Patent application title: PAPER COMPRISING POLYBENZAZOLE OR PRECURSOR THEREOF
Monica Lopez Lorenzo (Arnhem, NL)
Anton Peter De Weijer (Nijmegen, NL)
Richard Visser (Arnhem, NL)
TEIJIN ARAMID B.V.
IPC8 Class: AD21H1320FI
Class name: Processes and products synthetic fiber (including chemically modified cellulose) synthetic resin
Publication date: 2011-04-14
Patent application number: 20110083820
The invention relates to a paper comprising at least one of a fiber,
pulp, fibril, floc, and fibrid having a polybenzazole structure with a
repeating unit of formula (I) and/or (II)
##STR00001## or its precursor structure with a repeating unit of
##STR00002## wherein Ar1 and Ar2 are independently a para
or meta aromatic group having 4 to 12 carbon atoms, X and Y are the same
or different and selected from O, S, and NH; and n is 0 or 1, and wherein
the paper is free or essentially free of non-extractable phosphorus
compound. The paper is particularly suitable for making an electrical
insulation material, a honeycomb structure, or a constructive material.
1. A paper comprising at least one of a fiber, pulp, fibril, floc, and
fibrid having a polybenzazole structure with a repeating unit of formula
(I) and/or (II) ##STR00015## or its precursor structure with a
repeating unit of formula (III): ##STR00016## wherein Ar1 and
Ar2 are independently a para or meta aromatic group having 4 to 12
carbon atoms, X and Y are the same or different and selected from O, S,
and NH; and n is 0 or 1, and wherein the paper is free or essentially
free of non-extractable phosphorus compound.
2. The paper of claim 1 obtainable by polymerizing about equimolar amounts of monomers having the formula ClOOC--Ar1--COOCl and ##STR00017## wherein Ar1 and Ar2 are independently a para or meta aromatic group having 4 to 12 carbon atoms, X and Y are the same or different and selected from O, S, and NH; and n is 0 or 1, to the precursor structure containing the repeating unit of formula (III), ##STR00018## wherein Ar1, Ar2, X, Y and n have the previously given meanings, optionally followed by cyclising the precursor structure to the polybenzazole structure with the repeating unit of formula (I) and/or (II) ##STR00019## wherein Ar1, Ar2, X, and Y have the previously given meanings, in a fluid which is free or essentially free from phosphoric acid.
3. The paper of claim 1 wherein at least part of XH and/or YH is functionalized.
4. The paper of claim 1 having a grammage from 1 to 16 g/m.sup.2.
5. The paper of claim 1 comprising a mixture of at least one of fiber, pulp, fibril, floe, and fibrid having the polybenzazole structure of formula (I) and/or (II), or the polybenzazole precursor structure of formula (III), and PPTA fibrid.
6. A method for making the paper of claim 1 comprising polymerizing about equimolar amounts of monomers having the formula ClOOC--Ar1--COOCl and ##STR00020## wherein Ar1 and Ar2 are independently a para or meta aromatic group having 4 to 12 carbon atoms, X and Y are the same or different and selected from O, S, and NH; and n is 0 or 1, to a precursor structure containing the repeating unit expressed by formula (III) ##STR00021## wherein Ar1, Ar2, X, Y and n have the previously given meanings, optionally followed by cyclising under heating in an inert atmosphere the precursor structure to a polybenzazole structure having a repeating unit of formula (I) and/or (II) ##STR00022## wherein Ar1, Ar2, X, and Y have the previously given meanings, in a fluid which is free or essentially free from phosphoric acid, followed by making a fiber, pulp, fibril, floc, or fibrid from the precursor or from the polybenzazole structure, followed by making the paper thereof by a conventional papermaking process optionally followed by one or more of a calendering step, heating step, drying step, and functionalization step.
7. The method according to claim 6 wherein at least part of the XH and/or YH groups of Ar2 are functionalized by treating the monomer and/or the precursor structure and/or the polybenzazoe structure with a functionalizing agent.
8. A method for making the paper of claim 1 comprising polymerizing about equimolar amounts of monomers having the formula ClOOC--Ar1--COOCl and ##STR00023## wherein Ar1 and Ar2 are independently a para or meta aromatic group having 4 to 12 carbon atoms, X and Y are the same or different and selected from O, S, and NH; and n is 0 or 1, to a precursor having the repeating unit of formula (III) ##STR00024## wherein Ar1, Ar2, X, Y and n have the previously given meanings, in a fluid which is free or essentially free from phosphoric acid, followed by making a fiber, pulp, fibril, floe, or fibril from the precursor, followed by making the paper thereof in a conventional papermaking process, optionally followed by one or more of a calendering step, heating step, drying step, and functionalization step.
9. The method according to claim 7 wherein the paper obtained is heated under an inert atmosphere at a temperature allowing cyclization of the polybenzazole precursor having formula (III) to the polybenzazole comprising the structure of formula (I) and/or (II).
10. The method according to claim 8 wherein at least part of the XH and/or YH groups of Ar2 are functionalized by treating the monomer and/or the precursor structure and/or the polybenzazoe structure with a functionalizing agent.
11. A method for making the paper of claim 6 comprising applying a conventional papermaking process further using at least one of fiber, pulp, fibril, floc, and fibrid having the structure IV ##STR00025## wherein the Ar1 moieties have independently the previously given meaning.
12. An electrical insulation material comprising the paper of claim 1.
13. An electrical insulation material, a honeycomb structure, or a constructive material comprising as a component the paper of claim 1.
 The invention relates to a paper comprising at least one of a
fiber, pulp, fibril, floc, and fibrid containing a polybenzazole
structure or a polybenzazole precursor structure. The invention further
pertains to a method for making such papers and to the use thereof.
 It has described in EP 07008742 that fiber, pulp, fibril, or fibrid having superior properties, including mechanical properties, can be obtained by a process in which an optical anisotropic dope, containing a high concentration of a high molecular weight aromatic polyamide having a substituent such as a hydroxy, thiohydroxy, or amine group in an acidic solvent, is applied using a wet air gap spinning process, a jet spinning process, or any other conventional method to obtain a fiber, pulp, fibril, or fibrid, which are then heat treated.
 The present invention relates to paper comprising at least one of a fiber, pulp, fibril, floc, and fibrid having a polybenzazole structure with a repeating unit of formula (I) and/or (II)
or its precursor structure with a repeating unit of formula (III):
wherein Ar1 and Ar2 are independently a para or meta aromatic group having 4 to 12 carbon atoms, X and Y are the same or different and selected from O, S, and NH; and n is 0 or 1, and wherein the paper is free or essentially free of non-extractable phosphorus compound, wherein the paper contains less than 0.15 wt % of non-extractable phosphorus compound.
 Papers made of fibers having a polybenzazole structure are known in the art, for instance from JP 10 096175, JP 2001 248091, and WO 2007/076332. JP 10 096175 relates to non-woven sheets rather than to paper. Furthermore, these sheets and papers have been made from fibers that are spun from polyphosphorus spinning dopes. Therefore, these papers contain a considerable amount of non-extractable phosphorus compound, since even the most sophisticated methods for removing polyphosphorus acid leaves at least 0.25 wt %. Normal commercial procedures leave about 0.4 wt % of polyphosphorus acid in the fiber (see for instance, Hu X. B. and Lesser A. J.; Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society 2004, 227:U562-U562).
 The terms "para" and "meta" relate to the positions of the two amino groups or the two carbonyl groups at the aromatic ring. If Ar1 and/or Ar2 contain annelated aromatic rings there are formally no para and meta positions, but the corresponding positions are called pseudo-para and pseudo-meta positions, which are included in the definition of "para" and "meta".
 The paper is free or essentially free of non-extractable phosphorus compound, which means that the paper contains less than 0.15 wt % of non-extractable phosphorus compound and preferably no non-extractable phosphorus compound at all.
 The present fibers, pulp, fibrils, floc, or fibrils are manufactured by a method comprising the steps of spinning or extruding a dope and solidifying it to a coagulation liquid, and then subjecting the obtained fiber as was described in EP 07008742.
 The invention also relates to a precursor paper, which as such has excellent properties and therefore can be used as such. This precursor paper contains a polybenzazole precursor having the repeating unit expressed by formula (III):
wherein Ar1 and Ar2 are independently an aromatic group having 4 to 12 carbon atoms, Ar1 and Ar2 have the para or meta configuration, X and Y are the same or different and selected from O, S, and NH, and n is 0 or 1.
 Examples of Ar1 are phenylene, naphthalenediyl, and bivalent heteroaromatic groups. Ar1 may be substituted with hydroxy and/or halogen groups.
 Ar1 is preferably selected from
 Ar2 is a tri- or quadrivalent aromatic group with 4-12 carbon atoms. Examples of Ar2 are benzenetri- or tetrayl, naphthalenetri- or tetrayl, diphenyltri- or tetrayl, and tri- or quadrivalent heterocyclic group can be listed as Ar2, These Ar2 moieties may be substituted with a hydroxy and/or halogen group.
 Ar2 is preferably selected from:
 The benzene group is the most preferred Ar2 group.
 In a preferred embodiment Ar1 is para- or meta-phenylene:
and Ar2 is
 wherein X and Y are O, and the straight lines represent a bond.
 In addition to the above polybenzazole the fiber may also be a copolymer containing repeating units expressed by formula (IV)
 In formula (III), the Ar1 groups have independently the previously given meanings. The preferred Ar1 group is para- or meta-phenylene.
 The polybenzazole preferably comprises 40 to 100 mole % of the repeating unit expressed by formula (I) and/or (II) with 60 to 0 mole % of the repeating unit expressed by formula (IV), to a total of 100 mole %.
 The polybenzazole more preferably comprises 60 to 100 mole % of the repeating unit expressed by formula (I) and/or (II) with 40 to 0 mole % of the repeating unit expressed by formula (IV), to a total of 100 mole %.
 Since X is an oxygen atom (--O--), sulfur atom (--S--), or imino group (--NH--), the polybenzazole which can be obtained form the polymer precursors contains imidazole, thiazole, and/or oxazole rings.
 The polybenzazole precursor containing one or more of the following repeating units is especially preferred.
 Methods for making these polymers, and for making fiber, pulp, fibril, floc or fibrid thereof are disclosed in European patent application no. EP 07008742, which is incorporated by reference.
 Although PBO paper is known in the art, i.e. as mentioned in U.S. Pat. No. 6,890,636, such paper inherently contains substantial amounts of phosphoric acid which was used as spin dope for making fiber, and which cannot completely be removed. The PBO paper of this invention contains less than 0.15 wt % of non-extractable phosphorus compound (i.e. mainly phosphoric acid), preferably much less such as less than 30 ppm, and most preferably none or virtually none of phosphorus compound (when the spin dope does not contain any phosphoric acid). Because it is known that traces of phosphoric acid may decompose PBO fibrous materials, leading to substantial loss of paper strength, it may be of utmost importance to make PBO paper that is free or at least substantially free of phosphoric acid, if such paper should maintain its strengths for long periods. The unique method for making the PBO paper of this invention resides in a method wherein the ring-closed PBO structure is obtained from an open precursor structure still having OH, SH, or NH2 groups. These hydrophilic groups allow the precursor to dissolve in hydrophilic solvents such as water, alcohol, water-alcohol mixtures, and the like. Whereas PBO can practically only be dissolved in phosphoric acid-containing spin dopes, the present precursors can form spin dopes in said hydrophilic solvents, without using any phosphoric acid. Such spin dopes will lead to fiber, pulp, fibril, floc or fibrid that is completely or virtually completely free from phosphorus compound. PBO paper having less than 0.15 wt % phosphorus compound is unknown. The known PBO papers have been made from PBO-polyphosphorus acid-containing spin dopes, leading to paper having (much) more than 0.15 wt % non-extractable phosphorus. Although it is usually not preferred, small amounts of phosphorus acid or other phosphorus compounds can be added to the spin dope, leading to papers having minor amounts (i.e. less than 0.15 wt %) of phosphorus. The amount of phosphorus present in the paper can easily be measured by using standard methods such as by spectroscopy or titration.
 The papers of this invention may include combinations of fiber, pulp, fibril, floc or fibril, such as fibrids and floc. The papers of the invention can be made by conventional papermaking processes, which processes allow adding common additives and auxiliary materials to the material for making paper, such as pigments, binders, silicates, fillers, and other additives. The paper such obtained may be processed further such as by applying known calendaring methods to further enhance the density of the paper.
 The terms "fibers, pulp, fibrils, floc, and fibrids" are well known in the field, and for instance can be found in Textile Terms and Definitions, 2nd Ed, 1955. The term "fibrids" refers to non-granular film-like particles. The fibrids have an average length of 0.2 to 1 mm with a length-to-width aspect ratio of 5:1 to 10:1. The thickness dimension is on the order of a fraction of a micron. Such fibrids, when fresh, are used wet and are deposited as a binder physically entwined about the floc component of the paper. Fresh fibrids and previously-dried fibrids can be used in paper of this invention.
 The term "floc" refers to short fibers, typically having a length of 2 to 12 mm and a linear density of 1-10 decitex. The floc can be fresh or it can be previously-dried. If fresh, it has not before been used in any product.
 Paper pulp may comprise floc and fibrids, generally, in amounts of about 50-60%, by weight, fibrids and 40-50%, by weight, floc. Even after comminuting and milling, the floc in aramid paper pulp is bound, to some extent, by the fibrids. The fibrids, being in a dried state, are bound together or collapsed and less useful as binder material than the fresh, never-dried, fibrids; but, due to their random, rigid, irregular, shape, contribute an increased porosity to the final paper structure. For purposes of this invention, those fibrid and floc components taken from dried papers may be called previously-dried fibrids and previously-dried floc.
 Dried paper sheets containing polybenzazole precursor can also be processed through a high speed milling machine, such as a turbulent air grinding mill known as a Turbomill or an Ultra-Rotor, and then wet refined. Turbulent air grinding mills are preferred for comminuting papers which have been calendered; but the grinding mills result in slightly shortened fiber lengths. Paper of this invention using paper pulp with shortened fiber lengths exhibits slightly reduced wet strength and a tendency to worsen paper machine continuity.
 The paper made from the polybenzazole precursor material can be used as such. It has excellent properties as will further be demonstrated in the experimental part. However, the properties of this paper can easily be changed or improved by functionalizing at least part of the free XH and YH groups, such as OH groups. These free groups are able to react with monomers and polymers having reactive groups, such as esters, isocyanates, epoxides, and other functionalizing agents to give a covalent bond between X and/or Y and the functionalizing agent. If part of the free XH and YH groups is functionalized these papers can also be heat treated to convert the polymer precursor by a cyclizing process to ring-closed PBO polymers, thereby obtaining functionalized PBO paper.
 Functionalizing of all or part of the XH and YH groups can be done in various phases of the papermaking process. Thus it is possible to functionalize (part of) the XH en YH groups in the monomer
followed by polymerization with the monomer ClOOC--Ar1--COOCl. The functionalized polymer can then be treated in any of the above described manners to obtain the paper of the invention.
 Functionalizing can also be performed on the precursor polymer or the polybenzazole, as obtained by polymerization of the monomers. These polymers may contain XH and/or YH groups which can be functionalize by reaction with a functionalizing agent. The polymer can be functionalized in any of the stages during the process of making paper. Thus the polymer can be functionalized just after polymerization of the monomers, but it can also be functionalized in the form of a fiber, pulp, fibril, floc, or fibrid, or after the paper has been made. In the latter methods in most cases only the outer surface of the fiber, pulp, fibril, floc, or fibrid can easily be functionalized, which can be an advantage if only partial functionalization is desired.
 In this manner papers can be made of which the properties have been changed by functionalization, such as coloring, smoothening, making water repellant, increasing or decreasing the conductivity, and making fire resistant paper.
 Because the polymer precursor has been synthesized and spun from solutions that may be free from phosphorus compounds, the PBO obtained can also be free of phosphorus compounds. It is a further advantage that it is no longer required to make the paper from almost insoluble PBO polymers, but the papermaking process can be performed with readily soluble polymer precursors, and conversion to PBO takes place after formation of the paper.
 In general the papers from this invention exhibit lower porosity than PPTA papers making them very suitable for electrical applications such as in electrical insulation material. The papers are further suitable for application in honeycomb structures and in constructive materials.
 The papers of the present invention, both for PBO precursor-containing papers and PBO papers, have a much higher strength than known papers, as shown by EAB (elongation at break) and TI (tenacity index) data. For instance, the present papers are superior to PPTA paper and even to Nomex®, which is considered the strongest paper known until now.
 The extreme strength of the present papers makes it possible to produce extreme thin papers. The papers of this invention also have superior heat stability compared to PPTA paper and Nomex®.
 Because of the unusual strength of the present papers, papers having a grammage between 1 and 16 g/m2 can be made. The term "grammage" is a metric measure of paper weight based on the same square meter sheet of paper, regardless of paper grade.
 The present invention will be explained more specifically by the following embodiments. However, the present invention is not limited to these embodiments.
 These results were obtained with the polymer precursor having the following repeating unit:
and with the corresponding ring closed polymer having the repeating unit:
wherein Ar1=para-phenylene and Ar2=diphenylene
 NMP=N-methylpyrrolidone  DHB=dihydroxybenzidine (4,4'-diamino-3,3'-dihydroxydiphenyl)  TDC=terephthaloyl dichloride  PPD=para-phenylenediamine  PPTA=para-phenyleneterephthalamide
Polymerization to Polybenzoxazole Precursor
 2.25 L of NMP/CaCl2 and 1.75 L of NMP together with pre-dried DHB (140° C., vacuum, 24 h) were charged into a 10 L Drais reactor and stirred for 30 minutes to let the DHB dissolve. After cooling to 5° C., TDC was added while continuously stirring (250 rpm). After 50 minutes a sample was taken, 1.8 L of NMP were added. The mixture was stirred for 30 min, another sample was taken and again 1.8 L of NMP were added. The mixture was stirred for 30 min and the reactor was emptied through a bottom valve. By applying this procedure, the first sample had a polymer concentration of 7.4%, the second sample (after dilution with NMP) had a concentration of 5% and the final product had a polymer concentration of 4%. The relative viscosity of the reaction product was 3.43.
 The polymerization procedure for the second batch was similar, except that after 60 minutes a sample was taken and 4.0 L of NMP were added. The mixture was stirred for 30 min and then emptied. By applying this procedure, the first sample had a polymer concentration of 7.4% and the final product had a polymer concentration of 4%. The relative viscosity of the reaction product was 3.06. The polymerization batches were mixed prior to spinning.
COMPARATIVE EXAMPLE 1
 Polymerization of PPTA para-phenyleneterephthalamide was carried out using a 160 L Drais reactor. After sufficiently drying the reactor, 64 L of NMP/CaCl2 with a CaCl2 concentration of 2.5 wt % were added to the reactor. Subsequently, 1522 g of PPD were added and dissolved at room temperature. Thereafter the PPD solution was cooled to 5° C. and 2824 g of TDC were added. After addition of the TDC the polymerization reaction was continued for 45 min. Then the polymer solution was neutralized with a calcium oxide/NMP-slurry (780 g of CaO in NMP). After addition of the CaO-slurry the polymer solution was stirred for another 30 min. This neutralization was carried out to remove the hydrochloric acid (HCl), which is formed during polymerization. A gel-like polymer solution was obtained with a PPTA content of 4.5 wt % and having a relative viscosity of 3.0 (in 0.25% H2SO4). This product has an etarel (ηrel) of 2.4 and a polymer concentration of 3.6% and was used to spin fibrids as well as pulp. Water was used as coagulant.
Fibrid and Pulp Making
 The solutions of Example 1 and Comparative Example 1 were spun through a jet spinning nozzle (spinning hole 500 μm) at 20 L/h. Water was added through a ring-shaped channel flowing perpendicular to the polymer flow. During spinning the polymer flow was kept constant while the coagulant pressure was changed for the different samples in order to vary the SR (°SR) of the product.
 The solutions of Example 1 and Comparative Example 1 were spun into pulp through a 1 hole jet spinning nozzle (spinning hole 350 μm). The solution was spun into a zone of lower pressure. An air jet was separately applied perpendicularly to the polymer stream through ring-shaped channels to the same zone were expansion of air occurred. Thereafter, the pulp was coagulated with water in the same zone by means of applying a coagulant jet through ring-shaped channels under an angle in the direction of the polymer stream.
 To spin the pulp with different SR values (°SR) the air pressure was kept constant while the polymer flow was varied. After spinning all samples were washed with water.
 The process and property data of fibrids and pulp obtained in Example 2 are given in Table 1:
TABLE-US-00001 TABLE 1 Process parameters Properties Polymer Coagulant Coagulant SR Dry Polymer Product solution pressure flow Airflow Fines Value SSA Solids Sample solution type Flow (L/h) (bar) (L/h) (Nm3/h) LL0.25 (%) (° SR) (m2/g) (%) A Example1 pulp 6 50 12 0.58 43.3 63 0.6 5.3 B Example1 fibrid 20 50 0.72 25 67 0.5 7.3 C CompEx1 fibrid 20 30 0.84 25 42 2.2 5.6 D CompEx1 fibrid 20 50 0.74 26.3 65 2.6 4.8 E CompEx1 pulp 6 50 12 0.55 49.9 68 5.6 7.5 F CompEx1 pulp 18 50 12 0.62 42.7 46 3.9 6.9
Paper Making from Fibrids
 Handsheets from 100% fibrids of samples A1 and B1-B4 and comparative examples D1-D4 and E1 with different grammage were made on a Rapid Kothen machine. The dewatered sheets were dried between two blotting papers under vacuum (95° C., 1000 mbar, 20 min). Paper data are given in Table 2. Notice the lower calliper (paper thickness) and higher densities for the papers of the invention in comparison to the reference papers. TI (Tensile Index) is 3-5 times as high for the papers of the invention as for the pulp-based reference papers when compared at the same grammage. EAB is also higher for the papers of the invention.
TABLE-US-00002 TABLE 2 Properties of paper samples from fibrid Paper Grammage Calliper Density EAB TI Sample (g/m2) (mm) (g/cm3) (%) (Nm/g) B1 99 0.168 0.59 4.3 85.2 B2 50 0.115 0.44 3.6 75.3 B3 29 0.073 0.39 3.7 72 B4 16 0.058 0.28 2.5 41.6 D1 110 0.284 0.39 1.7 28.3 D2 52 0.193 0.27 1.7 19 D3 31 0.131 0.23 1.1 14.1 D4 16 0.092 0.17 1.6 8.1
Paper Making from Pulp
 Handsheets from 100% pulp of samples A and E with a grammage of around 100 g/m2 were made on a Rapid Kothen machine using the same procedure as Example 3. Paper data are given in Table 3.
TABLE-US-00003 TABLE 3 Properties of paper samples from pulp Paper Grammage Calliper Density EAB TI Sample (g/m2) (mm) (g/cm3) (%) (Nm/g) A1 110 0.265 0.415 1.5 18.8 E1 117 0.296 0.395 1.05 9.5
Heat Treatment of Papers
 To convert the above polybenzazole precursor paper to the polybenzazole paper a heat treatment was performed under an inert atmosphere. The procedure was as follows: The samples were enclosed in an oven under a nitrogen flow and heated with a heating rate of 5° C./min. When the temperature of 440° C. was reached the samples were immediately taken out of the oven. Property data of the samples before and after heat treatment are given in Table 4. IR spectra of the samples were recorded on the Varian FTS-575c Infrared spectrometer equipped with the Thunderdome ATR accessory. The spectra confirmed conversion to a polybenzoxazole paper with a conversion factor higher than 95%.
 TGA experiments were carried out by means of a Setaram TGA/DSC 111, under nitrogen gas. The paper samples were first cut into pieces and then put in Platinum (open) cells. The sample weight that was used was between 10 and 20 mg. The samples were heated from 20° C. to 700° C. at a heating rate of 10° C./min. The onset of degradation Td was determined by the temperature at which 1 weight percent weight loss is found. In case of samples B5 and A1, Td was determined after complete conversion which occurred between 250 and 400° C. The results are denoted in Table 4.
TABLE-US-00004 TABLE 4 Heat Grammage Calliper Density Td Paper Sample Type Treated (g/m2) (mm) (g/cm3) (° C.) EAB (%) TI (Nm/g) B5 fibrid No 102.2 0.181 0.56 631 3 70 paper B6 fibrid Yes 99.8 0.151 0.66 626 3.6 80 paper A1 pulp No 110 0.265 0.42 624 1.5 18.8 paper A2 pulp Yes 118 0.207 0.57 618 1.8 16.8 paper D2 fibrid No 52 0.193 0.27 540 1.7 19 paper D3 fibrid Yes 48 0.195 0.25 542 1.1 9 paper
Making Functionalized Paper
 A precursor paper (paper sample B5), a polybenzoxazole paper obtained by heat treatment of the precursor paper (paper sample B6) and a PPTA paper (paper sample D1) were dyed with a reactive coloring agent (Cibacron Dark Blue S-GL; ex Ciba, Switzerland) according to the following procedure:
 A solution of 6 grams of NaCl in 200 mL of demineralized water was prepared at 80° C. After adding 0.4 g of Cibacron Dark Blue S-GL the solution was stirred for 20 minutes and cooled down to 60° C. 4.3 grams of Na2CO3.10H2O were added and the solution was stirred for 30 minutes at 60° C. to obtain the dyeing fluid.
 Samples B5, B6, and D1, each of 5 cm length and 1 cm width, were submerged into the dyeing fluid for 45 minutes at 60° C. and subsequently rinsed in running water of about 50° C. for 10 minutes. The samples were neutralized in a 1% acetic acid bath and washed with running cold water for 15 minutes.
TABLE-US-00005 TABLE 5 Original color and color after dyeing of the paper samples Paper Sample Original Color Color after dyeing B5 light green dark blue B6 light brown light brown D1 light yellow light yellow with light blue stains
 The present invention provides aromatic polyamides that are functionalized with a reactive functional group that can be used to facilitate the conjugation of the aramids to a conjugation partner. As shown in Table 5, a functionalized aramid (sample B5) shows excellent dyeability compared to the non-functionalized aramid D1 and to sample B6, which does not contain reactive functional groups due to the complete conversion by heat treatment of B5 to B6, which has a fully ring closed polybenzoxazole structure.
Patent applications by Anton Peter De Weijer, Nijmegen NL
Patent applications by TEIJIN ARAMID B.V.
Patent applications in all subclasses Synthetic resin