Patent application title: Shape restoration metal rolling tool and method
Ronald P. Starr (El Cajon, CA, US)
IPC8 Class: AB21B108FI
Class name: Metal deforming by use of roller or roller-like tool-element
Publication date: 2012-02-02
Patent application number: 20120024031
A metal shaping tool assembly, e.g., for auto body repair, includes
shaper having a roller mounted between opposite legs in a yoke member.
The central member has a recess for receiving an end of a manipulator,
which is used as a handle. The manipulator may comprise a tool such as a
tire iron. In a method, shaper is operated so that the roller engages the
surface being worked to shape to restore the metal to a desired.
1. A shape restoration metal rolling tool comprising: a shaper comprising
first and second legs displaced in a transverse dimension in a
longitudinal dimension; a roller having a transverse axis and mounted to
said first and second legs and comprising a body having a cylindrical
envelope and having an axis extending in a transverse direction, the body
having a surface contour in a plane intersecting the axis; the surface
having a central section, the central section comprising a curve having a
lesser curvature than that of a circle having a reference origin which is
circle is tangent to the central section; first and second outer sections
of the surface located between the central section of the surface and
first and second transverse ends of the roller, the curvature of first
and second other ends being greater than the curvature of the central
section; and the dimensions of said roller and said legs being
proportioned such that when a portion of the surface contour is tangent
to a preselected contour, the legs are displaced from the plane.
2. A shape restoration metal rolling tool according to claim 1 comprising a yoke having a distal end in a longitudinal direction and comprising said first and second legs, and adding a proximal end for securing to a tool manipulator.
3. A shape restoration metal rolling tool according to claim 2 wherein said tool manipulator is unitary with said yoke.
4. A shape restoration metal rolling tool according to claim 2 wherein said shaper comprises a lateral surface at a proximal end thereof and wherein a longitudinally extending recess is formed, the recess intersecting the lateral surface to define an aperture, the recess being proportioned for receiving an end of a tool manipulator.
5. A shape restoration metal rolling tool according to claim 4 wherein said yoke comprises releasable securing means for securing said yoke to a tool manipulator.
6. A shape restoration metal rolling tool according to claim 4 wherein a recess is tapered and shaped to receive an end of a tool manipulator, said recess further being shaped to facilitate a press fit between said yoke and the end of the tool manipulator.
7. A shape restoration metal rolling tool according to claim 6 further comprising the tool manipulator.
8. A shape restoration metal rolling tool according to claim 7 wherein the tool manipulator comprises a tire iron.
9. A roller for mounting in a shape restoration metal rolling tool comprising: a body having an outer surface defining a cylindrical envelope and having an axis extending in a transverse direction, the body having a surface contour in a plane intersecting the axis; the surface having a central section, the central section comprising a curve having a lesser curvature than a circle tangent to a transverse center of the surface contour; first and second outer sections of the surface located between the central section of the surface and first and second transverse ends of the roller, the curvature of first and second other ends being greater than the curvature of the central section.
10. A roller according to claim 9 wherein the body comprises a solid of rotation.
11. A roller according to claim 10 wherein each opposite transverse side of the body has a radially extending surface intersecting surface contour.
12. A method for shape restoration of a metal panel having a preselected contour and having a dent therein, said dent comprising at least one deformation wherein an area is displaced from the contour, comprising: heating the metal to a repair temperature that is a function of the metal's composition; applying to the metal a roller comprising a body having an outer surface defining a cylindrical envelope and having an axis extending in a transverse direction, the body having a surface contour in a plane intersecting the axis; the surface having a central section, the central section comprising a curve having a lesser curvature than a circle tangent to a transverse center of the surface contour; first and second outer sections of the surface located between the central section of the surface and first and second transverse ends of the roller, the curvature of first and second other ends being greater than the curvature of the central section of the surface contour; working the metal with said roller to reduce displacement of selected portions of the area from contour by applying force from the roller to the dent as the roller is moved to rotate about the axis.
13. The method of claim 12 further comprising, prior to applying the roller to the dent, reducing the deformation by impacting the area with hammer strokes utilizing an instrument with a padded cover.
14. The method of claim 12 wherein the dent comprises a peak and a crown on opposite sides of the contour respectively further comprising working the peak and the chrome separately.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
 1. Field of the Invention
 The present subject matter relates generally to a tool for restoring the shape of a deformed metal surface, such as a hand tool which may be used, for example, for auto body work, and a method for employing the tool.
 2. Related Art
 One form of metal shaping comprises working a deformed metal surface to restore a shape such as a continuous contour. One important example of this form of metal shaping is auto body repair work. Techniques for shaping metal surfaces are used to repair dents in auto bodies, for example, in auto fenders. A dent in a fender usually comprises a depression or a protuberance in a continuous contour of a fender. In order to repair the dent, the dent must be worked so that it is returned to a previous state as part of the continuous contour. A standard (as opposed to sub-standard) repair will take advantage of "memory" in the metal's crystalline structure in order to restore a fender to its prior contour.
 A prevalent method of repairing dents is the hammer-and-dolly method of metal repair. A dolly is a hand tool usually comprising a shaped block of steel. It may be used as a hammer or an anvil. In the hammer-and-dolly method, a technician beats on a metal fender, for example, until the fender is restored to its proper shape. In the simplest form of this technique, the technician holds a dolly behind a surface to be worked. The technician hits the fender with the hammer, and the dolly acts as an anvil. The weight of the hammer, the shape of the hammerhead, and the shape of the dolly are all carefully selected to fit the desired shape of a repaired fender. A dolly with a pronounced radius is desirable for a rounded fender. A flatter dolly or the flatter side of a dolly is preferred for a flat quarter-panel or doorskin. The technician uses the hammer to flatten the metal against the dolly.
 This technique gives the appearance of being simple and straightforward. However, a technician must accumulate years of experience in order to perform the technique properly. Inexperienced technicians using hammers and dollys inflict a great deal of damage on automobile bodies. The hammer generally causes tool marks. A common form of tool mark is an arcuate indentation left by an edge of a circular hammer head. A significant percentage of the repair time is often required simply in removing marks. Additionally, and significantly, repeated hard hitting of the sheet metal in a fender generally causes the undesirable effects of stretching, deforming, and warping the metal.
 These undesirable effects are due to a phenomenon called work hardening. Work hardening is a permanent distortion of crystal structure caused by repeated plastic deformation of the metal. Working of the metal between a hammer and dolly constitutes plastic, rather than elastic, deformation. In addition to the effects already described, the metal loses its memory of a contour.
 When this work hardening causes stretching, warping, and other deformation, additional work is necessary to complete an acceptable repair. A preferred process for helping the metal regain its original shape is heat shrinking. The metal is heated in order to allow steel molecules to move back into their original contour. A body hammer is often used to "fine tune" the shaping of a contour. Cooling the heated area shrinks the metal close to its original thickness.
 Even this remedial work is ineffective in many cases. The metal cannot regain its original shape. Integrity of the metal structure may be destroyed, which can lead to eventual cracking within the affected area. Options at this point of the repair process are to accept a substandard repair, use Bondo® to give the appearance of a standard repair, or to replace the dented body component.
 The extra operations required to complete the repair increase costs. Insurance companies do not wish to pay for additional work that could have been avoided, car owners do not want to have uninsured costs, and body shop owners do not want to see their profit margins decreased.
 Undesired effects can be reduced by use of a technique in which a dolly is used to shape the area including a dent. Shaping is completed by hammering the surface "off-dolly," i.e., without using the dolly as an anvil. However, successful employment of this technique requires a highly experienced technician. Even then, work hardening results.
 In recent years, the difficulties described above have been compounded by advances in the construction of automobile bodies. For example, ten years ago, many cars had fenders that were made of steel 1/8'' thick. Today, some car models have body sections made of alloys other than steel. Body sections may be as thin as 1 mm. The different alloys utilized to make such sections strong demand precise repair methods. Distorted alloy panels have a low level of repairability compared to thicker steel panels. Also, today's body technicians must spend a significant portion of their time fixing the tool marks made from pushing a dent down or pulling a dent out. There is a need for a tool that will overcome the disadvantages of the prior art.
SUMMARY OF THE PRESENT SUBJECT MATTER
 A tool assembly metal shaping, e.g., for auto body repair, includes a shaper and a tool manipulator which functions as a handle. The shaper, which is a subcombination of the assembly, comprises a roller on a transversely disposed axle. The shaper includes a roller which is mounted between opposite legs in a yoke member.
 In a plane intersecting the axis, the roller has a curved surface with a central portion having a reduced curvature, and increased curvature between the central portion and lateral sides of the roller. Dimensions of the legs and the roller are selected such that the legs will not contact the metal when the curved surface of the roller is in contact with the metal surface being worked. Additionally, transverse ends of the roller are shaped so that a technician will feel a change in force reaction before the shaper pivots about a corner of the roller.
 At one end, the shaper comprises means for securing the shaper to the tool manipulator. The shaper may be releasably secured to or unitary with the tool manipulator. In one form, the shaper receives a tapered end of a tool, for example, as a tire iron. The shaper is operated so that the roller engages the work surface to restore the metal to a desired contour.
 A method for a roller constructed as described above is utilized in the context of, for example, auto body repair. For example the metal may be heated. Then the roller is applied against an area displaced from a surface contour. The roller is moved reciprocally, and force is applied against the dent to restore the metal to an original contour. The number of reciprocal motions required is generally a function of the depth of the dent.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
 Embodiments of the invention are more particularly described with reference to the following drawings taken in connection with the following description.
 FIG. 1 is an elevation of a tool assembly constructed in accordance with the present subject matter;
 FIG. 2 is an exploded view of a shaper;
 FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view taken along the lines 3-3 of FIG. 1 illustrating an alternative form of recess in the shaper;
 FIG. 4, consisting of FIGS. 4(a), 4(b), and 4(c), illustrates alternatives for securing a shaper to a tool manipulator;
 FIGS. 5 and 6 are diagrams illustrating the geometry of the roller;
 FIG. 7 is partial perspective view of a Jaguar sedan having a dented rear quarter panel;
 FIG. 8 is a cross-sectional view taken along line 8-8 of FIG. 7;
 FIG. 9 illustrates a prevalent prior art form of body repair; and
 FIGS. 10 through 14 illustrate a repair performed in accordance with the present subject matter.
 Embodiments according to the present subject matter will help minimize creation of damage during the repair process and, in selected situations, allow previously unrepairable damaged panels to be repaired. Relatively inexperienced technicians have an increased chance of executing successful, efficient repairs.
 FIG. 1 is an elevation of a tool assembly 1. Among the applications of the tool assembly 1 are repairs on dents, high spots, creases, and crowns (the outward distortion surrounding a dent) on metal surfaces, typically auto bodies. The tool assembly 1 comprises a tool manipulator 10 and a shaper 12. The tool manipulator 10 in the present illustration comprises a handle 14. The handle 14 comprises a proximal end 13. A grip 15 may be adjacent the proximal end 13. A shaft 16 extends from the proximal end 13 to a distal end 19. In one preferred form, a tapered tip 18 is located at the distal end 19. The tool manipulator 10 may be releasably secured to the shaper 12 as further described below.
 One form of tool manipulator 10 may comprise a pry bar such as a tire iron. In this case; the grip 15 may not be formed on the handle 14. The shaper 12 may be designed to fit securely onto distal ends of most commonly used pry bars. A tool manipulator 10 having a selected length may be used for determining the linear displacement in a longitudinal direction of the shaper 12 from a proximal end 13 of the handle 14. Many tool manipulators 10 can fit into one shaper 12, irrespective of their lengths. This allows a technician to, in effect, have a whole set of tool assemblies 1 while needing only one shaper 12. A longer shaft 16 will allow a technician to gain greater leverage than with a shorter shaft. The handle 14 comprises a fulcrum. The fulcrum is operated by one hand of a technician (not shown) closer to the proximal end 13. The shaft 16 may pivot with respect to an other hand of the technician closer to the distal end 19. However, the other hand of the technician will generally not comprise a fixed pivot point.
 The shaper 12 is further described with respect to FIGS. 2 and 3. FIG. 2 is an exploded axonometric view partially broken away, and FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view taken along the lines 3-3 of FIG. 2. The shaper 12 may comprise steel. Other materials could be used. However, many bodywork technicians prefer a body tool with weight comparable to steel rather than weight comparable to aluminum.
 In the present illustration, the shaper 12 comprises a yoke 26. The yoke 26 has a proximal end 20 and a distal end 22. For the purpose of spatial reference, the degree of freedom in the direction from the proximal end 20 to the distal end 22 is called the longitudinal direction. A direction normal to the longitudinal direction is a transverse direction. A direction normal to the both the longitudinal direction and the transverse direction is a lateral direction.
 The yoke 26 comprises a central body 28, which may have a proximal end comprising the proximal end 20. A first arm 32 and a second arm 34 each extend in a longitudinal direction from first and second longitudinal sides 36 and 38 of the central body 28.
 The first arm 32 and the second arm 34 need not be displaced by the same longitudinal distance as the first and second longitudinal sides 36 and 38. In the present illustration, longitudinally inward portions of the first and second arms 32 and 34 are separated by a width W in the transverse direction. An inner surface 40 intermediate the first and second arms 32 and 34 is a distance H in the longitudinal direction from the distal end 22 of the yoke 26. The transversely inward sides of the first and second arms 32 and 34 and the inner surface 40 define a recess 42.
 A shaft 50, having an axis 52, is mounted in the transverse direction. The shaft 50 is supported at opposite transverse sides thereof by the first and second arms 32 and 34. The opposite ends of the shaft 50 may be press fit, welded, or otherwise secured to the first and second arms 32 and 34 respectively. A roller 54 is mounted for rotation about the shaft 50. The roller 54 may be unitary with the shaft 50 if desired. The roller 54 has first and second lateral sides 55 and 56 for positioning adjacent the first and second arms 32 and 34 respectively. A shaping surface 58 is defined by an intersection of the roller 54 and a plane 60 intersecting the axis 52.
 It is generally desirable to form a radius at corners 62 and 64 defined by the intersection of the shaping surface 58 with the lateral sides 55 and 56 respectively. In this manner, the corners 62 and 64 will not comprise sharp edges which may leave undesired lines in a surface being worked. Alternatively, the corners 62 and 64 may be chamfered. In some applications, it may be desirable to provide a roller 54 comprising a right circular cylinder.
 One material out of which to make the roller 54 is of stainless steel. Stainless steel does not pick up metal shavings and does not contaminate aluminum panels. The roller 54 may be either polished or unpolished. For use on steel, the roller 54 may be unpolished. It is preferable but not essential that the roller 54 be highly polished for use on aluminum. This construction will meet auto makers' requirements for avoiding galvanic corrosion caused by the contact of dissimilar metals such as steel and aluminum.
 The shaper 12 may be releasably secured to the manipulator 10 (FIG. 1). However, a releasable connection is not essential. An aperture 70 extends in the lateral direction across the one surface of the shaper 12. The aperture 70 communicates with a recess 72 having a longitudinal depth L in the central body 28. The recess 72 has a depth D in the lateral direction. In the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 2, the recess 72 is substantially rectangular with each deep we are. A laterally extending aperture 73 communicates the recess 72 to an exterior of the yoke 26. A set screw 74 is received in the aperture 73 for releasably securing the tip 18 (FIG. 1) of the tool manipulator 10 to the shaper 12. The set screw 74 is tightened against the tapered tip 18. When it is desired to release the shaper 12 from the tool manipulator 10, the set screw 74 is loosened.
 In an alternative form, illustrated in FIG. 3, the recess 72 is tapered. The shape of the recess 72 is selected to receive an end of a preselected tool and to provide for a press fit. In the present illustration the preselected tool is the tool manipulator 10. The recess 72 is shaped to receive the tip 18 (FIG. 1). Applying longitudinal force to the shaper 12, as by tapping on the shaper 12, causes relative motion with the tapered tip 18 to provide are a releasable press fit. In use, the force applied from the tool manipulator 10 to the shaper 12 tends to keep the tip 18 in an engagement with the recess 72. When it is desired to remove the shaper 12 from the tool manipulator 10, angular movement of the tip 18 with respect to the shaper 12, e.g. jiggling, may be used to create loosening. Alternatively, other forms of force could be applied to allow removal of the shaper 12 from the manipulator tool 10.
 FIG. 4, consisting of FIGS. 4(a), 4(b), and 4(c), illustrates additional forms of a tool assembly. In FIG. 4(a), the tool manipulator 10 is unitary with the shaper 12. In this embodiment, the shaper 12 is not movable from one handle 10 to another.
 In an alternative embodiment illustrated in FIG. 4(b), the tool manipulator 10 comprises a coupling member 116 at the distal end 19 thereof. The coupling member 116 may comprise a right circular cylinder. The recess 72 (FIG. 2) may be cylindrical in order to receive the coupling member 116. In this embodiment, the shaper 12 is provided with a mating member 121 at the proximal end 22. Many different forms coupling member 100 and mating member 121 may be provided. For example, the coupling member 116 may comprise one or more spring-loaded detents 122, e.g., spring-loaded ball bearings. The detents 122 interact with stop means 124 to secure the shaper 12 to tool manipulator 10. In the present illustration, the stop means 124 comprises an annular groove 126 surrounding the recess 72 and longitudinally displaced from the aperture 73. As the coupling member 116 moves longitudinally into the recess 72, the detents 122 engage a portion of the shaper 12 surrounding the aperture 73. As the coupling member 116 continues to move, detents 122 moved radially into the coupling member 116 against spring bias until they are in longitudinal registration with the stop means 124. At this point, the detents 122 snap into the stop means 124, and the shaper 12 is secured to the tool manipulator 10.
 FIG. 4(c) partially illustrates a tool manipulator having an adjustable-length shaft 132. The shaft may comprise first and second shaft members 135 and 136 which are axially slidable with respect to one another. The first and second shaft members 135 and 136 are maintained in a selected relative position in order to determine the length of the shaft 132. In one form, the first and second shaft members 135 and 136 may have apertures 138 axially displaced therealong. The apertures 138 are positioned to be in transverse registration. Securing means 140 maintains the relative position of the first and second shaft members 135 and 136. The securing means 140 may comprise a first nut 138 and bolt set 141. A first bolt 142 passes through one selected pair of aligned apertures in the first and second shaft members 135 and 136 respectively. A first nut 143 is received on the first bolt 142 in order to compress the first and second shaft members 135 and 136 and maintain them in alignment. A second nut and bolt set 151 may be provided to secure the first and second shaft members 135 and 136 and to prevent rotation about the first nut and bolt set 141. A second bolt 152 passes through one selected pair of aligned apertures 138 in the first and second shaft members 135 and 136 respectively. A first nut 143 is received on the first bolt 142 in order to compress the first and second shaft members 135 and 136 and maintain them in alignment.
 FIG. 5 is a diagram comprising an elevation of a roller 54. In one preferred form, the roller 54 comprises a solid of rotation about the axis 50. However, in alternative forms, it may be possible to have discontinuities or inflection points in the shaping surface 58. Therefore, the roller 54 may also be described as defining a cylindrical envelope 80.
 FIG. 6 is also an elevation of the roller 54, used to further describe geometry of the roller 54 and of the shaping surface 58. It is desirable to provide a shaping surface 58 which will push a dent back into a contour and which will not produce tool marks or lines in a surface being restored.
 In one preferred form, a nominal transverse width for a roller 54 may be 11/2'' or 40 mm. This width is an optimization for a nominal car fender repair. The width is wide enough to work a piece of metal and narrow enough to afford a technician a high degree of control. Additionally, the force applied by a technician is spread across the width of the roller 54. Therefore, it is desirable to provide a concentration of force at the shaping surface 58 which is adequate to work a dent but which will not easily cause undesired deformation. It is desirable to have a shaping surface 58 wherein curvature increases toward outer transverse ends. If curvature is too extreme, the roller 54 will produce undesired deformation.
 A circle 170 is illustrated in FIG. 6 tangent to a portion of the shaping surface 58 having minimum curvature. The circle 170 has a reference origin 172. A roller 54 having a circular shaping surface 58 with a reference origin 172 on the axis 50 would have a curvature that is too extreme, i.e., one that will produce undesired indentations. Therefore, curvature of the shaping surface 58 at a central portion is described as curvature less than that of a circle having a reference origin. This difference is most pronounced when the reference origin 172 is at the axis 50. The term "curvature less than that of a circle having a reference origin" encompasses radii from a reference origin defining a shaping surface 58 that provides a reasonably distributed force gradient from a center of the shaping surface 58 to the transverse ends 55 and 56 thereof. "Reasonably" is a function of the dimensions of the roller 54 and the preselected material which a technician will be working. The shaping surface 58 will not have sufficient convexity to create depressions with respect to a fender contour.
 The shaping surface 58 may be resolved into a central section 182 and first and second outer sections 184 and 186. The central section 182 has a high point 183, which is at a maximum radial distance from the axis 50. The outer sections 184 and 186 extend between the central section 182 and the first and second, opposite transverse ends 55 and 56 of the roller 54 respectively. The sections 182, 184, and 186 may be substantially equally wide. However, this is not necessary. Curvature increases from the high point 183 to the ends of the roller 54.
 The central section 182 may comprise a section with substantially constant curvature. A transition segment 188 connects one lateral end of the central section 182 (FIG. 5) to the outer section 184. A transition segment 190 connects an opposite lateral end of this central section 182 to the outer section 186. The outer sections 184 and 186 may each have a second curvature. Alternatively, change in curvature from the high point 183 may change slope at other than a constant rate within each section 182, 184, or 186. In one nominal embodiment, the diameter of the roller 54 is 15 mm at the high point 183, 14 mm at the transition segments 188 and 190, and 12 mm at the first and second, opposite transverse ends 55 and 56 roller 54.
 FIG. 7 is partial perspective view taken from a lower rear corner of a Jaguar sedan 201 having a dented rear quarter panel 200. FIG. 8 is a cross-sectional view taken along line 8-8 of FIG. 7. The rear quarter panel 200 has a contour 202 (FIG. 8) with an outer surface 204 and an inner surface 206. In the present illustration, a dent 210 extends inwardly from the outer surface 202. A peak 216 on the dent 210 is a maximum distance from the contour 202. The portion of the dent 210 adjacent the peak 216 is the high side 218. The area of the dent 210 at the contour 202 is the low side 224. Generally, a dent will have a crown 226 surrounding a low side of a dent projecting from and in a direction opposite to the direction of projection of the peak 216. In the present illustration, the crown 226 surrounds a void in the contour 202 defined by the dent 210.
 FIG. 9 illustrates a prevalent prior art form of body repair. A technician 240 uses a dolly 250 and a hammer 260. The technician may first use the dolly 250 to reduce the depth of the dent 210. Subsequently, in one technique of working the dent 210, the technician places the dolly 250 on the high side 218 and works the hammer 260 on the low side 224. Alternatively, as seen in FIG. 9, the dolly 250 is placed on the low side 224 of the dent, and the hammer 260 knocks the high side 218 down onto the dolly 250. The technician 240 flattens the crown 226 in a similar matter. Since the portion of the quarter panel 200 is sandwiched between the dolly 250 and the hammer 260, the metal is subjected to repeated plastic deformation. Repeated plastic deformation causes work hardening. Additionally, tools marks result due to impact of a hammer face 262 at a perimeter 264.
 FIGS. 10 through 14 illustrate a repair performed with the present subject matter. Referring to FIG. 10, a partially illustrated rear quarter panel 300 has a contour 302 with an outer surface 304 and an inner surface 306. In the present illustration, a dent 310 extends inwardly from the outer surface 304. A peak 316 on the dent 310 is a maximum distance from the contour 302. The portion of the dent 310 adjacent the peak 316 is the high side 318. The area 320 of the dent 310 at the contour 302 is the low side 334. A crown 326 surrounds a void in the contour 302 defined by the dent 310. The tool assembly 1 (FIG. 12) may be used effectively on thin metal alloy body parts which do not respond well to hammering.
 In one form, the work area is heated to approximately 250° to 300° F., as with a torch 338. The shaper 12 is may be applied to a heated fender. This system minimizes or eliminates creation of tool marks in the metal during a repair. The common disadvantage of prior art methods is that they require expenditures of time and effort to remove tool marks placed in the metal during repairs. Since the present subject matter utilizes a roller, creation of tools marks is minimized.
 Prior to use of the tool 12, the operation of FIG. 11 may be performed in which a padded impact tool 342 may be used to reduce the height of the dent 310.
 Prior to use of the shaper 12, the dent 310 may be heated to approximately 250° to 300° F. The technician 240 (FIG. 9) then grasps the tool assembly 1, for example, by the grip 5 (FIGS. 1 and 2). As seen in FIG. 12, the shaper 12 is moved to engage the dent 310. The roller 54 may be placed against the high side 318 and worked against the dent 310. The strength of an average technician 340 is sufficient to work the dent 310 back into the contour 302. Similarly, the technician 340 uses the shaper 12 to return the crown 326 into the contour 302. Use of the shaper 12 provides superior results to those obtained by hammering. As illustrated in FIG. 13, the technician 240 moves the shaper 12 in a reciprocal motion applying force to successive rectangular areas of the dent 310. The shaper 12 is worked from the high point toward the contour 302. Similarly, the shaper 12 may be employed on the crown 326.
 Shaping of the dent 310 back into the original contour 302 is aided by the molecular structure of the metal within the quarter panel 300 which provides a degree of shape memory. Because the dent 310 is not subjected to plastic deformation, the memory characteristic is not lost.
 The present subject matter will also provide a convenience for technicians. Technicians will often want to grab the nearest tool in order to accomplish a certain task. When a commonly utilized tool is employed as the tool manipulator 10, the tool assembly 1 can be used for common tasks. These tools may be used for frequently performed functions such as patching tires, applying tape seam sealer, repairing bumpers, gluing upholstery, and even for use in rolling into place auto mats or even kitchen tiles. Embodiments of the present subject matter have been utilized successfully in virtually all categories of auto body repair.
 The previous description of some aspects is provided to enable any person skilled in the art to make or use the present invention. Various modifications to these aspects will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art, and the generic principles defined herein may be applied to other aspects without departing from the spirit or scope of the invention. For example, one or more elements can be rearranged and/or combined, or additional elements may be added. Thus, the present invention is not intended to be limited to the aspects shown herein but is to be accorded the widest scope consistent with the principles and novel features disclosed herein.
Patent applications in class BY USE OF ROLLER OR ROLLER-LIKE TOOL-ELEMENT
Patent applications in all subclasses BY USE OF ROLLER OR ROLLER-LIKE TOOL-ELEMENT