Patent application title: INTEGRATED CIRCUIT INCLUDING POWER DIODE
Paul Chang (Saratoga, CA, US)
Geeng-Chuan Chern (Cupertino, CA, US)
Prognyan Ghosh (Oakland, CA, US)
Wayne Y.w. Hsueh (San Jose, CA, US)
Vladmir Rodov (Seattle, WA, US)
IPC8 Class: AH01L218234FI
Class name: Making field effect device having pair of active regions separated by gate structure by formation or alteration of semiconductive active regions having insulated gate (e.g., igfet, misfet, mosfet, etc.) including diode
Publication date: 2011-09-15
Patent application number: 20110223729
A method of fabricating a semiconductor integrated circuit including a
power diode includes providing a semiconductor substrate of first
conductivity type, fabricating a integrated circuit such as a CMOS
transistor circuit in a first region of the substrate, and fabricating a
power diode in a second region in the semiconductor substrate. Dielectric
material is formed between the first region and the second regions
thereby providing electrical isolation between the integrated circuit in
the first region and the power diode in the second region. The power
diode can comprise a plurality of MOS source/drain elements and
associated gate elements all connected together by one electrode of the
diode, and a semiconductor layer in the second region can function as
another source/drain of the power diode.
13. A method of fabricating an integrated circuit including a power diode in a semiconductor body comprising the steps of: a) providing a semiconductor substrate including a surface layer of first conductivity type. b) forming a dielectric material in a surface of the semiconductor substrate around a first region in which a power diode is to be fabricated and separated from a second region in which an integrated circuit is to be fabricated, c) forming semiconductor material of a second conductivity type in the first region, d) fabricating an integrated circuit in the second region, e) fabricating a plurality of MOS source/drain elements and associated gate elements in a surface of the device region and in the semiconductor material of second conductivity type, f) forming a first diode electrode contacting the plurality of MOS source/drain elements and associated gate elements, g) forming a conductive via from the surface of the device region to the semiconductor material of second conductivity type as a second diode electrode.
14. The method of claim 13 wherein step b) includes forming a trench in the first region, and forming dielectric side wall spacers on the trench, and step c) includes epitaxially growing semiconductor material of second conductivity type in the trench.
15. The method of claim 13 wherein step b) includes forming dielectric material in a surface of the semiconductor substrate, and step c) includes implanting dopant of second conductivity type into the first region.
16. The method as defined by claim 13 and further including the step of: h) forming a doped guard ring of first conductivity type in the first region abutting the dielectric material.
17. The method as defined by claim 16 and further including the step of: i) forming a plug of first conductivity type in the first region extending into the semiconductor material of second type.
18. The method as defined by claim 13 wherein step g) includes forming dielectric spacers between the conductive via and the plurality of MOS source/drain elements.
19. The method as defined by claim 13 wherein step d) includes forming a plurality of P wells and a plurality of N wells for CMOS transistors.
CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED PATENTS
 This patent application is related to U.S. Pat. No. 6,186,408; U.S. Pat. No. 6,420,225; U.S. Pat. No. 6,448,160; U.S. Pat. No. 6,515,330; U.S. Pat. No. 6,624,030; U.S. Pat. No. 6,743,703; U.S. Pat. No. 6,765,264; and co-pending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/159,558, filed May 30, 2002, for Power Device Having Reduced Reverse Bias Leakage Current, all assigned to the present assignee, the disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference for all purposes.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
 This invention relates generally to power semiconductor devices including power diode rectifiers, and more particularly the invention relates to a power diode fabricated in a semiconductor integrated circuit and the method of fabricating the same.
 The above referenced patents and pending patent application disclose semiconductor power diodes and rectifiers including one or more MOSFET structures in which a common electrode contacts gates and source/drain regions in one surface of a semiconductor body. The diodes have low on resistance, fast recovery time, and a very low forward voltage drop. The diodes can function as a discrete device and in an integrated circuit. In one embodiment, one contact to the diode is the common electrode contacting the gates and source/drain regions in or on one surface of the semiconductor structure. Another contact can be placed on an opposing of the semiconductor structure or otherwise electrically contacting second source/drain regions in the semiconductor structure.
 When fabricated as a component in an integrated circuit, the diode structure must be electrically isolated from the integrated circuit structure with power buses connecting electrodes of the diode to power contacts of the integrated circuit. The diode can the be effectively operated as a power source for the integrated circuit without adversely effecting circuit operation.
 The present invention is directed to a process and resulting structure in which a power diode comprises an integral part of an integrated circuit.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
 In accordance with the invention, one or more diode regions are formed in a semiconductor substrate with the diode regions having a dopant conductivity opposite to the dopant conductivity of the substrate in which an integrated circuit is to be formed. For example, N-/N+ dopant can be implanted in a substrate having P-/P+ dopant. Alternatively, a trench can be formed in the semiconductor substrate and then refilled epitaxially with doped N-/N+ semiconductor material.
 A diode region is electrically isolated from the integrated circuit region by shallow trench oxide isolation or by dielectric spacers on sidewalls of an etched trench in the substrate which is subsequently refilled by epitaxial semiconductor growth of conductivity opposite to the substrate.
 A plurality of source/drain and gate regions are formed in a surface of the device region using the technology disclosed in the above commonly assigned patents and application. An internal source/drain region, which is connected to the surface source/drain region by gate controlled channels, is contacted from the surface of the semiconductor substrate through an implanted contact channel which is electrically isolated from the plurality of source/drain regions on the surface by shallow trench isolation, for example.
 The resulting diode in the integrated circuit has the feature and performance of diodes described in the commonly owned patents, supra, with improved electrical isolation and electrical access from the substrate surface.
 The invention and objects and features thereof will be more readily apparent from the following detailed description and appended claims when taken with the drawings.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
 FIGS. 1-24 are section views illustrating steps in fabricating an integrated circuit including a power diode in accordance with embodiments of the invention.
 FIGS. 25-26 are section views illustrating the fabrication of an isolated diode region in accordance with one embodiment of the invention.
 FIGS. 27-31 are section views illustrating alternative power diode structures.
 FIGS. 32-34 are top views illustrating integrated circuits including power diodes in accordance with embodiments of the invention.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF ILLUSTRATED EMBODIMENTS
 Power sources for integrated circuits require diode rectifiers which can be separate from the integrated circuit but which advantageously are incorporated in the integrated circuit. FIGS. 32-34 are top views illustrating integrated circuits including power diodes in accordance with embodiments of the present invention. Typically the integrated circuits are fabricated in a silicon substrate 10 with the integrated circuit fabricated in a first portion 12 of substrate 10 and a power diode fabricated within a guard ring 14 in a second portion of substrate 10. Guard ring 14 and the diode structures fabricated therein are electrically isolated from integrated circuit 12 as will be described further herein.
 The diode within guard ring 14 comprises a plurality of unit cells 16, each of which includes a gate electrode and one or more surface oriented source/drain regions which are connected to an internal source/drain region though a gate controlled channel. An optional doped plug (P) 18 can be provided in the diode region as a bypass diode in parallel with unit cells 16. Anode 20 comprises common metallization to the gates and surface oriented source/drain regions of the unit cells 16, and a cathode electrode 24 contacts an internal source/drain region common to all unit cells through a deep N+ implant 26. In accordance with the invention, implant 26 is electrically isolated from the gates and surface source/drain regions of the unit cells, and the diode structure within guard ring 14 is dielectrically isolated from integrated circuit area 12.
 As described in the referenced patents, the unit cells can take many forms including short rectangular structures as shown in FIG. 32, hexagonal structures as shown in FIG. 33, and elongated stripes as shown in FIG. 34.
 Consider now FIGS. 1-24 which are section views illustrating steps in fabricating an integrated circuit including a power diode in accordance with embodiments of the invention. The starting material is a silicon substrate including a P+ doped layer 30 and a P- doped layer 32 which can be epitaxially grown on layer 30. A silicon oxide layer 34 is grown on a surface of layer 32, and then a photoresist pattern 36 is formed on the surface of oxide 34 to define the power diode area. If more than one power diode is to be fabricated, multiple photoresist openings would be defined. In FIG. 2 a conventional anisotropic etch is performed to form a trench in silicon layer 32. Thereafter, as shown in FIG. 3, the photoresist is removed and silicon oxide or silicon nitride spacers 38 are formed on sidewalls of the silicon trench by vapor deposition followed by anisotropic etch to remove material from the bottom of the trench. After surface treatment to facilitate epitaxial growth, selective epitaxial deposition is employed to form N+ layer 40 and N- layer 42 which fill the trench. The oxide layer 34 functions as a mask for the selective epitaxial deposition.
 In FIG. 4 oxide 34 is removed by etching, and then a plurality of trenches are formed in the surface by anisotropic etch and then the trench surfaces are oxidized to form conventional shallow trench isolation (STI) 44. The surface of the structure is then patterned with photoresist 46 as shown in FIG. 5 to define a deep N+ implant 48 between two oxide isolation areas 44. Either phosphorus or arsenic can be used as the implanted N+ dopant.
 In FIG. 6 photoresist 46 is stripped and a photoresist pattern 50 is formed over the surface to define a P guard ring and optionally a P plug (not shown) with boron and BF2 implant forming guard ring 14.
 Following formation of guard ring 14, photoresist 50 is removed and the surface is again selectively masked for ion implantation in forming P wells 52 and N wells 54 for CMOS transistors in the integrated circuit, as shown in FIG. 7. Thereafter, gate oxide 56 is grown on the surface of the structure as shown in FIG. 8. If the gate oxide thickness of the power diode is different from that of the integrated circuit transistors in P well 52 and N well 54, then the gate oxide growth requires two different time periods with suitable masking to limit growth of the oxide over the integrated circuit wells. In FIG. 9 a first layer of polysilicon (30-250 nm) is deposited. If the polysilicon layer over the diode is different from that over the integrated circuit, photoresist masking as shown in FIG. 9 is employed to remove the polysilicon from over the diode by polysilicon etch as shown in FIG. 10, and then a second layer 58' of polysilicon (30-150 nm) is the deposited on the surface of the diode region and over the first polysilicon layer 58 over the integrated circuit region. (FIG. 11) Again, if the polysilicon thickness over the super diode is the same as the polysilicon thickness over the integrated circuit transistors, the photoresist masking, etching and second polysilicon deposition steps are not necessary.
 Thereafter, a photoresist pattern is formed to cover the integrated circuit area as shown in FIG. 12, and then arsenic is implanted (30-150 nm) into the surface of the diode region. This arsenic implant facilitates the later ohmic contact of a surface electrode to the surface of the diode. In FIG. 13, the photoresist of FIG. 12 is removed and a layer 60 of CVD silicon oxide is deposited with thickness on the order of 100-400 nm. A photoresist pattern 62 is then employed to define the MOS transistor unit cells for the power diode and to cover the integrated circuit area. It will be appreciated that mask 62 is used in forming a plurality of unit cells.
 Isotropic etch is then applied as shown in FIG. 14 to variably etch oxide 60 under photoresist mask 62 and remove oxide 60 elsewhere over the diode region. It will be appreciated that the oxide etch stops at polysilicon layer 58. Thereafter, using the same mask, polysilicon layer 58 is anisotropically etched and removed from silicon layer 56 over the diode region. A first boron implant (dose=1.5˜5.5 E12/cm2, energy 40-80 KeV) forms P doped regions 64 aligned with gate oxide 58 in the diode structure. This boron implant can also be performed before the anisotropic polysilicon etch.
 Thereafter, oxide 56 is removed from the surface of the diode region except for the gate structure as shown in FIG. 15. Arsenic is then implanted (1.0˜5.0 E13, energy 40-60 KeV) followed by rapid thermal annealing for subsequently forming N doped source/drain regions 66 in P doped regions 64. The rapid thermal annealing drives the implanted arsenic under gate oxide 56.
 The exposed silicon surface of the device region is then anisotropically etched to remove 50-200 nm of silicon, as shown in FIG. 16, and thereafter a BF2 implant (dose=1.0˜5.0 E15; energy 10-60 KeV) is implanted and annealed to activate the BF2 and increase the P type doping (e.g. boron) in the P doped surface regions. As shown in FIG. 17, photoresist is then removed and a second boron implant (dose=1.0˜2.5 E12/cm2, energy 20-60 KeV) is employed to created lateral graded P-type pockets 68 for the channels of the power diode cells as further described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,624,030, supra.
 The integrated circuit is then fabricated as shown in FIGS. 18-21. A photoresist pattern is first formed to cover the diode area and expose only the integrated circuit area as shown in FIG. 18, and then oxide layer 60 is removed in the integrated circuit area. In FIG. 19, another photoresist pattern is formed to cover the super diode area and define the MOS transistor gate areas for the integrated circuit. Exposed polysilicon layer is removed by anisotropic polysilicon etch which forms the gate structures of transistors in P well 52 and N well 54. The photoresist is then removed as shown in FIG. 20 and another photoresist pattern is used to cover the super diode area and the P channel MOS transistor (e.g. N well) areas, and then phosphorus or arsenic is implanted to form N channel source and drain and to dope the N channel transistor polysilicon gate as shown in FIG. 20.
 The photoresist is then removed as shown in FIG. 21 and another photoresist pattern covers the power diode area and the N channel MOS transistor (e.g. P well) areas. Boron and/or BF2 is then implanted to form P channel source and drain regions and to dope the P channel transistor polysilicon gate as shown in FIG. 21. The photoresist is then stripped as shown in FIG. 22, and a layer 70 of inter-dielectric such as CVD silicon oxide, PSG or BPSB is deposited on the surface of the structure. Oxide layer 70 is then photoresist masked to define contact areas followed by etch of the exposed oxide layer to open contact areas for the power diode and the integrated circuit. In FIG. 24 the device is completed by removing the photoresist and forming metal inter-connects by depositing a layer of metal and using conventional photo masking and etching to form a metal anode contact 72, metal cathode contact 74, a metal anode contact 76 to surface source/drain 66 and gate 58, and source and drain contacts 78 to the CMOS transistors in P well 52 and N well 54.
 In the final product illustrated in FIG. 24, the oxide or nitride spacers 38 are employed to electrically isolate the power diode from the integrated circuit. FIG. 25-26 are section views illustrating the fabrication of the isolated diode region in accordance with another embodiment of the invention. As shown in FIG. 25 the starting P-/P+ substrate has shallow trench isolation regions 80 formed to provide isolation areas without the forming of a trench as shown in FIG. 2, above. As noted in the description of FIG. 4, conventional local oxidation can be used rather than the conventional shallow trench isolation method. Thereafter as shown in FIG. 26, a photoresist pattern is employed to define the super diode areas with phosphorus and/or arsenic multiple implants with different energies and doses to form the N-/N+ well for the power diode. Again, if more than one power diode is to be fabricated, multiple photoresist openings would be defined.
 The final product using shallow trench isolation is shown in FIG. 27 which is similar to the final structure shown in FIG. 24 except for the oxide or nitride spacers 38 in FIG. 24 being replaced by the STI oxide 80. Note that all process steps as shown in FIGS. 5-24 are employed in forming the final product of FIG. 27.
 FIG. 28 illustrates a section view of another structure in accordance with the invention which is similar to the device of FIG. 24 except for the provision of a super junction region 84 between N+ layer 40 and N- layer 42 of the power diode. Provision of the super junction is described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,743,703, supra.
 In another embodiment of the invention, reduced reverse bias leakage current in the power diode can be provided by a shallow boron implant under the gate of the metal anode as shown at 86 in FIG. 29. The use of a lightly doped boron implant under all of the gate structure for reducing reverse bias leakage current is described in co-pending application Ser. No. 10/159,558, supra.
 Enhanced pinch off for current limiting can be provided in the power diode by providing a P doping profile 88 in the body so tailored with ion implantation that a depletion region pinches off to limit current, as described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,515,330, supra. This is shown in FIG. 30.
 In another embodiment of the invention, the channel regions need not be tapered as shown at 68 in FIG. 24, but can have an essentially constant thickness as shown at 68' in the finished product in FIG. 31. This structure and the method of fabrication is described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,420,225, supra.
 There have been described several embodiments of an integrated circuit including one or more super power diodes in accordance with the invention. However, while the invention has been described with reference to specific embodiments, the description is illustrative of the invention and is not to be construed as limiting the invention. Various modifications and applications may occur to those skilled in the art without departing from the true spirit and scope of the invention as defined by the appended claims.
Patent applications by DIODES, INCORPORATED
Patent applications in class Including diode
Patent applications in all subclasses Including diode