeter along the underside of the duct, is in the range 1-500 feet. The gases 100d having passed from kiln core 11, maintained at a higher temperature than duct 102, causes gases 100d consisting of various hydrocarbons to condense into a liquid form in duct 102. Components of gas 100d will condense along the length of duct 102 as the temperature of duct 102 is maintained in the range 175-350 C by way of master control unit 3000, FIG. 3 with input to unit 3000 provided by thermal sensor 104a that senses the temperature in duct 102. As the components of gas 100d condense in duct 102, each gaseous component liquefies at a unique temperature controlled by the thermodynamic properties of the each individual gas component. Cooling of gas 102d within duct 102 occurs as gas 100d passes along the length of duct 102 from proximal to distal end of duct 102 whereby different gas components 102d cool and become liquefied 102a, at different positions along duct 102 as the gas flows from flange 101 towards the distal end of duct 102 with fan 109 mounted internally near the distal end of duct 102. Fan 109 forces the non-liquefied component gases that have traversed the length of duct 102 to be sequestered in drum 111. A shutter 110 at the end of the duct is mounted on drum 111. Shutter 110 is in an open position until drum 110 is to be removed just before which shutter 110 closes.
 In one preferred embodiment, duct 102 is shaped so that one portion of duct 102 is lower in height than any other portion of duct 102. At this lower position along duct 102 is spout shutter 1005, rigidly attached to the top of drain spout 105. In the open position of spout shutter 1005, gravity causes the liquefied gas components 102a in duct 102 to flow into spout 105 into collection chamber 106 where drain spout 105 empties into collection chamber 106, positioned with drain spout 105 placed in the interior of collection chamber 106. After the desired components of gas mixture 100d have condensed, slidable shutter 1005, having been in a closed position, opens to cause liquified gases 102a to flow into spout 105 and become collected as liquefied gas 107 in collection chamber 106.
 A second duct configuration is shown in FIG. 2. The difference of this embodiment compared to that of FIG. 1a is principally in the shape of the duct and the means for collecting individual condensates in separate collection chambers compared to the single chamber 106 of FIG. 1a. Duct 202 is linear in length without the curvature of duct 102 shown in FIG. 1a. Duct 202 has a cross-sectional area in the range of 1 to 100 square feet. An array of spouts 205a, 205b, and 205c are connected to duct 202, with spouts 205a, 205b and 205c with a slideable spout shutter 2005a, 2005b and 2005c mounted on the top of corresponding spout 205a, 205b and 205c with each shutter having a closed position and an open position, the latter position when collecting condensate 202a, 202b, and 202c into a corresponding array of collection chambers 206a, 206b and 206c. This array of spouts with shutters and collection chambers makes it possible to collect separate liquefied hydrocarbon components 102a of gas 100d, each component collected in a separate collection chamber 206a, b, c positioned under a drain spout 205a,b,c. The components of gas 102 have different and distinct condensation temperatures so that a component of gas 100d with the highest condensation temperature will be collected first, in collection chamber 206a, located closest to flange 101, the component with second highest condensation temperature will be collected further from flange 101, 101 than the condensate collected at 206b, the third highest in 206c, the furthest from flange 101 compared to the location of 206a and 206b.
 While the embodiment shown in FIG. 2 has an array of three shutters, spouts and collection chambers, it should be clear to those skilled in the art, that the number in the array can be can be extended to more than three or any number consistent with the dimensions of the duct and the number of hydrocarbons to be separately collected. An array of thermal sensors 2004a, 2004b and 2004c communicate with the master control 3000, of FIG. 3.
 The control unit 3000 FIG. 3 is also used to control the temperature of duct 202. Unit 3000 also controls and coordinates the open and shut positions of spout shutters 2005a, 2005b and 2005c. As stated, the component of gas with the highest condensation temperature of coal/biomass gas 100d will liquefy at a position nearest to flange 101. Each gas with a lower condensation temperature will be collected at a position at a distance further away from flange 101.
 Fan 109 mounted within close proximity of the far/distal end of duct 202 drives the remaining uncondensed components of gas 100d into collection drum 111 when slideable shutter 110 is in an open position. The shutter 110 closes when the drum 111 is to be removed for the re-processing of the uncondensed gases captured within drum 111.
 FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram showing how kiln shell 10 and kiln core 11 of FIG. 1a are connected via flange 101 to duct 102, FIG. 1b. In addition, unit 3000, the control unit, is connected to 10, 11 shown in 1000 (FIG. 1a) and 102 shown in 1001, (FIG. 1b).
 Having described our invention,
Patent applications by Peter Rugg, New York, NY US
Patent applications by Robert J. Von Gutfeld, New York, NY US
Patent applications in class WITH EXHAUST GAS TREATMENT MEANS
Patent applications in all subclasses WITH EXHAUST GAS TREATMENT MEANS