Patent application title: PLANTS HAVING IMPROVED GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS AND METHODS FOR MAKING THE SAME
Dirk Inze (Moorsel-Aalst, BE)
Lieven De Veylder (Drongen, BE)
Kobe Vlieghe (Aalter, BE)
IPC8 Class: AA01H500FI
Class name: Multicellular living organisms and unmodified parts thereof and related processes method of introducing a polynucleotide molecule into or rearrangement of genetic material within a plant or plant part the polynucleotide alters plant part growth (e.g., stem or tuber length, etc.)
Publication date: 2011-06-30
Patent application number: 20110162107
The present invention concerns a method for altering characteristics of a
plant. The invention describes the identification of a gene that is
downregulated in transgenic plants overexpressing E2Fa/DPa and the use of
such sequences to alter plant characteristics. A preferred way for
altering characteristics of a plant comprises modifying expression of one
or more nucleic acid sequences and or modifying level and/or activity of
one or more proteins, which nucleic acids and/or proteins encoded thereby
are essentially similar to SEQ ID NO 1835. The gene identified in the
present invention have an E2Fa target consensus sequence in their 5'
upstream region. The identified gene is postulated to play a role as
1. A method to alter one or more plant characteristics, said method
comprising modifying, in a plant, expression of one or more nucleic acids
and/or modifying level and/or activity of one or more proteins, which
nucleic acids and/or proteins are essentially similar to any one of SEQ
ID NO 1 to 2755, and wherein said one or more plant characteristics are
altered relative to corresponding wild type plants.
2. A method according to claim 1, wherein said altered plant characteristic is selected from any one or more of the following: altered development, altered growth, increased yield and/or biomass, enhanced survival capacity, enhanced stress tolerance, altered plant architecture, altered plant physiology, altered plant biochemistry, altered metabolism, altered DNA synthesis, altered DNA modification, altered endoreduplication, altered cell cycle, altered cell wall biogenesis, altered transcription regulation, altered signal transduction, altered storage lipid mobilization and/or altered photosynthesis, each relative to corresponding wild type plants.
3. A method according to claim 2, wherein said altered metabolism comprises altered nitrogen and/or altered carbon metabolism.
4. A method according to claim 2, wherein said increased yield and/or biomass, comprises increased seed yield.
5. A method according to claim 1, comprising overexpression of one or more nucleic acids essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755.
6. A method according to claim 1, comprising downregulation of expression of one or more nucleic acids essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755.
7. A transgenic plant having one or more altered characteristics when compared to the corresponding wild-type plant, characterized in that said plant has modified expression of one or more nucleic acids and/or modified level and/or activity of one or more proteins, said nucleic acid and/or protein being essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755.
8. A transgenic plant obtainable by a method according to claim 1.
9. A transgenic plant comprising an isolated nucleic acid and/or protein sequence essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755.
10. An ancestor, progeny, or any plant part, particularly a harvestable part, of a transgenic plant of claim 7.
11. A host cell having one or more altered characteristics when compared to the corresponding wild-type host cell, characterized in that said host cell has modified expression of one or more nucleic acids and/or modified level and/or activity of one or more proteins, said nucleic acid and/or protein being essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755.
12. Use of a nucleic acid sequence or protein essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755, for altering one or more plant characteristics.
13. A method for the production of plants with one or more altered characteristics when compared to the corresponding wild-type plants, which method comprises the use of a nucleic acid sequence essentially similar to any of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755 in marker assisted breeding.
14. A method for the production of plants with one or more altered characteristics when compared to the corresponding wild-type plants, which method comprises the use of a nucleic acid sequence essentially similar to any of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755 in conventional breeding.
15. A plant obtainable by the methods according to claim 13.
16. Use of a nucleic acid and/or a protein essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755 as a growth regulator.
 This application is a divisional application of U.S. application
Ser. No. 10/531,475, filed Apr. 15, 2005 (allowed), which was published
as US 2006-0021088 A1 on Jan. 26, 2006, and which is the US national
phase of international application PCT/EP2003/011658 filed 20 Oct. 2003,
which designated the U.S. and claims priority of EP 02079408.7, filed 18
Oct. 2002, the entire contents of each of which are hereby incorporated
 The material of the concurrently filed ASCII text file named 047-E2F-PCTST25.txt, created Nov. 8, 2010, which is 7,289 KB is also incorporated herein by reference.
 The Sequence Listing filed Jul. 23, 2007 in U.S. application Ser. No. 10/531,475 is incorporated herein by reference.
 The present invention concerns altering plant characteristics. More particularly, the present invention relates to identification of genes and proteins involved in E2Fa/DPa-mediated processes and further relates to use of such genes and proteins for altering characteristics in plants.
 The present invention concerns a method for altering one or more plant characteristics, whereby the altered plant characteristic is selected from altered development, altered plant growth, altered, for example increased, plant yield and/or biomass, biochemistry, physiology, architecture, metabolism, survival capacity or stress tolerance by modifying expression of one or more of the genes according to the present invention and/or by modifying levels and/or activity of the proteins encoded by these genes. The present invention also concerns genetic constructs for performing the methods of the invention and to plants or plant parts obtainable by the methods of the present invention, which plants have altered characteristics compared to their otherwise isogenic counterparts. The invention also extends to recombinant nucleic acids and the use thereof in the methods according to the invention.
 Growth, development and differentiation of higher organisms are controlled by a highly ordered set of events called the cell cycle (Morgan, 1997). Cell division and cell growth are operated by the cell cycle, which ensures correct timing and high fidelity of the different transition events involved. Cell cycle regulation at both G1→S and G2→M phase transitions depends on the formation of appropriate protein complexes and both transitions are believed to be the major control points in the cell cycle. The cell's decision to proliferate and synthesize DNA and ultimately to divide is made at the G1→S restriction point in late G1. Overcoming this point of no return requires the cell's competence to initiate DNA synthesis as well as the expression of S-phase genes. Transcription of S-phase-specific genes requires binding to the DNA of an E2F transcription factor. Dimerisation of E2F with DP is a prerequisite for high affinity binding to the E2F consensus DNA binding site (A/T)TT(G/C)(G/C)C(G/C)(G/C) (SEQ ID NO 2775), for example (TTT(C/G)(C/G)CGC), that can be found in the promoters of genes involved in DNA replication, repair, checkpoint control and differentiation (Ren et al., 2002; Weinmann et al., 2001; Kel et al., 2001). Variants of this consensus sequence as well as other locations of this consensus sequences are also found. The heterodimeric E2F/dimerization partner (DP) transcription factor also regulates the promoter activity of multiple genes, which are essential for DNA replication and cell cycle control (Helin, 1998; Muller and Helin, 2000). E2F transcription factors are critical effectors of the decision to pass the restriction point and to allow the cell to proceed in S-phase.
 In the Arabidopsis genome, 3 E2F (E2Fa, E2Fb, and E2Fc) and 2 DP genes (DPa and DPb) are present (Vandepoele et al., 2002). The phenotypic analysis of plants overexpressing E2Fa and DPa was described recently (De Veylder et al., 2002). Microscopic analysis revealed that E2Fa/DPa overproducing cells underwent ectopic cell division or endoreduplication, depending on the cell type. Whereas extra cell divisions resulted in cells being smaller than those seen in the same tissues of control plants, extra endoreduplication caused formation of giant nuclei. RT-PCR demonstrated that expression levels of genes involved in DNA replication (CDC6, ORC1, MCM, DNA pol α) were strongly upregulated in plants overexpressing E2Fa and DPa (De Veylder et al., 2002).
 The present invention provides genes having altered expression levels in plants overexpressing E2Fa and DPa relative to expression levels in corresponding wild type plants. Furthermore, the present invention provides means to modulate expression of these genes, which in turn allows for modulation of the biological processes that they control. The present invention provides methods to mimic E2F/DP level and/or activity by manipulating downstream factors involved in E2F/DP pathways. This strategy allows a fine-tuning of the effects of E2Fa/DPa. Whereas overexpression of E2Fa or DPa or both can be pleiotropic and/or can have pleiotropic effects, it is the invention provides methods to alter plant characteristics in a more controlled and targeted way, by using the E2F/DP target genes as defined by the present invention. Modulation of particular biological processes is now possible and may give rise to plants having altered characteristics, which may have particularly useful applications in agriculture and horticulture.
 Therefore, according to the present invention, there is provided a method to alter one or more plant characteristics, comprising modifying, in a plant, expression of one or more nucleic acids and/or modifying level and/or activity of one or more proteins, which nucleic acids or proteins are essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755, and wherein said one or more plant characteristics are altered relative to corresponding wild type plants.
 The inventors designed a microarray experiment, comparing transcript levels of more than 4579 genes of wild type and transgenic Arabidopsis lines overexpressing E2Fa/DPa. Surprisingly, the inventors found that particular genes are up or down regulated in E2Fa-DPa overexpressing plants. The sequences which were at least 1.3 times upregulated or downregulated, are represented with their MIPS (Munich information center for protein sequences) accession number MATDB database URL: mips.gsf.de/proj/thal/db/index in Tables 4 and 5. Sequences which were at least 2-fold upregulated or 2-fold downregulated are shown in Tables 1 and 2, respectively. Further classification of these genes according to their function is provided in Tables 1 and 2. Promoter analysis of these genes allowed for the identification of genes under the direct control of E2Fa and/or DPa proteins and genes that are indirectly controlled by the E2Fa/DPa complex. Examples of mechanisms for such indirect control include, (i) recognition by E2F/DP of other sequence elements that diverge from the consensus recognition site; (ii) possible association of E2F/DP with other DNA binding proteins capable of recognizing other DNA elements; and (iii) sequential transcription activation of a first gene capable of regulating transcription of a second gene. It is to be understood that having an E2F target sequence is not a prerequisite to be regulated by E2F.
 The gene that corresponds to the sequence deposited under the MIPS database accession number At1g57680 is an example of a gene, which is likely to be indirectly controlled by the E2Fa/DPa complex. This gene is of unknown function. It was surprising to find this unknown gene and the other genes of Tables 1, 2, 4 and 5 to be involved in E2Fa/DPa controlled processes. The genes according to the present invention are represented herein with their nucleic acid sequence and corresponding amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755.
 Preferably expression and/or level and/or activity of one of the genes and/or proteins according to any of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755 is modified. Alternatively expression and/or level and/or activity of one or more of those genes and/or proteins is modified. According to a further embodiment one or more gene/and or proteins of the same functional category as presented in Table 1 or Table 2, are modified.
 The term "modifying expression" relates to altering level (increasing expression or decreasing expression) or altering the time or altering the place of expression of a nucleic acid. The term "modified" as used herein is used interchangeably with "altered" or "changed".
 Modified expression (or level or activity) of a sequence essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755 encompasses changed expression (or level or activity) of a gene product, namely a polypeptide, in specific cells or tissues. The changed expression, activity and/or levels are changed compared to expression, activity and/or levels of the gene or protein essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755 acid in corresponding wild-type plants. The changed gene expression may result from changed expression levels of an endogenous gene essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755 acid and/or may result from changed expression levels of a gene essentially similar to SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755 acid previously introduced into a plant. Similarly, changed levels and/or activity of a protein essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755 acid may be due to changed expression of an endogenous nucleic acid/gene and/or due to changed expression of nucleic acid/gene previously introduced into a plant.
 Modified expression of a gene/nucleic acid and/or increasing or decreasing activity and/or levels of a gene product may be effected, for example, by chemical means and/or recombinant means.
 Advantageously, modified expression of a nucleic acid according to the invention and/or modified activity and/or levels of a protein according to the invention may be effected by chemical means, i.e. by exogenous application of one or more compounds or elements capable of modifying activity and/or levels of the protein and/or capable of modifying expression of a nucleic acid/gene according to the invention. The term "exogenous application" as defined herein is taken to mean the contacting or administering of a suitable compound or element to plant cells, tissues, organs or to the whole organism. The compound or element may be exogenously applied to a plant in a form suitable for plant uptake (such as through application to the soil for uptake via the roots, or in the case of some plants by applying directly to the leaves, for example by spraying). The exogenous application may take place on wild-type plants or on transgenic plants that have previously been transformed with a nucleic acid/gene according to the present invention or with another transgene.
 Suitable compounds or elements include proteins or nucleic acids according to SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755 or proteins or nucleic acids essentially similar to SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755. Essentially similar proteins or nucleic acids are, homologues, derivatives or active fragments of these proteins and/or portions or sequences capable of hybridizing with these nucleic acids. The exogenous application of yet other compounds or elements capable of modifying levels of factors that directly or indirectly activate or inactivate a protein according to the present invention will also be suitable in practicing the invention. These compounds or elements also include antibodies that can recognize or mimic the function of the proteins according to the present invention. Such antibodies may comprise "plantibodies", single chain antibodies, IgG antibodies and heavy chain camel antibodies, as well as fragments thereof. Additionally or alternatively, the resultant effect may also be achieved by the exogenous application of an interacting protein or activator or an inhibitor of the gene/gene product according to the present invention. Additionally or alternatively, the compound or element may be a mutagenic substance, such as a chemical selected from any one or more of: N-nitroso-N-ethylurea, ethylene imine, ethyl methanesulphonate and diethyl sulphate. Mutagenesis may also be achieved by exposure to ionising radiation, such as X-rays or gamma-rays or ultraviolet light. Methods for introducing mutations and for testing the effect of mutations (such as by monitoring gene expression and/or protein activity) are well known in the art.
 Therefore, according to one aspect of the present invention, there is provided a method for altering plant characteristics, comprising exogenous application of one or more compounds or elements capable of modifying expression of a gene and/or capable of modifying activity and/or levels of a protein according to the present invention.
 Additionally or alternatively, and according to a preferred embodiment of the present invention, modified of expression of a nucleic acid and/or modified of activity and/or levels of a protein, wherein these nucleic acids or proteins are essentially similar to any of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755, may be effected by recombinant means. Such recombinant means may comprise a direct and/or indirect approach for modifying expression of a nucleic acid and/or for modifying activity and/or levels of a protein.
 Therefore there is provided by the present invention, a method to alter plant characteristics, comprising modifying gene expression and/or protein levels and/or protein activity, which modification may be effected by recombinant means and/or by chemical means and wherein said gene and/or protein are essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755.
 An indirect recombinant approach may comprise for example introducing, into a plant, a nucleic acid capable of increasing or decreasing activity and/or levels of the protein in question (a protein essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755) and/or capable of increasing or decreasing expression of the gene in question (a gene essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755). Examples of such nucleic acids to be introduced into a plant, are nucleic acids encoding transcription factors or activators or inhibitors that bind to the promoter of a gene or that interact with a protein essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755. Methods to test these types of interactions and methods for isolating nucleic acids encoding such interactors include yeast one-hybrid or yeast two-hybrid screens.
 Also encompassed by an indirect approach for modifying activity and/or levels of a protein according to the present invention and/or expression of a gene according to the present invention, is the provision of a regulatory sequence, or the inhibition or stimulation of regulatory sequences that drive expression of the native gene in question or of the transgene in question. Such regulatory sequences may be introduced into a plant. For example, the nucleic acid introduced into the plant is a promoter, capable of driving the expression of the endogenous gene essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755.
 A further indirect approach for modifying activity and/or levels and/or expression of a gene or protein according to the present invention in a plant encompasses modifying levels in a plant of a factor able to interact with the protein according to the present invention. Such factors may include ligands of the protein according to the present invention. Therefore, the present invention provides a method for altering characteristics of a plant, when compared to the corresponding wild-type plants, comprising modifying expression of a gene coding for a protein which is a natural ligand of a protein essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755. Furthermore, the present invention also provides a method to alter one or more plant characteristics relative to corresponding wild-type plants, comprising modifying expression of a gene coding for a protein which is a natural target/substrate of a protein essentially similar to SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755.
 A direct and more preferred approach to alter one or more plant characteristics, comprises introducing into a plant a nucleic acid essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755, wherein said nucleic acid essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755 is any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755 or a portion thereof or sequences capable of hybridizing therewith and which nucleic acid preferably encodes a protein essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755, which protein essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755 is any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755 or a homologue, derivative or active fragment thereof. The nucleic acid may be introduced into a plant by, for example, transformation.
 In the context of the present invention the term "modifying expression" and modifying level and/or activity encompasses "enhancing or decreasing". Methods for obtaining enhanced or increased expression of genes or gene products are well documented in the art and are for example overexpression driven by a strong promoter, the use of transcription enhancers or translation enhancers. The term "overexpression" of a gene refers to expression patterns and/or expression levels of said gene normally not occurring under natural conditions. Ectopic expression can be achieved in a number of ways including operably linking of a coding sequence encoding said protein to an isolated homologous or heterologous promoter in order to create a chimeric gene.
 Alternatively and/or additionally, increased expression of a gene or increased activities and/or levels of a protein in a plant cell, is achieved by mutagenesis. For example these mutations can be responsible for the changed control of the gene, resulting in more expression of the gene, relative to the wild-type gene. Mutations can also cause conformational changes in a protein, resulting in more activity and/or levels of the protein.
 Examples of decreasing expression of a gene are also well documented in the art and include for example: downregulation of expression by anti-sense techniques, RNAi techniques, small interference RNAs (siRNAs), microRNA (miRNA), etc. Therefore according to a particular aspect of the invention, there is provided a method to alter characteristics of plants, including technologies that are based on for example the synthesis of antisense transcripts, complementary to the mRNA of a gene essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755. Another method for downregulation of gene expression or gene silencing comprises use of ribozymes, for example as described in WO9400012 (Atkins et al.), WO9503404 (Lenee et al.), WO0000619 (Nikolau et al.), WO9713865 (Ulvskov et al.) and WO9738116 (Scott et al.). Gene silencing may also be achieved by insertion mutagenesis (for example, T-DNA insertion or transposon insertion) or by gene silencing strategies as described among others in the documents WO9836083 (Baulcombe and Angell), WO9853083 (Grierson et al.), WO9915682 (Baulcombe et al.) or WO9953050 (Waterhouse et al.).
 Expression of an endogenous gene may also be reduced if the endogenous gene contains a mutation. Such a mutant gene may be isolated and introduced into the same or different plant species in order to obtain plants having altered characteristics. Also dominant negative mutants of a nucleic acid essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755 can be introduced in the cell to decrease the level/and or activity of the endogenous corresponding protein.
 Other methods to decrease the expression of a nucleic acid and/or activity and/or level of proteins essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755 in a cell encompass, for example, the mechanisms of transcriptional gene silencing, such as the methylation of the promoter of a gene according to the present invention.
 Modifying expression of the gene also encompasses altered transcript level of the gene. Altered transcript levels of a gene can be sufficient to induce certain phenotypic effects, for example via the mechanism of cosuppression. Here the overall effect of overexpression of a transgene is that there is less level and/or activity in the cell of the protein, which is encoded by the native gene showing homology to the introduced transgene.
 Cosuppression is accomplished by the addition of coding sequences or parts thereof in a sense orientation into the cell. Therefore, according to one aspect of the present invention, the characteristics of a plant may be changed by introducing into a plant an additional copy (in full or in part) of a gene essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755 already present in a host plant. The additional gene may silence the endogenous gene, giving rise to a phenomenon known as co-suppression.
 According to the invention, "nucleic acid" or the "gene" essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755 in a plant may be the wild type gene, i.e. native or endogenous or heterologous, i.e. derived from another individual plant or plant species. The gene (transgene) may be substantially modified from its native form in composition and/or genomic environment through deliberate human manipulation. This transgene can be introduced into a host cell by transformation techniques. Also expression of the native genes can be modified by introduction in the plant of regulatory sequences capable of altering expression of the native gene, as described above.
 The term "modifying activity" relates to enhancing, decreasing or altering time or place of activity of a protein or polypeptide. According to the invention, the "protein" or the "polypeptide" may be the wild type protein, i.e. native or endogenous, or alternatively, the protein may be heterologous, i.e. derived from another individual or species.
 The term "essentially similar to" in relation to a protein of the present invention as used herein includes variants such as homologues, derivatives and functional fragment thereof. The term "essentially similar to" in relation to a gene includes variants such as at least a part of the gene in question; a complement of the gene; RNA, DNA, a cDNA or a genomic DNA corresponding to the protein or gene; a variant of the gene due to the degeneracy of the genetic code; a family member of the gene or protein; an allelic variant of the gene or protein; and different splice variant of the gene or protein and variants that are interrupted by one or more intervening sequences. Advantageously, nucleic acids or proteins essentially similar to nucleic acids and the proteins according to any of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755 may be used in the methods of the present invention. These variant nucleic acids and variant amino acids are described further below.
 Any variant of a particular protein according to the present invention is a variant, which upon construction of a phylogenetic tree with that particular protein, tends to cluster around the particular protein which is any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755. Such a phylogenetic tree can be constructed with alignments of amino acid sequences or with nucleic acid sequences. A person skilled in the art could readily determine whether any variant in question falls within the definition of a "a nucleic acid or protein essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755". Hereto the man skilled in the art would use known techniques and software for the making of such phylogenetic trees, such as a GCG, EBI or CLUSTAL package, or Align X, using default parameters. Advantageously, the methods according to the present invention may also be practised using such variants.
 Any variant suitable for use in the methods according to the invention may readily be determined using routine techniques, such as by following the methods described in the Examples section by simply substituting the sequence used in the actual Example with the fragment to be tested for functionality.
 A first example of such variants are "homologues" of the proteins of the present invention, which homologues encompass peptides, oligopeptides, polypeptides, proteins and enzymes having amino acid substitutions, deletions and/or additions relative to the protein in question and having similar biological and functional activity as an unmodified protein from which they are derived. To produce such homologues, amino acids of the protein may be replaced by other amino acids having similar properties (such as similar hydrophobicity, hydrophilicity, antigenicity, propensity to form or break α-helical structures or β-sheet structures). Conservative substitution tables are well known in the art (see for example Creighton (1984).
 The homologues useful in the method according to the invention may have at least 30%, 32%, 34%, 36%, 38%, 40%, 42%, 44%, 46%, 48% or 50% sequence identity or similarity (functional identity) to the unmodified protein, alternatively at least 52%, 54%, 56%, 58% or 60% sequence identity or similarity to an unmodified protein, or alternatively at least 62%, 64%, 66%, 68% or 70% sequence identity or similarity to an unmodified protein. Typically, the homologues have at least 72%, 74%, 76%, 78% or 80% sequence identity or similarity to an unmodified protein, preferably at least 81%, 82%, 83%, 84%, 85%, 86%, 87%, 88% or 89% sequence identity or similarity, further preferably at least 90%, 91%, 92%, 93% or 94% sequence identity or similarity to an unmodified protein, further preferably at least 95% 96%, 97%, 98% or 99% sequence identity or similarity to an unmodified protein. This % identity can be calculated using the Gap program in the WISCONSIN PACKAGE version 10.0-UNIX from Genetics Computer Group, Inc based on the method of Needleman and Wunsch (J. Mol. Biol. 48:443-453 (1970)) using the set of default parameters for pairwise comparison (for amino acid sequence comparison: Gap Creation Penalty=8, Gap Extension Penalty=2; for nucleotide sequence comparison: Gap Creation Penalty=50; Gap Extension Penalty=3).
 The percentage of identity can also be calculated by using other alignment program well known in the art. For example, the percentage of identity can be calculated using the program needle (EMBOSS package) or stretcher (EMBOSS package) or the program align X, as a module of the vector NTI suite 5.5 software package, using the parameters (for example GAP penalty 5, GAP opening penalty 15, GAP extension penalty 6.6).
 These above-mentioned analyses for comparing sequences may be done on full-length sequences but additionally or alternatively the calculation of sequence identity or similarity can be based on a comparison of certain regions such as conserved domains.
 The identification of such domains, would also be well within the realm of a person skilled in the art and involves, for example, running a computer readable format of the nucleic acids of the present invention in alignment software programs, scanning publicly available information on protein domains, conserved motifs and boxes. This type of information on protein domains is available in the PRODOM (URL: biochem.ucl.ac.uk/bsm/dbbrowser/jj/prodomsrchjj), PIR (URL: pir.georgetown.edu), INTERPRO (URL: ebi.ac.uk/interpro) or pFAM (URL: pfam.wustl.edu) database. Sequence analysis programs designed for motif searching can be used for identification of fragments, regions and conserved domains as mentioned above. Preferred computer programs would include but are not limited to: MEME, SIGNALSCAN, and GENESCAN. A MEME algorithm (Version 2.2) can be found in version 10.0 of the GCG package; or on the Internet site URL: .sdsc.edu/MEME/meme. SIGNALSCAN version 4.0 information is available on the Internet site http://biosci.cbs.umn.edu/software/sigscan.html. GENESCAN can be found on the Internet site URL: gnomic.stanford.edu/GENESCANW.
 As mentioned above the nucleic acid suitable for practising the methods of the present invention can be wild type (native or endogenous). Alternatively, the nucleic acid may be derived from another (or the same) species, which gene is introduced into the plant as a transgene, for example by transformation. The nucleic acid may thus be derived (either directly or indirectly (if subsequently modified)) from any source provided that the nucleic acid, when expressed in a plant, leads to modified expression of a nucleic acid/gene or modified activity and/or levels of a protein essentially similar to SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755. The nucleic acid may be isolated from a microbial source, such as bacteria, yeast or fungi, or from a plant, algae, insect, or animal (including human) source. Methods for the search and identification of other homologues of the proteins of the present invention, or for nucleic acid sequences encoding homologues of proteins of the present invention would be well known to person skilled in the art. Methods for the alignment of sequences for comparison are well known in the art, such methods include GAP, BESTFIT, BLAST, FASTA and TFASTA. The BLAST algorithm calculates percent sequence identity and performs a statistical analysis of the similarity between the two sequences. The software for performing BLAST analysis is publicly available through the National Center for Biotechnology Information.
 Two special forms of homology, orthologous and paralogous, are evolutionary concepts used to describe ancestral relationships of genes. The term "paralogous" relates to gene-duplications within the genome of a species leading to paralogous genes. The term "orthologous" relates to homologous genes in different organisms due to ancestral relationship. The term "homologues" as used herein also encompasses paralogues and orthologues of the proteins used in the methods according to the invention.
 A preferred homologue is a homologue obtained from a plant, whether from the same plant species or different. The nucleic acid may be isolated from a dicotyledonous species, preferably from the family Brassicaceae, further preferably from Arabidopsis thaliana.
 Suitable homologues for use in the methods of the present invention have been identified in the genomes of rice and maize. These homologues are represented by their Genbank accession numbers in Table 1 and 2. Other homologues, especially orthologues from other plant species, are identifiable by methods well known by a person skilled in the art. In silico, methods involve running sequence alignment programs with the sequence of interest as mentioned above. In vivo methods involve the DNA encoding the protein of interest and are for example PCR techniques using degenerated primers designed based on the sequence of interest, which is any one essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755, or hybridisation techniques with at least part of the sequence of interest.
 "Substitutional variants" of a protein are those in which at least one residue in an amino acid sequence has been removed and a different residue inserted in its place. Amino acid substitutions are typically of single residues, but may be clustered depending upon functional constraints placed upon the polypeptide; insertions will usually be of the order of about 1-10 amino acid residues, and deletions will range from about 1-20 residues.
 "Insertional variants" of a protein are those in which one or more amino acid residues are introduced into a predetermined site in the protein. Insertions can comprise amino-terminal and/or carboxy-terminal fusions as well as intra-sequence insertions of single or multiple amino acids. Generally, insertions within the amino acid sequence will be smaller than amino- or carboxy-terminal fusions, of the order of about 1 to 10 residues. Examples of amino- or carboxy-terminal fusion proteins or peptides include the binding domain or activation domain of a transcriptional activator as used in the yeast two-hybrid system, phage coat proteins, (histidine)6-tag, glutathione S-transferase-tag, protein A, maltose-binding protein, dihydrofolate reductase, Tag•100 epitope, c-myc epitope, FLAG®-epitope, lacZ, CMP (calmodulin-binding peptide), HA epitope, protein C epitope and VSV epitope.
 "Deletion variants" of a protein are characterized by the removal of one or more amino acids from the protein. Amino acid variants of a protein may readily be made using peptide synthetic techniques well known in the art, such as solid phase peptide synthesis and the like, or by recombinant DNA manipulations. The manipulation of DNA sequences to produce substitution, insertion or deletion variants of a protein are well known in the art. For example, techniques for making substitution mutations at predetermined sites in DNA are well known to those skilled in the art and include M13 mutagenesis, T7-Gen in vitro mutagenesis (USB, Cleveland, Ohio), QuickChange Site Directed mutagenesis (Stratagene, San Diego, Calif.), PCR-mediated site-directed mutagenesis or other site-directed mutagenesis protocols.
 The term "derivatives" of a protein according to the present invention are those peptides, oligopeptides, polypeptides, proteins and enzymes which may comprise substitutions, deletions or additions of naturally and non-naturally occurring amino acid residues compared to the amino acid sequence of a naturally-occurring form of the protein as deposited under the accession numbers presented in Table 1, 2, 4 and 5. "Derivatives" of a protein of the present invention encompass peptides, oligopeptides, polypeptides, proteins and enzymes which may comprise naturally occurring altered, glycosylated, acylated or non-naturally occurring amino acid residues compared to the amino acid sequence of a naturally-occurring form of the polypeptide. A derivative may also comprise one or more non-amino acid substituents compared to the amino acid sequence from which it is derived, for example a reporter molecule or other ligand, covalently or non-covalently bound to the amino acid sequence such as, for example, a reporter molecule which is bound to facilitate its detection, and non-naturally occurring amino acid residues relative to the amino acid sequence of a naturally-occurring protein of the present invention.
 Another variant useful in the methods of the present invention is an active fragment of a protein essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755. The expression "functional fragment" in relation to a protein refers to a fragment that encompasses contiguous amino acid residues of said protein, and that has retained the biological activity of said naturally-occurring protein. For example, useful fragments comprise at least 10 contiguous amino acid residues of a protein essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755. Other preferred fragments are fragments of these proteins starting at the second or third or further internal methionin residues. These fragments originate from protein translation, starting at internal ATG codons.
 Advantageously, the method according to the present invention may also be practiced using fragments of DNA or of a nucleic acid sequence. The term "DNA fragment or DNA segment" refers to a piece of DNA derived or prepared from an original (larger) DNA molecule. The term is not restrictive to the content of the DNA fragment or segment. For example, the DNA fragment or segments can comprise many genes, with or without additional control elements or may contain spacer sequences. A functional fragment refers to a piece of DNA derived or prepared from an original (larger) DNA molecule, which DNA portion, when introduced and expressed in a plant, gives plants having altered characteristics. The fragments may be made by making one or more deletions and/or truncations to the nucleic acid sequence. Techniques for introducing truncations and deletions into a nucleic acid are well known in the art.
 Another example of variants useful in the methods of the present invention, encompasses nucleic acid sequences capable of hybridising with a nucleic acid sequence as presented in any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755 or a nucleic acid encoding a protein as presented in any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755.
 The term "hybridisation" as defined herein is the process wherein substantially homologous complementary nucleotide sequences anneal to each other. The hybridisation process can occur entirely in solution, i.e. both complementary nucleic acids are in solution. Tools in molecular biology relying on such a process include the polymerase chain reaction (PCR; and all methods based thereon), subtractive hybridisation, random primer extension, nuclease S1 mapping, primer extension, reverse transcription, cDNA synthesis, differential display of RNAs, and DNA sequence determination. The hybridisation process can also occur with one of the complementary nucleic acids immobilised to a matrix such as magnetic beads, Sepharose beads or any other resin. Tools in molecular biology relying on such a process include the isolation of poly (A+) mRNA. The hybridisation process can furthermore occur with one of the complementary nucleic acids immobilised to a solid support such as a nitro-cellulose or nylon membrane or immobilised by e.g. photolithography to e.g. a siliceous glass support (the latter known as nucleic acid arrays or microarrays or as nucleic acid chips). Tools in molecular biology relying on such a process include RNA and DNA gel blot analysis, colony hybridisation, plaque hybridisation, in situ hybridisation and microarray hybridisation. In order to allow hybridisation to occur, the nucleic acid molecules are generally thermally or chemically denatured to melt a double strand into two single strands and/or to remove hairpins or other secondary structures from single stranded nucleic acids. The stringency of hybridisation is influenced by conditions such as temperature, salt concentration and hybridisation buffer composition. High stringency conditions for hybridisation include high temperature and/or low salt concentration (salts include NaCl and Na3-citrate) and/or the inclusion of formamide in the hybridisation buffer and/or lowering the concentration of compounds such as SDS (detergent) in the hybridisation buffer and/or exclusion of compounds such as dextran sulphate or polyethylene glycol (promoting molecular crowding) from the hybridisation buffer. Conventional hybridisation conditions are described in, for example, Sambrook (2001), but the skilled craftsman will appreciate that numerous different hybridisation conditions can be designed in function of the known or the expected homology and/or length of the nucleic acid sequence. With specifically hybridising is meant hybridising under stringent conditions. Specific conditions for "specifically hybridising" are for example: hybridising under stringent conditions such as a temperature of 60° C. followed by washes in 2×SSC, 0.1×SDS, and 1×SSC, 0.1×SDS. Depending on the source and concentration of the nucleic acid involved in the hybridisation, alternative conditions of stringency may be employed, such as medium stringency conditions. Examples of medium stringency conditions include 1-4×SSC/0.25% w/v SDS at ≧45° C. for 2-3 hours. Sufficiently low stringency hybridisation conditions are particularly preferred to isolate nucleic acids heterologous to the DNA sequences of the invention defined supra. Elements contributing to heterology include allelism, degeneration of the genetic code and differences in preferred codon usage. The stringency conditions may start low and be progressively increased until there is provided a hybridising nucleic acid, as defined hereinabove. Elements contributing to heterology include allelism, degeneration of the genetic code and differences in preferred codon usage.
 Another variant useful in the methods for altering growth characteristics encompasses a nucleic acid sequence which is an alternative splice variant of a gene of the present invention (deposited in the MIPS database under the accession numbers as presented in Tables 1, 2, 4 or 5). The term "alternative splice variant" as used herein encompasses variants in which introns and selected exons have been excised, replaced or added. Such splice variants may be found in nature or can be manmade. For example, introns or exons can be excised, replaced or added such that the mRNA has altered expression (e.g. seed-preferred expression), or altered response to specific signals). Preferred variants will be ones in which the biological activity of the proteins of the present invention remains unaffected, which can be achieved by selectively retaining functional segments of the proteins. Methods for making such splice variants are well known in the art.
 Another example of a variant useful to alter plant characteristics, is an allelic variant of a gene essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755. Allelic variants exist in nature and encompassed within the methods of the present invention is the use of these isolated natural alleles in the methods according to the invention. Allelic variants encompass Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs), as well as Small Insertion/Deletion Polymorphisms (INDELs). The size of INDELs is usually less than 100 bp. SNPs and INDELs form the largest set of sequence variants in naturally occurring polymorphic strains of most organisms. Allellic variation can also be created artificially, such as for example by the techniques of EMS mutagenesis. Typically such variants are created with the purpose of breeding the altered plant characteristic according to the present invention in a plant. Alternatively, naturally mutated alleles are the subject of such selection and breeding programmes, wherein the allele capable of conferring altered plant characteristics to the plant are selected and plants containing such allele are used for further breeding the trait.
 Accordingly, the present invention provides a method for altering plant characteristics, using a splice variant or an allelic variant of a nucleic acid sequence according to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755.
 The term "plant characteristic" means any characteristic of a plant, plant cell or plant tissue described hereafter. These characteristics encompass but are not limited to, characteristics of plant development, plant growth, yield, biomass production, plant architecture, plant biochemistry, plant physiology, metabolism, survival capacity, stress tolerance and more. DNA synthesis, DNA modification, endoreduplication, cell cycle, cell wall biogenesis, transcription regulation, signal transduction, storage lipid mobilization, photosynthesis and more.
 The term "altering plant characteristics" as used herein encompasses any change in said characteristic such as increase, decrease or change in time or place. According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, altering a plant characteristics encompasses improving the plant characteristic, such as for example increasing the plant characteristic (e.g. yield), or accelerating the characteristic (e.g. growth rate).
 "Growth" refers to the capacity of the plant or of plant parts to expand and increase in biomass. Altered growth refers amongst others to altered growth rate, cycling time, the size, expansion or increase of the plant. Additionally and/or alternatively, growth characteristics may refer to cellular processes comprising, but not limited to, cell cycle (entry, progression, exit), cell division, cell wall biogenesis and/or DNA synthesis, DNA modification and/or endoreduplication.
 "Yield" refers to the harvestable part of the plant. "Biomass" refers to any part of the plants. These terms also encompass an increase in seed yield, which includes an increase in the biomass of the seed (seed weight) and/or an increase in the number of (filled) seeds and/or in the size of the seeds and/or an increase in seed volume, each relative to corresponding wild-type plants. An increase in seed size and/or volume may also influence the composition of seeds. An increase in seed yield could be due to an increase in the number and/or size of flowers. An increase in yield may also increase the harvest index, which is expressed as a ratio of the total biomass over the yield of harvestable parts, such as seeds.
 "Plant development" means any cellular process of a plant that is involved in determining the developmental fate of a plant cell, in particular the specific tissue or organ type into which a progenitor cell will develop. Typical plant characteristics according to the present invention are therefore characteristics relating to cellular processes relevant to plant development such as for example, morphogenesis, photomorphogenesis, shoot development, root development, vegetative development, reproductive development, stem elongation, flowering, regulatory mechanisms involved in determining cell fate, pattern formation, differentiation, senescence, time of flowering and/or time to flower.
 "Plant architecture", as used herein refers to the external appearance of a plant, including any one or more structural features or a combination of structural features thereof. Such structural features include the shape, size, number, position, colour, texture, arrangement, and patternation of any cell, tissue or organ or groups of cells, tissues or organs of a plant, including the root, stem, leaf, shoot, petiole, trichome, flower, petal, stigma, style, stamen, pollen, ovule, seed, embryo, endosperm, seed coat, aleurone, fibre, fruit, cambium, wood, heartwood, parenchyma, aerenchyma, sieve element, phloem or vascular tissue, amongst others.
 The term "stress tolerance" is understood as the capability of better survival and/or better performing in stress conditions such as environmental stress, which can be biotic or abiotic. Salinity, drought, heat, chilling and freezing are all described as examples of conditions which induce osmotic stress. The term "environmental stress" as used in the present invention refers to any adverse effect on metabolism, growth or viability of the cell, tissue, seed, organ or whole plant which is produced by a non-living or non-biological environmental stressor. More particularly, it also encompasses environmental factors such as water stress (flooding, water logging, drought, dehydration), anaerobic (low level of oxygen, CO2 etc.), aerobic stress, osmotic stress, salt stress, temperature stress (hot/heat, cold, freezing, frost) or nutrients deprivation, pollutants stress (heavy metals, toxic chemicals), ozone, high light, pathogen (including viruses, bacteria, fungi, insects and nematodes) and combinations of these. Biotic stress is stress as a result of the impact of a living organism on the plant. Examples are stresses caused by pathogens (virus, bacteria, nematodes insects etc.). Another example is stress caused by an organism, which is not necessarily harmful to the plant, such as the stress caused by a symbiotic or an epiphyte. Accordingly, particular plant characteristics according to the present invention encompass early vigour, survival rate, stress tolerance.
 Field-grown plants almost always experience some form of stress, albeit mild, and therefore the terms "growth", "yield" "biomass production" or "biomass" do not distinguish the performance of plants under non-stressed from performance under stress conditions. Advantageously, the effects of the invention on growth and yield are expected to occur under both severe and mild stress conditions (i.e. under stressed and non-stressed conditions).
 Characteristics related to "plant physiology" encompass characteristics of functional processes of a plant, including developmental processes such as growth, expansion and differentiation, sexual development, sexual reproduction, seed set, seed development, grain filling, asexual reproduction, cell division, dormancy, germination, light adaptation, photosynthesis, leaf expansion, fiber production, secondary growth or wood production, amongst others; responses of a plant to externally-applied factors such as metals, chemicals, hormones, growth factors, environment and environmental stress factors (e.g. anoxia, hypoxia, high temperature, low temperature, dehydration, light, day length, flooding, salt, heavy metals, amongst others), including adaptive responses of plants to said externally-applied factors. Particular plant physiology characteristics which are altered according to the methods of the present invention encompass altered storage lipid mobilization, photosynthesis, transcription regulation and signal transduction.
 Characteristics related to "plant biochemistry" are to be understood by those skilled in the art to refer to the metabolic characteristics. "Metabolism" as used in the present invention is interchangeable with biochemistry. Metabolism and/or biochemistry encompass catalytic or assimilation or other metabolic processes of a plant, including primary and secondary metabolism and the products thereof, including any element, small molecules, macromolecules or chemical compounds, such as but not limited to starches, sugars, proteins, peptides, enzymes, hormones, growth factors, nucleic acid molecules, celluloses, hemicelluloses, calloses, lectins, fibres, pigments such as anthocyanins, vitamins, minerals, micronutrients, or macronutrients, that are produced by plants. Preferably, the methods of the present invention are used to change the nitrogen or carbon metabolism.
 As shown in Tables 1 and 2, several of the E2Fa-DPa target genes identified have an E2F recognition sequence in their promoter and most of these genes are involved in DNA replication. Therefore, provided by a particular embodiment of the present invention is a method as described above to influence DNA synthesis and DNA replication. The secondary induced genes, which are the genes not having the E2F target consensus sequence in their promoter region, encode proteins involved in cell wall biosynthesis, transcription, signal transduction, or have an unknown function. Surprisingly, a large number of metabolic genes were modified as well, mainly genes involved in nitrate assimilation or metabolism and carbon metabolism.
 The putative direct E2Fa-DPa target genes as identified by the presence of an E2F-DP-binding site, mainly belong to the group of genes involved in DNA synthesis, whereas the secondary induced genes are mainly linked to nitrogen assimilation and carbohydrate metabolism. Therefore, it is elucidated by the present invention that enhanced levels of E2Fa-DPa in plants have an impact on expression levels of genes involved in nitrogen assimilation and/or carbon metabolism. The experimental data suggest that in E2Fa/DPa overexpressing plants there is a drain of nitrogen to the nucleotide synthesis pathway causing a decreased synthesis of other nitrogen compounds such as amino acids and storage proteins. Corresponding to these findings, the inventors found that the level of endoreduplication of E2Fa-DPa transgenic plants depends on the amount of nitrogen available in the medium. Also, these data suggest that the growth arrest observed upon E2Fa/DPa expression results at least from a nitrogen drain to the nucleotide synthesis pathway, causing a decreased synthesis of other nitrogen components, such as amino acids and storage components.
 As purine and pyrimidine bases are nitrogen-rich, the induction of nitrogen assimilation genes in the E2Fa-DPa transgenic plants is a mechanism to supply enough nitrogen for nucleotide biosynthesis. Most likely this drain of nitrogen from essential biosynthetic pathways to the nucleotide biosynthesis pathway has its effects on many aspects of plant metabolism, as can be seen from the reduction of expression of vegetative storage protein genes and genes involved in amino-acid biosynthesis.
 Therefore a particular aspect of the invention is the use of genes involved in carbon and/or nitrogen metabolism or allocation, for altering nitrogen and carbon metabolism and/or to alter the balance between carbon and nitrogen or to reallocate carbon and/or nitrogen or to alter the composition of components containing carbon and nitrogen. The elucidation of genes that are able to shift the nitrogen assimilation from one biological process to another biological process is important for many applications. These genes can for example be used to alter the nitrogen composition of nitrogen-containing compounds in a cell, such as nicotinamide-containing molecules, amino acid, nucleic acid, chlorophyll or any other metabolites. Also within the scope of the present inventions are these altered components obtainable by the methods of the present invention, with altered balance between carbon and nitrogen.
 Therefore, according to the present invention, there is provided a method as described above, wherein said altered metabolism comprises altered nitrogen and/or carbon metabolism.
 In a particular embodiment, said carbon metabolism comprises the processes of carbon fixation, photosynthesis and photorespiration. In another embodiment, said nitrogen metabolism comprises nitrogen fixation or the reallocation of nitrogen residues from the pool of amino acids into the pool of nucleic acids or vice versa.
 Microarray analysis of E2Fa-DPa overexpressing lines, as herein described, identified a cross-talking matrix between DNA replication, nitrogen assimilation and photosynthesis. It has been described previously that there is a link between carbon:nitrogen availability and growth, storage lipid mobilization and photosynthesis (Martin T. (2002)). Therefore according to the present invention there is provided, a method as described above, wherein said altered plant characteristic comprises altered storage lipid mobilization and/or photosynthesis.
 The microarray studies elucidated for the first time particular genes that are upregulated and particular genes that are downregulated in a plant cell overexpressing E2Fa/DPa, many of which were of unknown function. It is now disclosed how to use these genes and/or proteins for altering plant characteristics.
 According to a preferred embodiment, recombinant means are used to alter plant characteristics. More preferably, one or more of the genes essentially similar to any of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755 is introduced into a plant as a transgene. Accordingly, the present invention provides a recombinant nucleic acid comprising:
(a) one or more nucleic acid sequences essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755; optionally operably linked to (b) a regulatory sequence; and optionally operably linked to (c) a transcription termination sequence.
 This recombinant nucleic acid is suitable for altering plant growth characteristics.
 Constructs useful in the methods according to the present invention may be constructed using recombinant DNA technology well known to persons skilled in the art. The gene constructs may be inserted into vectors, which may be commercially available, suitable for transforming into plants and suitable for expression of the gene of interest in the transformed cells.
 The genetic construct can be an expression vector wherein said nucleic acid sequence is operably linked to one or more control sequences allowing expression in prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic host cells.
 The methods according to the present invention may also be practised by introducing into a plant at least a part of a (natural or artificial) chromosome (such as a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC)), which chromosome contains at least a gene/nucleic acid according to the present invention, optionally together with one or more related gene family members or genes belonging to the same functional group as for example the functional groups presented in Table 1 or 2. Therefore, according to a further aspect of the present invention, there is provided a method to alter plant characteristics, comprising introduction into a plant at least a part of a chromosome comprising at least a gene/nucleic, which gene/nucleic is essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755.
 In a particular embodiment of the present invention said regulatory sequence is a plant-expressible promoter. In a further embodiment of the invention the promoter is a constitutive promoter, such as the GOS2 promoter, the ubiquitin promoter, the actin promoter. In another embodiment of the invention the promoter is a promoter active in the meristem or in dividing cells, such as, but not limited to the cdc2 promoter, RNR promoter, MCM3 promoter. Alternatively, the regulatory element as mentioned above can be a translational enhancer, or a transcriptional enhancer that is used to enhance expression of a gene according to the present invention.
 The term "Regulatory sequence" refers to control DNA sequences, which are necessary to affect expression of coding sequences to which they are operably linked. The nature of such control sequences differs depending upon the host organism. In prokaryotes, control sequences generally include promoters, ribosomal binding sites, and terminators. In eukaryotes generally control sequences include promoters, terminators and enhancers or silencers. The term "control sequence" is intended to include, at a minimum, all components the presence of which are necessary for expression, and may also include additional advantageous components and which determines when, how much and where a specific gene is expressed. Reference herein to a "promoter" is to be taken in its broadest context and includes the transcriptional regulatory sequences derived from a classical eukaryotic genomic gene, including the TATA box which is required for accurate transcription initiation, with or without a CCAAT box sequence and additional regulatory elements (i.e. upstream activating sequences, enhancers and silencers) which alter gene expression in response to developmental and/or external stimuli, or in a tissue-specific manner. The term "promoter" also includes the transcriptional regulatory sequences of a classical prokaryotic gene, in which case it may include a -35 box sequence and/or a -10 box transcriptional regulatory sequences.
 The term "promoter" is also used to describe a synthetic or fusion molecule or derivative, which confers; activates or enhances expression of a nucleic acid molecule in a cell, tissue or organ. "Promoter" is a DNA sequence generally described as the 5'-region of a gene, located proximal to the start codon. The transcription of an adjacent DNA segment is initiated at the promoter region. In the context of the present invention, the promoter preferably is a plant-expressible promoter sequence. Promoters, however, that also function or solely function in non-plant cells such as bacteria, yeast cells, insect cells and animal cells are not excluded from the invention. By "plant-expressible" is meant that the promoter sequence, including any additional regulatory elements added thereto or contained therein, is at least capable of inducing, conferring, activating or enhancing expression in a plant cell, tissue or organ, preferably a monocotyledonous or dicotyledonous plant cell, tissue, or organ.
 Preferably, the nucleic acid sequence capable of modulating expression of a gene encoding an E2F target protein is operably linked to a constitutive promoter or a tissue specific promoter. The term "constitutive" as defined herein refers to a promoter that is active predominantly in at least one tissue or organ and predominantly at any life stage of the plant. Preferably the promoter is active predominantly but not exclusively throughout the plant
 Additionally and/or alternatively, the nucleic acid of the present invention may be operably linked to a tissue-specific promoter. The term "tissue-specific" promoter as defined herein refers to a promoter that is active predominantly but not exclusively in at least one tissue or organ.
 Examples of preferred promoters useful for the methods of the present invention are presented in Table I, II, III and IV.
TABLE-US-00001 TABLE I Exemplary constitutive promoters for use in the performance of the present invention EXPRESSION GENE SOURCE PATTERN REFERENCE Actin constitutive McElroy et al, Plant Cell, 2: 163-171, 1990 CAMV 35S constitutive Odell et al, Nature, 313: 810-812, 1985 CaMV 19S constitutive Nilsson et al., Physiol. Plant. 100: 456-462, 1997 GOS2 constitutive de Pater et al, Plant J Nov; 2(6): 837-44, 1992 ubiquitin constitutive Christensen et al, Plant Mol. Biol. 18: 675-689, 1992 rice cyclophilin constitutive Buchholz et al, Plant Mol Biol. 25(5): 837-43, 1994 maize H3 histone constitutive Lepetit et al, Mol. Gen. Genet. 231: 276-285, 1992 actin 2 constitutive An et al, Plant J. 10(1); 107-121, 1996
TABLE-US-00002 TABLE II Exemplary seed-preferred promoters for use in the performance of the present invention EXPRESSION GENE SOURCE PATTERN REFERENCE seed-specific genes seed Simon, et al., Plant Mol. Biol. 5: 191, 1985; Scofield, et al., J. Biol. Chem. 262: 12202, 1987.; Baszczynski, et al., Plant Mol. Biol. 14: 633, 1990. Brazil Nut albumin seed Pearson, et al., Plant Mol. Biol. 18: 235-245, 1992. legumin seed Ellis, et al., Plant Mol. Biol. 10: 203-214, 1988. glutelin (rice) seed Takaiwa, et al., Mol. Gen. Genet. 208: 15-22, 1986; Takaiwa, et al., FEBS Letts. 221: 43-47, 1987. zein seed Matzke et al Plant Mol Biol, 14(3): 323-32 1990 napA seed Stalberg, et al, Planta 199: 515-519, 1996. wheat LMW and HMW endosperm Mol Gen Genet 216: 81-90, 1989; NAR 17: 461-2, glutenin-1 1989 wheat SPA seed Albani et al, Plant Cell, 9: 171-184, 1997 wheat a, b and g- endosperm EMBO 3: 1409-15, 1984 gliadins barley ltr1 promoter endosperm barley B1, C, D, endosperm Theor Appl Gen 98: 1253-62, 1999; Plant J 4: 343-55, hordein 1993; Mol Gen Genet 250: 750-60, 1996 barley DOF endosperm Mena et al, The Plant Journal, 116(1): 53-62, 1998 blz2 endosperm EP99106056.7 synthetic promoter endosperm Vicente-Carbajosa et al., Plant J. 13: 629-640, 1998. rice prolamin NRP33 endosperm Wu et al, Plant Cell Physiology 39(8) 885-889, 1998 rice-globulin Glb-1 endosperm Wu et al, Plant Cell Physiology 39(8) 885-889, 1998 rice OSH1 embryo Sato et al, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 93: 8117-8122, 1996 rice alpha-globulin endosperm Nakase et al. Plant Mol. Biol. 33: 513-522, 1997 REB/OHP-1 rice ADP-glucose PP endosperm Trans Res 6: 157-68, 1997 maize ESR gene endosperm Plant J 12: 235-46, 1997 family sorgum gamma-kafirin endosperm PMB 32: 1029-35, 1996 KNOX embryo Postma-Haarsma et al, Plant Mol. Biol. 39: 257-71, 1999 rice oleosin embryo and Wu et at, J. Biochem., 123: 386, 1998 aleuron sunflower oleosin seed (embryo Cummins, et al., Plant Mol. Biol. 19: 873-876, 1992 and dry seed)
TABLE-US-00003 TABLE III Exemplary flower-specific promoters for use in the performance of the invention Gene Expression source pattern REFERENCE AtPRP4 flowers URL: salus.medium.edu/mmg/tierney chalene flowers Van der Meer, et al., Plant Mol. Biol. 15, synthase 95-109,1990. (chsA) LAT52 anther Twell et al Mol. Gen Genet. 217: 240-245 (1989) apetala-3 flowers
TABLE-US-00004 TABLE IV Alternative rice promoters for use in the performance of the invention PRO # gene expression PRO0001 Metallothionein Mte transfer layer of embryo + calli PRO0005 putative beta-amylase transfer layer of embryo PRO0009 putative cellulose synthase weak in roots PRO0012 lipase (putative) PRO0014 transferase (putative) PRO0016 peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase (putative) PRO0019 unknown PRO0020 prp protein (putative) PRO0029 noduline (putative) PRO0058 proteinase inhibitor Rgpi9 seed PRO0061 beta expansine EXPB9 weak in young flowers PRO0063 structural protein young tissues + calli + embryo PRO0069 xylosidase (putative) PRO0075 prolamine 10 Kda strong in endosperm PRO0076 allergen RA2 strong in endosperm PRO0077 prolamine RP7 strong in endosperm PRO0078 CBP80 PRO0079 starch branching enzyme I PRO0080 Metallothioneine-like ML2 transfer layer of embryo + calli PRO0081 putative caffeoyl-CoA 3-O-methyltransferase shoot PRO0087 prolamine RM9 strong in endosperm PRO0090 prolamine RP6 strong endosperm PRO0091 prolamine RP5 strong in endosperm PRO0092 allergen RA5 PRO0095 putative methionine aminopeptidase embryo PRO0098 ras-related GTP binding protein PRO0104 beta expansine EXPB1 PRO0105 Glycine rich protein PRO0108 metallothionein like protein (putative) PRO0109 metallothioneine (putative) PRO0110 RCc3 strong root PRO0111 uclacyanin 3-like protein weak discrimination center/ shoot meristem PRO0116 26S proteasome regulatory particle non-ATPase very weak meristem specific subunit 11 PRO0117 putative 40S ribosomal protein weak in endosperm PRO0122 chlorophyll a/b-binding protein precursor (Cab27) very weak in shoot PRO0123 putative protochlorophyllide reductase strong leaves PRO0126 metallothionein RiCMT strong discrimination center/ shoot meristem PRO0129 GOS2 strong constitutive PRO0131 GOS9 PRO0133 chitinase Cht-3 very weak meristem specific PRO0135 alpha-globulin strong in endosperm PRO0136 alanine aminotransferase weak in endosperm PRO0138 cyclin A2 PRO0139 Cyclin D2 PRO0140 Cyclin D3 PRO0141 cyclophyllin 2 shoot and seed PRO0146 sucrose synthase SS1 (barley) medium constitutive PRO0147 trypsin inhibitor ITR1 (barley) weak in endosperm PRO0149 ubiquitine 2 with intron strong constitutive PRO0151 WSI18 embryo + stress PRO0156 HVA22 homologue (putative) PRO0157 EL2 PRO0169 aquaporine medium constitutive in young plants PRO0170 High mobility group protein strong constitutive PRO0171 reversibly glycosylated protein RGP1 weak constitutive PRO0173 cytosolic MDH shoot PRO0175 RAB21 embryo + stress PRO0176 CDPK7 PRO0177 Cdc2-1 very weak in meristem PRO0197 sucrose synthase 3 PRO0198 OsVP1 PRO0200 OSH1 very weak in young plant meristem PRO0208 putative chlorophyllase PRO0210 OsNRT1 PRO0211 EXP3 PRO0216 phosphate transporter OjPT1 PRO0218 oleosin 18 kd aleurone + embryo PRO0219 ubiquitine 2 without intron PRO0220 RFL PRO0221 maize UBI delta intron not detected PRO0223 glutelin-1 PRO0224 fragment of prolamin RP6 promoter PRO0225 4xABRE PRO0226 glutelin OSGLUA3 PRO0227 BLZ-2_short (barley) PRO0228 BLZ-2_long (barley)
 Optionally, one or more terminator sequences may also be used in the construct introduced into a plant. The term "terminator" encompasses a control sequence which is a DNA sequence at the end of a transcriptional unit which signals 3' processing and polyadenylation of a primary transcript and termination of transcription. Additional regulatory elements may include transcriptional as well as translational enhancers. Those skilled in the art will be aware of terminator and enhancer sequences, which may be suitable for use in performing the invention. Such sequences would be known or may readily be obtained by a person skilled in the art.
 The genetic constructs of the invention may further include an origin of replication sequence which is required for maintenance and/or replication in a specific cell type. One example is when a genetic construct is required to be maintained in a bacterial cell as an episomal genetic element (e.g. plasmid or cosmid molecule). Preferred origins of replication include, but are not limited to, the f1-ori and colE1.
 The genetic construct may optionally comprise a selectable marker gene. As used herein, the term "selectable marker gene" includes any gene, which confers a phenotype on a cell in which it is expressed to facilitate the identification and/or selection of cells which are transfected or transformed with a nucleic acid construct of the invention. Suitable markers may be selected from markers that confer antibiotic or herbicide resistance, that introduce a new metabolic trait or that allow visual selection. Examples of selectable marker genes include genes conferring resistance to antibiotics (such as nptII encoding neomycin phosphotransferase capable of phosphorylating neomycin and kanamycin, or hpt encoding hygromycin phosphotransferase capable of phosphorylating hygromycin), to herbicides (for example bar which provides resistance to Basta; aroA or gox providing resistance against glyphosate), or genes that provide a metabolic trait (such as manA that allows plants to use mannose as sole carbon source). Visual marker genes result in the formation of colour (for example beta-glucuronidase, GUS), luminescence (such as luciferase) or fluorescence (Green Fluorescent Protein, GFP, and derivatives thereof). Further examples of suitable selectable marker genes include the ampicillin resistance (Ampr), tetracycline resistance gene (Tcr), bacterial kanamycin resistance gene (Kanr), phosphinothricin resistance gene, and the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene, amongst others
 The methods of the present invention are particularly relevant for applications in agriculture and horticulture, and serve to develop plants that have altered characteristics.
 Accordingly, another embodiment of the invention is a method for making a transgenic plant comprising the introduction of a recombinant nucleic acid as mentioned above into a plant. "A plant" as used herein means plant cell, plant part etc. as defined herein below.
 According to a preferred embodiment this method for the production of a transgenic plant further comprises the step of cultivating the plant cell under conditions promoting regeneration and mature plant growth.
 A further embodiment relates to a method as described above, comprising stably integrating into the genome of a plant a recombinant nucleic acid as mentioned above. Alternatively, the recombinant nucleic acids comprising the nucleic acids of the present invention are transiently introduced into a plant or plant cell. The protein itself and/or the nucleic acid itself may be introduced directly into a plant cell or into the plant itself (including introduction into a tissue, organ or any other part of the plant). According to a preferred feature of the present invention, the nucleic acid is preferably introduced into a plant by transformation.
 The term "transformation" as referred to herein encompasses the transfer of an exogenous polynucleotide into a host cell, irrespective of the method used for transfer. Plant tissue capable of subsequent clonal propagation, whether by organogenesis or embryogenesis, may be transformed with a genetic construct of the present invention and a whole plant regenerated therefrom. The particular tissue chosen will vary depending on the clonal propagation systems available for, and best suited to, the particular species being transformed. Exemplary tissue targets include leaf disks, pollen, embryos, cotyledons, hypocotyls, megagametophytes, callus tissue, existing meristematic tissue (e.g., apical meristem, axillary buds, and root meristems), and induced meristem tissue (e.g. cotyledon meristem and hypocotyl meristem). The polynucleotide may be transiently or stably introduced into a host cell and may be maintained non-integrated, for example, as a plasmid. Alternatively and preferably, the transgene may be stably integrated into the host genome. The resulting transformed plant cell can then be used to regenerate a transformed plant in a manner known to persons skilled in the art.
 Transformation of a plant species is now a fairly routine technique. Advantageously, any of several transformation methods may be used to introduce the gene of interest into a suitable ancestor cell. Transformation methods include the use of liposomes, electroporation, chemicals that increase free DNA uptake, injection of the DNA directly into the plant, particle gun bombardment, transformation using viruses or pollen and microprojection. Methods may be selected from the calcium/polyethylene glycol method for protoplasts (Krens et al., 1982; Negrutiu et al., 1987); electroporation of protoplasts (Shillito et al., 1985); microinjection into plant material (Crossway et al., 1986); DNA or RNA-coated particle bombardment (Klein et al., 1987) infection with (non-integrative) viruses and the like.
 Transgenic rice plants expressing a gene according to the present invention are preferably produced via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using any of the well known methods for rice transformation, such as described in any of the following: published European patent application EP 1198985 A1, Aldemita and Hodges (1996); Chan at al. (1993), Hiei at al. (1994), which disclosures are incorporated by reference herein as if fully set forth. In the case of corn transformation, the preferred method is as described in either Ishida et al. (1996) or Frame et al. (2002), which disclosures are incorporated by reference herein as if fully set forth.
 Generally after transformation, plant cells or cell groupings are selected for the presence of one or more markers which are encoded by plant-expressible genes co-transferred with the gene of interest, following which the transformed material is regenerated into a whole plant.
 Following DNA transfer and regeneration, putatively transformed plants may be evaluated, for instance using Southern analysis, for the presence of the gene of interest, copy number and/or genomic organisation. Alternatively or additionally, expression levels of the newly introduced DNA may be monitored using Northern and/or Western analysis, both techniques being well known to persons having ordinary skill in the art.
 The generated transformed plants may be propagated by a variety of means, such as by clonal propagation or classical breeding techniques. For example, a first generation (or T1) transformed plant may be selfed to give homozygous second generation (or T2) transformants, and the T2 plants further propagated through classical breeding techniques.
 The generated transformed organisms may take a variety of forms. For example, they may be chimeras of transformed cells and non-transformed cells; clonal transformants (e.g., all cells transformed to contain the expression cassette); grafts of transformed and untransformed tissues (e.g., in plants, a transformed rootstock grafted to an untransformed scion).
 The present invention also encompasses plants obtainable by the methods according to the present invention. The present invention provides plants having one or more altered characteristics, when compared to the wild-type plants, characterised in that the plant has modified expression of one or more nucleic acids and/or modified level and/or activity of a protein, wherein said nucleic acid and/or protein are essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755.
 In one embodiment of the present invention, such a plant is a transgenic plant. According to a further embodiment such transgenic plant comprises an isolated nucleic acid and/or protein sequence essentially similar to anyone for Seq Id NO 1 to 2755.
 Alternatively, according to one embodiment of the present invention, such a plant having one or more altered plant characteristics and having modified expression of one or more nucleic acids and/or modified level and/or activity of a protein, wherein said nucleic acid and/or protein are essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755, is created by breeding techniques.
 The present invention clearly extends to any plant cell or plant produced by any of the methods described herein, and to all plant parts and propagules thereof. The present invention extends further to encompass the progeny of a primary transformed or transfected cell, tissue, organ or whole plant that has been produced by any of the aforementioned methods, the only requirement being that progeny exhibit the same genotypic and/or phenotypic characteristic(s) as those produced in the parent by the methods according to the invention. The invention accordingly also includes host cells containing an isolated nucleic acid molecule encoding a protein essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755. Such host cell may be selected from plants, bacteria, animals, algae, fungi, yeast or insects. Preferred host cells according to the invention are plant cells. The invention also extends to harvestable parts of a plant such as but not limited to seeds, leaves, fruits, flowers, stem cultures, stem, rhizomes, roots, tubers and bulbs.
 The term "plant" as used herein encompasses whole plants, ancestors and progeny of the plants and plant parts, including seeds, shoots, stems, roots (including tubers), and plant cells, tissues and organs. The term "plant" also therefore encompasses suspension cultures, embryos, meristematic regions, callus tissue, leaves, gametophytes, sporophytes, pollen, and microspores. Plants that are particularly useful in the methods of the invention include all plants which belong to the superfamily Viridiplantae, in particular monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants including a fodder or forage legume, ornamental plant, food crop, tree, or shrub selected from the list comprising Acacia spp., Acer spp., Actinidia spp., Aesculus spp., Agathis australls, Albizia amara, Alsophila tricolor, Andropogon spp., Arachis spp, Areca catechu, Astelia fragrans, Astragalus cicer, Baikiaea plurijuga, Betula spp., Brassica spp., Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Burkea africana, Butea frondosa, Cadaba farinosa, Calliandra spp, Camellia sinensis, Canna indica, Capsicum spp., Cassia spp., Centroema pubescens, Chaenomeles spp., Cinnamomum cassia, Coffea arabica, Colophospermum mopane, Coronillia varia, Cotoneaster serotina, Crataegui spp., Cucumis spp., Cupressus spp., Cyathea dealbata, Cydonia oblonga, Cryptomeria japonica, Cymbopogon spp., Cyathea dealbata, Cydonia oblonga, Dalbergia monetaria, Davallia divaricata, Desmodium spp., Dicksonia squarosa, Diheteropogon amplectens, Dioclea spp, Dolichos spp., Dorycnium rectum, Echinochloa pyramidalis, Ehrartia spp., Eleusine coracana, Eragrestis spp., Erythrina spp., Eucalyptus spp., Euclea schimperi, Eulalia villose, Fagopyrum spp., Feijoa sellowiana, Fragaria spp., Flemingia spp, Freycinetia banksii, Geranium thunbergii, Ginkgo biloba, Glycine javanica, Gliricidia spp, Gossypium hirsutum, Grevillea spp., Guibourtia coleosperma, Hedysarum spp., Hemarthia altissima, Heteropogon contortus, Hordeum vulgare, Hyparrhenia rufa, Hypericum erectum, Hyperthelia dissolute, Indigo incamata, Iris spp., Leptarrhena pyrolifolia, Lespediza spp., Lettuca spp., Leucaena leucocephala, Loudetia simplex, Lotonus bainesii, Lotus spp., Macrotyloma axillare, Malus spp., Manihot esculenta, Medicago sativa, Metasequoia glyptostroboides, Musa sapientum, Nicotianum spp., Onobrychis spp., Ornithopus spp., Oryza spp., Peltophorum africanum, Pennisetum spp., Persea gratissima, Petunia spp., Phaseolus spp., Phoenix canariensis, Phormium cookianum, Photinia spp., Picea glauca, Pinus spp., Pisum sativum, Podocarpus totara, Pogonarthria fleckii, Pogonarthria squarrosa, Populus spp., Prosopis cineraria, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Pterolobium stellatum, Pyrus communis, Quercus spp., Rhaphiolepsis umbellata, Rhopalostylis sapida, Rhus natalensis, Ribes grossularia, Ribes spp., Robinia pseudoacacia, Rosa spp., Rubus spp., Salix spp., Schyzachyrium sanguineum, Sciadopitys verticillata, Sequoia sempervirens, Sequoiadendron giganteum, Sorghum bicolor, Spinacia spp., Sporobolus fimbriatus, Stiburus alopecuroides, Stylosanthos humilis, Tadehagi spp, Taxodium distichum, Themeda triandra, Trifolium spp., Triticum spp., Tsuga heterophylla, Vaccinium spp., Vicia spp., Vitis vinifera, Watsonia pyramidata, Zantedeschia aethiopica, Zea mays, amaranth, artichoke, asparagus, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, canola, carrot, cauliflower, celery, collard greens, flax, kale, lentil, oilseed rape, okra, onion, potato, rice, soybean, straw, sugar beet, sugar cane, sunflower, tomato, squash tea, trees. Alternatively algae and other non-Viridiplantae can be used for the methods of the present invention. Preferably the plant according to the present invention is a crop plant selected from rice, maize, wheat, barley, soybean, sunflower, canola, sugarcane, alfalfa, millet, leguminosae (bean, pea), flax, lupinus, rapeseed, tobacco, popular and cotton. Further preferably, the plant according to the present invention is a monocotyledonous plant, most preferably a cereal.
 The term `gene(s)` or `nucleic acid`, `nucleotide sequence`, as used herein refers to a polymeric form of a deoxyribonucleotides or ribonucleotide polymer of any length, either double- or single-stranded, or analogs thereof, that have the essential characteristics of a natural ribonucleotide in that they can hybridize to nucleic acids in a manner similar to naturally occurring polynucleotides. A great variety of modifications have been made to DNA and RNA that serve many useful purposes known to those skilled in the art. For example, methylation, `caps` and substitution of one or more of the naturally occurring nucleotides with an analog. Said terms also include peptide nucleic acids. The term "polynucleotide" as used herein includes such chemically, enzymatyically or metabolically modified forms of polynucleotides.
 With "recombinant nucleic acid" is meant a nucleic acid produced by joining pieces of DNA from different sources through deliberate human manipulation.
 The inventors identified genes that are upregulated in plants overexpressing E2Fa/DPa. These genes can be used to simulate E2Fa/DPa related effect in a plant.
 Therefore, according to the invention, there is provided a method to alter characteristics of a plant, comprising overexpression of one or more nucleic acids essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755, or wherein the method comprises enhancing the level and/or activity of one or more proteins essentially similar to a protein sequence essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755.
 Also identified were genes that are downregulated in plants overexpressing E2Fa/DPa. These genes can be used to simulate E2Fa/DPa related effect in a plant. Therefore, according to the invention, there is provided a method to alter plant growth characteristics, comprising downregulation of expression of one or more nucleic acids essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755, or wherein the method comprises decreasing level and/or activity of one or more proteins essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755.
 Genetic constructs aimed at silencing gene expression may comprise the nucleotide sequence essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755 or one at least a portion thereof in a sense and/or antisense orientation relative to the promoter sequence. Preferably the portions comprises at least 21 contiguous nucleic acid of a sequence to be downregulated. Also, sense or antisense copies of at least part of the endogenous gene in the form of direct or inverted repeats may be utilized in the methods according to the invention. The characteristics of plants may also be changed by introducing into a plant at least part of an antisense version of the nucleotide sequence essentially similar to any one or more of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755. It should be clear that part of the nucleic acid (a portion) could also achieve the desired result. Homologous anti-sense genes are preferred, homologous genes being plant genes, preferably plant genes from the same plant species in which the silencing construct is introduced.
 Detailed analysis of the promoters of the genes identified in the present invention allowed the identification of novel E2Fa/DPa target genes that are under the direct control of E2Fa/DPa and that are mainly involved in DNA replication. For all the genes identified in the present invention, reference is made to the MIPS database MATDB accession number. This unique identification number refers to the deposit of information related to the gene in question, e.g. the unspliced sequence, the spliced sequence, the protein sequence, the domains of the protein etc. An example of the information deposited under the accession number At1g57680 is shown in FIG. 4. Based on this unique accession number, a person skilled in the art would be able to locate the gene provided by the present invention in its genomic environment. From this information one can identify and isolate the upstream control elements of these genes. Especially interesting are the promoters of these genes as control elements for driving or regulating transcription of heterologous genes. Therefore, according to the invention is provided an isolated nucleic acid comprising one or more of the regulatory elements upstream of the startcodon of the nucleic acids essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755. Furthermore, the invention provides an isolated nucleic acid as mentioned above, wherein said regulatory element is the promoter of said the genes essentially similar to any one of the sequence presented in SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755.
 Further the invention also relates to the use of a nucleic acid sequence or protein essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755, for altering plant characteristics.
 Another method for altering plant characteristics and/or growth characteristics of a plant resides in the use of allelic variants of the genes of the present invention. Allelic variants exist in nature and encompassed within the methods of the present invention is the use of these natural alleles. Alternatively, in particular breeding programs, such as for example marker assisted breeding, or conventional breeding programmes, it is sometimes practical to introduce allelic variation in the plants by mutagenic treatment of a plant. One suitable mutagenic method is EMS mutagenesis. Identification of allelic variants then takes place by, for example, PCR. This is followed by a selection step for selection of superior allelic variants of the sequence in question and which give rise to altered growth characteristics. Selection is typically carried out by monitoring growth performance of plants containing different allelic variants of the sequence in question. Monitoring growth performance can be done in a greenhouse or in the field. Further optional steps include crossing plants in which the superior allelic variant was identified with another plant. This could be used, for example, to make a combination of interesting phenotypic features.
 According to another aspect of the present invention, advantage may be taken of the nucleic acid sequence of the present invention in breeding programs. In such a program, a DNA marker may be identified which is genetically linked to the nucleic acid of the present invention. This DNA marker is then used in breeding programs to select plants having altered growth characteristics. Therefore, the present invention also encompass the use of a nucleic acid sequence essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755, for marker assisted breeding of plants with altered characteristics.
 These marker assisted breeding processes may further involve the steps of crossing plants and using probes or primers having part, for example having at least 10 bp, of a sequence corresponding to any of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755, to detect the DNA sequence corresponding to SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755, in the progeny of the cross.
 These methods for marker assisted breeding also may involve the use of an isolated DNA molecule being essentially similar to SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755 or a part thereof as a marker in techniques like AFLP, RFLP, RAPD, or in the detection of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms.
 Further these methods for marker assisted breeding also may involve determining the presence or absence in a plant genome of a qualitative trait or a quantitative trait locus (QTL) linked to a transgene essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755 or to an endogenous homologue of any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755, which method comprises:
(a) detecting a molecular marker linked to a QTL, wherein the molecular marker comprises a sequence essentially similar to SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755 or an endogenous homologue thereof; and (b) determining the presence of said QTL as by detection of the molecular marker of step (a) or determining the absence of said QTL as failure to detect the molecular marker of step (a)
 Alternatively, methods for marker assisted breeding may involve detecting the presence of a quantitative trait locus linked to a DNA sequence essentially similar to SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755 or to an endogenous homologue thereof in the genome of a plant. The methods described above may involve the steps of:
(a) extracting a DNA sample of said plant; (b) contacting the DNA sample with a probe that hybridises to a DNA sequence according to claim 1 or to an endogenous homologue thereof, or to the complement thereof; (c) performing a hybridisation reaction under conditions suitable for hybridisation of the probe to the DNA sample of (b); and (d) detecting the hybridisation of the probe to the DNA.
 Further, the present invention also encompass the use of a nucleic acid sequence essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755, for conventional breeding of plants with altered characteristics.
 In conventional breeding programs, the nucleic acid essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755 is used to select plants with better plant characteristics compared to the normal wild-type plants. The plants with better growth characteristics may originated from natural variation in the alleles of the gene corresponding to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755, or may originated from manmade variation in these genes, for example variation created by EMS mutagenesis or other methods to created single nucleotide polymorfisms.
 Further the invention also relates to the use of a nucleic acid or a protein essentially similar any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755, as a growth regulator.
 In a particular embodiment such a growth regulator is a herbicide or is a growth stimulator. The present invention therefore also provides a growth regulating composition comprising a nucleic acid and/or a protein essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755. The growth regulating compositions according to the present invention can additionally comprise any additive usually present in growth regulating compositions such as growth inhibitors, herbicides or growth stimulators. Also a kit comprising a sequence essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755 (for example in the form of a herbicide) is in the scope of the present invention. Also any other plant effective agent comprising the sequences according to the present invention are provided herein. Methods to produce the compositions, kits or plant agents as mentioned above are also provided by the present invention and involve the production of any one or more of the sequences essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755. Such sequences and methods are herein provided.
 Further, plants of the present invention have improved characteristics, such as improved growth and yield, which makes these plant suitable to produce industrial proteins.
 Accordingly, the present invention provides a method for the production of enzymes and/or pharmaceuticals, which method comprises modifying expression of a nucleic acid, and/or modifying level and/or activity of a protein, said nucleic acid and/or protein being essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755
 The present invention therefore also encompasses the use of plants as described above, for the production of (industrial) enzymes and/or pharmaceuticals. The (Industrial) enzymes and pharmaceuticals produced according to the method as described above are also encompasses by the present invention.
 Also the invention as presented herein offers means to alter the characteristics not only of plants, but also of other organisms, such as mammals. The plant genes of the present invention, or their homologues, or the plant proteins or their homologues, can be used as therapeutics or can be used to develop therapeutics for both humans and animals. Accordingly, the present invention relates to a nucleic acid or a protein essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755, for use as a therapeutic agent.
 In a particular embodiment, the use as a therapeutic agents encompasses the use in gene therapy, or the use to manufacture medicaments such as for example therapeutic protein samples. Also the nucleic acids and/or proteins according to the present invention can be applied in diagnostic methods.
 Accordingly provided by the present invention is the use of a nucleic acid or a protein essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755, for use as a therapeutic agent, a diagnostic means, a kit or plant effective agent.
 Further encompassed by the invention are therapeutic or diagnostic compositions or kits or plant effective agent, comprising a nucleic acid and/or a protein essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755. These compositions may comprise other additives usually applied for therapeutic compositions. Methods to produce these therapeutic or diagnostic compositions or kts are also provided by the present invention and involve the production of any of the sequences essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755.
 The plants according to the present invention have altered characteristics, such as for example improved growth and yield, which makes them suitable sources for many agricultural applications and the food industry. Accordingly, provided by the present invention there is a food product derived from a plant or host cell as described above and also the use of such a food product in animal feed or food.
 In molecular biology it is standard practice to select upon transfection or transformation those individuals (or groups of individuals, such as bacterial or yeast colonies or phage plaques or eukaryotic cell clones) that are effectively transfected or transformed with the desired genetic construct. Typically these selection procedures are based on the presence of a selectable or screenable marker in the transfected genetic construct, to distinguish the positive individuals easily from the negative individuals. The nucleic acids and proteins according to the present invention are capable of altering the characteristics of the host cells to which they are applied. Therefore, the nucleic acids and/or proteins according to the present invention can also be used as selectable markers, screenable markers or selection agents. According to one particular embodiment, the present invention provides the use of a nucleic acid or a protein essentially similar to any one of SEQ ID NO 1 to 2755 as a positive or negative selectable marker during transformation of plant cell, plant tissue or plant procedures.
DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES
 FIG. 1: Volcano plot of significance against effect. Each x represent one of the 4579 genes, with the negative log 10 of the P value from the gene model plotted against the difference between least-square means for the genotype effect. The horizontal line represents the test-wise threshold of P=0.05. The two vertical reference lines indicate a 2-fold cutoff for either repression or induction.
 FIG. 2: Sources of alpha-ketoglutarate and other metabolites in plants, with annotation of up and downregulated genes in the E2Fa-DPa overproducing cells. Upregulated enzymes are underlined with a dashed line and enzymes underlined with a full line are downregulated in the E2Fa-DPa versus wild type plants. Products that are boxed act as precursors for nucleotide biosynthesis. A-KG, alphα-ketoglutarate; GOGAT, glutamate synthetase; NIA2, nitrate reductase, NiR, nitrite reductase.
 FIG. 3: Endoreduplication levels in wild type and E2Fa/DPa transgenic lines in relation to nitrogen availability. Wild type (A) and transgenic (B) lines were grown on minimal medium in the presence of 0.1, 1, 10, or 50 mM ammonium nitrate. Values are means of three independent measurements.
 FIG. 4: Represents the information which is deposited in the MatDB (MIPS Arabidopsis database) under accession number At1g57680
 FIG. 5: Verification of microarray analysis by RT-PCR. RT-PCR analysis was carried out under linear amplification conditions. The actin 2 gene (ACT2) was used as loading control. GS, glutamine synthetase; GOGAT, glutamate synthase; NiR, nitrite reductase.
 FIG. 6: NMR spectrum of E2Fa/DPa overexpressing plant cells.
 Table 1: Presentation of Arabidopsis genes that are 2 fold or more upregulated in E2Fa-DPa overexpressing plants. The genes are presented according to the functional category to which they belong. For some of the genes, no function has been described in the public databases and they are named unknown, putative or hypothetical protein. All the genes have each a unique MIPS accession number, which refers to the identification of the sequence in the MatDB (MIPS Arabidopsis thaliana database). The MIPS accession number refers to the protein entry code for the MatDB of MIPS. Also, there is an accession number provided as an internal protein code. The fold of induction is also given for each sequence. Furthermore, where an E2F target sequence has been identified in the upstream region of the gene, the sequence of that site is also presented in the Table. Finally, other plant homologues which have substantial sequence identity with the Arabidopsis gene are mentioned in this Table.
 Table 2: Presentation of Arabidopsis genes that are 2 fold or more repressed in E2Fa-DPa overexpressing plants. Data are presented in a similar way as for Table 1, as explained above.
 Table 3: Different E2F target sequences and the frequency of their presence in the upstream regions of the Arabidopsis genes described in the present invention.
 Table 4: Selection of the Arabidopsis genes from the microarray that were 1.3 times upregulated in E2Fa/DPa overexpressing plants, compared to the wild-type plants. The gene name is given, as well as the MIPS database accession number and a ratio indicating the degree of upregulation of the gene. Furthermore, the E-value indicates if a significant homologue has been found in the public databases.
 Table 5: Selection of the Arabidopsis genes from the microarray that were 1.3 times repressed in E2Fa/DPa overexpressing plants, compared to the wild-type plants. The data are presented as in Table 4. The fold repression is calculated as 1/ratio. In this Table only the genes that have a ratio of less than 0.77 are selected.
 Table 6: genes selected for Arabidopsis transformation
 Table 7: genes selected for rice transformation
Overexpression of E2Fa and DPa in Arabidopsis
 Double transgenic CaMV35S-E2Fa-DPa overexpressing plants were obtained by the crossing of homozygous CaMV35S-E2Fa and CaMV35S-DPa plants (De Veylder et al., 2002). Double transformants were grown under a 16 h light/8 h dark photoperiod at 22° C. on germination medium (Valvekens et al., 1988).
Selection of Transgenic Lines
 Arabidopsis thaliana plants were generated that contained either the E2Fa or the DPa gene under the control of the constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter.
Crossing Experiments of Overexpressing E2Fa and DPa Lines
 Plants homozygous for the CaMV 35S E2Fa gene were crossed with heterozygous CaMV 35S DPa lines. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis on individual plants confirmed which plants contained both the CaMV 35S-E2Fa and CaMV 35S-DPa constructs.
 8 days after sowing, these plants were used to isolate total RNA, from which cDNA was synthesized and subsequently hybridized to a microarray containing 4579 unique Arabidopsis ESTs. These experimental steps are described in the following examples.
Construction of Microarrays
Construction of Microarrays
 The Arabidopsis thaliana microarray consisted of 4,608 cDNA fragments spotted in duplicate, distant from each other, on Type V silane coated slides (Amersham BioSciences, Buckinghamshire, UK). The clone set included 4,579 Arabidopsis genes composed from the unigen clone collection from Incyte (Arabidopsis Gem I, Incyte, USA). To retrieve the functional annotation of the genes relating to the spotted ESTs, BLASTN against genomic sequences was performed. To make the analysis easier a collection of genomic sequences bearing only one gene was built according to the available annotations. Each of those sequences had its upstream intergenic sequence followed by the exon-intron structure of the gene and the downstream intergenic sequence, intergenic being the whole genomic sequence between start and stop codons from neighboring protein-encoding genes. From the BLASTN output the best hits were extracted and submitted to a BLASTX search against protein databases. To retrieve even more detailed information concerning the potential function of the genes, protein domains were searched using ProDom. The complete data set can be found on the website URL: psb.rug.ac.be/E2F and is cited herein by reference. The cDNA inserts were PCR amplified using M13 primers, purified with MultiScreen-PCR plate (cat: MANU03050, Millipore, Belgium) and arrayed on the slides using a Molecular Dynamics Generation III printer (Amersham BioSciences). Slides were blocked in 3.5% SSC, 0.2% SDS, 1% BSA for 10 minutes at 60° C.
RNA Amplification and Labeling
 Antisense RNA amplification was performed using a modified protocol of in vitro transcription as described earlier in Puskas et al. (2002). For the first strand cDNA synthesis, 5 μg of total RNA was mixed with 2 μg of an HPLC-purified anchored oligo-dT+T7 promoter (5'-GGCCAGTGAATTGTAATACGACTCACTATAGGGAGGCGG-T24(A/C/G)-3') (SEQ ID NO 2756). (Eurogentec, Belgium), 40 units of RNAseOUT (cat# 10777-019, Invitrogen, Merelbeke, Belgium) and 0.9M D(+) trehalose (cat# T-5251, Sigma Belgium) in a total volume of 11 μl, and heated to 75° C. for 5 minutes. To this mixture, 4 μl 5× first strand buffer (Invitrogen, Belgium), 2 I 0.1 M DTT, 1 μl 10 mM dNTP mix, 1 μl 1.7 M D(+)trehalose (cat# T-5251, Sigma Belgium) and 1 μl, 200 Units of SuperScript II (cat#: 18064-014, Invitrogen, Belgium) was added in 20 μl final volume. The sample was incubated in a Biometra-Unoll thermocycler at 37° C. for 5 minutes, 45° C. for 10 minutes, 10 cycles at 60° C. for 2 minutes and at 55° C. for 2 minutes. To the first strand reaction mix, 103.8 μl water, 33.4 μl 5× second strand synthesis buffer (Invitrogen, Belgium), 3.4 μl 10 mM dNTP mix, 1 μl of 10 U/μl E. coli DNA ligase (cat#: 18052-019, Invitrogen, Belgium), 4 μl 10 U/μl E. coli DNA Polymerase I (cat#: 18010-025, Invitrogen, Belgium) and 1 μl 2 U/μl E. coli RNAse H (cat#: 18021-071, Invitrogen, Belgium) was added, and incubated at 16° C. for 2 hours. The synthesized double-stranded cDNA was purified with Qiaquick (cat#: 28106, Qiagen, Hilden, Germany). Antisense RNA synthesis was done by AmpliScribe T7 high yield transcription kit (cat#: AS2607; Epicentre Technologies, USA) in total volume of 20 μl according to the manufacturer's instructions. The RNA was purified with RNeasy purification kit (cat#: 74106; Qiagen, Germany). From this aRNA, 5 μg was labeled by reverse transcription using random nonamer primers (Genset, Paris, France), 0.1 mM d(G/T/A)TPs, 0.05 mM dCTP (Amersham BioSciences, UK), 0.05 mM Cy3-dCTP or Cy5-dCTP (cat#: PA53023, PA55023; Amersham BioSciences, UK) 1× first strand buffer, 10 mM DTT and 200 Units of SuperScript II (cat#: 18064-014, Invitrogen, Belgium) in 20 μl total volume. The RNA and primers were denatured at 75° C. for 5 minutes and cooled on ice before adding the remaining reaction components. After 2 hours incubation at 42° C., mRNA was hydrolyzed in 250 mM NaOH for 15 minutes at 37° C. The sample was neutralized with 10 μl of 2 M MOPS and purified with Qiaquick (cat#: 28106, Qiagen, Germany).
Array Hybridization and Post-Hybridization Processes
 The probes were resuspended in 30 μl hybridization solution (50% formamide, 5×SSC, 0.1% SDS, 100 mg/ml salmon sperm DNA) and prehybridized with 1 μl poly-dT (1 mg/ml) at 42° C. for 30 minutes to block hybridization on the polyA/T tails of the cDNA on the arrays. 1 mg/ml mouse COT DNA (cat#: 18440-016, Invitrogen, Belgium) was added to the mixture and placed on the array under a glass coverslip. Slides were incubated for 18 hours at 42° C. in a humid hybridization cabinet (cat#: RPK0176; Amersham BioSciences, UK). Post-hybridization washing was performed for 10 minutes at 56° C. in 1×SSC, 0.1% SDS, two times for 10 minutes at 56° C. in 0.1×SSC, 0.1% SDS and for 2 minutes at 37° C. in 0.1×SSC.
Scanning and Data Analysis
 Arrays were scanned at 532 nm and 635 nm using a Generation III scanner (Amersham BioSciences, UK). Image analysis was performed with ArrayVision (Imaging Research Inc, Ontario, Canada). Spot intensities were measured as artifact removed total intensities (ARVoI). No background correction was performed. First, within-slide normalization was addressed by plotting for each single slide a "MA-plot" (Yang et al., 2002), where M=log2 (R/G) and A=log2 0.5 R×G. The "LOWESS" normalization was applied to correct for dye-intensity differences. Subsequently, in order to normalize between slides and to identify differentially expressed genes between the two genotypes, two sequential analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were applied, proposed by Wolfinger et al. (2002), as follows: 1) firstly, the base-2 logarithm of the "LOWESS"-transformed measurements for all 73,264 spots (ygklm) was subjected to a normalization model of the form yiklm=μ+Ak+AkDlR.sub.m+εiklm, where μ is the sample mean, Ak is the effect of the kth array (k=1-4), AkDlR.sub.m, is the channel-effect (AD) for the mth replication of the total collection of cDNA fragments (m=2; left or right), and εiklm is the stochastic error; 2) secondly, the residuals from this model were subjected to 4,579 gene-specific models of the form rijkl=μ+GiAk+GiDl+GiCj+γijkl where GiAk is the spot effect, GiDl is the gene-specific dye effect, GiCj is representing the signal intensity for genes that can specifically be attributed to the genotypes (effect of interest), and γijkl is the stochastic error. All effects were assumed to be fixed effects, except εklm and γijkl. A t-test for differences between the GiCj effects was performed, where the t-tests are all based on n1+n2-2 degrees of freedom corresponding to the n1 WT hybridisations and n2 E2Fa-DPa hybridisations. The p-value cutoff was set at 0.01. No further adjustment for multiple testing was performed, as Bonferroni adjustment for 4,579 tests, to assure an experiment-wise false positive rate of 0.05, results in a p-value cutoff of 1 e-5.0, which is certainly too conservative; therefore it was chosen to set the p-value cutoff arbitrarily at the 0.01 level. Also GiDl effects were estimated and t-tested for significance at the 1% level in a same way as described above. Genes with a significant GiDl effect were discarded. Genstat was used to perform both the normalization and gene model fits.
Results of the Microarray Analysis and Statistical Analysis
 A micro-array containing in duplicate 4579 unique Arabidopsis ESTs, representing about a sixth of the total genome, was used to compare the transcriptome of wild type with that of E2Fa-DPa overexpressing plants. cDNA was synthesized from total RNA isolated from wild type and transgenic plants harvested 8 days after sowing. At this stage, transgenic plants were distinguished from control plants by the appearance of curled cotelydons which display ectopic cell divisions and enhanced endoreduplication (De Veylder et al., 2002). In the first two hybridizations Cy3 and Cy5 fluorescently labeled probe pairs of control and E2Fa-DPa cDNA were used using independent mRNA extractions of the E2Fa-DPa plants. Subsequently, a dye-swap replication was performed for both hybridizations, resulting in a total of four cDNA microarray hybridizations.
 Fluorescence levels were analyzed with the aim to establish whether the level of expression of each gene varied according to overexpression of the E2Fa-DPa transcription factor. Two sequential analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were used, as proposed by Wolfinger et al. (2002). The first ANOVA model, called the "normalization" model, accounts for experiment-wise systematic effects, such as array- and channel-effects, that could bias inferences made on the data from the individual genes. The residuals from this model represent normalized values and are the input data for the second ANOVA model, called the "gene" model. The gene models are fit separately to the normalized data from each gene. This procedure uses differences in normalized expression levels, rather than ratios, as the unit of analysis of expression differences.
 Prior to the estimation of genotype-specific signal intensities of the genes (GiCj effects), which are the effects of interest, gene-specific dye effects (GiDl effects) were estimated and t-tested for significance at the 1% level. One hundred and thirty one genes showed a significant GiDl effect and were discard from further analysis. For each of the remaining 4,448 genes on the arrays, a t-test on the GiCj effects for significant differences (p<0.05) was performed. FIG. 1 plots the obtained p-values (as the negative log 10 of the p-value) against the magnitude of the effect (log 2 of estimated fold change). This volcano plot illustrates the substantial difference significance testing can make versus cutoffs made strictly on the basis of the fold change. The two vertical reference lines indicate a 2-fold cutoff for either repression or induction, while the horizontal reference line refers to the p-value cutoff at the 0.05 value. These reference lines divide the plot into six sectors. The 3,535 genes in the lower middle sector have low significance and low fold change, and both methods agree that the corresponding changes are not significant. The 188 genes in the upper left and right sectors have high significance (p<0.05) and high fold change (≧2); 84 of these genes show a significant two-or-more-fold induction of expression, where the remaining 104 genes show a significant two-or-more-fold repression of expression in the E2Fa-DPa plant. Finally, the 715 genes in the upper middle sector represent significant (p<0.05) up- or downregulated genes, but with a low (≦2) fold change. The full dataset of genes can be viewed at URL: psb.rug.ac.be/E2F, which dataset is incorporated herein by reference.
 All the sequences that are 1.3 times upregulated (ratio of more than 1.999) in E2Fa-DPa overexpressing plants are presented in Table 4. All the sequences that are 1.3 times repressed (calculated as 1/ratio of less than 0.775) are presented in Table 5. Particularly interesting genes that are more than 2-fold upregulated or 2 fold repressed are selected and separately represented in Tables 1 and 2.
Sequencing and RT Mediated PCR Analysis
 The identity of the genes was confirmed by sequencing, and the induction of a random set of genes was confirmed by RT-PCR analysis (FIG. 5).
 RNA was isolated from plants 8 days after sowing with the Trizol reagent (Amersham Biosciences). First-strand cDNA was prepared from 3 μg of total RNA with the Superscript RT II kit (Invitrogen) and oligo(dT)18 according to the manufacturer's instructions. A 0.25 μl aliquot of the total RT reaction volume (20 μl) was used as a template in a semi-quantitative RT-mediated PCR amplification, ensuring that the amount of amplified product remained in linear proportion to the initial template present in the reaction. From the PCR reaction, 10 μl was separated on a 0.8% agarose gel and transferred onto Hybond N+ membranes (Amersham Biosciences) that were hybridized at 65° C. with fluorescein-labeled probes (Gene Images random prime module; Amersham Biosciences). The hybridized bands were detected with the CDP Star detection module (Amersham Biosciences). Primers used were 5'-AAAAAGCAGGCTGTGTCGTACGATCTTCTCCCGG-3' (SEQ ID NO 2757) and 5'-AGAAA GCTGGGTCATGTGATAGGAGAACCAGCG-3' (SEQ ID NO 2758) for E2Fa, 5'-ATAGAA TTCGCTTACATTTTGAAACTGATG-3' (SEQ ID NO 2759) and 5'-ATAGTCGACTCAGCGA GTATCAATGGATCC-3' (SEQ ID NO 2760) for DPa, 5'-CAGATCTTGTTAACCTTGACAT CTCAG-3' (SEQ ID NO 2761) and 5'-GGGTCAAAAGATACAACCACACCAG-3' (SEQ ID NO 2762) for glutamine synthetase (GS), 5'-GGTTTACGAGCTACATGGCCC-3' (SEQ ID NO 2763) and 5'-GAGCAATCCGTTCAGCCTCC-3' (SEQ ID NO 2764) for glutamate synthase (GOGAT), 5'-GCGTTTGACCACTCTTGGAGAC-3' (SEQ ID NO 2765) and 5'-GAACGCCA TTGAGAAAGTCCGC-3' (SEQ ID NO 2766) for histone acetylase HAT B, 5'-GTTACCGG CTCGACTTGAAGATC-3' (SEQ ID NO 2767) and 5'-GAATCGGAGGGAAAGTCTGACG-3' (SEQ ID NO 2768) for LOB domain protein 41, 5'-GTGTGGTTTCCAAGCTTTCCTACG-3' (SEQ ID NO 2769) and 5'-GGTGAAGGGACTAGCCTTGTGG-3' (SEQ ID NO 2770) for isocitrate lyase, 5'-GGGATCAATCCTCAGGAGAAGG-3' (SEQ ID NO 2771) and 5'-CCGTCCATCTTTATTAGCGGCATG-3' (SEQ ID NO 2772) for nitrite reductase (NiR), and 5'-TTACCGAGGCTCCTCTTAACCC-3' (SEQ ID NO 2773) and 5'-ACCACCGATCCAGACA CTGTAC-3' (SEQ ID NO 2774) for actin 2 (ACT2).
Characterization of the Genes Identified as being Involved in E2F/DP Regulated Cellular Processes
 The genes of the present invention identified from the microarray experiment of Example 2 have unique identification numbers (MIPS accession number e.g. At1g57680). The MIPS accession number is widely accepted in this field as it directly refers to the genomic sequence and the location of the sequence in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome. Accession numbers are allocated by the Munich Information Center for Protein Sequences (MIPS) and are stored in the MIPS Arabidopsis database. Publicly available sequence and annotation data from all other AGI ("Arabidopsis Genome Initiative") groups are included to establish a plant genome database (Schoof H, et al. (2002)). The MIPS Arabidopsis database can be accessed via the Internet URL: mips.gsf.de/cgi-bin/proj/thal and the database can be searched with the protein entry code (e.g. At1g57680). An example of the type of sequence information and protein domain information that is provided for a certain sequence in the MIPS database is shown FIG. 4.
 An additional blast search with the genes according to the present invention was performed on public databases containing sequences from other plant species and other organisms. For some of the genes identified by the microarray, significant levels of homology (low E-values) were found with sequences from other organisms (see Tables 1 and 2 with reference to their Genbank accession number). So far, mainly corn and rice homologues were identified, but as more genomes will be sequenced in the future, many more homologues will be identifiable by the person skilled in the art as useful in the methods of the present invention.
DNA Replication and Cell Cycle Genes
 Genes up or downregulated in the E2Fa-DPa overexpressing plants can be classified into clear groups according their function (Tables 1 and 2). 14 Genes that are 2-fold or more upregulated belong to the class of genes involved in DNA replication and modification, correlating with the observation that E2Fa-DPa overexpression plants undergo extensive endoreduplication. Most of these genes have previously be shown to be upregulated by E2F-DP overexpression in mammalian systems including a putative thymidine kinase, replication factor c, and histone genes (4 different ones). Other E2Fa-DPa induced S phase genes include a linker histone protein, the topoisomerase 6 subunit A and two subunits of the histone acetyltransferase HAT B complex, being HAT B and Msi3. The HAT B complex is responsible for the specific diacethylation of newly synthesized histone H4 during nuclease assembly on newly synthesized DNA (Lusser et al., 1999). Also a DNA methyltransferase responsible for the methylation of cytosine in cells that progress though S phase was identified among upregulated genes.
 Besides the overexpressed E2Fa gene (being 90-fold more abundant in the E2FaPa overexpressing plants, compared to control plants), only one cell cycle gene (CDKB1;1) shows a 2-fold or more change in expression level upon E2Fa-DPa overexpression. CDKB1;1 was previously predicted to be a candidate E2F-DP target by virtue of a consensus E2F-DP-binding site in its promoter (de Jager et al., 2001). Whereas CDKB1;1 activity is maximum at the G2/M transition, its transcript levels start to rise during late S-phase (Porceddu et al., 2001; Menges and Murray, 2002). Upregulation of CDKB1;1 might therefore be a mechanism to link DNA replication with mitosis.
Cell Wall Biogenesis Genes
 Four members of the xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) gene family were found to be 2-fold or more upregulated in E2Fa-DPa overexpressing plants, one of them identical to the Meri-5 gene (Medford et al., 1991). XETs are enzymes that modify cell wall components and therefore play a likely role in altering size, shape and physical properties of plant cells. Reversal breakage of the xyloglucan tethers by XETs has been proposed to be a mechanism for allowing cell wall loosening in turgor-driven cell expansion (Campbell and Braam, 1999). However, there are several reasons to believe that E2Fa-DPa induced XETs are not required for cell expansion. First, cells divide more frequently in E2Fa-DPa overexpressing plants, but the overall cell size of the cells is smaller. Therefore, no overall increase in expansion-rates is needed. Second, correlated with the absence of increased cell expansion in the transgenic lines, no induction of genes with a known role in this process, such as expansins, can be seen. Therefore, the hydrolytic activity of the XETs might be required to incorporate the newly synthesized cell walls formed during cytokinesis into the existing cell wall structure. Alternatively, as XET activity has shown to be involved in the postgerminative mobilization of xyloglucan storage reverses in Nasturtium cotelydons (Farkas et al., 1992; Fanutti et al., 1993), induction of XETs in E2Fa-DPa overexpressing plants might relate to polysaccharide breakdown to serve the metabolic and energy needs which are required to synthesize new nucleotides (see below).
 Interestingly, two XETs were identified in the set of 2-fold or more downregulated genes. These XETs are more related to each other than to the induced XET proteins. This differential response of XETs towards the E2Fa/DPa induced phenotypes suggests that plant XETs can be classified in at least 2 different functional classes.
Genes Involved in Metabolism and Biogenesis
 Both the group of up and down regulated genes contains a relative large group of genes involved in metabolism and biogenesis. Most remarkable is the induction of genes involved in nitrogen assimilation, such as nitrate reductase (NIA2) (see FIG. 2), glutamine synthetase (GS), and glutamate synthetase (GOGAT). Although not present on the microarray, the nitrite reductase (NiR) gene was found to be induced in the transgenic line, as demonstrated by RT-mediated PCR analysis. Nitrogen and nitrite reductase catalyse the first step in the nitrogen assimilation pathway, whereas glutamine and glutamate synthetase are involved in both the primary assimilation from nitrogen as reassimilation of free ammonium, supplying all plants nitrogen needed for the biosynthesis of amino-acids and other nitrogen-containing compounds.
 There are other indications that nitrogen metabolism is altered in E2Fa-DPa overexpressing plants, such as the modification of genes reported to be involved in Medicago induced nodulation (MTN3 and a nodulin-like gene); and the downregulation of genes involved in sulfur assimilation (adenylylsulfate reductase (APR; 2 different genes) and a putative adenine phosphosulfate kinase). Genes involved in sulfur assimilation such as APR have previously been shown to be transcriptionally downregulated during nitrogen deficiency (Koprivova et al., 2000).
 Upregulation of nitrogen assimilation genes in E2Fa-DPa overexpressing plants might reflect the need for nitrogen for nucleotide biosynthesis, as purine and pyrimidine bases are nitrogen-rich. If nitrogen assimilation was indeed stimulated by E2Fa/DPa overexpression, two requirements should be fulfilled. Since nitrogen assimilation through the GS/GOGAT pathway requires α-ketogluterate (Lancien et al., 2000), a first requirement is that there should be enough α-ketogluterate to act as acceptor molecule for ammonium. Secondly, because assimilation of nitrogen is energy consuming, the rate of reductant production should be higher in an E2Fa/DPa transgenic than in wild-type plants.
 Our micro-array data suggest that in the E2Fa-DPa overexpressing plants, α-ketogluterate accumulation is stimulated in different ways. First, α-ketogluterate production is improved by increased photosynthetic activity, as indicated by the 4.7-fold upregulation of large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (FIG. 2). This results in an accumulation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate can be converted into fructuse-1,6-bisphosphate by fructose bisphosphate aldolase. However, a 6-fold downregulation of the fructose bisphosphate aldolase gene rather suggests the conversion of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate into pyruvate, which can be converted into α-ketogluterate during glycolysis in the citrate cycle. The preferential conversion of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate into pyruvate in favour of sugars fits the higher need for amino-acids than for sugars for nucleotide biosynthesis. A shortage for ribose-5-phosphate for nucleotide synthesis is also evident from a downregulation of sucrose-phosphate synthase, resulting in decreased conversion of fructose-6-phosphate and glucose-6-phosphate into sucrose (FIG. 2).
 A second source of α-ketogluterate is provided in the glyoxylate cycle by the 3.1 fold increase in expression of isocitrate lyase, suggesting an increased lipid turnover in E2Fa-DPa overexpressing plants. Isocistrate lyase activity cleaves isocitrate into glyoxylate and succinate (FIG. 2). Whereas the formed glyoxylate can be converted into glycine, which is also required for nucleotide biosynthesis, succinate can be converted into α-ketogluterate in the citrate cycle. A 2.3-fold decrease of the fumarase gene presumably stimulates the conversion of produced α-ketogluterate into glutamate by causing an accumulation of succinate and fumarate, which is also a side product formed during nucleotide biosynthesis (FIG. 2).
 Assimilation of nitrogen is energy consuming. When rates of nitrate reduction are high, this pathway becomes the major sink for reductant. About 10% of the electron flux in photosynthesizing leaves is used for nitrate reduction. The amount of required reductant, which in leaves originates from electronic photosynthetic electron transport, is therefore expected to be higher in the E2Fa-DPa transgenics. Correspondingly, several components of the chloroplast electron transport chain and associated ATP-synthesing apparatus, such as cytochrome B6, a PSII subunit and the ATPase epsilon subunit are upregulated in the transgenic plants. Increased expression of the protochlorophyllide reductase precursor suggests that an increase in chlorophyll biosynthesis is stimulated in E2Fa-DPa overexpressing plants.
 Famine of nitrogen has a putative impact on amino-acid biosynthesis, as three different amino-acid aminotransferases, are downregulated in E2Fa-DPa overexpressing plants. Accompanied with a putative decreased aminotransferase activity is the observed reduction in expression of an enzyme involved in pyridoxine biosynthesis. Shortage of nitrogen-rich amino-acids is also evident from reduced expression of genes encoding vegetative storage proteins (VSP1 and VSP2); and ERD10, a protein with a compositional bias towards glu (Kiyosue et al., 1994). Additional evidence for amino acid shortage comes from downregulation of a myrosinase-binding protein and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP83A1. Both proteins are involved in the biosynthesis of glucosinolates, being nitrogen and sulfur containing products derived from amino-acids (Wittstock and Halkier, 2002).
Transcription Factors and Signal Transduction
 A total of 4 transcription factors were identified among the genes being 2-fold or more upregulated, including two homeobox domain transcription factors. Among them the anthocyaninless2 (ANL2) gene was identified, which is involved in anthocyanin accumulation in subepidermal leaf cells (Kubo et al., 1999). The lack of an obvious increase in anthocyanin accumulation In E2Fa-DPa overexpressing plants suggests a role for the ANL2 protein in plant development different from anthocyanin production. This hypothesis is substantiated by the observation that anl2 mutant plants contain extra cells in the root between the cortical and epidermal layers (Kubo et al., 1999).
 The second upregulated homeobox domain transcription factor is Atbh-6. Expression of Atbh-6 is restricted to regions of cell division and/or differentiation and has been shown to be inducible by water stress and ABA (Soderman et al., 1999). Other putative ABA sensitive genes can be recognized among the E2Fa-DPa induced clones, as welt as the cold regulated protein COR6.6, a seed imbitition-like protein and a dormancy-associated protein. Here again, changes in expression level of these genes might be correlated with modifications in carbon metabolism. A link between ABA and sugar signaling is evident from the identification of several loci involved in both sugar and hormonal responses (Finkelstein and Gibson, 2002). Alternatively, it might be the occurrence of enhanced endoreduplication and/or cell division itself that causes a change in the osmotic potential.
 Among the downregulated transcription factors a DOF family member is present. Many DOF transcription factors are participating in the regulation of storage protein genes and genes involved in carbon metabolism (Gualberti et al., 2002). Its downregulation might therefore be linked with the shortage of amino-acids due to the high demand of nitrogen for nucleotide biosynthesis.
 Other regulatory genes modified in E2Fa-DPa overexpressing plants include protein kinases, several putative receptor kinases, a putative phytochrome A, and WD-40 repeat containing proteins (Tables 1 and 2). Interestingly, a SNF1-like kinase is downregulated 2-fold in E2Fa-DPa overexpressing plants. In addition to its proposed role in sugar signaling, the SNF1 kinase also negatively regulates the activity of plant nitrate reductase (Smeekens, 2000).
Endoreduplication Levels of E2Fa-DPa Plants are Nitrogen Dependent
 The modified expression of a large number of metabolic and regulatory genes, directly or indirectly linked to nitrogen metabolism, suggests a direct relationship between the high endoreduplication levels found in the E2Fa/DPa transgenic plants and nitrogen availability. To test this hypothesis, wild type and transgenic plants were grown on medium containing different levels of ammoniumnitrate, ranging from 0.1 to 50 mM. Eight days after germination ploidy levels in these plants was determined by flow cytometry. Increasing ammoniumnitrate levels hardly had an effect on the ploidy distribution pattern in wild type plants (FIG. 3A). In contrast, in the E2Fa-DPa transgenic plants increasing ammoniumnitrate levels resulted in a reproducible and significant increase in the amount of 32C and 64C nuclei (FIG. 3B). Comparing the lowest with the highest concentration of ammonimumnitrate, an increase of 32C from 2.0 (±0.3) % to 6.5 (±1.5) %, and of 64C from 0.7 (±0.3) % to 2 (±0.5) % can be seen. Increasing ammonium levels did not have any effect on the plant phenotype, as plants remained small with curled leaves on all concentrations of nitrogen tested. These data indicate that the endoreduplication levels in the E2Fa-DPa overexpressing plants are limited by nitrogen availability, and that an excess of nitrogen is incorporated into new DNA than in other nitrogen containing compounds.
Promoter Analysis of E2Fa-DPa Regulated Genes
 The intergenic sequence corresponding to the promoter area of each gene spotted on the microarray was extracted from genomic sequences. These genomic sequences are easily accessible for example from the MIPS MatDB database (URL: mips.gsf.de/proj/thal/db). From those intergenic sequences, up to 500 bp upstream of the ATG start codon were extracted and subjected to motif searches in order to retrieve potential E2F elements. Both position and frequency of occurrence was determined using the publicly available execuTable of MatInspector (version 2.2) using matrices extracted from PlantCARE and matrices made especially for this particular analysis (Lescot et al., 2002). The relevance of each motif was evaluated against a background consisting of all the sequences from the dataset.
 To distinguish in the present data set the putative direct target genes of E2Fa-DPa from the secondary induced genes, the first 500 bp upstream of the ATG start codon of the genes with 2-fold or more change in expression was scanned for the presence of a E2F-like binding site matching the sequence (A/T)TT(G/C)(G/C)C(G/C)(G/C) (SEQ ID NO 2775). Of all the different permutations possible, only the TTTCCCGC (SEQ ID NO 2776) element was statistically enriched in the set of E2Fa-DPa upregulated genes, suggesting it is the preferred binding site of the E2Fa-DPa complex (Table 3). Moreover, target genes containing this element belong mainly to the group of genes involved in DNA replication and modification, being the main group of target genes in mammalian systems. These data illustrate that the TTTCCCGC sequence is the most likely cis element recognized by E2Fa-DPa. The observation that not all genes having this DNA sequence in their promoter suggests that the presence of the TTTCCCCGC motif is not sufficient to make a gene responsive towards E2Fa-DPa, and that E2Fa-DPa co-operates with other factors to activate transcription.
 It is not excluded that genes without an E2F-like-binding site are not directly activated by E2Fa-DPa. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments have shown that mammalian E2F factors can bind to promoters without a clear E2F recognition motif (Kiyosue et al., 1994), suggesting that E2FDP might recognize non-canonical binding sites, or might be recruited by promoters through the association of other factors. In this respect, the Chloralla vulgaris nitrate reductase gene, of which the Arabidopsis homologue was shown herein to be induced by E2F-DPa, binds an E2F-DP complex, although a clear consensus binding site is lacking (Cannons and Shiflett, 2001).
E2F can Activate as Well as Repress Promoter Activity.
 In the Nicotiana benthamiana PCNA promoter a E2F sequence was identified acting as a negative regulatory element during development (Egelkrout et al., 2001). Also the tobacco ribonucleotide reductase small subunit gene contains a E2F element working as a repressor outside the S-phase (Chaboute et al., 2000). In the set of downregulated genes no particular enrichment of a specific E2F sequence could be seen (Table 3). Therefore the inventors believe that the E2Fa-DPa complex mainly works as a transcriptional activator, and that other E2F-DP complexes are involved in E2F-mediated transcriptional repression.
Individual Characterization of Some Genes Identified by the Method of the Present Invention
 The genes characterized hereunder, are particularly useful for making plants with improved growth characteristics. These preferred genes are introduced into a plant and upregulated or downregulated in order to simulate E2Fa/DPa effects and/or to alter one or more characteristics of a plant. The particular growth characteristic that may be influenced by these genes, is described in the following paragraphs by reference to the biological function of that particular gene.
At1g07000 Showing Homology to Leucine Zipper
 At1g07000 is a potential leucine zipper that is not preceded by a basic domain. The leucine zipper consists of repeated leucine residues at every seventh position and mediates protein dimerization as a prerequisite for DNA-binding. The leucines are directed towards one side of an alpha-helix. The leucine side chains of two polypeptides are thought to interdigitate upon dimerization (knobs-into-holes model). The leucine zipper may dictate dimerization specificity. Leucine zippers are DNA binding protein with dimerization properties, having important functions in development and stress tolerance in plants.
At1g09070 Showing Homology to Soybean Cold Regulate Gene SRC2
 This genes and its expressed protein is predicted in Arabidopsis, rice, corn, soybean, however, based on a homology search using the BLAST program, no functional homologue was known, not even a clear animal homologue, so no clear function can be predicted for this gene or protein (Takahashi, R. and Shimosaka, E. (1997)).
At1g21690 Showing Homology to Replication Factor
 Replication factor C(RFC) is a pentameric complex of five distinct subunits that functions as a clamp loader, facilitating the loading of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) onto DNA during replication and repair. More recently the large subunit of RFC, RFC (p140), has been found to interact with the retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor and the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha) transcription factor. It is reported that RFC (p140) associates with histone deacetylase activity and interacts with histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) (Anderson, L. A. and Perkins, N. D. (2002); Furukawa, T. et al. (2001)) RFC is poorly known in plants. It can be important for development for modulating gene expression during cell cycle at S phase, or through chromatin regulation.
At1g23030 Showing Homology to Armadillo Protein
 Members of the armadillo (arm) repeat family of proteins are implicated in tumorigenesis, embryonic development, and maintenance of tissue integrity. ARM proteins participate in linking cytoskeleton to membrane proteins and structures. These proteins share a central domain that is composed of a series of imperfect 45 amino acid repeats. Armadillo family members reveal diverse cellular locations reflecting their diverse functions. A single protein exerts several functions through interactions of its armadillo repeat domain with diverse binding partners. The proteins combine structural roles as cell-contact and cytoskeleton-associated proteins and signaling functions by generating and transducing signals affecting gene expression. The study of armadillo family members has made it increasingly clear that a distinction between structural proteins on the one hand and signaling molecules on the other is rather artificial. Instead armadillo family members exert both functions by interacting with a number of distinct cellular-binding partners. Proteins of the armadillo family are involved in diverse cellular processes in higher eukaryotes. Some of them, like armadillo, beta-catenin and plakoglobins have dual functions in intercellular junctions and signalling cascades. Others belonging to the importin-alpha-subfamily are involved in NLS (Nuclear localization signal) recognition and nuclear transport, while some members of the armadillo family have as yet unknown functions. (Wang, Y. X. et al. (2001); Hatzfeld, M. (1999). ARM proteins are key protein binding units that are involved at several steps during development. Some are specific to the cell cycle APC degradation complex. These type of genes have been poorly studied in plants, some have been involved in light and gibberellin signaling in potato.
At1g27500 Showing Homology to Kinesin Light Chain.
 The motor protein kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy chains of approximately 120 kDa and two light chains of approximately 65 kDa protein. Kinesin motor activity is dependent on the presence of ATP and microtubules. Conventional kinesin is prevented from binding to microtubules (MTs) when not transporting cargo. The function of LC kinesin is to keep kinesin in an inactive ground state by inducing an interaction between the tail and motor domains of HC; activation for cargo transport may be triggered by a small conformational change that releases the inhibition of the motor domain for MT binding. This protein is important to regulate movement controlled by microtubules within the cytoplasm, for example the flux of vesicles between the different cell membrane compartments.
At1g72180 Showing Homology to Putative Receptor Protein Kinase
 Plant receptor-like kinases (RLKs) are transmembrane proteins with putative amino-terminal extracellular domains and carboxyl-terminal intracellular kinase domains, with striking resemblance in domain organization to the animal receptor tyrosine kinases such as epidermal growth factor receptor. The recently sequenced Arabidopsis genome contains more than 600 RLK homologs. Although only a handful of these genes have known functions and fewer still have identified ligands or downstream targets, the studies of several RLKs such as CLAVATA1, Brassinosteroid Insensitive 1, Flagellin Insensitive 2, and S-locus receptor kinase provide much-needed information on the functions mediated by members of this large gene family. RLKs control a wide range of processes, including development, disease resistance, hormone perception, and self-incompatibility. Combined with the expression studies and biochemical analysis of other RLKs, more details of RLK function and signaling are emerging.
At1g72900 Showing Homology to Disease Resistance Protein (TIR Virus Resistance Protein)
 The TIR gene has been described by Kroczynska, B. et al. (1999).
At2g30590 Showing Homology to WRKY Transcription Factor (Toll/Interleukin-1 Receptor-Like Protein)
 The sequence shows homology to tomato Cf-9 resistance gene Avr9/Cf-9 rapidly elicited protein 4 (NL27) (Hehl, R. et al. (1998)). WRKY proteins are a large group of transcription factors restricted to the plant kingdom. WRKY proteins are a recently identified class of DNA-binding proteins that recognize the TTGAC(C/T) W-box elements found in the promoters of a large number of plant defense-related genes (Dong and Chen, 2003). It has been found that the majority are responsive both to pathogen infection and to salicylic acid. The functions of all other WRKY genes revealed to date involve responses to pathogen attack, mechanical stress, and senescence (Dong and Chen, 2003).
At1g80530 Showing Homology to Nodulin
 Infection of soybean roots by nitrogen-fixing Bradyrhizobium japonicum leads to expression of plant nodule-specific genes known as nodulins. Nodulin 26, a member of the major intrinsic protein/aquaporin (AQP) channel family, is a major component of the soybean symbiosome membrane (SM) that encloses the rhizobium bacteroid. These results indicate that nodulin 26 is a multifunctional AQP that confers water and glycerol transport to the SM, and likely plays a role in osmoregulation during legume/rhizobia symbioses (Dean et al. (1999). Rice (Oryza sativa var. Nipponbare) possesses two different homologues of the soybean early nodulin gene GmENOD93 (GmN93), OsENOD93a (homology of 58.2% to GmENOD93), OsENOD93b (homology of 42.3%). In intact rice tissues, OsENOD93b was most abundantly expressed in roots and at much lower levels in etiolated and green leaves, whereas the expression of OsENOD93a was very low in roots and etiolated leaves, and was not detected in green leaves. The level of OsENOD93a expression was enhanced markedly in suspension-cultured cells, whereas that of OsENOD93b did not increase (Reddy et al. (1998)). Homologues of genes that are produced in response to infection of soybean roots by bacteria are also present in other plants such rice. Their function is largely unknown, some functional homologues are identified such as a water channel involved in osmoregulation.
At2g34770 Showing Homology to Fatty Acid Hydroxylase
 This gene has been described in Matsuda et al. (2001). A common feature of the membrane lipids of higher plants is a large content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which typically consist of dienoic and trienoic fatty acids. Two types of omega-3 fatty acid desaturase, which are present in the plastids and in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), respectively, are responsible for the conversion of dienoic to trienoic fatty acids. To establish a system for investigating the tissue-specific, and hormone-regulated expression of the ER-type desaturase gene (FADS), transgenic plants of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. containing the firefly luciferase gene (LUC) fused to the FAD3 promoter (FAD3::LUC) were constructed. The results as discussed in this report suggest that the expression of ER-type desaturase is regulated through synergistic and antagonistic hormonal interactions, and that such hormonal regulation and the tissue specificity of the expression of this gene are further modified in accordance with the growth phase in plant development (Wellesen K, et al. (2001); Kachroo P, et al. (2001); Kahn, R. A. et al. (2001); Smith, M. et al. (2000)).
At2g43402 Showing Homology to Cinnamoyl CoA Reductase
 CCR enzyme is involved in lignification. The CCR transcript is expressed in lignified organs, i.e. root and stem tissues, and is localized mainly in young differentiating xylem. Also, monolignols may be precursors of end products other than lignins. CCR catalyses the conversion of cinnamoyl-CoAs into their corresponding cinnamaldehydes, i.e. the first step of the phenylpropanoid pathway specifically dedicated to the monolignol biosynthetic branch. The two genes are differentially expressed during development and in response to infection. AtCCR1 is preferentially expressed in tissues undergoing lignification. In contrast, AtCCR2, which is poorly expressed during development, is strongly and transiently induced during the incompatible interaction with Xanthomonas campestris pv. Campestris leading to a hypersensitive response. Altogether, these data suggest that AtCCR1 is involved in constitutive lignification whereas AtCCR2 is involved in the biosynthesis of phenolics whose accumulation may lead to resistance (Lauvergeat et al. (2001)). This protein is involved during development, increase in growth diameter, lignification of vascular strands and interfascicular fibers.
At2g47440 Showing Homology to Tetratricopeptide Repeat Protein
 The tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) is found in many proteins performing a wide variety of functions, the TPR domain itself is believed to be a general protein recognition module. Different proteins may contain from 3 to 16 tandem TPR motifs (34 amino acid sequence). It has been shown that some proteins contain a TPR repeat are cell cycle regulated.
At3g23750 Showing Homology to Receptor Like Kinase TMK
 The kinase domain of NtTMK1 contained all of 12 subdomains and invariant amino acid residues found in eukaryotic protein kinases. The extracellular domain contained 11 leucine-rich repeats, which have been implicated in protein-protein interactions. The amino acid sequence of NtTMK1 exhibited high homology with those of TMK1 of Arabidopsis and TMK of rice in both kinase and extracellular domains, suggesting that NtTMK1 is a TMK homologue of tobacco. The NtTMK1 transcripts were present in all major plant organs, but its level varied in different developmental stages in anthers and floral organs. NtTMK1 mRNA accumulation in leaves was stimulated by CaCl2, methyl jasmonate, wounding, fungal elicitors, chitins, and chitosan. The NtTMK1 mRNA level also increased upon infection with tobacco mosaic virus (Cho and Pai (2000)). This protein is involved in different aspects of development and disease resistance.
At3g61460 Showing Homology to Ring H2
 RING-finger proteins contain cysteine-rich, zinc-binding domains and are involved in the formation of macromolecular scaffolds important for transcriptional repression and ubiquitination. RING H2 act as E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases and play critical roles in targeting the destruction of proteins of diverse functions in all eukaryotes, ranging from yeast to mammals. The Arabidopsis genome contains a large number of genes encoding RING finger proteins. A small group is constituted by more than 40 RING-H2 finger proteins that are of small size, not more than 200 amino acids, and contain no other recognizable protein-protein interaction domain(s). This type of genes is very important for several aspect of development, regulation of developmental proteins, cell cycle proteins.
At4g00730 Showing Homology to Homeodomain AHDP (Antocyaninless 2)
 This is a homeodomain transcription factor; similar to ATML1 and is very conserved and has epidermis specific expression. This sequence shows also homology to Zea mays mRNA for OCL3 protein (Ingram, G. C. et al. (2000)).
At4g13940 Showing Homology to Adenosylhomocysteinase (Glutathione Dependent Formaldehyde Dehydrogenase)
 Glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase was described in Sakamoto, A. et al. (2002), Arabidopsis glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase is an S-nitrosoglutathione reductase. S-Nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), an adduct of nitric oxide (NO) with glutathione, is known as a biological NO reservoir. Heterologous expression in Escherichia coli of a cDNA encoding a glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase of Arabidopsis thaliana showed that the recombinant protein reduces GSNO. The identity of the cDNA was further confirmed by functional complementation of the hypersensitivity to GSNO of a yeast mutant with impaired GSNO metabolism. This is the first demonstration of a plant GSNO reductase, suggesting that plants possess the enzymatic pathway that modulates the bioactivity and toxicity of NO.
At4g35050 Showing Homology to WD40 MSI3
 Members of the MSI/RbAp sub-family of WD-repeat proteins are widespread in eukaryotic organisms and form part of multiprotein complexes that are involved in various biological pathways, including chromatin assembly, regulation of gene transcription, and cell division. The Zea mays RbAp-like protein (ZmRbAp1) binds acetylated histones H3 and H4 and suppresses mutations that have a negative effect on the Ras/cAMP pathway in yeast. The ZmRbAp genes form a gene family and are expressed in different tissues of Z. mays L. plants. Determination of its expression pattern during maize seed development revealed that ZmRbAp transcripts are abundant during the initial stages of endosperm formation. In addition, the transcripts are specifically localized in shoot apical meristem and leaf primordia of the embryo. ZmRbAp genes play a role in early endosperm differentiation and plant development (Rossi et al. (200.1)). Also Rb proteins are known to be involved in multi-protein complexes; there are Rb binding protein characterized; and Rb plays a role in chromatin remodeling and cell cycle control and is important in development and growth of organs. The retinoblastoma (RB) protein regulates G1 progression and functions through its association with various cellular proteins. Two closely related mammalian RB binding proteins, RbAp48 and RbAp46, share sequence homology with the Msi1 protein of yeast. MSI1 is a multicopy suppressor of a mutation in the IRA1 gene involved in the Ras-cAMP pathway that regulates cellular growth. Human RbAp48 is present in protein complexes involved in histone acetylation and chromatin assembly. Four plant RbAp48- and Msi1-like proteins have been identified: one from tomato, LeMSI1, and three from Arabidopsis. LeMSI1 can function as a multicopy suppressor of the yeast iral mutant phenotype. The LeMSI1 protein localizes to the nucleus and binds to a 65-kD protein in wild-type as well as ripening inhibitor (rin) and Neverripe (Nr) tomato fruit. LeMSI1 also binds to the human RB protein and the RB-like RRB1 protein from maize, indicating that this interaction is conserved between plants and animals (Ach et al. (1997)).
At4g36670 Showing Homology to Sugar Transporter
 The ERD6 clone is expressed after exposure to dehydration stress for 1 h. The ERD6 is related to sugar transporters of bacteria, yeasts, plants and mammals. Hydropathy analysis revealed that ERD6 protein has 12 putative transmembrane domains and a central hydrophilic region. Sequences that are conserved at the ends of the 6th and 12th membrane-spanning domains of sugar transporters are also present in ERD6. ERD6 gene is a member of a multigene family in the Arabidopsis genome. The expression of the ERD6 gene was induced not only by dehydration but also by cold treatment (Kiyosue et al. (1998)).
At5g01870 Showing Homology to Lipid Transfer Protein
 Nonspecific lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) from plants are characterized by their ability to stimulate phospholipid transfer between membranes in vitro. However, because these proteins are generally located outside of the plasma membrane, it is unlikely that they have a similar role in vivo. The LTP1 promoter was active early in development in protoderm cells of embryos, vascular tissues, lignified tips of cotyledons, shoot meristem, and stipules. In adult plants, the gene was expressed in epidermal cells of young leaves and the stem. In flowers, expression was observed in the epidermis of all developing influorescence and flower organ primordia, the epidermis of the siliques and the outer ovule wall, the stigma, petal tips, and floral nectaries of mature flowers, and the petal/sepal abscission zone of mature siliques. Consistent with a role for the LTP1 gene product in some aspect of secretion or deposition of lipophilic substances in the cell walls of expanding epidermal cells and certain secretory tissues. The LTP1 promoter region contained sequences homologous to putative regulatory elements of genes in the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway, suggesting that the expression of the LTP1 gene may be regulated by the same or similar mechanisms as genes in the phenylpropanoid pathway (Thorns, S. et al. (1994)). More background knowledge to this type of genes can be found in the following references: Clark, A. M. et al., (1999); Toonen, M. A. et al. (1997); Molina, A. (1997); Thoma, S. et al. (1994).
At5g02820 Showing Homology to SPO Like
 Plant steroid hormones, such as brassinosteroids (BRs), play important roles throughout plant growth and development. Plants defective in BR biosynthesis or perception display cell elongation defects and severe dwarfism. Two dwarf mutants named bin3 and bin5 with identical phenotypes to each other display some characteristics of BR mutants and are partially insensitive to exogenously applied BRs. In the dark, bin3 or bin5 seedlings are de-etiolated with short hypocotyls and open cotyledons. Light-grown mutant plants are dwarfs with short petioles, epinastic leaves, short inflorescence stems, and reduced apical dominance. BIN3 and BIN5 were cloned and show that BIN5 is one of three putative Arabidopsis SPO11 homologs (AtSPO11-3) that also shares significant homology to archaebacterial topoisomerase VI (TOP6) subunit A, whereas BIN3 represents a putative eukaryotic homolog of TOP6B. The pleiotropic dwarf phenotypes of bin5 establish that, unlike all of the other SPO11 homologs that are involved in meiosis, BIN5/AtSPO11-3 plays a major role during somatic development. Furthermore, microarray analysis of the expression of about 5500 genes in bin3 or bin5 mutants indicates that about 321 genes are down-regulated in both of the mutants, including 18 of 30 BR-induced genes. These results suggest that BIN3 and BIN5 may constitute an Arabidopsis topoisomerase VI that modulates expression of many genes, including those regulated by BRs (Yin Y et al. (2002)). More background information on this type of gene can be found in the following references: Soustelle, C. et al. (2002); Kee, K. and Keeney, S. (2002); Hartung, F. and Puchta, H. (2001); Grelon, M. et al. (2001).
At5g14420 Showing Homology to Copine I (Phospholipid Binding Protein)
 The copines are a newly identified class of calcium-dependent, phospholipid binding proteins that are present in a wide range of organisms, including Paramecium, plants, Caenorhabditis elegans, mouse, and human. However, the biological functions of the copines are unknown. A humidity-sensitive copine mutant was made in Arabidopsis and under non-permissive, low-humidity conditions, the cpn1-1 mutant displayed aberrant regulation of cell death that included a lesion mimic phenotype and an accelerated hypersensitive response (HR). However, the HR in cpn1-1 showed no increase in sensitivity to low pathogen titers. Low-humidity-grown cpn1-1 mutants, also exhibited morphological abnormalities, increased resistance to virulent strains of Pseudomonas syringae and Peronospora parasitica, and constitutive expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. Growth of cpn1-1 under permissive, high-humidity conditions abolished the increased disease resistance, lesion mimic, and morphological mutant phenotypes but only partially alleviated the accelerated HR and constitutive PR gene expression phenotypes. The disease resistance phenotype of cpn1-1 suggests that the CPN1 gene regulates defense responses. Alternatively, the primary function of CPN1 may be the regulation of plant responses to low humidity, and the effect of the cpn1-1 mutation on disease resistance may be indirect (Jambunathan et al. (2001)). Arabidopsis growth over a wide range of temperatures requires the BONZAI1 (BON1) gene because bon1 null mutants make miniature fertile plants at 22° C. but have wild-type appearance at 28° C. The expression of BON1 and a BON1-associated protein (BAP1) is modulated by temperature. Thus BON1 and BAP1 may have a direct role in regulating cell expansion and cell division at lower temperatures. BON1 contains a Ca(2+)-dependent phospholipid-binding domain and is associated with the plasma membrane. It belongs to the copine gene family, which is conserved from protozoa to humans. The data here obtained suggest that this gene family may function in the pathway of membrane trafficking in response to external conditions (Hua et al. (2001)). The major calcium-dependent, phospholipid-binding protein obtained from extracts of Paramecium tetraurelia, named copine, had a mass of 55 kDa, bound phosphatidylserine but not phosphatidylcholine at micromolar levels of calcium but not magnesium, and promoted lipid vesicle aggregation. Current sequence databases indicate the presence of multiple copine homologs in green plants, nematodes, and humans. The full-length sequences reveal that copines consist of two C2 domains at the N terminus followed by a domain similar to the A domain that mediates interactions between integrins and extracellular ligands. The association with secretory vesicles, as well the general ability of copines to bind phospholipid bilayers in a calcium-dependent manner, suggests that these proteins may function in membrane trafficking (Creutz et al. (1998)).
At5g49160 Showing Homology to Cytosine Methyltransferase
 DNMT3L is a regulator of imprint establishment of normally methylated maternal genomic sequences. DNMT3L shows high similarity to the de novo DNA methyltransferases, DNMT3A and DNMT3B, however, the amino acid residues needed for DNA cytosine methyltransferase activity have been lost from the DNMT3L protein sequence. Apart from methyltransferase activity, Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b serve as transcriptional repressors associating with histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. DNMT3L can also repress transcription by binding directly to HDAC1 protein. PHD-like zinc finger of the ATRX domain is the main repression motif of DNMT3L, through which DNMT3L recruits the HDAC activity needed for transcriptional silencing. DNMT3L as a co-repressor protein and suggest that a transcriptionally repressed chromatin organisation through HDAC activity is needed for establishment of genomic imprints (Aapola et al. (2002)). More background information on this type of gene can be found in Chen, T. et al. (2002); Bartee, L. and Bender, J. (2001); Freitag M. et al. (2002). In Arabidopsis a SWI2/SNF2 chromatin remodeling factor-related protein DDM1 and a cytosine methyltransferase MET1 is required for maintenance of genomic cytosine methylation. Mutations in either gene cause global demethylation. There are also effects of these mutations on the PAI tryptophan biosynthetic gene family, which consists of four densely methylated genes arranged as a tail-to-tail inverted repeat plus two unlinked singlet genes. The methylation mutations caused only partial demethylation of the PAI loci: ddm1 had a strong effect on the singlet genes but a weaker effect on the inverted repeat, whereas met1 had a stronger effect on the inverted repeat than on the singlet genes. The double ddm1 met1 mutant also displayed partial demethylation of the PAI genes, with a pattern similar to the ddm1 single mutant. To determine the relationship between partial methylation and expression for the singlet PAI2 gene a novel reporter strain of Arabidopsis was constructed, in which PAI2 silencing could be monitored by a blue fluorescent plant phenotype diagnostic of tryptophan pathway defects. This reporter strain revealed that intermediate levels of methylation correlate with intermediate suppression of the fluorescent phenotype. Other background information can be found in Finnegan, E. J. and Kovac K. A. (2000). Plant DNA methyltransferases. DNA methylation is an important modification of DNA that plays a role in genome management and in regulating gene expression during development. Methylation is carried out by DNA methyltransferases which catalyse the transfer of a methyl group to bases within the DNA helix. Plants have at least three classes of cytosine methyltransferase which differ in protein structure and function. The METI family, homologues of the mouse Dnmtl methyltransferase, most likely function as maintenance methyltransferases, but may also play a role in de novo methylation. The chromomethylases, which are unique to plants, may preferentially methylate DNA in heterochromatin; the remaining class, with similarity to Dnmt3 methyltransferases of mammals, are putative de novo methyltransferases. The various classes of methyltransferase may show differential activity on cytosines in different sequence contexts. Chromomethylases may preferentially methylate cytosines in CpNpG sequences while the Arabidopsis METI methyltransferase shows a preference for cytosines in CpG sequences. Additional proteins, for example DDM1, a member of the SNF2/SWI2 family of chromatin remodeling proteins, are also required for methylation of plant DNA.
At5g54940 Showing Homology to Translation Initiation Factor (Translational Initiation Factor eIF1),
 Protein synthesis has not been considered to be fundamental in the control of cell proliferation. However, data are emerging on the involvement of this process in cell growth and tumorigenesis. Protein biosynthesis is a central process in all living cells. It is one of the last steps in the transmission of genetic information stored in DNA on the basis of which proteins are produced to maintain the specific biological function of a given cell. Protein synthesis takes place on ribosomal particles where the genetic information transcribed into mRNA is translated into protein. The process of protein synthesis on the ribosome consists of three phases: initiation, elongation and termination. Brassinosteroids (BRs) regulate the expression of numerous genes associated with plant development, and require the activity of a Ser/Thr receptor kinase to realize their effects. In animals, the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family of peptides acts via Ser/Thr receptor kinases to have a major impact on several pathways involved in animal development and adult homeostasis. TGF-beta receptor-interacting protein (TRIP-1) was previously shown by others to be an intracellular substrate of the TGF-beta type II receptor kinase which plays an important role in TGF-beta signaling. TRIP-1 is a WD-repeat protein that also has a dual role as an essential subunit of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF3 in animals, yeast and plants, thereby revealing a putative link between a developmental signaling pathway and the control of protein translation. In yeast, expression of a TRIP-1 homolog has also been closely associated with cell proliferation and progression through the cell cycle. Transcript levels of TRIP-1 homologs in plants are regulated by BR treatment under a variety of conditions, and transgenic plants expressing antisense TRIP-1 RNA exhibit a broad range of developmental defects, including some that resemble the phenotype of BR-deficient and -insensitive mutants. This correlative evidence suggests that a WD-domain protein with reported dual functions in vertebrates and fungi might mediate some of the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of plant growth and development by BRs (Jiang and Clouse (2001)). The Arabidopsis COP9 signalosome is a multisubunit repressor of photomorphogenesis that is conserved among eukaryotes. This complex may have a general role in development. association between components of the COP9 signalosome (CSN1, CSN7, and CSN8) and two subunits of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3), eIF3e (p48, known also as INT-6) and eIF3c (p105). AteIF3e coimmunoprecipitated with CSN7, and eIF3c coimmunoprecipitated with eIF3e, eIF3b, CSN8, and CSN1. eIF3e directly interacted with CSN7 and eIF3c. eIF3e and eIF3c are probably components of multiple complexes and that eIF3e and eIF3c associate with subunits of the COP9 signalosome, even though they are not components of the COP9 signalosome bore complex. This interaction may allow for translational control by the COP9 signalosome (Yahalom et al. (2001)).
At5g56740 Showing Homology to Histone Acetyl Transferase HATB
 Transforming viral proteins such as EIA which force quiescent cells into S phase have two essential cellular target proteins, Rb and CBP/p300. Rb regulates the G1/S transition by controlling the transcription factor E2F. CBP/p300 is a transcriptional co-activator with intrinsic histone acetyl-transferase activity. This activity is regulated in a cell cycle dependent manner and shows a peak at the G1/S transition. CBP/p300 is essential for the activity of E2F, a transcription factor that controls the G1/S transition. It was found that CBP HAT activity is required both for the G1/S transition and for E2F activity. Thus CBP/p300 seems to be a versatile protein involved in opposing cellular processes, which raises the question of how its multiple activities are regulated (Ait-Si-Ali, S. et al (2000)). The BRCA2 is a histone acetyltransferase. Two potential functions of BRCA2 were proposed which includes role in the regulation of transcription and also in DNA repair. Forty-five-amino acid region encoded by exon 3 of BRCA2 was shown to have transcriptional activation function. Recent studies of the several enzymes involved in acetylation and deacetylation of histone residues have revealed a possible relationship between gene transcriptional activation and histone acetylation. Since BRCA2 appear to function as a transcriptional factor, Histone acetyl transferase (HAT) activity of BRCA2 was tested. Also, evidence that BRCA2 has intrinsic HAT activity, which maps to the amino-terminal region of BRCA2, was presented. It was demonstrated that BRCA2 proteins acetylate primarily H3 and H4 of free histones. These observations suggest that HAT activity of BRCA2 may play an important role in the regulation of transcription and tumor suppressor function (Siddique et al. (1998)). These types of genes are very important for regulation of genes involved in development, cell cycle control, and chromatin structure.
At5g61520 Showing Homology to STP3 Sucrose Transporter
 For developing seeds of grain legumes, photoassimilates released to the seed apoplasm from maternal seed coats are retrieved by abaxial epidermal and subepidermal cells (dermal cell complexes) of cotyledons followed by symplasmic passage to their underlying storage parenchyma cells. In some species, the cells of these complexes differentiate into transfer cells (e.g. broad bean and pea, Patrick and Offler, 2001). Sucrose is a major component of the photoassimilates delivered to cotyledons (Patrick and Offler, 2001; Weber et al., 1997b). Sucrose transporter (SUT) genes have been cloned, and functionally characterized as sucrose/H+ symporters, from developing cotyledons of broad bean (VfSUT1, Weber et al., 1997a) and pea (PsSUT1, Tegeder et al., 1999). SUTs and P-type H+-ATPases have been shown to co-localize to plasma membranes of dermal cell complexes in developing cotyledons of broad bean (Harrington et al., 1997; Weber et al., 1997a) and French bean (Tegeder et al., 2000). In contrast, for pea cotyledons, SUT is also present in storage parenchyma cells, but is 4-fold less active than SUT(s) localized to epidermal transfer cells (Tegeder et al., 1999). These type of genes are Important for seed filling.
At5g66210 Showing Homology to Calcium Dependent Protein Kinase
 In plants, numerous Ca(2+)-stimulated protein kinase activities occur through calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs). These novel calcium sensors are likely to be crucial mediators of responses to diverse endogenous and environmental cues. However, the precise biological function(s) of most CDPKs remains elusive. The Arabidopsis genome is predicted to encode 34 different CDPKs. The Arabidopsis CDPK gene family was analyzed and the expression, regulation, and possible functions of plant CDPKs was reviewed. By combining emerging cellular and genomic technologies with genetic and biochemical approaches, the characterization of Arabidopsis CDPKs provides a valuable opportunity to understand the plant calcium-signaling network (Cheng et al., 2002). These type of genes are Important for stress signaling.
At2g25970 Showing Homology to KH RNA Binding Domain
 Lorkovic and Barta (2002) described RNA recognition motif (RRM) and K homology (KH) domain RNA-binding proteins from the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The most widely spread motifs are the RNA recognition motif (RRM) and the K homology (KH) domain. The Arabidopsis genome encodes 196 RRM-containing proteins, a more complex set than found in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. In addition, the Arabidopsis genome contains 26 KH domain proteins. Most of the Arabidopsis RRM-containing proteins can be classified into structural and/or functional groups, based on similarity with either known metazoan or Arabidopsis proteins. Approximately 50% of Arabidopsis RRM-containing proteins do not have obvious homologues in metazoa, and for most of those that are predicted to be orthologues of metazoan proteins, no experimental data exist to confirm this. Additionally, the function of most Arabidopsis RRM proteins and of all KH proteins is unknown. The higher complexity of RNA-binding proteins in Arabidopsis, as evident in groups of SR splicing factors and poly(A)-binding proteins, may account for the observed differences in mRNA maturation between plants and metazoa. The function of this type of genes is largely unknown, but could be related to PUMILIO genes from Drosophila. Important for regulation of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level, role in development, stress tolerance.
At3g07800 Showing Homology to Thymidine Kinase
 This type of thymidine kinase genes is cell cycle regulated, E2F regulated, is responsible for production of thymidine triphosphate. This type of gene plays a role as a precursor for DNA synthesis and is therefore a marker of S phase.
At5g47370 Showing Homology to Homeobox Leucine Zipper Protein.
 This type of homeobox genes is important for development and growth and also for stress tolerance. At5g47370 is homeobox-leucine zipper protein HAT2 (HD-ZIP protein 2). Homeobox genes are known as transcriptional regulators that are involved in various aspects of developmental processes in many organisms. Homeodomain transcription factors regulate fundamental body plan of plants during embryogenesis, as well as morphogenetic events in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) after embryogenesis. HOX1 belongs to the subset of homeodomain leucine zipper (HD-zip) and is involved in the regulation of vascular development (Scarpella at al., 2000; Meijer et al., 2000). The sequences for the rice OsHOX1 orthologue are deposited in Genbank under the accession number X96681 (cDNA) and CAA65456.2 (protein), which sequences are both herein incorporated by reference.
 MYB-like DNA binding proteins are involved in the control of specific developmental steps in different organs. OSMYB1 binds to a seed specific element in the seed storage protein glutelin, is expressed in endosperm of rice seeds, and plays an important role during seed maturation (Suzuki et al., 1997).
 NAC domain containing genes, such as NO APICAL MERISTEM in petunia and CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON2 and NAP in Arabidopsis, have crucial functions in plant development (Kikuchi et al., 2000). These genes are involved in the control of organ primordium delimitation and lateral organ development. It has also been recently shown that a member of the NAC family of transcription factor can induces formation of ectopic shoots on cotyledons (Daimon et al., 2003).
AAD37699 Rice Homeodomain Leucine Zipper Protein HOX6 (Partial)
 Homeobox genes are known as transcriptional regulators that are involved in various aspects of developmental processes in many organisms. Homeodomain transcription factors regulate fundamental body plan of plants during embryogenesis, as well as morphogenetic events in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) after embryogenesis. HOX6 is a homologue of the Arabidopsis homeobox gene Athb-12 (Lee et al., 2001). Athb-12 is a transcriptional activator important in regulating certain developmental processes as well as in the plant's response to water stress involving ABA-mediated gene expression. At3g61890 is the Arabidopsis sequence corresponding with the rice HOX6 sequence of AAD37699.
AK104073 OsMYB Predicted
 This gene is homologous to the Arabidopsis gene CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED (CCA1) gene that encodes a related MYB transcription factor, which regulates circadian rhythms (Carre et Kim, 2002). This gene as well as the MYB homologue, regulate the period of circadian rhythms in gene expression and leaf movements.
NMR Study of E2Fa/DPa Overexpressing Plants
 In support of the microarray studies identifying the increased or decreased expression level of E2F-target genes in E2Fa-DPa overexpressing plants, the effects of E2Fa/DPa overexpression on the protein level and ultimately on the level of metabolites were studied via the techniques of metabolomics. Metabolomics means qualitative and quantitative analysis of the metabolites present at a certain time in a cell culture or a whole biological tissue. Metabolites, as designated here, are small molecular weight molecules (typically under 1000 Daltons), of which many are already known (such as urea, lipids, glucose or certain small hormones) while others are still to be identified. Metabolites are the final product of the protein content of the cell. The main methods used to detect and quantify of those molecules are mass spectrometry or NMR spectroscopy (Nicholson et al., 2002) after extraction and purification of the metabolites from the organism.
 Now NMR spectroscopy on whole organisms has been performed. The recording of spectra of the metabolites was possible without any prior purification of the plant material. Hereto, the samples were spun at the magic angle. This technique, dubbed "High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning" (HRMAS) NMR, has now been used on intact plantlets. 1H-13C HSQC spectra were recorded on intact wild-type and E2Fa/DPa overexpressing plantlets of Arabidopsis thaliana, and monitored the changes in metabolite pattern. From the spectra, a shift in the metabolome of E2Fa/DPa overexpressing plants when compared to wild-type plants, was observed. These spectra are processed in order to map the observed metabolic differences.
Molecular and Phenotypic Analysis of Arabidopisis Plants Transformed with The Genes According to the Present Invention
 Arabidopsis thaliana plants are transformed with at least one of the genes of the present invention as presented in Table 4 or 5, operably linked to a plant promoter.
 In one example, Arabidopsis plants were transformed with the genes as presented in Table 6.
 The vectors used ware derived from the expression vector pK7WGD2, carrying the CaMV35S promoter for expression of the gene. For transformation, the flower dip method described by Bechtold and Pelletier (1998) was used.
TABLE-US-00005 TABLE 6 Genes that were selected and transformed into Arabidopsis CODE AGI GENE PRIMERS PCR pDONR207 PK7WGD2 Flower dip 1 At1g33960 AIG1 282 + 283 2 At1g21690 Putative replication factor 284 + 285 OK OK 3 At3g23250 Myb transcription factor 286 + 287 4 At5g08450 Unknown 288 + 289 OK OK OK (clone1) OK 5 At3g45730 Unknown 290 + 291 OK OK OK (clone4) OK 6 At1g56150 Unknown 292 + 293 7 At5g66580 Unknown 294 + 295 OK OK OK OK 8 At4g33050 Unknown 296 + 297 OK OK OK OK 9 At1g76970 Unknown 298 + 299 OK partieel OK (clone4) 10 At2g41780 Unknown 300 + 301 OK OK OK (clone1) OK 11 At5g14530 WD40 repeat protein 302 + 303 OK OK OK OK A At3g02550 Unknown 310 + 311 OK OK OK (A10.7) OK B At5g47370 homeobox-leucine zipper 312 + 313 OK OK OK (clone4) OK protein-like C At1g57680 Unknown 314 + 315 OK D At1g07000 leucine zipper-containing 316 + 317 OK OK OK protein E At2g22430 homeodomain TF Athb-6 318 + 319 OK OK OK (clone1) OK F At4g28330 Unknown 320 + 321 OK OK OK (clone4) OK G At3g23750 receptor kinase 322 + 323 OK OK H At5g66210 Ca-dep kinase 324 + 325 OK OK OK (clone2) OK I At4g02680 Unknown 326 + 327 OK (clone4) OK J At2g30590 worky74 328 + 329 OK OK OK (clone2) OK K At2g46650 Unknown 330 + 331 L At2g47440 Unknown 332 + 333 OK OK OK (clone5) OK M At2g15510 Unknown 334 + 335 12 At5g56740 Histone acetylase HAT B 348 + 349 OK OK OK OK 13 At3g24320 Putative mismatch binding 350 + 351 OK OK OK (13,4) OK protein 14 At4g00730 Anthocyaninless2 352 + 353 15 At1g23030 arm-repeat containing protein 354 + 355 OK OK OK (clone11) OK 16 At5g54380 receptor-protein kinase-like 356 + 357 protein 17 At1g72180 putative leucine-rich receptor- 358 + 359 OK OK OK OK like protein kinase 18 At1g61100 Unknown 360 + 361 OK OK OK (18,1) OK 19 At2g25970 Unknown 362 + 363 OK OK OK OK 20 At2g38310 Unknown 364 + 365 OK OK OK OK 21 At3g45970 Unknown 366 + 367 OK OK OK (21,3) OK Code: internal reference code of the gene; AGI: accession number of the protein in the internal dataset, here with reference to the MIPS database accession number; Gene: name of the protein; primers: PCR primers used to isolate the ORF of the gene by RT-PCR using cDNA; prepared form E2Fa-DPa overexpressing plants; PCR: PCR completed successfully; pDONR207: cloning in this vector completed (www.invitrogen.com); pK7WGD2: cloning of the genes in the vector under control of the CaMV 35S promoter (Karimi et al., Trends Plant Sci. 2002 May; 7(5): 193-5); Flower dip: transformation of Arabidopsis plants with the pK7WGD2 vector.
 The transformed Arabidopsis plants are evaluated as described below.
 After molecular analysis (PCR, RT-PCR, Western-blot, southern-blot, Northern blot, NMR), the plants with modified E2F target gene expression levels, are submitted to phenotypic analysis. Special attention is given to root growth and leaf development.
 The root of A. thaliana, which has a rather constant diameter and rather uncomplicated radial symmetry, is a perfect model system for studying and determining the effects of modulation of expression levels of an E2F-target on an intact, growing tissue.
 The root of A. thaliana comprises a thick unicellular layer of the epidermis cells, one of cortex cells, one of endodermis cells and one of pericyclus cells that circumvent the vascular tube. Because of its transparency, the root of A. thaliana, these cellular layers can be visualized by interference contrast microscopy. By this means the origin of the cells in a specific cell layer can be traced back to a set of dividing mother cells in the meristem (Dolan et al., 1993). By measurement of the cell length of a specific cell layer in function of the distance to the root tip, and the rate of movement of the cells away from the root tip (measured via time-laps photography), it is possible to determine the contribution of both the cell elongation as well as of cell division to the total root growth (Beemster and Baskin, 1998).
 The effects of the E2F-target overexpression in the leaves is determined via microscopic techniques after clearance of the leaves of lactic acid. This analysis is performed on the first developed leaf pear, since this leaf pear is most comparable between different plants. By measurement of the cell number and the number of epidermal cells at different time points during leaf development, it is deduced when the leaf cells stop to divide, when they start to differentiate, the duration of their cell cycle is, and their final cell size (De Veylder of al., 2001a and b). Moreover, this method allows the analysis of the effect of E2F target overexpression on the formation of stomata.
 The effect of the E2F-target overexpression is also studied via biochemical means. Functional assays are developed for the specific enzymatic activity of the studied E2F-target gene. These functional methods are based on expression of a reported gene in case the E2F-target is in itself a transcription activator or repressor. Functional assays are based on the incorporation of radioactive nitrogen or radioactive carbon or other radiolabelled metabolites when the enzyme is involved in the nitrogen or carbon metabolisms or other processes involving metabolites. By the comparison of the incorporated radioactivity between the control line and the transgenic line, the enzymatic activity of the E2F-target can be measured.
 Functional assays are based on the incorporation of radioactive ATP, radioactive purines or pyrimidines when the enzyme is involved in DNA replication and/or modification. Functional assays are based on labeled carbohydrates when the enzyme is involved in cell wall biogenesis, or ATP when the enzyme is involved in processes of the chloroplast, or calcium when the enzyme is involved in signal transduction.
 In A. thaliana, besides the mitotic cell cycle also an alternative cell cycle is observed, in which DNA is replicated in the absence of mitosis or cytokinesis. This so-called endoreduplication process occurs often in plants. Until today, the physiological significance of endoreduplication is unknown. Possibly, it is a mechanism to increase the number of DNA copies per cell, which allows more transcription. In support of this hypothesis, endoreduplication often occurs in cells with high metabolic activity (Nagl, 1976). However, as a consequence of endoreduplication the cells are bigger, which is especially useful for increasing yield of cytoplasmatic component, for example storage proteins of the seed cells.
 To study the effects of E2F-target overexpression on the process of endoreduplication, the DNA content of the control plants and the transgenic plant is measured via flow-cytometry. A more detailed analysis is obtained by measuring the DNA content of individual cells colored with DNA-binding fluorochrome (e.g. DAPI). The intensity of the color of the nucleus is in proportion with its DNA content. Relative DNA-measurements can be obtained via a microdensitometer. This technique allows determining a specific tissue the endoreduplication pattern of the transgenic plants.
Use of the Invention in Corn
 The invention described herein can also be used in maize. To this aim, a gene according to the present invention as presented in Table 4 or 5, for example a gene selected from Tables 1 or 2, or a gene selected from the group described in Example 8, or a gene selected from the group presented in Table 6 or 7, or a homologue thereof such as for example a maize ortholog or a rice ortholog, is cloned under control of a promoter operable in maize, in a plant transformation vector suited for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of corn. These constructs are designed for overexpression or for downregulation. In a series of experiments, genes selected from Table 5 (downregulated in E2Fa/DP transgenics) are overexpressed in transgenic corn and genes selected from Table 4 (upregulated in E2Fa-DPa overexpressing plants) are downregulated in transgenic corn. Suitable promoter for driving expression of the genes of the present invention are as presented in Tables I, II, III and IV or in Table V.
 Suitable promoter for driving expression of the genes of the present invention in corn are the rice GOS2 promoter or any other promoter as mentioned herein above. Vectors useful for expression of one or more E2F targets according to the present invention are standard binary vectors, such as the pPZP vector described in Hajdukiewicz et al., ((1994) Plant Mol Biol 25: 989-994) or a superbinary vector. Vectors and methods to use Agrobactorium-mediated transformation of maize have been described in literature (Ishida et al., Nat. Biotechnol. 1996 June; 14(6):745-50; Frame et al., Plant Physiol. 2002 May; 129(1):13-22) and are herein incorporated by reference. Transgenic plants made by these methods are grown in the greenhouse for T1 seed production. Inheritability and copy number of the transgene are checked by quantitative real-time PCR and Southern blot analysis and expression levels of the transgene are determined by reverse PCR and Northern analysis. Transgenic lines with single copy insertions of the transgene and with varying levels of transgene expression are selected for T2 seed production. Progeny seeds are germinated and grown in the greenhouse in conditions well adapted for maize (16:8 photoperiod, 26-28° C. daytime temperature and 22-24° C. nighttime temperature) as well under water-deficient, nitrogen-deficient, and excess NaCl conditions. Null segregants from the same parental line, as well as wild type plants of the same cultivar are used as controls. The progeny plants resulting from the selfing or the crosses are evaluated on different growth parameters, such as biomass and developmental parameters. These parameters include stem size, number of leaves, total above ground area, leaf greenness, time to maturity, flowering time, time to flower, ear number, harvesting time. The seeds of these lines are also checked on various parameters, such as grain size, total grain yield (number and/or weight) per plant, and grain quality (starch content, protein content and oil content). Lines that are most significantly improved versus the controls for any of the above-mentioned parameters are selected for further field-testing and marker-assisted breeding, with the objective of transferring the field-validated transgenic traits into commercial germplasm. Methods for testing maize for growth and yield-related parameters in the field are well established in the art, as are techniques for introgressing specific loci (such as transgene containing loci) from one germplasm into another. Corn plants according to the present invention have changed growth characteristics compared to the wild-type plants, such as for example any one or more of increased biomass, increased yield, increased number and/or size of organs (including seeds), increased harvest index, increased rate of growth and/or development (e.g. decreased cycling time, decreased time to harvest, early flowering), increased tolerance to environmental stress conditions (e.g. tolerance to salt, drought and/or cold).
Rice Transformation with the Genes According to the Present Invention
 In a particular example of the present invention, the genes as identified above in Tables 4 and 5, or an orthologue from another plant, for example the rice orthologue, is transformed into rice. In particular, the genes as presented in Tables 6 and 7, or the rice orthologues are cloned into a plant expression vector operably linked to a promoter for overexpression or downregulation of these genes.
 The genes as represented in Table 7 are cloned into a plant expression vector operably linked to a GOS2 promoter for overexpression or downregulation. For overexpression these genes are cloned in the sense orientation and for downregulation a hairpin construct as described in Wesley et al., (2001) is made. Other promoters that are used to drive expression of these genes are other constitutive promoters, such as for example the ubiquitin promoter or PRO170 (high mobility group protein), or PRO61 (beta expansin promoter). Also tissue specific promoters are used to drive expression of the genes of the present invention in rice, such as for example promoters specific for meristem (PRO120: metallothionein), or vegetative tissue (PRO123: protochlorophyllid reductase), PRO173: cytoplasmic malate deshydrogenase); or endosperm (PRO90: prolamin, PRO135: alpha globulin), or embryo PRO218: oleosin, PRO151: WSI18, PRO200: OSH1, PRO175: RAB21; or the whole seed (PRO58: proteinase inhibitor), or any other promoter described herein above. The vectors used are plant transformation vector suited for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of rice, such as for example binary vectors of the pCAMBIA type or super binary vectors. Such vectors and methods for rice transformation have been described in literature by Aldemita and Hodges (1996) Chan et al., (1993), Hiei et al. (1994) or in EP1198985 and which teachings herein incorporated by reference.
TABLE-US-00006 TABLE 7 genes (presented by their encoded proteins) selected for rice transformation >CDS3435 NP_176081.1 At1g57680 SEQ ID NO (Arabidopsis) 1 and 2 MPLTKLVPDAFGVVTICLVALLVLLGLLCIAYSFYFQSH VRKQGYIQLGYFSGPWIIRITFILFAIWWAVGEIFRLSL LRRHRRLLSGLDLRWQENVCKWYIVSNLGFAEPCLFLTL MFLLRAPLKMESGALSGKVVNRDTAGYIILYCLPMLALQ LAVVLSESRLNGGSGSYVKLPHDFTRTYSRVIIDHDEVA LCTYPLLSTILLGVFAAVLTAYLFWLGRQILKLVINKRL QKRVYTLIFSVSSFLPLRIVMLCLSVLTAADKIIFEALS FLAFLSLFCFCVVSICLLVYFPVSDSMALRGLRDTDDED TAVTEERSGALLLAPNSSQTDEGLSLRGRRDSGSSTQER YVELSLFLEAEN >CDS3436 BAC42858.1 At3g45730 SEQ ID NO (Arabidopsis) 3 and 4 MELPSPYSSRKEESTVPPKRGRVKIMIFRDLVRSETSMA PTPRRGRIKKMIAGDLVGSGKQNNYDGDGKRGG >CDS3449 BAA23337.1 OS MYB1 (Rice) SEQ ID NO MGRSPCCEKAHTNKGAWTKEEDQRLIAYIRAHGEGCWRS 5 and 6 LPKAAGLLRCGKSCRLRWMNYLRPDLKRGNFTDDEDELI IRLHSLLGNKWSLIAGQLPGRIDNEIKNYWNTHIKRKLL ARGIDPQTHRPLLSGGDGIAASNKRHHRRRIPYPSRRRR RPRRSSPCEAAAAAAPGRLLGRRLPQQQRHNEHGGAAVP RPQPRALGRADAELAAGGDAHQRAAGLPLLPPRLPRRGG VQLSG >CDS3448 BAA89798.1 OsNAC4 (rice) SEQ ID NO MAAAVGGSGRRDAEAELNLPPGFRFHPTDEELVVHYLCR 7 and 8 KVARQPLPVPIIAEVDLYKLDPWDLPEKALFGRKEWYFF TPRDRKYPNGSRPNRAAGRGYVVKATGADKPVAPKGSAR TVGIKKALVFYSGKAPRGVKTDWIMHEYRLADADRAPGG KKGSQKLDEWVLCRLYNKKNNWEKVKLEQQDVASVAAAA PRNHHHQNGEVMDAAAADTMSDSFQTHDSDIDNASAGLR HGGCGGGGFGDVAPPRNGFVTVKEDNDWFTGLNFDELQP PYMMNLQHMQMQMVNPAAPGHDGGYLQSISSPQMKMWQT ILPPF >CDS3447 AAD37699.1 OS Homeodomain SEQ ID NO leucine zipper protein HOX6 (rice) 9 and 10 MDGEEDSEWMMMDVGGKGGKGGGGGGAADRKKRFSEEQI KSLESMFATQTKLEPRQKLQLARELGLQPRQVAIWFQNK RARWKSKQLEREYSALRDDYDALLCSYESLKKEKLALIK QLEKLAEMLQEPRGKYGDNAGDDARSGGVAGMKKEEFVG AGGAATLYSSAEGGGTSSTEQTCSSTPWWEFESE >CDS3446 AK104073 OSMYB predicted SEQ ID NO (rice) 11 and 12 MASIVTATVAAASAWWATQGLLPLFPPPIAFPFVPAPSA PFSTADVQRAQEKDIDCPMDNAQKELQETRKQDNFEAMK VIVSSETDESGKGEVSLHTELKISPADKADTKPAAGAET SDVFGNKKKQDRSSCGSNTPSSSDIEADNAPENQEKAND KAKQASCSNSSAGDNNHRRFRSSASTSDSWKEVSEEGRL AFDALFSRERLPQSFSPPQVEGSKEISKEEEDEVTTVTV DLNKNAAIIDQELDTADEPRASFPNELSNLKLKSRRTGF KPYKRCSVEAKENRVPASDEVGTKRIRLESEAST >CDS3445 NP_565887.1 At2g38310 SEQ ID NO (Arabidopsis) 13 and 14 MLAVHRPSSAVSDGDSVQIPMMIASFQKRFPSLSRDSTA ARFHTHEVGPNQCCSAVIQEISAPISTVWSVVRRFDNPQ AYKHFLKSCSVIGGDGDNVGSLRQVHVVSGLPAASSTER LDILDDERHVISFSVVGGDHRLSNYRSVTTLHPSPISGT VVVESYVVDVPPGNTKEETCDFVDVIVRCNLQSLAKIAE NTAAESKKKMSL >CDS3444 NP_565703.1 At2g30590WRKY SEQ ID NO family transcription factor 15 and 16 (Arabidopsis) MEEIEGTNRAAVESCHRVLNLLHRSQQQDHVGFEKNLVS ETREAVIRFKRVGSLLSSSVGHARFRRAKKLQSHVSQSL LLDPCQQRTTEVPSSSSQKTPVLRSGFQELSLRQPSDSL TLGTRSFSLNSNAKAPLLQLNQQTMPPSNYPTLFPVQQQ QQQQQQQQQQEQQQQQQQQQQQFHERLQAHHLHQQQQLQ KHQAELMLRKCNGGISLSFDNSSCTPTMSSTRSFVSSLS IDGSVANIEGKNSFHFGVPSSTDQNSLHSKRKCPLKGDE HGSLKCGSSSRCHCAKKRKHRVRRSIRVPAISNKVADIP PDDYSWRKYGQKPIKGSPYPRGYYKCSSMRGCPARKHVE RCLEDPAMLIVTYEAEHNHPKLPSQAITT >CDS3443 NP_849867.1 At1g69510 SEQ ID NO (Arabidopsis) 17 and 18 MEDVKGKEIIDDAPIDNKVSDEMESEENAIKKKYGGLLP KKIPLISKDHERAFFDSADWALGKQKGQKPKGPLEALRP KLQPTPQQQPRARRMAYSSGETEDTEIDNNEAPDDQACA SAVDSTNLKDDGGAKDNIKS >CDS3442 NP_564615.3 At1g52870 SEQ ID NO (Arabidopsis) 19 and 20 MAAASLHTSISPRSFLPLSKPSLKPHRSQILLRNKQRNC VSCALIRDEIDLIPVQSRDRTDHEEGSVVVMSTETAVDG NESVVVGFSAATSEGQLSLEGFPSSSSSGADLGDEKRRE NEEMEKMIDRTINATIVLAAGSYAITKLLTIDHDYWHGW TLFEILRYAPQHNWIAYEEALKQNPVLAKMVISGVVYSV GDWIAQCYEGKPLFEIDRARTLRSGLVGFTLHGSLSHFY YQFCEELFPFQDWWVVPVKVAFDQTVWSAIWNSIYFTVL GFLRFESPISIFKELKATFLPMLTAGWKLWPFAHLITYG LVPVEQRLLWVDCVELIWVTILSTYSNEKSEARISESVI ETSSSSTTTIDPSKE >CDS3441 NP_849293.1 At4g02920 SEQ ID NO (Arabidopsis) 21 and 22 MIKLCFMTSHGYSIPGLGLPQDLCNTEIIKQNSRSHLVN PGARQEIIPASSFNLNTELLEPVKPVSSFSQFVEIDSAM MKPLLMDVHETAPESLILSFGIADKFARQEKVMEFLLSQ SEEFKEKGFDMSLLNELMEFESMKSSSQLRPYDTSSVLY LNQELGKPVLDLVRDMMENPEFSVRSNGHVLFSSSSNPE LNDLLSIASEFNLSRNSTTKWRQLSPLIPHFQRFESDVF TPAKLKAVTVLAPLKSPEKSRLKSPRKHNTKRKAKERDL YKRNHLHAYESLLSLMIGNDHRHKHTTVLSLQKSCGELS ELLTQFSITAAGTGIAVLFSVVCSLASRRVPFCANKFFD TGLGLSLVILSWAVNRLREVIVHVNRKANKPCSSLKDDE IINSVERSMKEVYYRAATVIAVFALRFAC >CDS3440 AAM91100.1 At1g45200 SEQ ID NO (Arabidopsis) 23 and 24 MSKTNMKFCNSYFLVDPTKASFLDLLLLLFSSNLTSARF IDSPPDTLKGFRRSFASRWILALAIFLQKVLMLLSKPFA FIGQKLTYWLNLLTANGGFFNLILNLMSGKLVKPDKSSA TYTSFIGCSDRRIELDEKINVGSIEYKSMLSIMASKISY ESKPYITSVVKNTWKMDLVGNYDFYNAFQESKLTQAFVF KTSSTNPDLIVVSFRGTEPFEAADWCTDLDLSWYEMKNV GKVHAGFSRALGLQKDGWPKENISLLHQYAYYTIRQMLR DKLGRNKNLKYILTGHSLGGALAALFPAILAIHGEDELL DKLEGIYTFGQPRVGDEDFGEFMKGVVKKHGIEYERFVY NNDVVPRVPFDDKYLFSYKHYGPCNSFNSLYKGKVREDA PNANYFNLLWLIPQLLTGLWEFIRSFILQFWKGDEYKEN WLMRFVRVVGIVFPGGSNHFPFDYVNSTRLGGLVRPPPT TTPEDKLALIA
 Transgenic plants generated by these rice transformation methods are evaluated for various growth characteristics. More particularly, the transgenic plants are evaluated and the following parameters are monitored: increased total above ground biomass, increased plant height, increased number of tillers, increased number of first panicles, increased number of second panicles, increased total number of seeds, increased number of filled seeds, increased total seed yield (weight) per plant, increased harvest index, increased thousand kernel weight, increased Tmid, increased T45 or A90, increased A42, changed cycling time or an changed growth curve, changed flowering time.
 Plants with increase biomass, increased organ number and/or size (including seeds) and or any other economically attractive growth characteristics as found by the following plant evaluation protocol, are selected to transferring the transgenic traits into commercial germplasm.
Evaluation Protocol for T0, T1 and T2 Transgenic Rice Plants Transformed with an E2F Target Gene According to the Present Invention
 Approximately 15 to 20 independent T0 rice transformants are generated. The primary transformants are transferred from tissue culture chambers to a greenhouse for growing and harvest of T1 seed. Approximately 6 events, of which the T1 progeny segregated 3:1 for presence/absence of the transgene, are retained. For each of these events, approximately 10 T1 seedlings containing the transgene (hetero- and homo-zygotes), and approximately 10 T1 seedlings lacking the transgene (nullizygotes), are selected by monitoring screenable marker expression.
 2 events with improved agronomical parameters in T1 are chosen for re-evaluation in T2 generation. Seed batches from the positive plants (both hetero- and homozygotes) in T1, are screened by monitoring marker expression. For each chosen event, the heterozygote seed batches are then selected for T2 evaluation. An equal number of positives and negatives within each seed batch are transplanted for evaluation in the greenhouse. The total number of 120 transformed plants is evaluated in the T2 generation. More particularly, two transformed events are selected, 60 plants per event of which 30 positives for the transgene, and 30 negative. T1 and T2 plants are transferred to the greenhouse and evaluated for vegetative growth parameters and seed parameters, as described hereunder.
Statistical Analysis: t-Test and F-Test
 A two factor ANOVA (analysis of variants) is used as statistical model for the overall evaluation of plant phenotypic characteristics. An F-test is carried out on all the parameters measured, for all of the plants of all of the events transformed with the gene of interest. The F-test is carried out to check for an effect of the gene over all the transformation events and to determine the overall effect of the gene or "global gene effect". Significant data, as determined by the value of the F-test, indicates a "gene" effect, meaning that the phenotype observed is caused by more than the presence or position of the gene. In the case of the F-test, the threshold for significance for a global gene effect is set at a 5% probability level.
 To check for an effect of the gene within an event, i.e., for a line-specific effect, a t-test is performed within each event using data sets from the transgenic plants and the corresponding null plants. "Null plants" or "Null segregants" are the plants treated in the same way as the transgenic plant, but from which the transgene has segregated. Null plants can also be described as the homozygous negative transformants. The threshold for significance for the t-test is set at 10% probability level. Within one population of transformation events, some events can be under or above this t-test threshold. This is based on the hypothesis that a gene might only have an effect in certain positions in the genome, and that the occurrence of this position-dependent effect is not uncommon. This kind of gene effect may also be referred to as a "line effect of a gene". The p-value is obtained by comparing the t-value to the t-distribution or alternatively, by comparing the F-value to the F-distribution. The p-value stands for the probability that the null hypothesis (null hypothesis being "there is no effect of the transgene") is correct.
Vegetative Growth Measurements:
 The selected transgenic plants are grown in a greenhouse. Each plant receives a unique barcode label to link unambiguously the phenotyping data to the corresponding plant. The selected transgenic plants are grown on soil in 10 cm diameter pots under the following environmental settings: photoperiod=11.5 h, daylight intensity=30,000 lux or more, daytime temperature=28° C. or higher, night time temperature=22° C., relative humidity=60-70%. Transgenic plants and the corresponding nullizygotes were grown side-by-side at random positions. From the stage of sowing until the stage of maturity each plant is passed several times through a digital imaging cabinet and imaged. At each time point digital images (2048×1536 pixels, 16 million colours) are taken of each plant from at least 6 different angles. The parameters described below are derived in an automated way from all the digital images of all the plants, using image analysis software.
 (a) Above ground plant area is determined by counting the total number of pixels from aboveground plant parts discriminated from the background. This value is averaged for the pictures taken on the same time point from the different angles and converted to a physical surface value expressed in square mm by calibration. Experiments show that the aboveground plant area measured this way correlates with the biomass of plant parts above ground.
 (b) Plant height is determined by the distance between the horizontal lines going through the upper pot edge and the uppermost pixel corresponding to a plant part above ground. This value is averaged for the pictures taken on the same time point from the different angles and was converted, by calibration, to a physical distance expressed in mm. Experiments showed that plant height measured this way correlate with plant height measured manually with a ruler.
 (C) Number of primary tillers is manually counted at the harvesting of the plants. The tillers are cut off at 3 cm above the pot rim. They were then counted at the cut surface. Tillers that were together in the same sheet were counted as one tiller.
 (d) Number of primary panicles. The tallest panicle and all the panicles that overlap with the tallest panicles when aligned vertically are counted manually, and considered as primary panicles.
 (e) Number of secondary panicles. The number of panicles that remained on the plant after the harvest of the primary panicles are counted and considered as secondary panicles.
 (f) Growth curve. The plant area weekly measurements are modeled to obtain a growth curve for each plant, plotted as the value of plant area (in mm2) over the time (in days). From this growth curve the following parameters are calculated.
 (g) A42 is the plant area at day 42 after sowing as predicted by the growth curve model.
 (h) Tmid is the time that a plant needs to grow and to reach 50% of the maximum plant area. Tmid is predicted from the growth curve model.
 (i) T90 is the time that a plant needs to grow and to reach 90% of the maximum plant area. T90 is predicted from the growth curve model.
Seed-Related Parameter Measurements
 The mature primary panicles of T1 and T2 plants are harvested, bagged, barcode-labelled and then dried for three days in the oven at 37° C. The panicles are then threshed and all the seeds were collected and counted. The filled husks are separated from the empty ones using an air-blowing device. The empty husks are discarded and the remaining fraction is counted again. The filled husks are weighed on an analytical balance. This procedure resulted in the set of seed-related parameters described below.
 (a) Total seed number per plant is measured by counting the number of husks harvested from a plant.
 (b) Number of filled seeds is determined by counting the number of filled husks that remained after the separation step.
 (c) Total seed yield per plant is measured by weighing all filled husks harvested from a plant.
 (d) Harvest index of plants is defined as the ratio between the total seed yield and the above ground area (mm2), multiplied by a factor 106.
 (e) Thousand Kernel Weight (TKW) of plants is a parameter extrapolated from the number of filled seeds counted, and their total weight.
 (f) TotalArea Emergence Prop. is the time when plant reach 30% of their maximum total area
 (g) TotalArea Cycle Time. is the time when plant reach 90% of their maximum total area
 Further molecular analysis is performed on the positive plants by techniques well known by the person skilled in the art such as for example RT-PCR.
TABLE-US-00007  TABLE 1 Arabidopsis Genes 2-fold or more upregulated in E2Fa/DPa plants OLD REF SEQ ID NO Fold Gene Identification accession # MIPS name cDNA PROT cDNA PROT induction E2F site Plant homologue Unknown function (14) hypothetical protein AI998042 At1g57680 1 53 433 434 2.66 rice BAB90159.1, maize AY107220.1 putative protein AI994686 At3g45730 2 54 231 232 5.14 putative protein AI994734 At5g66580 4 56 489 490 3.18 unknown protein AI999397 At2g38310 5 57 995 996 2.79 TTTGCCCC rice BAB68102.1 unknown protein AI995465 At2g47440 7 59 931 932 2.50 unknown protein AI994871 At1g76970 8 60 1193 1194 2.34 rice BAB78689.1, corn AAB00079.1 hypothetical protein, kinesin AI998366 At1g27500 9 61 393 394 2.21 rice AAL87057.1 putative protein AI996967 At4g33050 10 62 883 884 2.20 rice BAB90008.1 putative protein AI995917 At3g43690 12 64 263 264 2.18 unknown protein, kh AI993084 At2g25970 13 65 941 942 2.15 rice BAA92910.1, domain protein maize AY106526.1 unknown protein AI993077 At1g68580 14 66 937 938 2.13 rice BAC00723.1, corn AAK11516.1 putative protein, copine AI993019 At5g14420 15 67 205 206 2.05 rice BAB92575.1 hypothetical protein AI997428 At1g57990 16 68 415 416 2.02 rice BAB90042.1 unknown protein AI997827 At5g53740 17 69 2731 2732 2.01 DNA replication and modification (14) putative thymidine AI997851 At3g07800 8.44 rice AAC31168.1 kinase DNA methyltransferase AI994691 At5g49160 5.37 ATTGCCGC rice AAL77415.1, corn AAC16389.1 Msi3 AW004204 At4g35050 4.89 TTTCCCGC corn AAL33648.1 putative linker histone AI994590 At3g18035 3.31 protein putative replication AI997934 At1g21690 3.30 TTTCCCGC factor c topoisomerase 6 AI995290 At5g02820 2.62 TTTCCCGC subunit A histone H4-like protein AI999171 At3g46320 2.55 TTTGGCGC histone acetylase HATB AI998229 At5g56740 2.36 TTTCCCGC corn AAM28228.1 putative histon H1 AI996137 At1g06760 2.27 histone H2A-like protein AI995882 At4g27230 2.23 putative DNA gyrase AI995400 At3g10690 2.20 rice AAD29710.1 subunit A histone H2B-like protein AI999101 At5g59910 2.16 putative mismatch AI993280 At3g24320 2.10 rice CAD41187.1, binding protein corn AAF35250.1 adenosylhomocysteinase AI996953 At4g13940 2.07 corn AAL33588.1 Cell Cycle (2) E2Fa AJ294534 At2g36010 94.88 CDKB1; 1 D10851 At3g54180 2.60 TTTCCCGC Cell wall biogenesis (11) xyloglucan endo-1,4- AI994459 At4g30270 3.74 beta-D-glucanase (meri- 5) putative glycosyl AI999244 At1g70090 3.38 transferase alpha AI998223 At3g62720 3.26 galactosyltransferase- like protein putative xyloglucan AI999683 At3g23730 2.85 rice CAD41426.1, endotransglycosylase corn CAB510059.1 xyloglucan endo-1,4- AI998301 At4g30280 2.74 beta-D-glucanase-like protein putative xyloglucan AI994477 At1g14720 2.51 endotransglycosylase putative glycosyl AI999770 At1g24170 2.39 transferase putative UDP-glucose AI997288 At1g22400 2.34 TTTCCCGC glucosyltransferase putative AI998872 At2g15480 2.15 glucosyltransferase peroxidase AI994622 At2g38380 2.11 TTTCGCCC beta-1,3-glucanase-like AI994681 At3g55430 2.05 rice AAB37697.1, protein corn CAB96424.1 Chloroplastic genes (7) large subunit of N96785 rbcL 2713 2714 4.71 NP_051067 ribulose-1,5- bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase ribosomal protein L33 AI994194 rpl33 2715 2716 3.54 NP_051080 PSII I protein AW004203 psbI 2717 2718 2.81 NP_051074 ribosomal protein L2 AW004266 rpl2 2719 2720 2.61 NP_051099 ATP-dependent AI997947 clpP 2721 2722 2.60 NP_051083 protease subunit cytochrome B6 AI997102 petB 2723 2724 2.55 NP_051088 ATPase epsilon subunit AW004251 atpE 2725 2726 2.17 NP_051065 Mitochondrial genes (1) 26S ribosomal RNA AW004275 orf107a 2727 2728 2.87 NP_085475 protein Transcription factors (6) LOB domain protien 41 AI996685 At3g02550 3 55 1109 1110 4.01 riceBAB92193.1 WRKY transcription AI992739 At2g30590 2.78 TTTCCCCC factor 21 GATA Zn-finger protein AI995731 At3g16870 6 58 2729 2730 2.75 maize AY072149 Anthocyaninless2 AI993655 At4g00730 2.73 TTTCCCCC leucine zipper- AI995691 At1g07000 2.43 containing protein homeodomain AI999190 At2g22430 2.30 rice CAA65456.2, transcription factor corn CAB96424.1 (Athb-6) Metabolism and biogenesis (11) alcohol dehydrogenase AI998773 At1g77120 5.09 putative isocistrate AI999168 At3g21720 3.08 lyase protochlorophyllide AI993342 At4g27440 2.39 reductase, precursor suger transpoter like AI997793 At4g36670 2.27 rice AAK13147.1, protein corn AAF74568.1 NADH-dependent AI997600 At5g53460 2.25 glutamate synthase (GOGAT) nitrate reductase (NIA2) AI996208 At1g37130 2.15 pectate lyase-like AJ508995 At3g54920 2.13 protein putative sterol AI996340 At2g43420 2.10 dehydrogenase glutamine synthetase 161G19T7 At1g66200 2.06 root isozyme 1 (GS) monosaccharide AI997045 At5g61520 2.05 rice BAA83554.1, transporter STP3 corn AAF74568.1 Signal transduction (6) calcium-dependent AI996555 At5g66210 2.96 rice AAF23901.2, protein kinase corn BAA12715.1 WD-40 repeat protein AI993055 At5g14530 2.70 rice AD27557.1, corn AAA50446.1 receptor-protien kinase- AI994727 At5g54380 2.59 rice AAK63934.1, like protein corn AAB09771.1 putative phytochrome A AI998146 At1g09570 2.45 putative leucine-rich AI999651 At1g72180 2.13 rice BAC06203.1, receptor-like protein corn CAC35411.1 kinase putative receptor-like AI993298 At3g23750 2.06 rice CAA69028.1, kinase corn CAC35412.1 Others (13) putative pollen allergen AI996548 At3g45970 3.22 rice AAG13596.1, corn CAD40849.1 cold-regulated protein AW004198 At5g15970 3.03 COR6,6 phi-1-like protein AI994601 At5g64260 2.60 lipid-transfer protein-like AI998609 At5g01870 2.33 rice BAB86497.1, corn AAB06443.1 DnaJ homologue AI994551 At5g06910 2.32 ATTGGCGC blue copper binding AI996535 At5g20230 2.30 protein src-2 like protein AI998679 At1g09070 11 63 401 402 2.19 RING finger protein AI999491 At3g61460 2.14 rice BAA85438.1, corn AAL59234.1 putative Ticc22 AI993361 At3g23710 2.14 nodulin-like protein AI996322 At1g80530 2.07 rice AAM01022.1 putative resistance AI997549 At1g61100 2.06 rice AAL83695.1, protein seed imbitition protein- AI993446 At5g20250 2.05 like putative disease AI998978 At1g72900 2.04 rice AAL01163.1, resistance protein corn AAC83564.1
TABLE-US-00008 TABLE 2 Arabidopsis Genes 2-fold or more repressed in E2Fa/DPa plants OLD REF SEQ ID NO Fold Gene Identification accession # MIPS cDNA PROT cDNA PROT repression E2F site plant homologue Unknown function (35) unknown protein AI993767 At1g45200* 18 70 2741 2742 3.91 putative protein AI993468 At3g56290 19 71 1483 1484 3.38 maize AY106321.1, rice BAB93184.1 hypothetical protein, AI996374 At1g61890 21 73 2599 2600 2.78 multidrug efflux protein unknown protein AI994573 At3g15950 22 74 2147 2148 2.71 putative protein AI994726 At3g52360 23 75 1619 1620 2.65 hypothetical protein AI997393 At4g02920 24 76 1521 1522 2.60 TTTGCC Y09602. Hordeum CC vulgare unknown protein, put AJ508997 At5g43580 25 77 2743 2744 2.58 protease inhibitor unknown protein AI997866 At1g70760 26 78 2077 2078 2.52 unknown protein AI997085 At5g43750 27 79 1423 1424 2.51 rice BAB90754.1 putative protein AI995724 At5g50100** 28 80 1973 1974 2.48 rice AL606619.2 OSJN00032 genomic unknown protein AI995337 At1g74880 29 81 2699 2700 2.42 maize AY105515.1, rice BAB89011.1 unknown protein AI998296 At3g19370 30 82 1859 1860 2.40 unknown protein, ATPase AI993346 At3g10420 31 83 2249 2250 2.40 putative protein AI999485 At3g61080 32 84 1863 1864 2.38 unknown protein AI996923 At1g67860 33 85 1847 1848 2.38 unknown protein AI994841 At1g52870 34 86 2367 2638 2.35 ATTCCC maize AY108423.1 CC unknown protein AI999581 At1g64370 35 87 2099 2100 2.35 unknown protein AI997584 At1g05870 36 88 1955 1956 2.25 rice BAB86085.1, maize Y110580.1 putative protein AI992938 At5g03540 37 89 2745 2746 2.21 hypothetical protein AI997712 At2g15020 38 90 2605 2606 2.21 rice BAB64794.1 unknown protein AI998338 At1g68440 39 91 2625 2626 2.20 unknown protein AI996872 At2g21960 40 92 1715 1716 2.19 putative protein, centrin AI996295 At4g27280 41 93 2039 2040 2.18 putative protein AI995642 At3g48200 42 94 2653 2654 2.16 unknown protein AI997470 At2g32870 43 95 1941 1942 2.14 hypothetical protein AI998460 At1g69510 44 96 2019 2020 2.11 TTTGGC rice BAB18340.1, CC maize AY110240.1 putative triacylglycerol lipase AI993356 At5g22460 45 97 2349 2350 2.10 putative protein AI995956 At5g52060 46 98 1779 1780 2.08 unknown protein AI996100 At2g35830 47 99 2471 2472 2.06 hypothetical protein AI996039 At3g27050 48 100 2175 2176 2.05 unknown protein AI996020 At5g51720 49 101 2033 2034 2.04 putative protein AW004101 At4g39730 51 103 1605 1606 2.03 hypothetical protein AI998372 At2g01260 52 104 1979 1980 2.03 unknown protein AI999573 At3g61060 2.00 unknown protein AI998562 At2g35760 2.00 No hit (2) no hit on genome AI995690 2.54 no hit on genome AI999010 2.23 Cell wall biogenesis (4) similar to AI993509 At1g10640 50 102 1761 1762 3.62 maize AY106712.1, polygalacturonase-like rice BAC06884.1 protein putative xyloglucan endo- AI997647 At2g36870 2.51 transglycosylase pectate lyase 1-like AI994801 At1g67750 2.40 protein xyloglucan endo- AI998832 At3g44990 2.35 transglycosylase Metabolism and biogenesis (24) fructose-biphosphate AI994456 At4g26530 5.99 ATTGGC aldolase-like protein CC sucrose-phosphate AI995432 At4g10120 4.64 synthase-like protein putative branched-chain AI997263 At3g19710 3.31 amino acid aminotransferase vitamine c-2 AI997404 At4g26850 20 72 2511 2512 3.04 TTTGCC maize AY105327, GC rice BAB90526.1 nicotianamine synthase AI993200 At5g04950 2.86 beta-fructosidase AI994670 At1g62660 2.66 TTTCCC CC neoxanthin cleavage AI997269 At4g19170 2.66 enzyme-like protein putative starch synthase AI997174 At1g32900 2.63 cytochrome P450 AI994017 At4g13770 2.57 monooxygenase (CYP83A1) beta-amylase-like protein AI999322 At5g18670 2.53 FRO1-like protein; AI995987 At5g49740 2.46 NADPH oxidase-like putative hydrolase AI997149 At3g48420 2.39 furamate hydratase AI997067 At5g50950 2.31 TTTGGC CC 5'-adenylylsulfate AI992757 At1g62180 2.30 TTTCCC reductase CC 5'-adenylylsulfate AI996614 At4g04610 2.30 reductase UDP rhamnose- AI996803 At4g27560 2.24 anthocyanidin-3- glucoside rhamnosyltransferase- like protein cytochrome P450-like AI993171 At5g48000 2.23 protein lactoylglutathione lyase- AI994552 At1g11840 2.20 like protein putative beta-glucosidase AI995306 At4g27820 2.20 ATTGGC CC adenine phospho- AI994567 At4g22570 2.18 ribosyltransferase-like protein catalase AI995830 At4g35090 2.17 ATTCCC CC putative glutathione AW004143 At2g25080 2.15 peroxidase putative adenosine AW004219 At2g14750 2.13 phosphosulfate kinase tyrosine transaminase AI996914 At4g23600 2.13 like protein Transcription factors (5) homeobox-leucine zipper AI994027 At3g61890 4.20 protein ATHB-12 NAC domain protein AI992865 At1g69490 3.68 NAC2 myb-related transcription AI995298 At1g71030 2.78 factor dof zinc finger protein AI994875 At1g51700 2.30 MYB-related transcription AI992931 At2g46830 2.19 factor (CCA1) Signal transduction (9) serine/threonine protein AI995557 At5g10930 3.91 kinase-like protein subtilisin proteinase-like AI993428 At4g21650 3.19 putative oligopeptide AI996160 At4g10770 2.68 transporter putative lectin AI998542 At3g16400 2.52 Ca2+dependent AI998553 At1g35720 2.45 membrane-binding protein annexin putative WD repeat AI997238 At3g15880 2.38 protein putative lectin AI999016 At3g16390 2.35 putative lectin AI993358 At3g16530 2.31 SNF1 related protein AI993111 At3g23000 2.06 kinase (ATSRPK1) Others (25) putative protease inhibitor AI995265 At1g73330 10.30 Dr4 major latex protein AI998305 At2g01520 4.27 homolog-like pollen allergen-like AI993041 At1g24020 3.56 protein putative heat shock AI997846 At1g06460 3.55 protein putative fibrillin AI997199 At4g04020 3.55 major latex protein AI997255 At1g70890 3.50 homolog-like putative nematode- AI993740 At2g40000 2.95 resistance protein putative auxin-regulated AJ508998 At2g46690 2.86 protein putative myrosinase- AI997583 At2g39310 2.61 binding protein ubiquitin-conjugating AI997782 At5g56150 2.41 enzyme-like protein ubiquitin-conjugating AI994771 At5g41700 2.40 enzyme E2-17 kD 8 vegetative storage AI999152 At5g24770 2.35 protein Vsp2 heat shock protein 70 AI994044 At3g12580 2.24 chloroplast outer AI997015 At3g63160 2.20 envelope membrane protein translation initiation AI992786 At5g54940 2.15 factor-like protein pseudogene AI995323 At2g04110 2.07 vegetative storage AI999546 At5g24780 2.06 protein Vsp1 dehydrin ERD10 AI997518 At1g20450 2.06 MTN3-like protein AI997159 At3g48740 2.05 putative chlorophyll A-B AI994859 At3g27690 2.05 binding protein photosystem I reaction AI997939 At5g64040 2.03 centre subunit psaN AR781, similar to yeast AI998194 At2g26530 2.03 pheromone receptor putative lipid transfer AI997024 At2g15050 2.03 protein peroxidase ATP3a AI998372 At5g64100 2.03 myosin heavy chain-like AI999224 At3g16000 2.01 protein *this sequence is present in the MIPs database version of 25 july 2002 **this record has an updated MIPS accession number At5g50101.
TABLE-US-00009 TABLE 3 Number of E2F elements in the different datasets All genes Upregulated Downregulated (4518) genes (88) genes (105) TTTCCCCC 62 2 3 TTTCCCGC 40 6 0 TTTCGCCC 15 0 0 TTTCGCCC 13 1 0 TTTGCCCC 37 1 1 TTTGCCGC 20 0 1 TTTGGCCC 55 0 2 TTTGGCGC 15 1 0 ATTCCCCC 10 0 2 ATTCCCGC 6 0 0 ATTCGCCC 8 0 0 ATTCGCCC 14 0 0 ATTGCCCC 13 0 0 ATTGCCGC 10 1 0 ATTGGCCC 44 0 2 ATTGGCGC 9 1 0 Total 371 13 11
TABLE-US-00010 TABLE 4 Arabidopsis genes 1.3 fold or more upregulated in E2Fa/Dpa plants SEQ ID NO MIPS accession cDNA PROT Gene name e_value number ratio 25 26 putative protein 0 At5g51100 1.42 27 28 endo-1,4-beta-glucanase 9E-27 At1g70710 1.85 29 30 mitochondrial elongation factor Tu 1E-125 At4g02930 1.39 31 32 glycine-rich protein (clone AtGRP8) 1E-155 At4g39260 1.33 33 34 UTP-glucose glucosyltransferase 0 At5g66690 1.59 35 36 lipid-transfer protein-like 0 At5g01870 2.33 37 38 putative auxin-regulated protein 6E-68 At4g34760 1.48 39 40 histone H1, putative 0 At1g06760 2.27 41 42 APETALA2 protein 0 At4g36920 1.44 43 44 putative histone H2A 0 At1g08880 1.84 45 46 monosaccharide transporter STP3 2E-69 At5g61520 2.05 47 48 receptor-protein kinase-like protein 8E-64 At3g51550 1.33 49 50 SET-domain protein-like 1E-140 At5g04940 1.38 51 52 homeodomain transcription factor (ATHB-6) 0 At2g22430 2.3 53 54 putative protein 0 At4g33700 1.85 55 56 hypothetical protein 1E-139 At1g05800 1.34 57 58 unknown protein 0 At1g33410 1.37 59 60 hypothetical protein 1E-140 At4g17060 1.41 61 62 putative protein 0 At5g19820 1.44 63 64 putative protein 1E+00 At3g53670 1.54 65 66 regulatory subunit of protein kinase CK2 0 At3g60250 1.51 67 68 delta 9 desaturase, putative 0 At1g06090 1.85 69 70 putative protein 0 At5g06360 1.48 71 72 acetyl-CoA carboxylase, putative, 5' partial 0 At1g36170*** 1.49 73 74 hypothetical protein 0 At1g56150 1.97 75 76 seed imbitition protein-like 0 At5g20250 2.05 77 78 unknown protein 1E-146 At1g76010 1.64 79 80 homeobox-leucine zipper protein-like 0 At5g47370 2.21 81 82 kinesin-like protein 0 At5g54670 1.69 83 84 putative protein 0 At3g48050 1.75 85 86 putative protein 0 At5g03040 1.34 87 88 xyloglucan endo-1,4-beta-D-glucanase precursor 0 At4g30270 3.74 89 90 putative WD-40 repeat protein 0 At2g19540 1.75 91 92 putative protein 1E-132 At3g54480 1.44 93 94 hypothetical protein 0 At1g15750 1.7 95 96 hypothetical protein 0 At1g66200 2.06 97 98 putative protein 0 At3g50630 1.4 99 100 unknown protein 0 At2g30930 1.3 101 102 putative protein 6E-91 At5g37720 1.8 103 104 unknown protein 1E-146 At5g54310 1.61 105 106 hypothetical protein 0 At1g48920 1.98 107 108 hypothetical protein 0 At1g17750 1.38 109 110 nuclear RNA binding protein A-like protein 0 At4g17520 1.43 111 112 unknown protein 4E+00 At1g10890 1.38 113 114 histone H2A-like protein 0 At4g27230 2.23 115 116 phytochelatin synthase (gb|AAD41794.1) 0 At5g44070 1.39 117 118 RNA-binding protein cp29 protein 1E-159 At3g53460 1.54 119 120 putative' RNA-binding protein 0 At3g25150 1.48 121 122 alcohol dehydrogenase 2E-01 At5g42250 1.34 123 124 putative 60S ribosomal protein L6 1E-170 At1g74060 1.37 125 126 calmodulin-binding protein 1E-114 At5g57580 1.4 127 128 putative protein 3E-23 At4g20310 2.01 129 130 putative protein kinase 0 At1g08720 1.33 131 132 hypothetical protein 0 At3g12200 1.34 133 134 putative phosphatidylserine decarboxylase 0 At4g25970 1.38 135 136 unknown protein 0 At2g03120 1.31 137 138 unknown protein 0 At1g14880 1.48 139 140 histone H2A.F/Z 0 At3g54560 1.85 141 142 4-coumarate-CoA ligase - like 0 At4g19010 1.35 143 144 putative protein 0 At3g45040 1.72 145 146 unknown protein 0 At3g19540 1.84 147 148 putative protein 0 At4g34410 1.36 149 150 unknown protein 0 At1g61260 1.97 151 152 putative protein 0 At3g61490 1.32 153 154 lipoxygenase 0 At1g17420 1.34 155 156 putative SecA-type chloroplast protein transport factor 0 At4g01800 1.38 157 158 putative DNA-binding protein 0 At4g01250 1.49 159 160 hypothetical protein 0 At1g20580 1.37 161 162 hypothetical protein 2E-90 At1g47530 1.39 163 164 unknown protein 0 At2g37570 1.84 165 166 bZIP transcription factor-like protein 0 At3g62420 1.32 167 168 putative protein 1E-154 At3g56720 1.39 169 170 hypothetical protein 0 At1g76860 1.32 171 172 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase 2E-80 At5g41670 1.48 173 174 ferritin 1 precursor 0 At5g01600 1.38 175 176 putative ABC transporter 0 At1g71330 1.71 177 178 hypothetical protein 0 At1g27300 1.3 179 180 myrosinase precursor 9E-01 At5g26000 2.81 181 182 unknown protein 0E+00 At1g10270 1.47 183 184 putative protein 3E-88 At5g18650 1.33 185 186 hypothetical protein 6E-40 At2g36090 1.32 187 188 unknown protein 0 At1g43910 1.42 189 190 hypothetical protein 0 At1g07000 2.43 191 192 hypothetical protein 0 At1g18260 1.43 193 194 putative pre-mRNA splicing factor 0 At4g03430 1.49 195 196 putative protein 0 At5g11810 1.32 197 198 hypothetical protein 1E-151 At4g30150 1.41 199 200 S-receptor kinase -like protein 0 At4g32300 1.52 201 202 disease resistance RPP5 like protein 1E-175 At4g16950 1.64 203 204 unknown protein 2E-58 At1g76520 1.44 205 206 putative protein 1E-144 At5g14420 2.05 207 208 putative glucosyltransferase 4E-78 At1g23480 1.31 209 210 putative protein 1E-144 At4g28470 1.34 211 212 putative protein 0 At4g29830 1.55 213 214 putative auxin-regulated protein 0 At2g33830 1.41 215 216 putative protein 8E+00 At5g61550 1.38 217 218 unknown protein 0 At1g44810 1.39 219 220 protein phosphatase - like protein 1E-59 At5g02760 1.76 221 222 hypothetical protein 2E-21 At4g17800 1.59 223 224 hypothetical protein 0 At1g54080 1.58 225 226 xyloglucan endo-transglycosylase, putative 0 At1g14720 2.51 227 228 putative protein 0 At3g49320 1.7 229 230 beta-1,3-glucanase - like protein 0 At3g55430 2.05 231 232 putative protein 0 At3g45730 5.14 233 234 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2-21 kD 1 (ubiquitin-protein 0 At5g41340 1.32 ligase) 235 236 putative reticuline oxidase-like protein 0 At1g30720 1.31 237 238 DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase (DNA methyltransferase) 0 At5g49160 5.37 (DNA 239 240 putative protein 0 At4g32030 1.38 241 242 unknown protein 3E+00 At2g32710 1.46 243 244 E2F transcription factor-1 E2F1 1E-155 At5g22220 1.52 245 246 putative protein 0 At5g48820 1.8 247 248 putative E2F5 family transcription factor 1E-154 At2g36010 94.9 249 250 protein kinase cdc2 homolog B 0 At3g54180 2.6 251 252 putative WRKY DNA-binding protein 1E-164 At2g03340 1.43 253 254 hypothetical protein 0 At4g13670 1.56 255 256 xyloglucan endo-1,4-beta-D-glucanase-like protein 0 At4g30280 2.74 257 258 hypothetical protein 1E-121 At1g18630 1.41 259 260 putative protein 0 At5g35735 1.52 261 262 putative protein kinase 0 At2g47060 1.32 263 264 putative protein 1E-01 At3g43690 2.18 265 266 70 kD heat shock protein 0 At2g32120 1.57 267 268 nitrate reductase 0 At1g37130 2.15 269 270 beta-amylase 0 At5g55700 1.55 271 272 multicatalytic endopeptidase complex alpha chain 0 At3g51260 1.57 273 274 putative protein 3E-02 At5g36190 2.55 275 276 putative protein 0 At4g00830 1.39 277 278 monodehydroascorbate reductase (NADH) - like protein 0 At5g03630 1.33 279 280 unknown protein 1E-107 At3g04350 1.42 281 282 hypothetical protein 0 At1g70090 3.38 283 284 E2 ubiquitin-conjugating-like enzyme Ahus5 0 At3g57870 1.38 285 286 putative protein 5E-25 At3g63070 1.35 287 288 hypothetical protein 0 At4g28330 2.23 289 290 cellulose synthase catalytic subunit, putative 1E-174 At1g55850 2.07 291 292 putative protein 0 At5g46410 1.54 293 294 putative polynucleotide phosphorylase 1E-136 At3g03710 1.53 295 296 hypothetical protein 0 At1g19180 1.32 297 298 hypothetical protein 0 At3g12270 1.83 299 300 sugar transporter like protein 0 At4g36670 2.27 301 302 hypothetical protein 1E-105 At2g39910 1.3 303 304 putative phytochrome A 0 At1g09570 2.45 305 306 hypothetical protein 0 At1g64600 1.49 307 308 putative protein 0 At5g23610 1.6 309 310 putative protein 1E-177 At3g56360 1.39 311 312 cyclophylin-like protein 0 At3g63400 1.33 313 314 unknown protein 0 At2g37940 1.35 315 316 zinc finger protein, putative 1E-53 At1g75540 1.46 317 318 putative protein kinase 1E+00 At2g24360 1.48 319 320 putative glucosyltransferase 0 At2g15490 2.15 321 322 unknown protein 0 At1g60140 1.72 323 324 unknown protein 0 At1g43850 1.45 325 326 hypothetical protein 0 At3g14120 1.77 327 328 putative AP2 domain transcription factor 0 At2g41710 1.65 329 330 transcriptional regulator protein, putative 6E-71 At3g26640 1.51 331 332 hypothetical protein 3E-02 At1g55370 1.35 333 334 unknown protein 0 At3g28920 1.93 335 336 hypothetical protein 0 At3g03750 1.43 337 338 hypothetical protein 2E+00 At4g27610 1.34 339 340 translation initiation factor elF-2 beta chain - like protein 2E+00 At5g20920 1.33 341 342 unknown protein 0 At2g26280 1.53 343 344 unknown protein 0 At1g78420 1.39 345 346 elongation factor, putative 3E+00 At1g56070 1.99 347 348 anthranilate N-benzoyltransferase - like protein 1E-120 At5g01210 1.66 349 350 putative protein 1E-178 At4g39680 1.43 351 352 unknown protein 0 At3g05380 1.92 353 354 splicing factor At-SRp40 0 At4g25500 1.52 355 356 cdc2-like protein kinase 0 At5g10270 1.77 357 358 calcium-dependent protein kinase 1E-169 At3g57530 1.39 359 360 phosphoprotein phosphatase, type 1 catalytic subunit 0 At2g29400 1.48 361 362 putative mitochondrial translation elongation factor G 0 At2g45030 1.65 363 364 long-chain-fatty-acid--CoA ligase-like protein 0 At5g27600 1.34 365 366 cytochrome c, putative 4E-26 At3g27240 1.36 367 368 En/Spm-like transposon protein 0 At2g40070 1.41 369 370 putative phospho-ser/thr phosphatase 0 At4g03080 1.41 371 372 chloroplast 50S ribosomal protein L22, putative 6E-77 At1g52370 1.4 373 374 unknown protein 0 At2g15890 1.34 375 376 putative protein 0 At4g26750 1.55 377 378 receptor-protein kinase-like protein 0 At5g54380 2.59 379 380 phosphoglycerate kinase, putative 1E-155 At3g12780 1.88 381 382 putative HMG protein 0 At2g17560 1.45 383 384 hypothetical protein 0 At1g76100 1.36 385 386 protein kinase cdc2 homolog B 0 At3g54180 2.39 387 388 T-complex protein 1, beta subunit 0 At5g20890 1.39 389 390 proline oxidase, mitochondrial precursor (osmotic stress-induced) 0 At3g30775 1.45 391 392 linker histone protein, putative 1E-126 At1g14900 1.33 393 394 hypothetical protein 0 At1g27500 2.21 395 396 ARF1-binding protein 0 At5g62010 1.58 397 398 putative protein 0 At5g16270 1.37 399 400 putative protein 1E-173 At5g13850 1.32 401 402 src-2 like protein 0 At1g09070 2.19 403 404 RAN2 small Ras-like GTP-binding nuclear protein (Ran-2) 0 At5g20020 1.3 405 406 phosphoprotein phosphatase (PPX-1) 0 At4g26720 1.42 407 408 nuclear protein-like 0 At5g64270 1.45 409 410 omithine carbamoyltransferase precursor 0 At1g75330 1.41 411 412 unknown protein 0 At2g41650 1.67 413 414 putative protein 0 At5g17640 1.66 415 416 hypothetical protein 0 At1g57990 2.02 417 418 hypothetical protein 0 At4g15760 1.64 419 420 glycine-rich protein 2 (GRP2) 0 At4g38680 1.72 421 422 hypothetical protein 1E-113 At2g41780 2.6 423 424 RNA-binding protein, putative 8E-95 At3g20250 1.46 425 426 gda-1, putative 2E+00 At3g27090 1.46 427 428 beta-fructofuranosidase 1 0 At3g13790 1.32 429 430 26S proteasome subunit 4-like protein 0 At4g29040 1.51 431 432 putative protein 1E-59 At1g33980 1.42 433 434 hypothetical protein 0 At1g57680 2.66 435 436 unknown protein 0 At1g29980 1.98 437 438 60S ribosomal protein - like 0 At5g02870 1.39 439 440 REVOLUTA or interfascicular fiberless 1 0 At5g60690 1.34 441 442 RAC-like GTP-binding protein ARAC4 1E-180 At1g20090 1.78 443 444 unknown protein 2E-42 At3g07390 1.34 445 446 unknown protein 0 At5g65660 1.7 447 448 unknown protein 1E-154 At3g05040 1.52 449 450 putative DNA gyrase subunit A 1E-153 At3g10690 2.2 451 452 putative protein 0 At3g49170 1.53 453 454 eukaryotic cap-binding protein (gb|AAC17220.1) 0 At5g18110 1.41 455 456 phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase, putative 0 At1g73600 1.62 457 458 unknown protein 0 At2g30590 2.78 459 460 RAN1 small Ras-like GTP-binding nuclear protein (Ran-1) 0 At5g20010 1.46 461 462 putative protein 1E-104 At4g24290 1.32 463 464 putative auxin-regulated protein 0 At2g45210 1.33 465 466 adenylosuccinate synthetase 0 At3g57610 1.39 467 468 putative protein 0 At5g14530 2.7 469 470 putative ubiquitin activating enzyme E1 (ECR1) 0 At5g19180 1.63 471 472 putative mitochondrial processing peptidase 0 At3g02090 1.4 473 474 putative protein 0 At3g48530 1.55 475 476 hypothetical protein 0 At1g20330 1.47 477 478 hypothetical protein 0 At4g02590 1.36
479 480 putative pyrophosphate-fructose-6-phosphate 1- 0 At1g12000 1.49 phosphotransferase 481 482 putative receptor-like protein kinase 0 At2g02220 1.55 483 484 putative protein 1E-104 At4g02440 1.4 485 486 non-phototropic hypocotyl, putative 0 At1g30440 1.57 487 488 histone deacetylase 0 At5g63110 1.36 489 490 putative protein 0 At5g66580 3.18 491 492 multicatalytic endopeptidase complex, proteasome precursor, 0 At4g31300 1.42 beta 493 494 fibrillarin - like protein 6E-77 At4g25630 1.3 495 496 hypothetical protein 8E-45 At1g54060 1.36 497 498 histone H1, partial 0 At2g30620 1.58 499 500 hypothetical protein 0 At3g09030 1.45 501 502 enoyl-CoA hydratase-like protein 0 At4g31810 1.31 503 504 unknown protein 7E+00 At2g27080 1.51 505 506 myb-related transcription factor, putative 0 At3g23250 1.49 507 508 Alcohol Dehydrogenase 0 At1g77120 5.09 509 510 hypothetical protein 1E-132 At1g27590 1.38 511 512 unknown protein 0 At1g14710 1.36 513 514 putative receptor-like protein kinase 0 At2g13790 1.68 515 516 putative protein 0 At5g14550 1.39 517 518 homeobox protein knotted-1 like 4 (KNAT4) 1E-165 At5g11060 1.4 519 520 putative protein 1E-142 At5g15540 1.47 521 522 carbonyl reductase-like protein 7E+00 At5g51030 2.17 523 524 hypothetical protein 1E-50 At1g53900 1.36 525 526 aspartate--tRNA ligase - like protein 0 At4g31180 1.62 527 528 unknown protein 1E-121 At3g06150 1.74 529 530 amino acid transporter protein-like 0 At5g65990 1.59 531 532 12-oxophytodienoate reductase (OPR1) 0 At1g76680 1.43 533 534 calnexin homolog 6E-25 At5g07340 1.39 535 536 unknown protein 0 At1g61100 2.06 537 538 homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase 1E-78 At5g54080 2.01 539 540 glucosyltransferase -like protein 0 At4g34131 1.33 541 542 putative protein 4E-01 At5g54890 1.35 543 544 hypothetical protein 0 At1g76070 1.31 545 546 putative protein 1E-179 At5g18310 1.56 547 548 DNA binding protein ACBF - like 0 At5g19350 1.36 549 550 hypothetical protein 0 At1g17210 1.69 551 552 putative protein 1E-111 At5g51220 1.46 553 554 RING finger protein 0 At3g61460 2.14 555 556 putative protein 0 At5g18580 1.32 557 558 putative protein kinase 0 At2g31010 1.35 559 560 chloroplast nucleoid DNA binding protein, putative 0 At1g01300 1.49 561 562 unknown protein 1E-143 At1g31130 1.4 563 564 splicing factor, putative 1E+00 At1g14650 1.56 565 566 putative TCP3 gb|AAC24010. 0 At1g53230 1.38 567 568 unknown protein 0 At1g72790 1.71 569 570 ribosomal protein S6 - like 0 At4g31700 1.38 571 572 auxin-resistance protein AXR1 0 At1g05180 1.36 573 574 putative protein 0 At5g11030 1.43 575 576 putative 60S acidic ribosomal protein P0 0 At3g09200 1.47 577 578 mismatch binding protein, putative 0 At3g24320 2.1 579 580 T-complex chaperonin protein, epsilon subunit 0 At1g24510 1.47 581 582 putative protein 0 At4g24120 1.56 583 584 putative protein 4E-38 At5g53900 1.79 585 586 histidine transport protein (PTR2-B) 0 At2g02040 1.37 587 588 unknown protein 0 At3g10490 1.43 589 590 tubulin alpha-5 chain-like protein 0 At5g19770 1.6 591 592 putative non-LTR retroelement reverse transcriptase 6E+00 At2g15510 4.71 593 594 unknown protein 1E-179 At2g41010 1.33 595 596 putative chloroplast outer envelope 86-like protein 0 At4g02510 1.45 597 598 serine/threonine-specific protein kinase NAK 0 At5g02290 1.56 599 600 unknown protein 0 At2g34680 1.45 601 602 hypothetical protein 0 At1g43170 1.69 603 604 phospholipase D, putative, 5' partial 0 At3g16785 1.5 605 606 CTP synthase-like protein 0 At1g30820 1.58 607 608 nitrilase 2 0 At3g44300 1.84 609 610 putative mitogen activated protein kinase kinase 0 At3g04910 1.34 611 612 putative protein 0 At4g27450 1.4 613 614 Phospholipase like protein 0 At4g38550 1.9 615 616 endomembrane-associated protein 3E-41 At4g20260 1.83 617 618 leucine-rich receptor-like protein kinase, putative 0 At1g72180 2.13 619 620 putative protein 8E-01 At4g25930 1.54 621 622 WD-40 repeat protein MSI1 (sp|O22467) 0 At5g58230 1.72 623 624 oxysterol-binding protein - like 1E-171 At5g59420 1.31 625 626 putative protein 1E-178 At4g21840 1.4 627 628 blue copper binding protein 1E-50 At5g20230 2.3 629 630 UV-damaged DNA-binding protein-like 6E-9 At4g21100 1.46 631 632 fatty acid hydroxylase (FAH1) 0 At2g34770 1.96 633 634 putative thymidine kinase 0 At3g07800 8.44 635 636 hypothetical protein 0 At1g79380 1.41 637 638 unknown protein 0 At2g15860 1.36 639 640 flower pigmentation protein ATAN11 0 At1g12910 1.41 641 642 hypothetical protein 0 At1g56290 1.33 643 644 putative protein 0 At3g62630 1.38 645 646 SNF-2 like RING finger 0 At1g61140 1.42 647 648 unknown protein 0 At3g16310 1.49 649 650 putative glucosyl transferase 0 At2g36800 1.36 651 652 putative protein 0 At4g25170 1.92 653 654 hypothetical protein 9E-39 At4g00450 1.36 655 656 glutathione S-transferase 0 At2g30860 1.49 657 658 unknown protein, 3' partial 0 At3g15095 1.42 659 660 unknown protein 0 At3g21080 1.31 661 662 TCH4 protein (gb|AAA92363.1) 0 At5g57560 1.92 663 664 putative protein 0 At3g61600 1.34 665 666 receptor-like kinase, putative 0 At3g23750 2.06 667 668 putative 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-independent phosphoglycerate 0 At1g09780 1.34 669 670 putative protein 0 At5g14250 1.51 671 672 DnaJ homologue (gb|AAB91418.1|) 0 At5g06910 2.32 673 674 hypothetical protein 0 At1g33250 1.35 675 676 unknown protein 0 At2g19800 1.81 677 678 aspartate carbamoyltransferase precursor (aspartate 3E-84 At3g20330 1.49 679 680 hypothetical protein 0 At1g16520 1.35 681 682 unknown protein 5E+00 At1g48620 1.33 683 684 putative protein 1E+00 At4g35750 1.39 685 686 hypothetical protein 1E-55 At3g13620 1.79 687 688 RNA helicase, DRH1 1E-179 At3g01540 1.56 689 690 putative 3-oxoacyl [acyl-carrier protein] reductase 0 At1g24360 1.42 691 692 putative cellular apoptosis susceptibility protein 1E-142 At2g46520 1.43 693 694 hypothetical protein 0 At1g01540 1.31 695 696 starch branching enzyme II 2E-61 At2g36390 1.36 697 698 40S ribosomal protein - like 0 At5g15200 1.32 699 700 putative protein 0 At4g13640 1.33 701 702 putative protein 0 At3g45970 3.22 703 704 hypothetical protein 0 At1g66160 1.31 705 706 AP2 domain containing protein RAP2.3 2E-9 At3g16770 1.51 707 708 putative protein 1E-47 At5g02880 1.32 709 710 NADH-dependent glutamate synthase 0 At5g53460 2.25 711 712 arginine/serine rich splicing factor RSP3 4E-59 At3g61860 1.31 713 714 hypothetical protein 1E-134 At1g55880 1.37 715 716 translation initiation factor elF3 - like protein 6E-77 At4g20980 1.45 717 718 putative serine/threonine protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, 0 At2g42500 1.38 719 720 unknown protein 1E-105 At1g33480 1.91 721 722 COP1-interacting protein CIP8 0 At5g64920 1.4 723 724 nonphototropic hypocotyl 1 6E+00 At3g45780 1.47 725 726 putative protein 1E-78 At5g10860 1.32 727 728 putative protein 0 At5g19750 1.37 729 730 putative protein 1E-127 At3g52500 1.39 731 732 putative protein 0 At4g10280 1.76 733 734 cytochrome P450 monooxygenase 0 At4g31500 1.35 735 736 ethylene responsive element binding factor 1E-104 At4g17500 1.33 737 738 hypothetical protein 0 At1g17620 1.37 739 740 unknown protein 1E-123 At3g07390 1.42 741 742 putative protein kinase 0 At3g02880 1.46 743 744 DNA repair protein RAD23 homolog 0 At5g38470 1.42 745 746 GTP-binding protein - like 1E-25 At5g03520 1.57 747 748 putative protein 0 At3g63500 1.4 749 750 putative adenylate kinase 4E+00 At2g39270 1.37 751 752 protein kinase - like 6E-46 At5g59010 1.42 753 754 unknown protein 0 At3g04630 1.58 755 756 RNA binding protein 0 At1g73490 1.32 757 758 putative phospholipase D 0 At3g15730 1.51 759 760 importin alpha 1E-115 At3g06720 1.45 761 762 RING-H2 finger protein RHF2a 0 At5g22000 1.43 763 764 putative protein 2E-93 At4g19160 1.3 765 766 putative protein 0 At4g32440 1.41 767 768 putative protein phosphatase type 2C 0 At3g15260 1.61 769 770 putative protein 0 At5g39890 1.31 771 772 ribosomal protein 0 At4g16720 1.42 773 774 dormancy-associated protein 9E+00 At1g28330 2.01 775 776 auxin-inducible gene (IAA2) 0 At3g23030 1.65 777 778 unknown protein 5E+00 At1g76010 1.54 779 780 protein kinase ADK1-like protein 1E+00 At4g28540 1.96 781 782 putative protein 0 At4g24210 1.36 783 784 hypothetical protein 0 At1g79530 1.4 785 786 putative trehalose-6-phosphate synthase 0 At1g68020 1.45 787 788 adenylate kinase 0 At5g63400 1.39 789 790 putative proline-rich protein precursor 0 At1g73840 1.56 791 792 putative protein 5E-87 At5g14370 1.37 793 794 hypothetical protein 0 At4g33290 1.7 795 796 cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP71B3) 0 At3g26220 1.32 797 798 TMV resistance protein N - like 0 At4g19530 1.5 799 800 hypothetical protein 9E-70 At1g54830 1.33 801 802 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase 0 At2g33150 1.87 803 804 putative protein 0 At3g54350 1.35 805 806 hypothetical protein 1E-170 At4g02680 1.36 807 808 putative bHLH transcription factor 0 At2g46510 1.35 809 810 RNA-binding protein, putative 5E-84 At3g26420 1.55 811 812 putative lectin 3E-20 At3g09190 1.67 813 814 xyloglucan endotransglycosylase, putative 0 At3g23730 2.85 815 816 unknown protein 2E-33 At2g41170 1.32 817 818 putative protein 3E-78 At3g57150 1.67 819 820 putative glucose regulated repressor protein 0 At2g25490 1.81 821 822 putative AP2 domain containing protein RAP2.4 gi|2281633 1E-150 At1g78080 1.82 823 824 putative sulfate transporter 0 At1g80310 1.51 825 826 G protein alpha subunit 1 (GPA1) 0 At2g26300 1.44 827 828 protochlorophyllide reductase precursor 0 At4g27440 2.39 829 830 Shaggy related protein kinase tetha 0 At4g00720 1.52 831 832 putative protein kinase 0 At3g01300 1.49 833 834 RNA-binding protein-like protein 0 At3g47160 1.31 835 836 unknown protein 1E-150 At5g24670 1.47 837 838 zinc finger protein ZFP8 1E-144 At2g41940 1.42 839 840 GTP binding protein beta subunit 0 At4g34460 1.54 841 842 copia-like retroelement pol polyprotein 0 At2g22680 1.4 843 844 CONSTANS-like B-box zinc finger protein-like 0 At5g57660 1.36 845 846 unknown protein 3E-71 At3g10640 1.33 847 848 putative protein 0 At4g24690 1.91 849 850 NADH dehydrogenase 1E-124 At5g08530 1.42 851 852 unknown protein 0 At1g73820 1.35 853 854 monosaccharide transport protein, STP4 8E-9 At3g19930 1.58 855 856 globulin-like protein 0 At1g07750 1.61 857 858 putative transitional endoplasmic reticulum ATPase 2E-58 At3g09840 1.51 859 860 putative monodehydroascorbate reductase 0 At1g63940 1.39 861 862 anthranilate phosphoribosyltransferase-like protein 0 At3g57880 1.42 863 864 H+-transporting ATP synthase chain 9 - like protein 6E-25 At4g32260 1.83 865 866 hypothetical protein 0 At1g02810 2.31 867 868 calmodulin-like protein 3E-63 At2g41410 1.52 869 870 putative protein 0 At5g15350 2.75 871 872 glutathione S-transferase 0 At2g30870 1.54 873 874 putative SWI/SNF complex subunit SW13 1E-138 At2g33610 1.32 875 876 MAP kinase kinase 2 0 At4g29810 1.39 877 878 adenosylhomocysteinase 1E-134 At4g13940 2.07 879 880 putative protein 0 At5g27760 1.4 881 882 unknown protein 0 At2g47450 1.67 883 884 putative protein 0 At4g33050 2.2 885 886 50S ribosomal protein L12-C 1E-138 At3g27850 1.38 887 888 26S proteasome AAA-ATPase subunit RPT4a (gb|AAF22524.1) 0 At5g43010 1.4 889 890 unknown protein 8E-01 At3g01690 1.31 891 892 lipid transfer protein; glossy1 homolog 0 At5g57800 1.39 893 894 indoleacetic acid (IAA)-inducible gene (IAA7) 1E-7 At3g23050 1.52 895 896 histone H2B-like protein 0 At5g59910 2.16 897 898 putative RNA helicase 0 At3g06480 1.47 899 900 unknown protein 8E-64 At1g19310 1.44 901 902 unknown protein 4E-96 At2g18440 1.38 903 904 unknown protein 0 At1g68220 1.59 905 906 unknown protein 1E-142 At2g20570 1.35 907 908 putative replication factor 1E-124 At1g21690 3.3 909 910 U2 snRNP auxiliary factor, small subunit 0 At5g42820 1.55 911 912 replication factor C - like 0 At5g27740 1.45 913 914 nuclear receptor binding factor-like protein 0 At3g45770 1.62 915 916 putative glycosyl transferase 0 At1g24170 2.39 917 918 histone H2A-like protein 4E-53 At5g27670 1.62 919 920 putative protein 1E-125 At5g48960 1.43 921 922 hypothetical protein 0 At1g53740 1.42 923 924 splicing factor - like protein 0 At3g53500 1.39 925 926 unknown protein 0 At1g50510 1.32 927 928 Fe(II) transport protein 0 At4g19690 1.37 929 930 hypothetical protein 0 At1g61730 1.43 931 932 unknown protein 7E-9 At2g47440 2.5 933 934 cold-regulated protein COR6.6 (KIN2) 0 At5g15970 3.03 935 936 putative cytochrome C 0 At1g22840 1.3 937 938 unknown protein 0 At1g68580 2.13 939 940 putative Ser/Thr protein kinase 0 At1g16270 1.37 941 942 pseudogene 1E-138 At2g25970 2.15 943 944 unknown protein 0 At3g06380 1.67
945 946 Tic22, putative 3E-84 At3g23710 2.14 947 948 unknown protein 0 At1g09250 1.55 949 950 hypothetical protein 0 At1g72930 1.91 951 952 hypothetical protein 2E+00 At1g68820 1.43 953 954 histone H1 0 At2g18050 1.75 955 956 unknown protein 0 At1g08630 1.45 957 958 unknown protein, 5'partial 0 At3g18035 3.31 959 960 unknown protein 0 At1g04140 1.37 961 962 HAL3A protein 0 At3g18030 1.43 963 964 phi-1-like protein 0 At5g64260 3.38 965 966 hypothetical protein 0 At1g12770 1.35 967 968 pollen specific protein SF21 0 At5g56750 1.45 969 970 cysteine proteinase inhibitor like protein 1E-159 At4g16500 1.33 971 972 20S proteasome subunit C8 (PAG1/PRC8 ARATH) 1E-130 At2g27020 1.36 973 974 nodulin-like protein 1E-99 At1g75500 1.34 975 976 hypothetical protein 0 At1g72900 2.04 977 978 hypothetical protein 0 At2g35230 1.42 979 980 arm repeat containing protein homolog 0 At3g46510 1.4 981 982 putative protein 0 At5g67480 1.76 983 984 putative leucyl-tRNA synthetase 1E-118 At1g09620 1.52 985 986 Putative UDP-glucose glucosyltransferase 1E-164 At1g22400 2.34 987 988 alanine aminotransferase, putative 0 At1g17290 1.66 989 990 26S proteasome AAA-ATPase subunit RPT6a 0 At5g19990 1.36 991 992 Ruv DNA-helicase-like protein 0 At5g22330 1.59 993 994 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein, putative 0 At1g65700 1.33 995 996 unknown protein 0 At2g38310 2.79 997 998 protein phosphatase type 1 PP1BG 3E-91 At4g11240 1.51 999 1000 hypothetical protein 3E-41 At2g43410 2.1 1001 1002 putative protein 0 At5g58600 1.42 1003 1004 nodulin-like protein 0 At1g80530 2.07 1005 1006 putative protein 0 At5g56170 1.65 1007 1008 dihydroxyacetone kinase, putative 1E-167 At3g17770 1.67 1009 1010 ribsomal protein - like 1E-155 At5g09770 1.44 1011 1012 101 kDa heat shock protein; HSP101-like protein 0 At5g57710 1.34 1013 1014 unknown protein 0 At5g51340 1.48 1015 1016 unknown protein 0 At3g05730 1.46 1017 1018 putative protein 2E+00 At5g67570 2.6 1019 1020 mitochondrial chaperonin (HSP60) 0 At2g33210 1.75 1021 1022 putative protein 1E-177 At3g63270 1.34 1023 1024 growth factor like protein 0 At4g12720 1.78 1025 1026 RNA helicase, putative 0 At3g19760 1.54 1027 1028 pseudogene 1E-142 At2g34760 1.81 1029 1030 hypothetical protein 0 At3g21740 1.52 1031 1032 shaggy-like kinase beta 0 At3g61160 1.36 1033 1034 unknown protein 1E-165 At1g20100 1.35 1035 1036 24-sterol C-methyltransferase 1E-143 At5g13710 1.41 1037 1038 WD-40 repeat protein (MSI3) 0 At4g35050 4.89 1039 1040 hypothetical protein 0 At1g67120 1.51 1041 1042 putative protein (fragment) 0 At5g14930 1.46 1043 1044 putative protein 1E-6 At5g54180 1.78 1045 1046 hypothetical protein 1E-126 At1g20570 1.43 1047 1048 calcium-dependent protein kinase 0 At5g66210 2.96 1049 1050 nitrilase 2 1E-127 At3g44300 1.88 1051 1052 methionyl-tRNA synthetase - like protein 1E-173 At4g13780 1.33 1053 1054 putative protein 0 At4g24230 1.58 1055 1056 putative protein 2E-76 At5g19330 1.33 1057 1058 caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase - like protein 1E-166 At4g34050 1.41 1059 1060 putative DNA binding protein 0 At4g27000 1.43 1061 1062 unknown protein 0 At1g55270 1.4 1063 1064 carbamoyl phosphate synthetase large chain (carB) 0 At1g29900 1.5 1065 1066 hypothetical protein 6E+00 At4g02680 2.73 1067 1068 putative RNA helicase 0 At3g22310 1.53 1069 1070 molybdopterin synthase sulphurylase (gb|AAD18050.1) 0 At5g55130 1.77 1071 1072 inner mitochondrial membrane protein, putative 0 At1g17530 1.55 1073 1074 putative protein kinase 0 At3g08760 1.9 1075 1076 putative JUN kinase activator protein 0 At1g22920 1.42 1077 1078 thaumatin, putative 0 At1g75800 1.56 1079 1080 DNA-binding protein 0 At3g14230 1.54 1081 1082 unknown protein 0 At2g01710 1.34 1083 1084 putative calcium binding protein 0 At2g43290 1.57 1085 1086 class 1 non-symbiotic hemoglobin (AHB1) 5E-93 At2g16060 1.86 1087 1088 glycine-rich RNA binding protein, putative 2E-52 At3g23830 1.38 1089 1090 unknown protein 2E-37 At2g01190 1.3 1091 1092 hydoxyethylthiazole kinase, putative 2E-71 At3g24030 1.35 1093 1094 putative protein translocase 0E+00 At2g37410 1.51 1095 1096 putative protein 5E-02 At5g61560 1.31 1097 1098 hypothetical protein 7E-02 At1g35600 1.56 1099 1100 ethylene-insensitive 3 0 At3g20770 1.5 1101 1102 lipoxygenase AtLOX2 0 At3g45140 1.57 1103 1104 putative phosphatidic acid phosphatase 0 At2g01180 1.85 1105 1106 unknown protein 5E-5 At1g80860 1.3 1107 1108 unknown protein 2E-15 At3g28180 1.64 1109 1110 LOB domain protien 41 0 At3g02550 4.01 1111 1112 putative protein 2E-02 At5g22260 1.95 1113 1114 actin - like protein 1E-180 At3g60830 1.36 1115 1116 DEAD-box protein abstrakt 0 At5g51280 1.53 1117 1118 putative DNA polymerase epsilon catalytic subunit 2E+00 At2g27120 2.87 1119 1120 unknown protein 6E-59 At5g48020 1.4 1121 1122 protein kinase C inhibitor-like protein 0 At3g56490 1.58 1123 1124 putative PRP19-like spliceosomal protein 0 At2g33340 1.7 1125 1126 germin-like protein 0 At1g72610 1.67 1127 1128 putative protein 1E-5 At5g10050 1.32 1129 1130 putative protein 0 At4g34950 1.96 1131 1132 zinc finger protein 0 At5g66730 1.37 1133 1134 chaperonin gamma chain - like protein 1E-176 At5g26360 1.67 1135 1136 WD-40 protein 7E+00 At4g07410 1.42 1137 1138 putative DNA-binding protein 0 At4g12080 1.4 1139 1140 beta-glucosidase, putative 0 At1g52400 1.66 1141 1142 hypothetical protein 1E-44 At2g23140 1.66 1143 1144 homeobox protein 1E-43 At3g61150 1.63 1145 1146 glycine-rich protein 0 At4g36020 1.82 1147 1148 unknown protein 0 At3g01460 1.37 1149 1150 hypothetical protein 1E-134 At4g28190 1.4 1151 1152 predicted protein 5E-37 At4g32010 1.34 1153 1154 N-myristoyl transferase 1E-157 At5g57020 1.37 1155 1156 putative protein 0 At4g36780 1.61 1157 1158 unknown protein 2E-01 At5g48240 1.64 1159 1160 unknown protein 0 At1g21630 1.55 1161 1162 unknown protein 1E-102 At1g07360 1.74 1163 1164 lysyl-tRNA synthetase 1E-96 At3g11710 1.38 1165 1166 unknown protein 0 At3g07780 1.51 1167 1168 tryptophan synthase beta chain 1 precursor (sp|P14671) 1E-102 At5g54810 1.55 1169 1170 putative protein 8E-98 At4g25620 1.81 1171 1172 RuvB DNA helicase-like protein 0 At5g67630 1.32 1173 1174 putative pectin methylesterase 0 At3g14310 1.43 1175 1176 putative cytidine deaminase 0 At2g19570 1.41 1177 1178 hypothetical protein 0 At3g12400 1.42 1179 1180 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase -like protein 0 At4g26200 1.54 1181 1182 peroxidase 3E-88 At2g38380 2.11 1183 1184 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, E1 component 0 At5g65750 1.44 1185 1186 xylosidase 0 At5g49360 1.93 1187 1188 ethylene responsive element binding factor 4 0 At3g15210 1.7 1189 1190 putative protein 2E+00 At5g46650 3.54 1191 1192 eukaryotic protein synthesis initiation factor 4A 0 At3g13920 1.35 1193 1194 Unknown protein 0 At1g76970 2.34 1195 1196 hypothetical protein 0 At1g19380 1.54 1197 1198 unknown protein 0 At5g49640 1.78 1199 1200 putative xyloglucan-specific glucanase 0 At2g01850 1.58 1201 1202 similar to nucellin gb|AAB96882.1 1E-106 At1g49050 1.5 1203 1204 unknown protein 0 At3g29390 1.33 1205 1206 putative protein 0 At3g62190 1.58 1207 1208 putative malate dehydrogenase 0 At1g04410 1.34 1209 1210 putative isocitrate lyase 1E-153 At3g21720 3.08 1211 1212 DNA-binding protein 1E-160 At3g14230 1.48 1213 1214 histone H4-like protein 0 At3g46320 2.55 1215 1216 putative dehydrogenase 0 At1g71170 1.47 1217 1218 alanine--tRNA ligase, putative 0 At1g50200 1.38 1219 1220 oligopeptidase A - like protein 1E-172 At5g10540 1.43 1221 1222 putative protein 0 At5g62620 1.32 1223 1224 permease 0 At5g49990 1.3 1225 1226 DEAD BOX RNA helicase RH15 1E-129 At5g11200 1.4 1227 1228 lipoamide dehydrogenase precursor 1E-128 At3g17240 1.38 1229 1230 hypothetical protein 0 At1g15170 1.75 1231 1232 xyloglucan endo-1,4-beta-D-glucanase (XTR-6) 0 At4g25810 1.95 1233 1234 histone H2B like protein (emb|CAA69025.1) 7E-34 At5g22880 1.91 1235 1236 S-receptor kinase homolog 2 precursor 1E+00 At5g60900 2.61 1237 1238 60S ribosomal protein L2 7E-48 At2g18020 1.58 1239 1240 unknown protein 0 At1g23030 1.98 1241 1242 zinc finger protein, putative 0 At1g34370 1.51 1243 1244 putative protein 3E-8 At4g05150 1.38 1245 1246 aldose 1-epimerase - like protein 5E-25 At3g47800 1.88 1247 1248 cinnamoyl-CoA reductase - like protein 0 At5g58490 1.35 1249 1250 putative NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate 0 At2g24270 1.43 dehydrogenase 1251 1252 isp4 like protein 0 At4g16370 1.77 1253 1254 putative protein 0 At4g08350 1.32 1255 1256 calmodulin-related protein 2, touch-induced (TCH2) 0 At5g37770 1.55 1257 1258 20S proteasome subunit PAD2 (gb|AAC32059.1) 0 At5g66140 1.5 1259 1260 glucosidase II alpha subunit 0 At5g63840 1.35 1261 1262 putative GAR1 protein 0 At3g03920 1.74 1263 1264 putative protein 3E-45 At5g08450 1.79 1265 1266 glutamate dehydrogenase (EC 1.4.1.--) 1 (pir||S71217) 0 At5g18170 1.47 1267 1268 putative protein 0 At5g06660 1.32 1269 1270 Nonclathrin coat protein gamma - like protein 1E-143 At4g34450 1.43 1271 1272 unknown protein 0 At3g17860 1.6 1273 1274 similar to senescence-associated protein 0 At2g23810 1.59 1275 1276 putative protein 0 At5g60420 1.31 1277 1278 unknown protein 0 At1g28260 1.36 1279 1280 shaggy-like protein kinase etha (EC 2.7.1.--) 0 At4g18710 1.37 1281 1282 putative 26S protease regulatory subunit 6A 0 At1g09100 1.47 1283 1284 unknown protein 0 At3g21140 1.49 1285 1286 dynamin-like protein 0 At2g14120 1.4 1287 1288 scarecrow-like 1 2E-47 At1g21450 1.75 1289 1290 unknown protein 7E-40 At3g02710 1.3 1291 1292 putative protein 0 At5g50670 1.41 1293 1294 helicase-like protein 1E-108 At5g44800 1.5 1295 1296 dynamin-like protein 4 (ADL4) 1E-100 At3g60190 1.32 1297 1298 unknown protein 0 At3g12790 1.31 1299 1300 putative Tub family protein 0 At2g47900 1.37 1301 1302 putative protein 1E-119 At5g13020 1.33 1303 1304 alanine aminotransferase, putative 1E-147 At1g17290 1.36 1305 1306 SCARECROW-like protein 0 At4g36710 1.49 1307 1308 alpha galactosyltransferase-like protein 0 At3g62720 3.26 1309 1310 putative protein 0 At4g31980 1.32 1311 1312 putative protein 1E-124 At3g56480 1.34 1313 1314 histone acetyltransferase HAT B 0 At5g56740 2.36 1315 1316 putative phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase 3E-97 At2g44530 1.45 1317 1318 AIG1 1E-130 At1g33960 1.45 1319 1320 hypothetical protein 0 At4g22190 1.69 1321 1322 hypothetical protein 0 At1g26180 1.33 1323 1324 putative protein 4E-84 At5g59000 1.61 1325 1326 hypothetical protein 0 At2g27660 1.66 1327 1328 unknown protein 0 At1g33400 1.38 1329 1330 helicase-like protein 0 At5g44800 1.63 1331 1332 putative protein 0 At5g44920 1.43 1333 1334 putative RNA-binding protein 0 At1g22910 2.13 1335 1336 meiosis specific - like protein 0 At5g02820 2.62 1337 1338 isocitrate dehydrogenase - like protein 0 At5g14590 1.43 1339 1340 hypothetical protein 1E-139 At1g15500 1.63 1341 1342 putative protein 3E-01 At5g52270 1.38 1343 1344 ABC transporter-like protein 0 At5g06530 1.63 1345 1346 heat-shock protein 90, putative 0 At1g27640 1.48 1347 1348 unknown protein 0 At3g07220 1.33 2713 2714 large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate NP_051067 4.71 carboxylase/oxygenase 2715 2716 ribosomal protein L33 NP_051080 3.54 2717 2718 PSII I protein NP_051074 2.81 2719 2720 ribosomal protein L2 NP_051099 2.61 2721 2722 ATP-dependent protease subunit NP_051083 2.60 2723 2724 cytochrome B6 NP_051088 2.55 2725 2726 ATPase epsilon subunit NP_051065 2.17 2728 2729 26S ribosomal RNA protein NP_085475 2.87 2729 2730 GATA Zn-finger protein At3g16870 2.75 2731 2732 unknown protein At5g53740 2.01 2733 2734 putative glucosyltransferase At2g15480 2.15 2735 2736 Anthocyaninless2 At4g00730 2.73 2737 2738 pectate lyase-like protein At3g54920 2.13 2739 2740 putative sterol dehydrogenase At2g43420 2.10 ***This accession number was replaced by a new annotation and called At1g36160
TABLE-US-00011 TABLE 5 Arabidopsis genes 1.3 times (1/ratio) or more repressed in E2Fa/Dpa plants SEQ ID NO MIPS accession cDNA PROT Gene name E-value Number Ratio 1349 1350 putative glutathione peroxidase 0 At2g31570 0.51 1351 1352 phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL1) 0 At2g37040 0.65 1353 1354 unknown protein 0 At1g04040 0.62 1355 1356 putative protein 0 At4g25340 0.52 1357 1358 water channel - like protein 1E-129 At4g23400 0.7 1359 1360 catalase 0 At4g35090 0.46 1361 1362 stearoyl-ACP desaturase 2E-11 At2g43710 0.54 1363 1364 putative oligopeptide transporter 0 At4g10770 0.37 1365 1366 putative chloroplast 50S ribosomal protein L28 0 At2g33450 0.73 1367 1368 ferredoxin--NADP reductase precursor, putative 0 At1g20020 0.64 1369 1370 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1E-44 At2g26260 0.73 1371 1372 putative alanine aminotransferase 1E-127 At1g70580 0.51 1373 1374 hypothetical protein 4E-99 At1g56500 0.66 1375 1376 putative protein 0 At5g21940 0.64 1377 1378 putative protein 1E-158 At5g26970 0.7 1379 1380 actin depolymerizing factor 4-like protein 0 At5g59890 0.66 1381 1382 hypothetical protein 7E-72 At3g45160 0.5 1383 1384 transporter-like protein 1E-07 At3g53960 0.68 1385 1386 nicotianamine synthase (dbj|BAA74589.1) 0 At5g04950 0.35 1387 1388 cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP83A1) 0 At4g13770 0.39 1389 1390 unknown protein 0 At2g29660 0.77 1391 1392 hypothetical protein 0 At3g12580 0.56 1393 1394 unknown protein 0 At5g64130 0.52 1395 1396 putative protein 0 At3g61870 0.73 1397 1398 fructose-bisphosphate aldolase - like protein 0 At4g26530 0.17 1399 1400 lectin like protein 1E-124 At4g19840 0.74 1401 1402 unknown protein 0 At1g28140 0.72 1403 1404 feebly-like protein 0 At3g01420 0.73 1405 1406 beta-fructosidase 1E-105 At1g62660 0.38 1407 1408 unknown protein 1E-06 At1g15350 0.77 1409 1410 peptidylprolyl isomerase ROC1 0 At4g38740 0.76 1411 1412 hypothetical protein 1E-36 At2g06010 0.74 1413 1414 putative protein 1E-114 At4g30490 0.5 1415 1416 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase 0 At5g14200 0.61 1417 1418 putative copper/zinc superoxide dismutase 1E-93 At2g28190 0.77 1419 1420 putative myo-inositol 1-phosphate synthase 0 At2g22240 0.68 1421 1422 putative enolase (2-phospho-D-glycerate hydroylase) 0 At2g29560 0.7 1423 1424 unknown protein 0 At5g43750 0.4 1425 1426 putative protein 1E-22 At4g32330 0.68 1427 1428 putative ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase 0 At2g04700 0.75 1429 1430 hypothetical protein 1E+00 At3g23290 0.59 1431 1432 putative cellulose synthase 0 At2g32530 0.58 1433 1434 putative protein 0 At5g43650 0.54 1435 1436 putative protein 0 At5g03010 0.58 1437 1438 hypothetical protein 0 At1g78140 0.61 1439 1440 unknown protein 0 At1g72590 0.35 1441 1442 hypothetical protein 0 At1g54450 0.59 1443 1444 hypothetical protein 0 At1g19110 0.73 1445 1446 endo-beta-1,4-glucanase, putative 0 At1g75680 0.7 1447 1448 unknown protein 0 At1g63010 0.76 1449 1450 hypothetical protein 2E-58 At4g24700 0.57 1451 1452 glyoxalase II 0 At1g53580 0.65 1453 1454 putative protein 0 At3g52370 0.53 1455 1456 unknown protein 0 At1g80280 0.57 1457 1458 protein phosphatase ABI1 0 At4g26080 0.71 1459 1460 33 kDa polypeptide of oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) in 1E-115 At5g66570 0.65 photosystem 1461 1462 beta-xylosidase 1E-163 At5g64570 0.55 1463 1464 GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase 0 At2g39770 0.62 1465 1466 peroxidase ATP20a (emb|CAA67338.1) 0 At5g14130 0.67 1467 1468 putative glutathione transferase 0 At1g17190 0.71 1469 1470 putative protein 0 At4g38080 0.75 1471 1472 unknown protein 1E-179 At1g61190 0.7 1473 1474 50S ribosomal protein L24, chloroplast precursor 0 At5g54600 0.76 1475 1476 unknown protein 1E-179 At1g68260 0.55 1477 1478 subtilisin-like serine proteinase, putative, 3' partial 0 At3g14067 0.62 1479 1480 putative protein 0 At4g23890 0.59 1481 1482 unknown protein 0 At3g01690 0.7 1483 1484 putative protein 0 At3g56290 0.3 1485 1486 unknown protein 0 At2g39450 0.67 1487 1488 unknown protein 0 At5g64130 0.66 1489 1490 putative protein 0 At4g30140 0.54 1491 1492 ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small chain 3b precursor 1E-145 At5g38410 0.54 (RuBisCO 1493 1494 Myb DNA binding protein -like 0 At3g46130 0.75 1495 1496 putative 2-cys peroxiredoxin 0 At3g11630 0.64 1497 1498 putative trypsin inhibitor 0 At1g73260 0.59 1499 1500 O-methyltransferase 1E-127 At5g54160 0.62 1501 1502 hypothetical protein 2E-30 At1g29270 0.73 1503 1504 RP19 gene for chloroplast ribosomal protein CL9 9E-67 At3g44890 0.68 1505 1506 putative phosphoglyceride transfer protein 1E-178 At4g08690 0.57 1507 1508 putative protein 0 At5g63530 0.53 1509 1510 putative protein 0 At5g38720 0.68 1511 1512 hypothetical protein 0 At1g72030 0.68 1513 1514 unknown protein 9E-21 At5g09990 0.67 1515 1516 zinc finger protein ZAT7 0 At3g46090 0.73 1517 1518 putative nodulin 0 At3g05180 0.64 1519 1520 putative wound-induced basic protein 1E-160 At3g07230 0.75 1521 1522 hypothetical protein 0 At4g02920 0.38 1523 1524 putative protein 1E-154 At5g62220 0.73 1525 1526 myosin heavy chain-like protein 0 At3g16000 0.5 1527 1528 unknown protein 0 At1g09610 0.76 1529 1530 arabinogalactan protein - like 0 At5g03170 0.71 1531 1532 biotin carboxyl carrier protein of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 0 At5g16390 0.69 precursor 1533 1534 centrin 0 At3g50360 0.74 1535 1536 vegetative storage protein Vsp1 0 At5g24780 0.48 1537 1538 protein kinase, putative 1E-61 At1g52310 0.63 1539 1540 unknown protein 1E-132 At2g42760 0.63 1541 1542 phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL1) 0 At2g37040 0.72 1543 1544 UDP rhamnose-anthocyanidin-3-glucoside rhamnosyltransferase- 0 At4g27560 0.45 like 1545 1546 unknown protein 0 At2g17500 0.54 1547 1548 NAC domain protein, putative 0 At1g01720 0.72 1549 1550 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme-like protein 2E-24 At5g56150 0.41 1551 1552 putative RNA-binding protein 1E-136 At2g37220 0.72 1553 1554 Overlap with bases 87,142-90,425 of `IGF` BAC clone F9K20, 0 At1g78570 0.52 accession 1555 1556 hypothetical protein 1E-105 At2g04040 0.52 1557 1558 lsp4-like protein 4E-01 At5g64410 0.39 1559 1560 ids4-like protein 0 At5g20150 0.58 1561 1562 unknown protein 3E-98 At1g44000 0.67 1563 1564 R2R3-MYB transcription factor 0 At3g50060 0.66 1565 1566 putative hexose transporter 0 At4g02050 0.68 1567 1568 one helix protein (OHP) 0 At5g02120 0.57 1569 1570 UDP-glucose dehydrogenase-like protein 0 At5g15490 0.74 1571 1572 putative protein 0 At3g54260 0.63 1573 1574 putative L5 ribosomal protein 0 At4g01310 0.75 1575 1576 putative myosin heavy chain 0 At2g37080 0.61 1577 1578 clpB heat shock protein-like 0 At5g15450 0.57 1579 1580 unknown protein 4E-71 At1g52510 0.66 1581 1582 beta-fructosidase, putative 0 At1g12240 0.55 1583 1584 hypothetical protein 0 At1g47670 0.69 1585 1586 putative protein 3E-36 At5g25890 0.75 1587 1588 predicted protein 1E-108 At4g31390 0.73 1589 1590 putative phospholipase 0 At2g39420 0.66 1591 1592 ATP-dependent transmembrane transporter, putative 0 At1g51460 0.74 1593 1594 H+-transporting ATP synthase-like protein 0 At4g09650 0.64 1595 1596 putative protein 0 At4g29590 0.77 1597 1598 unknown protein 0 At3g02640 0.49 1599 1600 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PPC) 0 At3g14940 0.77 1601 1602 pollen allergen-like protein 0 At1g24020 0.28 1603 1604 putative AUX1-like permease 0 At1g77690 0.73 1605 1606 putative protein 1E-127 At4g39730 0.49 1607 1608 homeobox-leucine zipper protein ATHB-12 0 At3g61890 0.24 1609 1610 putative protein 0 At5g10160 0.53 1611 1612 unknown protein 0 At1g71480 0.56 1613 1614 putative violaxanthin de-epoxidase precursor (U44133) 0 At1g08550 0.7 1615 1616 nClpP5, putative 0 At1g49970 0.68 1617 1618 hypothetical protein 0 At1g65260 0.57 1619 1620 putative protein 1E-135 At3g52360 0.38 1621 1622 putative protein 0 At5g26260 0.5 1623 1624 unknown protein 0 At1g25170 0.66 1625 1626 hypothetical protein 0 At1g79550 0.65 1627 1628 tubulin beta-2/beta-3 chain (sp|P29512) 2E-21 At5g62700 0.61 1629 1630 eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E, putative 0 At1g29550 0.64 1631 1632 transport inhibitor response 1, putative 1E-175 At1g12820 0.77 1633 1634 osmotin precursor 1E-110 At4g11650 0.74 1635 1636 putative glutathione S-transferase TSI-1 0 At1g10360 0.72 1637 1638 protein ch-42 precursor, chloroplast 0 At4g18480 0.76 1639 1640 omega-3 fatty acid desaturase 2E-06 At2g29980 0.73 1641 1642 unknown protein 0 At2g44670 0.57 1643 1644 putative protein 0 At3g55330 0.51 1645 1646 putative calmodulin 0 At3g51920 0.55 1647 1648 plastid ribosomal protein L34 precursor, putative 1E-140 At1g29070 0.69 1649 1650 putative protein 0 At5g67070 0.66 1651 1652 putative 2Fe--2S iron-sulfur cluster protein 0 At3g16250 0.69 1653 1654 hypothetical protein 0 At1g42970 0.69 1655 1656 hypothetical protein 3E-69 At3g14190 0.6 1657 1658 thylakoid luminal protein 1E-122 At1g77090 0.7 1659 1660 putative protein 0 At3g48420 0.42 1661 1662 actin 3 0 At2g37620 0.64 1663 1664 OEP8 like protein 4E-38 At4g15800 0.73 1665 1666 putative Ras-like GTP-binding protein 0 At3g09910 0.71 1667 1668 sulfolipid biosynthesis protein SQD1 0 At4g33030 0.68 1669 1670 oleosin isoform 0 At3g27660 0.61 1671 1672 acyl-CoA synthetase, putative 0 At1g64400 0.59 1673 1674 putative protein 1E-147 At3g61060 0.5 1675 1676 hypothetical protein 1E-117 At1g56200 0.64 1677 1678 putative protein 0 At4g13500 0.53 1679 1680 cinnamoyl CoA reductase, putative 0 At1g80820 0.72 1681 1682 hypothetical protein 1E-157 At4g28410 0.1 1683 1684 hypothetical protein 0 At1g54030 0.68 1685 1686 putative DNA-binding protein, GT-1 0 At3g25990 0.1 1687 1688 germin-like protein 3E-04 At3g05950 0.49 1689 1690 putative glutathione S-transferase 0E+00 At2g29480 0.7 1691 1692 arabinogalactan-protein (gb|AAC77823.1) 1E-06 At5g64310 0.61 1693 1694 periaxin-like protein 1E-151 At5g09530 0.71 1695 1696 zeaxanthin epoxidase precursor 0 At5g67030 0.52 1697 1698 putative photosystem I reaction center subunit IV 0 At2g20260 0.7 1699 1700 putative 60S ribosomal protein L18A 0 At3g14600 0.74 1701 1702 putative ethylene response element binding protein (EREBP) 0 At2g44840 0.72 1703 1704 unknown protein 0 At2g21970 0.5 1705 1706 RNA-binding protein cp33 precursor 0 At3g52380 0.73 1707 1708 unknown protein 1E-152 At2g34460 0.62 1709 1710 CONSTANS-like 1 1E-179 At5g15850 0.6 1711 1712 unknown protein 0 At1g75100 0.77 1713 1714 ion channel 9E-66 At1g15990 0.57 1715 1716 unknown protein 0 At2g21960 0.46 1717 1718 unknown protein 0 At1g66330 0.69 1719 1720 putative protein 0 At4g26630 0.68 1721 1722 unknown protein 1E-99 At3g28230 0.72 1723 1724 hypothetical protein 1E-65 At1g55910 0.65 1725 1726 putative Na+-dependent inorganic phosphate cotransporter 0 At2g29650 0.52 1727 1728 hypothetical protein 4E-23 At1g02330 0.71 1729 1730 hypothetical protein 0 At1g29700 0.55 1731 1732 putative flavonol 3-O-glucosyltransferase 0 At2g18560 0.62 1733 1734 lycopene epsilon cyclase 0 At5g57030 0.6 1735 1736 hypothetical protein 0 At3g09150 0.75 1737 1738 putative protein 1E-150 At1g31710 0.5 1739 1740 hypothetical protein 0 At1g78850 0.69 1741 1742 putative protein 0 At4g32770 0.75 1743 1744 putative protein 2E-77 At4g22890 0.75 1745 1746 ripening-related protein - like 0 At5g20740 0.59 1747 1748 putative peroxidase ATP12a 0 At1g05240 0.65 1749 1750 hypothetical protein 7E-18 At4g01050 0.77 1751 1752 V-ATPase subunit G (vag2 gene) 4E-04 At4g23710 0.61 1753 1754 hypothetical protein 0 At1g58080 0.75 1755 1756 putative protein 2E-94 At5g19190 0.51 1757 1758 hypothetical protein 0 At1g48850 0.69 1759 1760 putative protein 0 At4g38800 0.75 1761 1762 similar to polygalacturonase-like protein 0 At1g10640 0.28 1763 1764 putative glutathione S-transferase 0 At2g02390 0.73 1765 1766 putative calcium-binding EF-hand protein 3E-78 At2g33380 0.69 1767 1768 unknown protein 1E-113 At1g64680 0.57 1769 1770 unknown protein 0 At3g15660 0.58 1771 1772 putative protein 0 At5g22080 0.74 1773 1774 high mobility group protein 2-like 2E-24 At3g51880 0.71 1775 1776 similar to late embryogenesis abundant proteins 4E-50 At2g44060 0.61 1777 1778 putative protein 0 At4g34600 0.74 1779 1780 putative protein 2E-31 At5g52060 0.48 1781 1782 NADPH oxidoreductase, putative 0 At1g75280 0.53 1783 1784 hypothetical protein 0 At1g16720 0.62 1785 1786 unknown protein 0 At3g28130 0.75 1787 1788 glutaredoxin 0 At4g15690 0.73
1789 1790 putative protein 4E-01 At3g47590 0.66 1791 1792 putative protein 0 At4g26630 0.7 1793 1794 putative polyprotein 1E-139 At4g04410 0.76 1795 1796 MTN3-like protein 0 At3g48740 0.49 1797 1798 hypothetical protein 0 At1g32900 0.38 1799 1800 unknown protein 0 At2g33180 0.77 1801 1802 hypothetical protein 0 At1g66890 0.69 1803 1804 unknown protein 0 At1g74730 0.74 1805 1806 putative ribosomal protein S9 1E-122 At1g74970 0.7 1807 1808 phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 3E-51 At3g53260 0.53 1809 1810 unknown protein 2E-27 At1g78110 0.76 1811 1812 unknown protein 0 At1g18300 0.75 1813 1814 putative prolylcarboxypeptidase 1E-174 At2g24280 0.64 1815 1816 unknown protein 1E-12 At3g24100 0.76 1817 1818 unknown protein 0 At3g18990 0.39 1819 1820 hypothetical protein 1E-127 At1g78890 0.75 1821 1822 unknown protein 5E-87 At2g21530 0.71 1823 1824 hypothetical protein 1E-172 At1g20340 0.71 1825 1826 putative glucosyltransferase 0 At2g31790 0.63 1827 1828 allergen like protein 1E-129 At4g17030 0.74 1829 1830 unknown protein 0 At1g73750 0.72 1831 1832 APG5 (autophagy 5)-like protein 0 At5g17290 0.7 1833 1834 putative protochlorophyllide reductase 0 At1g03630 0.57 1835 1836 zinc finger protein, putative 0 At3g19580 0.61 1837 1838 unknown protein 0 At2g35190 0.65 1839 1840 phosphate/triose-phosphate translocator precursor 4E-33 At5g46110 0.73 (gb|AAC83815.1) 1841 1842 unknown protein 0 At5g50840 0.77 1843 1844 hypothetical protein 0 At4g34090 0.69 1845 1846 hypothetical protein 0 At1g14340 0.64 1847 1848 unknown protein 0 At1g67860 0.42 1849 1850 tyrosine transaminase like protein 1E-180 At4g23600 0.47 1851 1852 unknown protein 1E-173 At1g53890 0.53 1853 1854 pectinesterase, putative 0 At1g41830 0.76 1855 1856 putative protein 4E-72 At5g45550 0.69 1857 1858 putative ligand-gated ion channel subunit 2E+00 At2g32400 0.45 1859 1860 unknown protein 0 At3g19370 0.42 1861 1862 putative protein 5E-13 At5g62580 0.59 1863 1864 putative protein 0 At3g61080 0.42 1865 1866 putative squamosa-promoter binding protein 2 1E-162 At1g27360 0.74 1867 1868 sucrose-phosphate synthase - like protein 0 At4g10120 0.22 1869 1870 hypothetical protein 4E-23 At1g62180 0.43 1871 1872 ribosomal protein 0 At4g15000 0.75 1873 1874 MYB-related transcription factor (CCA1) 0 At2g46830 0.46 1875 1876 pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase, putative 1E-124 At1g32100 0.72 1877 1878 putative protein 0 At3g52230 0.71 1879 1880 3-keto-acyl-CoA thiolase 2 (gb|AAC17877.1) 0 At5g48880 0.57 1881 1882 putative protein 0 At3g46780 0.63 1883 1884 DNA-binding protein, putative 0 At1g01060 0.62 1885 1886 putative protein 3E-20 At4g30990 0.6 1887 1888 putative protein 0 At3g46780 0.59 1889 1890 hypothetical protein 1E-174 At1g28400 0.58 1891 1892 DNA binding protein - like 0 At5g61600 0.55 1893 1894 putative protein 0 At3g62260 0.72 1895 1896 putative CCCH-type zinc finger protein 0 At2g25900 0.63 1897 1898 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2-17 kD 8 (ubiquitin-protein ligase 3E-16 At5g41700 0.42 1899 1900 microbody NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase 0 At5g09660 0.63 1901 1902 glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase A subunit (GapA) 0 At3g26650 0.63 1903 1904 microbody NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase 0 At5g09660 0.66 1905 1906 sedoheptulose-bisphosphatase precursor 0 At3g55800 0.54 1907 1908 putative Fe(II) transporter 1E-175 At2g32270 0.74 1909 1910 germin - like protein 0 At5g38940 0.75 1911 1912 putative malonyl-CoA:Acyl carrier protein transacylase 0 At2g30200 0.7 1913 1914 hypothetical protein 0 At1g19000 0.61 1915 1916 FRO1-like protein; NADPH oxidase-like 0 At5g49740 0.41 1917 1918 J8-like protein 0 At1g80920 0.51 1919 1920 putative protein 0 At4g34190 0.63 1921 1922 photosystem II stability/assembly factor HCF136 (sp|O82660) 0 At5g23120 0.66 1923 1924 hypothetical protein 0 At4g24930 0.63 1925 1926 2-cys peroxiredoxin-like protein 0 At5g06290 0.69 1927 1928 putative protein 0 At3g53470 0.54 1929 1930 unknown protein 3E-96 At3g02180 0.71 1931 1932 F12P19.7 0 At1g65900 0.69 1933 1934 putative fibrillin 0 At4g04020 0.28 1935 1936 putative protein 1E-01 At4g18810 0.72 1937 1938 hypothetical protein 1E-171 At1g50240 0.67 1939 1940 putative protein 0 At3g63210 0.76 1941 1942 unknown protein 0 At2g32870 0.47 1943 1944 Glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase (ApL1/adg2) 0 At5g19220 0.64 1945 1946 unknown protein 1E-66 At2g46100 0.67 1947 1948 farnesyl diphosphate synthase precursor (gb|AAB49290.1) 0 At5g47770 0.71 1949 1950 pyridoxine biosynthesis protein - like 0 At5g01410 0.47 1951 1952 hypothetical protein 0 At4g03820 0.71 1953 1954 putative myrosinase-binding protein 1E-47 At2g39310 0.38 1955 1956 unknown protein 0 At1g05870 0.44 1957 1958 heat shock protein, putative 0 At1g06460 0.28 1959 1960 RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN, putative 1E-175 At1g71720 0.76 1961 1962 elongation factor G, putative 0 At1g62750 0.65 1963 1964 mitochondrial Lon protease homolog 1 precursor (sp|O64948) 0 At5g47040 0.76 1965 1966 cytochrome c 2E-37 At4g10040 0.72 1967 1968 hypothetical protein 1E-102 At4g03420 0.69 1969 1970 putative DnaJ protein 1E-160 At2g41000 0.73 1971 1972 hypothetical protein 0 At2g27290 0.61 1973 1974 putative protein 1E-117 At5g50100 0.4 1975 1976 phytoene synthase (gb|AAB65697.1) 0 At5g17230 0.64 1977 1978 putative protein 0 At4g28230 0.73 1979 1980 hypothetical protein 0 At2g01260 0.49 1981 1982 unknown protein 0 At3g17520 0.71 1983 1984 Ran binding protein (AtRanBP1b) 0 At2g30060 0.73 1985 1986 putative protein 0 At4g32190 0.63 1987 1988 unknown protein 0 At1g19400 0.64 1989 1990 sucrose-phosphate synthase-like protein 0 At5g20280 0.67 1991 1992 putative protein 1E-136 At5g03545 0.45 1993 1994 biotin carboxyl carrier protein precursor-like protein 1E-124 At5g15530 0.54 1995 1996 unknown protein 4E-85 At1g16320 0.53 1997 1998 unknown protein 5E-16 At3g32930 0.68 1999 2000 putative protein 1E-142 At4g35290 0.74 2001 2002 glutathione S-transferase-like protein 0 At5g17220 0.66 2003 2004 fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, putative 0 At1g43670 0.63 2005 2006 peptidylprolyl isomerase-like protein 2E-34 At5g13120 0.72 2007 2008 teosinte branched1 - like protein 0 At4g18390 0.63 2009 2010 putative protein 0 At3g51520 0.71 2011 2012 lactoylglutathione lyase-like protein 0 At1g11840 0.45 2013 2014 late embryogenesis abundant protein LEA like 0 At5g06760 0.55 2015 2016 putative protein 1E-177 At5g19590 0.71 2017 2018 putative protein 0 At3g63190 0.72 2019 2020 hypothetical protein 0 At1g69510 0.47 2021 2022 putative protein kinase 0 At2g30040 0.69 2023 2024 xyloglucan endo-transglycosylase 0 At3g44990 0.43 2025 2026 phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase 0 At4g11600 0.71 2027 2028 sedoheptulose-bisphosphatase precursor 0 At3g55800 0.51 2029 2030 Clp proteinase like protein 2E-55 At4g17040 0.75 2031 2032 unknown protein 0 At5g07020 0.68 2033 2034 unknown protein 2E-32 At5g51720 0.49 2035 2036 endomembrane protein, putative 1E-117 At1g14670 0.75 2037 2038 putative phosphomannomutase 0 At2g45790 0.66 2039 2040 putative protein 1E-95 At4g27280 0.46 2041 2042 mrp protein, putative 0 At3g24430 0.75 2043 2044 putative vacuolar ATPase 0 At4g02620 0.74 2045 2046 phosphate transporter, putative 0 At3g26570 0.61 2047 2048 similar to Trp Asp repeat protein emb|CAB39845.1; similar to EST 0 At1g78070 0.74 2049 2050 putative MAP kinase 2E-18 At2g01450 0.51 2051 2052 ethylene-responsive transcriptional coactivator, putative 0 At3g24500 0.51 2053 2054 6-phosphogluconolactonase-like protein 0 At5g24420 0.52 2055 2056 beta-amylase-like proten 1E-175 At5g18670 0.4 2057 2058 hypothetical protein 3E-53 At1g20970 0.72 2059 2060 chloroplast 50S ribosomal protein L31, putative 0 At1g75350 0.74 2061 2062 cytochrome P450-like protein 0 At4g37320 0.67 2063 2064 putative potassium transporter AtKT5p (AtKT5) 0 At4g33530 0.76 2065 2066 putative ribosomal-protein S6 kinase (ATPK6) 0 At3g08730 0.63 2067 2068 hypothetical protein 0 At1g04770 0.68 2069 2070 transcription factor Hap5a 6E-74 At3g48590 0.6 2071 2072 putative protein 0 At5g20070 0.69 2073 2074 beta-expansin 0 At2g20750 0.72 2075 2076 SOUL-like protein 4E-82 At1g17100 0.71 2077 2078 unknown protein 0 At1g70760 0.4 2079 2080 unknown protein 1E-124 At2g20890 0.73 2081 2082 unknown protein 1E-160 At1g07280 0.72 2083 2084 unknown protein 0 At1g64680 0.65 2085 2086 ADPG pyrophosphorylase small subunit (gb|AAC39441.1) 0 At5g48300 0.68 2087 2088 unknown protein 0 At2g17340 0.61 2089 2090 hypothetical protein 0 At1g26800 0.74 2091 2092 unknown protein 0 At1g22930 0.67 2093 2094 polyphosphoinositide binding protein, putative 0 At1g01630 0.72 2095 2096 caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase - like protein 0 At4g34050 0.67 2097 2098 pectinesterase 0 At5g53370 0.56 2099 2100 unknown protein 7E-75 At1g64370 0.43 2101 2102 p-nitrophenylphosphatase-like protein 0 At5g36790 0.52 2103 2104 putative protein 1E-172 At5g55960 0.64 2105 2106 serine/threonine protein kinase -like protein 0 At5g10930 0.26 2107 2108 cytosolic factor, putative 0 At1g72160 0.67 2109 2110 S-adenosylmethionine:2-demethylmenaquinone 1E-159 At5g56260 0.76 methyltransferase-like 2111 2112 pectate lyase 0 At5g63180 0.67 2113 2114 vacuolar sorting receptor-like protein 0 At4g20110 0.7 2115 2116 putative membrane channel protein 0 At2g28900 0.76 2117 2118 putative thylakoid lumen rotamase 0 At3g01480 0.56 2119 2120 putative chloroplast prephenate dehydratase 0 At3g44720 0.73 2121 2122 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] synthase I precursor 0 At5g46290 0.76 2123 2124 P-Protein - like protein 1E-108 At4g33010 0.73 2125 2126 NHE1 Na+/H+ exchanger 1E-122 At5g27150 0.73 2127 2128 receptor kinase-like protein 0 At3g47580 0.72 2129 2130 raffinose synthase -like protein 0 At5g40390 0.59 2131 2132 thylakoid luminal protein 0 At1g54780 0.63 2133 2134 unknown protein 0 At2g46170 0.73 2135 2136 beta-xylan endohydrolase -like protein 9E-02 At4g33810 0.26 2137 2138 putative protein 1E-137 At4g12700 0.6 2139 2140 putative ribose 5-phosphate isomerase 0 At3g04790 0.76 2141 2142 putative protein 0 At5g47840 0.7 2143 2144 putative RNA-binding protein 0 At1g09340 0.57 2145 2146 adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (EC 220.127.116.11) - like protein 0 At4g22570 0.46 2147 2148 unknown protein 0 At3g15950 0.37 2149 2150 putative glutathione peroxidase 7E-12 At2g25080 0.46 2151 2152 putative protein 0 At5g23060 0.63 2153 2154 pectate lyase 1-like protein 0 At1g67750 0.42 2155 2156 putative triosephosphate isomerase 9E-61 At2g21170 0.66 2157 2158 carbonate dehydratase - like protein 0 At4g33580 0.72 2159 2160 putative protein 0 At5g37300 0.56 2161 2162 putative protein 1E-143 At3g60080 0.77 2163 2164 cystatin (emb|CAA03929.1) 2E-83 At5g12140 0.74 2165 2166 putative cytochrome b5 0 At2g46650 0.46 2167 2168 putaive DNA-binding protein 2E-08 At4g31550 0.63 2169 2170 hypothetical protein 1E-143 At3g21050 0.5 2171 2172 putative beta-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase 0 At2g22230 0.59 2173 2174 2-oxoglutarate/malate translocator 0 At5g64290 0.77 2175 2176 hypothetical protein 1E-123 At3g27050 0.49 2177 2178 putative alcohol dehydrogenase 9E-64 At2g37770 0.64 2179 2180 hypothetical protein 1E-107 At1g18730 0.67 2181 2182 putative pectinacetylesterase 0 At4g19420 0.71 2183 2184 similar to ADP-ribosylation factor gb|AAD17207; similar to ESTs 2E-80 At1g10630 0.67 2185 2186 hypothetical protein 0 At1g04420 0.67 2187 2188 putative protein 0 At4g26710 0.62 2189 2190 putative protein 0 At4g34630 0.72 2191 2192 latex protein 0 At1g70890 0.29 2193 2194 RCc3-like protein 0 At4g22490 0.57 2195 2196 hypothetical protein 5E-53 At1g20450 0.49 2197 2198 glucosyltransferase-like protein 3E-31 At5g22740 0.65 2199 2200 glutathione S-transferase 0 At2g29450 0.52 2201 2202 putative protein 0 At3g44450 0.59 2203 2204 cysteine synthase 0 At5g28020 0.6 2205 2206 ATP synthase 0 At4g04640 0.57 2207 2208 40S ribosomal protein S14 1E-25 At2g36160 0.67 2209 2210 putative protein 0 At4g19100 0.76 2211 2212 K Efflux antiporter KEA1 0 At1g01790 0.65 2213 2214 hypothetical protein 1E-169 At2g42980 0.66 2215 2216 cytochrome P450 like protein 1E-01 At4g36380 0.48 2217 2218 unknown protein 8E-64 At2g01520 0.23 2219 2220 hypothetical protein 1E-157 At1g07130 0.66 2221 2222 putative protein 5E-04 At5g09620 0.62 2223 2224 unknown protein 0 At1g08470 0.66 2225 2226 putative protein 6E-37 At3g54600 0.7 2227 2228 DnaJ-like protein 1E-68 At4g39960 0.52 2229 2230 putative protein phosphatase 2C 1E-161 At1g78200 0.72 2231 2232 biotin synthase (Bio B) 0 At2g43360 0.67 2233 2234 unknown protein 3E-69 At3g17510 0.55 2235 2236 high mobility group protein 2-like 1E-107 At3g51880 0.66 2237 2238 putative proline-rich protein 0 At2g21140 0.57 2239 2240 cyclin delta-3 0 At4g34160 0.74 2241 2242 serine carboxypeptidase II - like protein 0 At4g30810 0.77 2243 2244 unknown protein 0 At1g67330 0.7
2245 2246 putative protein 7E-93 At3g56010 0.7 2247 2248 GTP-binding protein LepA homolog 0 At5g08650 0.76 2249 2250 unknown protein 0 At3g10420 0.42 2251 2252 putative protein 0 At3g51510 0.58 2253 2254 putative protein 0 At3g45870 0.73 2255 2256 putative enolase 0 At1g74030 0.65 2257 2258 putative protein 3E-05 At5g11680 0.71 2259 2260 putative protein 0 At5g26280 0.58 2261 2262 O-methyltransferase, putative 0 At1g21100 0.63 2263 2264 beta-1,3-glucanase class I precursor 0 At4g16260 0.51 2265 2266 protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) 2E-27 At3g11410 0.67 2267 2268 root cap protein 2-like protein 1E-174 At5g54370 0.75 2269 2270 putative adenosine phosphosulfate kinase 0 At2g14750 0.47 2271 2272 putative protein 0 At4g30010 0.73 2273 2274 putative uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase 2E-9 At2g40490 0.75 2275 2276 putative protein 1E-151 At3g57400 0.71 2277 2278 branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase, putative 1E-56 At3g19710 0.3 2279 2280 copia-like retroelement pol polyprotein 0 At2g19830 0.72 2281 2282 neoxanthin cleavage enzyme-like protein 0 At4g19170 0.38 2283 2284 hypothetical protein 0 At1g31860 0.7 2285 2286 unknown protein 0 At2g26570 0.61 2287 2288 asparagine synthetase ASN3 0 At5g10240 0.72 2289 2290 hypothetical protein 1E-80 At1g64770 0.56 2291 2292 expansin S2 precursor, putative 1E-114 At1g20190 0.51 2293 2294 5'-adenylylsulfate reductase 0 At4g04610 0.43 2295 2296 putative protein 9E-02 At3g59680 0.71 2297 2298 putative MYB family transcription factor 4E-31 At2g37630 0.73 2299 2300 Putative protein kinase 3E-23 At1g51850 0.6 2301 2302 putative protein 0 At5g15910 0.76 2303 2304 AALP protein 0 At5g60360 0.63 2305 2306 putative galactinol synthase 0 At2g47180 0.69 2307 2308 cyanohydrin lyase like protein 0 At4g16690 0.56 2309 2310 putative protein 0 At5g03880 0.57 2311 2312 putative glucosyltransferase 0 At2g30150 0.73 2313 2314 cysteine endopeptidase precursor - like protein 0 At3g48350 0.65 2315 2316 unknown protein 1E-122 At3g07700 0.7 2317 2318 putative peroxiredoxin 2E-86 At3g26060 0.76 2319 2320 MAPKK 0 At1g73500 0.58 2321 2322 hypothetical protein 7E-74 At1g64780 0.52 2323 2324 UDP glucose:flavonoid 3-o-glucosyltransferase, putative 2E-90 At1g30530 0.59 2325 2326 hypothetical protein 0 At4g02800 0.55 2327 2328 oxidoreductase-like protein 0 At3g55290 0.65 2329 2330 hypothetical protein 0 At1g50670 0.73 2331 2332 carnitine/acylcarnitine translocase-like protein 0 At5g46800 0.58 2333 2334 MATH protein 1E-169 At4g00780 0.57 2335 2336 unknown protein 0 At1g22630 0.76 2337 2338 cytochrome P450-like protein 0 At4g37330 0.72 2339 2340 putative endo-1,4-beta glucanase 8E-36 At4g02290 0.62 2341 2342 hevein-like protein precursor 0E+00 At3g04720 0.75 2343 2344 leucine zipper-containing protein AT103 1E-139 At3g56940 0.63 2345 2346 delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase 0 At3g55610 0.69 2347 2348 remorin 0 At2g45820 0.76 2349 2350 putative protein 0 At5g22460 0.48 2351 2352 putative lectin 0 At3g16530 0.43 2353 2354 putative protein 9E-29 At5g26260 0.52 2355 2356 peptidylprolyl isomerase ROC4 0 At3g62030 0.61 2357 2358 O-methyltransferase, putative 0 At1g21130 0.63 2359 2360 putative zinc finger protein 0 At4g38960 0.72 2361 2362 putative hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein 1E-173 At1g13930 0.58 2363 2364 putative protein 1 photosystem II oxygen-evolving complex 0 At3g50820 0.65 2365 2366 hypothetical protein 0 At1g66700 0.63 2367 2368 unknown protein 0 At1g52870 0.43 2369 2370 heat shock protein 90 0 At5g56010 0.75 2371 2372 Overlap with bases 87,142-90,425 of `IGF` BAC clone F9K20, 1E-115 At1g78570 0.63 accession 2373 2374 phosphoglycerate kinase, putative 1E-120 At3g12780 0.73 2375 2376 putative lectin 1E-25 At3g16400 0.4 2377 2378 profilin 2 0 At4g29350 0.77 2379 2380 HSP associated protein like 5E-16 At4g22670 0.75 2381 2382 putative cell division control protein, cdc2 kinase 1E-75 At1g20930 0.72 2383 2384 putative protein 1E-107 At5g08050 0.65 2385 2386 ribosomal protein S27 0 At5g47930 0.77 2387 2388 vacuolar H+-transporting ATPase 16K chain 0 At4g34720 0.76 2389 2390 expansin At-EXP5 3E-82 At3g29030 0.52 2391 2392 similar to cold acclimation protein WCOR413 [Triticum aestivum] 0 At2g15970 0.74 2393 2394 chloroplast membrane protein (ALBINO3) 1E-159 At2g28800 0.72 2395 2396 putative thioredoxin 1E-102 At1g08570 0.55 2397 2398 unknown protein 0 At1g08380 0.65 2399 2400 hypothetical protein 0 At1g07180 0.53 2401 2402 putative flavonol sulfotransferase 0 At1g74090 0.69 2403 2404 possible apospory-associated like protein 0 At4g25900 0.71 2405 2406 glycolate oxidase, putative 0 At3g14420 0.71 2407 2408 putative peroxidase ATP2a 0 At2g37130 0.75 2409 2410 putative protein 1E-154 At4g21860 0.75 2411 2412 hydroxypyruvate reductase (HPR) 0 At1g68010 0.74 2413 2414 photosystem I reaction centre subunit psaN precursor (PSI-N) 0 At5g64040 0.49 2415 2416 plastid ribosomal protein S6, putative 0 At1g64510 0.6 2417 2418 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase MTHFR1 0 At3g59970 0.72 2419 2420 putative photosystem I reaction center subunit II precursor 0 At1g03130 0.55 2421 2422 unknown protein 0 At3g10940 0.64 2423 2424 fumarate hydratase 0 At5g50950 0.43 2425 2426 Lil3 protein 0 At5g47110 0.73 2427 2428 homeobox gene ATH1 0 At4g32980 0.76 2429 2430 putative lectin 3E-20 At3g16390 0.43 2431 2432 COP1-interacting protein 7 (CIP7) 1E-07 At4g27430 0.67 2433 2434 putative acyl-CoA synthetase 0 At2g47240 0.51 2435 2436 unknown protein 0 At2g01590 0.68 2437 2438 hydroxymethyltransferase 0 At4g13930 0.72 2439 2440 hypothetical protein 1E-164 At1g69490 0.27 2441 2442 SNF1 related protein kinase (ATSRPK1) 1E-170 At3g23000 0.49 2443 2444 mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase 6E-68 At2g38700 0.71 2445 2446 putative flavonol sulfotransferase 0 At1g74090 0.69 2447 2448 protein phosphatase 2C (AtP2C-HA) 0 At1g72770 0.59 2449 2450 cinnamoyl-CoA reductase - like protein 0 At4g30470 0.72 2451 2452 O-methyltransferase - like protein 0 At4g35160 0.5 2453 2454 pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 alpha subunit 0 At1g01090 0.77 2455 2456 putative chlorophyll A-B binding protein 0 At3g27690 0.49 2457 2458 putative UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase 0 At2g35020 0.69 2459 2460 putative protein 1E-121 At4g05590 0.75 2461 2462 Ca2+-dependent membrane-binding protein annexin 0 At1g35720 0.41 2463 2464 hypothetical protein 0 At2g35760 0.51 2465 2466 hypothetical protein 2E-15 At1g18840 0.71 2467 2468 hypothetical protein 0 At1g51140 0.53 2469 2470 aromatic amino-acid decarboxylase - like protein 0 At4g28680 0.73 2471 2472 unknown protein 3E-72 At2g35830 0.49 2473 2474 hypothetical protein 0 At1g78690 0.66 2475 2476 putative elongation factor P (EF-P) 0 At3g08740 0.74 2477 2478 unknown protein 0 At1g22750 0.76 2479 2480 putative protein 0 At3g63160 0.45 2481 2482 unknown protein 1E-150 At3g26510 0.55 2483 2484 aldo/keto reductase-like protein 0 At5g53580 0.69 2485 2486 glycine decarboxylase complex H-protein 0 At2g35370 0.53 2487 2488 thioredoxin (clone GIF1) (pir||S58118) 3E-14 At5g42980 0.53 2489 2490 putative protein 1E-93 At4g28020 0.52 2491 2492 hypothetical protein 0 At1g18870 0.71 2493 2494 vegetative storage protein Vsp2 0 At5g24770 0.43 2495 2496 putative protein 3E-75 At4g17560 0.66 2497 2498 NBD-like protein (gb|AAD20643.1) 0E+00 At5g44110 0.58 2499 2500 photosystem I subunit V precursor, putative 1E-119 At1g55670 0.56 2501 2502 putative thaumatin 2E-36 At2g28790 0.64 2503 2504 hyoscyamine 6-dioxygenase hydroxylase, putative 0 At1g35190 0.71 2505 2506 H-protein promoter binding factor-like protein 0 At5g62430 0.51 2507 2508 putative protein 0 At4g04840 0.52 2509 2510 endo-xyloglucan transferase - like protein 0 At4g37800 0.68 2511 2512 vitamine c-2 0 At4g26850 0.33 2513 2514 hypothetical protein 0 At3g12340 0.69 2515 2516 putative acetone-cyanohydrin lyase 0 At2g23610 0.68 2517 2518 putative transcription factor 0 At1g71030 0.36 2519 2520 hypothetical protein 1E-128 At1g19000 0.74 2521 2522 putative xyloglucan endo-transglycosylase 7E-27 At2g36870 0.4 2523 2524 hypothetical protein 3E-51 At1g58080 0.77 2525 2526 putative protein 1E-167 At5g36800 0.65 2527 2528 putative protein 1E-157 At4g30530 0.65 2529 2530 cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase ELI3-1 0 At4g37980 0.54 2531 2532 putative CONSTANS-like B-box zinc finger protein 0 At2g47890 0.72 2533 2534 unknown protein 1E-123 At1g53480 0.6 2535 2536 protein phosphatase 2C-like protein 2E-55 At4g28400 0.72 2537 2538 putative protein 0 At5g60680 0.57 2539 2540 farnesyl-pyrophosphate synthetase FPS2 0 At4g17190 0.76 2541 2542 soluble inorganic pyrophosphatase, putative 0 At1g01050 0.59 2543 2544 putative nematode-resistance protein 1E-117 At2g40000 0.34 2545 2546 putative AP2 domain transcription factor 0 At2g23340 0.74 2547 2548 putative myo-inositol monophosphatase 3E-17 At3g02870 0.6 2549 2550 putative isoamylase 0 At1g03310 0.74 2551 2552 phosphate transporter (AtPT2) 0 At2g38940 0.76 2553 2554 putative disease resistance response protein 0 At4g11190 0.68 2555 2556 unknown protein 0 At2g45600 0.55 2557 2558 peroxidase ATP13a 0 At5g17820 0.7 2559 2560 unknown protein 0 At1g26920 0.74 2561 2562 putative mitochondrial carrier protein 0 At2g47490 0.69 2563 2564 actin depolymerizing factor 3-like protein 1E-136 At5g59880 0.64 2565 2566 putative protein transport protein SEC23 1E-149 At2g21630 0.73 2567 2568 unknown protein 2E-30 At2g44310 0.74 2569 2570 putative protein 0 At4g21570 0.69 2571 2572 putative steroid binding protein 0 At2g24940 0.57 2573 2574 putative lipid transfer protein 0 At2g15050 0.49 2575 2576 hypothetical protein 0 At4g15510 0.75 2577 2578 unknown protein 3E-47 At3g25690 0.56 2579 2580 40S ribosomal protein S19 - like 0 At5g28060 0.73 2581 2582 putative auxin-regulated protein 0 At2g21210 0.56 2583 2584 unknown protein 0 At1g19350 0.71 2585 2586 unknown protein 1E-136 At1g07700 0.71 2587 2588 50S ribosomal protein L27 0E+00 At5g40950 0.7 2589 2590 unknown protein 1E-105 At2g46540 0.69 2591 2592 ATP-sulfurylase 0 At4g14680 0.72 2593 2594 hypothetical protein 1E-107 At3g18890 0.64 2595 2596 putative protein 0 At3g59780 0.62 2597 2598 cytochrome P450 monooxygenase - like protein 0 At4g37410 0.56 2599 2600 hypothetical protein 2E-86 At1g61890 0.36 2601 2602 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, putative 0 At3g20060 0.66 2603 2604 hypothetical protein 0 At1g20810 0.74 2605 2606 hypothetical protein 0 At2g15020 0.45 2607 2608 unknown protein 0 At1g55480 0.52 2609 2610 UDP glucose:flavonoid 3-o-glucosyltransferase -like protein 0 At5g17050 0.56 2611 2612 hypothetical protein 0 At3g23670 0.69 2613 2614 putative protein 0 At4g34920 0.69 2615 2616 unknown protein 1E-100 At2g36630 0.71 2617 2618 unknown protein 6E-94 At1g56580 0.63 2619 2620 HSR201 like protein 0 At4g15390 0.75 2621 2622 heme oxygenase 1 (HO1) 0 At2g26670 0.74 2623 2624 putative beta-glucosidase 0 At4g27820 0.46 2625 2626 unknown protein 1E-122 At1g68440 0.45 2627 2628 predicted protein 0 At4g22820 0.54 2629 2630 putative kinesin heavy chain 0 At2g22610 0.72 2631 2632 putative protein 0 At4g27860 0.61 2633 2634 unknown protein 0 At2g37240 0.76 2635 2636 unknown protein 0 At1g30070 0.76 2637 2638 WD-repeat protein -like protein 0 At4g33270 0.57 2639 2640 unknown protein 0 At1g32220 0.6 2641 2642 hypothetical protein 0 At4g22920 0.73 2643 2644 putative amino acid transporter protein 0 At3g11900 0.67 2645 2646 endo-beta-1,4-glucanase, putative 0 At1g64390 0.5 2647 2648 hypothetical protein 0 At1g18060 0.6 2649 2650 hypothetical protein 1E-114 At4g39820 0.7 2651 2652 putative protein 1E-62 At5g27290 0.6 2653 2654 putative protein 1E-133 At3g48200 0.46 2655 2656 hypothetical protein 1E-173 At1g64500 0.51 2657 2658 putative ribonuclease, RNS2 0 At2g39780 0.6 2659 2660 thioredoxin f1 0 At3g02730 0.59 2661 2662 unknown protein 0 At2g20670 0.67 2663 2664 cytochrome P450-like protein 0 At5g48000 0.45 2665 2666 subtilisin proteinase - like 1E-105 At4g21650 0.31 2667 2668 photoassimilate-responsive protein PAR-1b -like protein 0E+00 At3g54040 0.76 2669 2670 putative dTDP-glucose 4-6-dehydratase 0 At2g27860 0.45 2671 2672 hypothetical protein 0 At1g51700 0.43 2673 2674 early light-induced protein 0 At3g22840 0.65 2675 2676 hypothetical protein 0 At1g32060 0.42 2677 2678 unknown protein 0 At2g34860 0.69 2679 2680 peroxidase ATP3a (emb|CAA67340.1) 4E-10 At5g64100 0.49 2681 2682 putative protein 0 At5g06770 0.67 2683 2684 hypothetical protein 0 At2g16860 0.57 2685 2686 annexin 0 At5g65020 0.61 2687 2688 thioredoxin, putative 0 At1g50320 0.63 2689 2690 putative protein 0 At5g17360 0.66 2691 2692 nucleoside diphosphate kinase 3 (ndpk3) 0 At4g11010 0.76 2693 2694 unknown protein 0 At5g62550 0.64 2695 2696 putative protein 0 At4g12000 0.62 2697 2698 cell division protease FtsH, putative 0 At1g06430 0.65 2699 2700 unknown protein 0 At1g74880 0.41 2701 2702 putative protein 0 At5g56540 0.61 2703 2704 unknown protein 0 At1g68780 0.61 2705 2706 mipC protein - like (aquaporin) 0 At5g60660 0.64
2707 2708 Oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 3 precursor - like protein 0 At4g05180 0.64 2709 2710 cytochrome P450, putative 0 At3g26180 0.74 2711 2712 putative protein 1E-126 At5g22210 0.74 2741 2742 unknown protein At1g45200 3.91 2743 2744 unknown protein, putative protease inhibitor At5g43580 2.58 2745 2746 putative protein At5g03540 2.21 2747 2748 putative WD repeat protein At3g15880 2.38 2749 2750 putative protease inhibitor Dr4 At1g73330 10.30 2751 2752 putative auxin regulated protein At2g46690 2.86 2753 2754 translation initiation factor like protein At5g54940 2.15 2755 pseudogene At2g04110 2.07
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The patent application contains a lengthy "Sequence Listing" section. A
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Patent applications by Dirk Inze, Moorsel-Aalst BE
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Patent applications in class The polynucleotide alters plant part growth (e.g., stem or tuber length, etc.)
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