Patent application title: Non-wagering Option-driven Card Game
Bryan David Blake (Sunbury, PA, US)
IPC8 Class: AA63F924FI
Class name: With chance element or event (e.g., backgammon, scrabble, etc.) card- or tile-type (e.g., bridge, dominoes, etc.) ultimate outcome dependant upon relative odds of a card or tile combination (e.g., poker, etc.)
Publication date: 2010-12-02
Patent application number: 20100304818
An innovative application to any poker-type card game that is effective in
all forums from live hosted-establishment play to electronic venues such
as video terminals, standalone video game consoles, computer terminals,
and any networked combination thereof which may be centrally served. The
X CHIP application to both electronic and live card games in essence
replaces the betting round with an option round, which consists of the
choice to exercise the option to fold through surrender of one of the X
option chips and perhaps stay in the game long enough to win the pot.
When optimally applied, the X CHIP application will heighten attraction
to the game, increase game rate of play, and effectively increase table
1. A process which increases the excitement and rate of play of existing
poker games, comprised of the steps for: (a) replacing the betting round
of any variant of poker game with an option round; (b) establishing a
game table with eight seats; (c) providing for as few as five players by
dealing dummy hands to dummy seats to fill out the table; (d) placing the
fixed entrance fee from each player into the game pot; (e) giving each
player X number of option chips; (f) providing a means for selecting a
dealer from the players and assigning the dealer's button to the selected
player, which rotates clockwise about the table of players with each
subsequent set; (g) dealing (by the dealer) the cards to each player
according to the rules of the poker variant being played; (h) querying
(by the dealer) each player in turn if that player wishes to exercise the
option fold by surrendering one option chip on each turn of the community
cards (the flop, turn, and river, if applicable to the variant of poker
being played); (i) eliminating the player with the lowest ranking hand
that does not or cannot fold; (j) holding players safe from elimination
in the active hand on the occurrence of multiple equivalent lowest
ranking hands or if all but one player folds; (k) passing the dealer's
button to the current dealer's immediate left at the end of each hand;
(l) offering the opportunity to any eliminated player or players the
chance to re-buy into the game before dealing the second and subsequent
hands; (m) depositing the re-buy fees collected into the game pot; (n)
repeating the prior sequence from the deal to passing the dealer's button
or deposit of the re-buy fees, until all but one player has been
eliminated, leaving only the remaining player to claim the pot.
2. A process as in claim one, further comprising after said step (g) a for: (g1) distributing a dummy chip of a different color to each player that is still in the game but has surrendered all X option chips.
3. A process as in claim one, further comprising after said step (h) a step for: (h1) wherein the final option round, usually prior to the showdown where players reveal their hands, is removed to add a challenge to the players and increase the rate of play.
4. A process as in claim one, further comprising after said step (d) a step for: (d1) paying a flat rate amount from said game pot to the host; and also replacing said step (m) with (m1) paying all of said re-buy fees to the host.
5. A process as in claim four wherein, instead of a seat at a live table, the game is played at a virtual table served from a centralized computer to the networked display device selected from the group consisting of a video terminal, a game console, and a computer terminal.
6. A process as in claim four, wherein, instead of a seat at a live table in the hosts venue, the game is played at a virtual table served from a game-provider's centralized computer to players' personal computers over the internet; and payment of said flat rate amounts and re-buy fees to the internet-serving game provider is accomplished electronically.
7. A process to increase host revenue through tournament play of X CHIP POKER, comprised of the steps for: (a) providing a means of choosing the optimum tournament seating and advancement methods according to the number of participants; (b) providing for a lower number of players than optimal by dealing and playing dummy seats to fill out the table; (c) securing payment of a single fixed entrance fee into the tournament pot from each player paying for a place in the tournament, with one entrance fee amount paid to the host; (d) distributing X number of option chips to each player at the onset of each new set, where X is a predetermined number of option exercises available to the player; (e) providing a means for selecting a dealer from the players and assigning the dealer's button to the selected player, which rotates clockwise about the table of players with each subsequent set; (f) dealing (by the dealer) the cards according to the rules of the poker variant being played; (g) offering (by the dealer) each player, in turn and during each option round, the option to fold at a cost of one option chip; (h) eliminating the player with the lowest ranking hand that does not or cannot fold from the set; (i) holding players safe from elimination in the current hand on the occurrence of multiple equivalent lowest ranking hands or if all but one player leaves the game or folds; (j) passing the dealer's button to the prior dealer's immediate left; (k) offering the opportunity to re-buy into the tournament to any eliminated player or players before dealing the second and subsequent hands by payment of another entrance fee to the tournament host and surrendering one option chip, where lack of a chip to surrender precludes re-buy; (l) repeating the prior sequence with a new dealer until either until only the prescribed number of players remains at each table for advancement to the next set, with each player surrendering all remaining option chips before advancing, or only one player remains at the final table to claim the pot.
8. A process as in claim seven, further comprising after said step (g) the step (g1) for: distributing a dummy chip of a different color to each player that is still in the game but has surrendered all X option chips.
9. A process as in claim seven, further comprising after said step (g) the step (g2) for: removing the final option round, which usually occurs prior to the showdown where players reveal their hands, to challenge the players and increase the rate of play.
10. A process as in claim seven wherein, instead of a seat at a live table, the game is played at a virtual table served from a centralized computer to the networked display device selected from the group consisting of a video terminal, a game console, and a computer terminal.
11. A process as in claim seven, wherein, instead of a seat at a live table in the hosts venue, the game is played at a virtual table served from a game-provider's centralized computer to players' personal computers over the internet; and payment of said flat rate amounts and re-buy fees to the internet-serving game provider is accomplished electronically.
12. An optimal process of applying X CHIP to a poker game variant with a rapid rate of play, comprising the steps for: (a) establishing a game table with eight seats; (b) providing for as few as five players by dealing dummy hands to dummy seats to fill out the table; (c) collecting a fixed entrance fee from each player and depositing it into the game pot; (d) distributing to each player three option chips; (e) providing a means for selecting a dealer from the players and assigning the dealer's button to the selected player, which rotates clockwise about the table of players with each subsequent set; (f) dealing (by the dealer) three pocket cards to each player and dummy seat; (g) querying (by the dealer) each player in turn if that player wishes to exercise the option fold by surrendering one option chip pre-flop; (h) dealing (by the dealer) the three flop community cards; (i) querying (by the dealer) each player in turn if that player wishes to exercise the option fold by surrendering one option chip pre-turn; (j) dealing (by the dealer) the single turn community card; (k) querying (by the dealer) each player in turn if that player wishes to exercise the option fold by surrendering one option chip pre-showdown; (l) eliminating, at the showdown, the player with the lowest ranking hand that does not or cannot fold; (m) holding players safe from elimination in the active hand on the occurrence of multiple equivalent lowest ranking hands or if all but one player folds; (n) passing the dealer's button to the current dealer's immediate left at the end of each hand; (o) offering the opportunity to any eliminated player or players the chance to re-buy into the game before dealing the second and subsequent hands; (p) depositing the re-buy fees collected into the game pot; (q) repeating the prior sequence from the deal to passing the dealer's button or deposit of the re-buy fees, until all but one player has been eliminated, leaving only the remaining player to claim the pot.
13. A process as in claim twelve, further comprising after said step (d) the step (d1) for: distributing a dummy chip of a different color to each player that is still in the game but has surrendered all three option chips.
14. A process as in claim twelve, further comprising removal of said step (k), the final option round after the turn card is dealt and prior to the showdown, to add a challenge to the players and increase the rate of game play.
15. A process as in claim twelve, further comprising after said step (c) a step (c1) for: paying a flat rate amount from said game pot to the venue host; and also replacing said step (p) with (p1) paying all re-buy fees to the venue host.
16. A process as in claim fifteen wherein, instead of a seat at a live table, the game is played at a virtual table served from a centralized computer to the networked display device selected from the group consisting of a video terminal, a game console, and a computer terminal.
17. A process as in claim fifteen wherein, instead of a seat at a live table in the hosts venue, the game is played at a virtual table served from a game-provider's centralized computer to players' personal computers over the internet; and payment of said flat rate amounts and re-buy fees to the internet-serving game provider is accomplished electronically.
CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT
THE NAMES OF THE PARTIES TO A JOINT RESEARCH AGREEMENT
INCORPORATION-BY-REFERENCE OF MATERIAL SUBMITTED ON COMPACT DISC
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
1. Field of the Invention
This invention applies to conventional game tables operated by hosting establishments in casino settings or the like (hosts). This invention is also equally applicable to games controlled and accounted from a centralized computer and served to a networked combination of terminals, consoles, and computers, each as a seat at a virtual table.
2. Background Art
Poker is a widespread card game in which the game participants (players) bet on the value of the card combinations in their possession (referred to as their hand), by placing a bet into a central pot. The winner of each deal either holds the highest ranking hand according to an established hierarchy or is the last player remaining after all others have folded. Poker has many variations, all following a similar pattern of play. Depending on the variant in play, either cards which are all concealed from the other players or combination of concealed cards and community card form the poker hands.
To attract and keep a following, as well as to avoid frustrating the players, card games should be exciting, uncomplicated, and easy to learn. This invention, X CHIP, meets those requirements even when adapted well known games like poker, and works especially well when adapted to casino gambling, in both live-table and electronic video formats (such as networked game terminals and consoles, standalone and networked computer systems, and online game screens and systems). For example, when applied in Blake's THREE CHIP HOLD'EM games (described below), this invention provides an optimum poker game for a gaming venue.
X CHIP Poker replaces the customary betting rounds within any variant of poker game with an options round. The X in X CHIP POKER represents the number of options chips that will be exercised throughout the game. The word "Poker" in X CHIP POKER can be replaced by the poker game that is to be played. For example, the games 3 Chip Texas Hold'em, 5 Chip 5 Card Draw, 19 Chip Omaha Hold'em, and 1 Chip 7 Card Stud are all examples of X CHIP applied to existing poker games. The players' increased ability to stay in the game flowing from instantiation of the options round (and somewhat regardless of player sophistication), when coupled with the hosts' greater ability to estimate table revenue make this innovative application attractive to all involved.
The current state of the art in table card games, poker in particular, faces several problems, some affecting primarily the hosts, the players, and both. Opinions vary on what problems exist, but a few arise frequently enough to beg for solution.
One such problem plaguing the host is tracking the expected table revenues as a verification of the propriety of the table activity. The long and varied betting rounds of current card games increase the difficulty of estimating table yields on the fly as a process of determining a benchmark against which the actual returns are measured. Such on the fly tracking would help detect problem areas on the gaming floor as quickly as possible, allowing floor supervisors to act to minimize any resulting losses. When considering alterations to the table games that have been in use for generations to address such management issues, ingrained expectations about game play are likely to militate against changes the host might implement to facilitate such tracking.
A problem for novice players seeking to enter the field is that the current slate of offerings in table games requires extremely high player sophistication to effectively compete. Further, co-players impute competence and sophistication at playing the game to all around them. In short, when a player sits down to play Texas Hold 'em, table expectations are that this player is skilled in playing Texas Hold 'em the way the game was intended to be played. The state of the art is that no game in current play affords quick mastery and there exists no method to master the games except for playing and losing repeatedly, investing in expensive training courses, or investing enormous hours in home play.
A problem of general effect, affecting both the player and the host, is the decreased rate of play resulting from multiple betting rounds. The number of betting rounds, ostensibly intended to increase game revenue, imparts some information to experienced players and may heighten excitement of play through anticipation for a few players, but many others find that such lengthening of the game causes boredom. Hosts require multiple betting rounds to increase the pot and consequently game revenue. In practice, however, multiple betting rounds creates a time lag (multiple betting latency) which limits the actual dollars over time by greatly increasing the time it takes to complete the sets. Multiple betting latency limits the overall number of sets per given quantum of time consequently limiting the amount of dollars per same quantum of time.
Another problem of general effect is player boredom upon game mastery. Boredom, by definition, is not thrilling, presenting an obvious problem for one seeking the thrill of gaming. This boredom with the current state of the art in gaming correlates to less attraction for the current offerings, effectively reducing attraction to current gaming stations. Player boredom is a host problem also.
BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
In any variation of X CHIP POKER the players compete for an amount of money contributed by the players themselves, termed the pot. This pot is also the game fund from which the host, if applicable, takes its share and the winner takes reward. The fortunes of X CHIP POKER players rise and fall with judicious exercise of available options. Options are exercised only with the surrender of an option chip, and perhaps provide the player sufficient staying power to ultimately claim the pot.
A given set of X CHIP POKER is divided into a series of rounds. In general the set starts with a deal round, contains an option round, and ends with the showdown (all players, in turn, comparing their hands) in the conclusion round. On showdown, the player holding the lowest ranking hand leaves the game, absent acceptance of the dealer's re-buy offer (explained below). A set always concludes with either a showdown or by all but one player opting to fold. The players' objective is not winning every individual set, but the strategic exercise of options aimed at staying in the game. The player prevailing throughout all sets wins the game and takes the pot.
X CHIP POKER removes player focus from attempts to glean information during the lengthy betting rounds and directs it back to the cards (by way of the option round). The multiple betting latency is eliminated along with the betting round, increasing the rate of events leading to pot award and consequently increasing the thrill derived from play.
In addition, X CHIP POKER allows quick mastery. For the sophisticated player all of the familiar rules apply, such as those for Texas Hold'em, except for the rules related to the betting round. Further, the option round is a simple dealer query of each player whether they wish to hold, fold, or re-buy (explained below). For the inexperienced player, much of the sophistication and nuance has been removed along with the betting round, and the rapid rate of play keeps the excitement level high. The rapid rate of play and relatively inexpensive buy-in yields quick and more-affordable game mastery, enhancing the quality of the experience for the novice as well as the master player.
Another benefit of X CHIP games is the predictable increase in the gaming station draw over time. Experienced players seeking to renew the thrill of play will migrate toward the X CHIP tables, and novice players will not be driven away from them by a lack of initial success.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SEVERAL VIEWS OF THE DRAWING
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
X CHIP is an innovative application to any card game, in particular poker-type card games. Additionally, X CHIP is effective in all forums, working equally well in a casino environment or within an internet game, computer game or video game. The X CHIP POKER players' success depends on thoughtful exercise of options to fold a weak hand (along with the requisite surrender of one of the player's X option chips) or to re-buy (explained below) and do not directly rise and fall with the betting round as in traditional forms of poker. The surrender of the chip affords the player the opportunity to play another round, at least for X times, and perhaps provides the player sufficient staying power to prevail and claim the pot. Although the X CHIP concept can be applied to any card game, to conserve time and space the idea is herein disclosed using a poker exemplar.
As with other games of chance, the X CHIP POKER player must win to claim the pot, accomplished by outlasting the others. This simple objective of staying in the game enhances novice-player appeal by affording some measurable game control. However, the art of making option decisions is one area in which sophistication still yields some advantage, consequently X CHIP Poker will also exhibit some allure to the experienced player.
The X CHIP POKER table is organized around the number of seats for optimal play and the number of occupied seats. Occupied seats are termed live seats and unoccupied seats are termed dummy seats. Optimum play of about forty-five minutes per game manifests when the table reaches about eight players. If there are less than eight players available, then the remaining seats will be played as dummy seats (during play each dummy seat is dealt a dummy hand). Note that less than five live seats gives an uneasy advantage to the dummy seats, diminishing much of the game's appeal.
Less than the optimal number of players can be declared acceptable prior to collecting the pot, but the rate of play increases considerably with player decrease. Conversely, allowing more than the optimal number of players per table tends to slow the game more than the time to play the additional hands would indicate; the increase in the number of players increases the chance of equivalent low-ranking hands, thereby causing undesirable additional rounds of play.
The game of X CHIP POKER is played in a series of sets, from deal to conclusion, until a single live seat remains to claim the pot. Each set contains a series of rounds, the specifics depending on the type of poker, but all contain at least a deal, option, and conclusion round.
If the re-buy option was declared available upon game initiation, the dealer will, prior to the deal round, offer any eligible player a chance to buy back into the game. Eligible players are those eliminated in a prior round of the current set, holding one or more option chips, and willing to pay the re-buy fee. The re-buy fee can be paid directly to the host or can be deposited into the pot and typically constitutes an amount equal to one entry fee.
Other than the offer of re-buy, the rules of the deal round, although dependent upon the type of poker in play, concern distribution of cards to each player as the player's hand for the given set. At some point between the initial deal round and the conclusion round, the dealer offers each player, in turn, the option to fold (the option round).
After all deal and option rounds, the exact number also dependent on the type of poker in play, the dealer calls the showdown and all hands, in turn, are revealed. The player holding the lowest ranking hand leaves the game, absent acceptance of the dealer's re-buy offer. A set always concludes either with a showdown or by all but one player opting to fold.
As previously stated, X CHIP POKER replaces the betting round of any poker set with an option round, and consequently does not suffer the game-lengthening effects of multiple betting latency. In X CHIP POKER, the player surrenders one option chip in exchanger for the ability to fold a weak hand without leaving the game or re-buys back into the game upon elimination. The option chips are not used for betting and can be used without any monetary value attached.
X CHIP POKER's innovative option round effectively increases the rate of events directly leading to determination of the pot award. Further, X CHIP POKER directs player focus to the cards and away from secondary efforts such as attempts to glean information during the lengthy betting rounds. Increasing the rate of play and maintaining player focus on the cards heightens the thrill for all involved.
In X CHIP POKER, the first declaration is the type of poker, the number of option chips, and the number of game seats in play. The second declaration states the amount of the entry fee, the availability and cost of the re-buy option, and the disposition of any re-buy fees (to the host or into the pot).
Before taking a seat at the table, each player contributes an entry fee to the pot, each live seat is then given X option chips, and the set commences with the first deal.
As an optional rule, players spending all X of their option chips may be given a dummy chip or some other marker to signify that each is still in the game, but has no chips left to surrender. The dummy chip cannot be used to re-buy or fold, and the chip should be easily distinguishable from the option chips.
Upon establishment of the ground rules, all that remains is to choose a dealer and commence play. X CHIP POKER is much like other poker games when choosing the starting dealer: the method in practice at the game venue is used. Once selected, that player is termed the dealer, assigned dealer button, and then deals the cards and queries the other players during the option rounds. After the conclusion round, the dealer passes the button to the nearest live seat to the left and the next set commences. Each player, in turn, takes on the responsibilities of dealer (unless that player should be eliminated without re-buy before receiving the dealer button).
In all sets except the first, play begins with the dealer's re-buy offer to any eligible eliminated players and then the deal. Each player receives cards as customary in the game being played (like most poker games, the deck is a standard fifty-two card deck, no jokers).
Prior to the face-up deal of the community cards (pre-flop period), the dealer queries each player in turn if they wish to fold (pre-flop option round). In turn, each folding player exchanges one option chip for the right to fold a weak hand without leaving the game; those with stronger hands hold (keep their cards and their option chips). The dealer's query in the option round continues until every player either folds or holds (dummy hands hold by default, hence the name). Any player spending all X chips must play every hand thereafter, leave the game permanently, or be eliminated from the game for holding the lowest ranking hand at showdown.
After completion of the pre-flop option round, the dealer deals the flop (the face-up community cards dealt face up to the center of the table and shared by all players). The players determine the best ranking hand they can claim given their hand and the flop, and the dealer declares the showdown. Each player's hand, in turn, is revealed--The player holding the lowest ranking hand after all are revealed is eliminated from the game.
There are two exceptions to the elimination rule: (1) if two or more players have equivalent low ranking hands, then both players are considered safe (neither player is eliminated); or (2) if all but one player folded or otherwise left the game, then the remaining player is also considered safe, regardless of hand-rank relative to any dummy hands. The end of the showdown concludes the set.
After each set concludes, the dealer button is passed to the next live seat to the left of the current dealer, and the newly assigned dealer first calls for options and then deals. Sets progress as described above until there is only one live seat remaining. Dummy seats cannot win the final round, so the one remaining live seat after no eligible player exercises re-buy claims the pot.
Blake'S Three Chip Hold 'Em Embodiment
In Blake's THREE CHIP HOLD 'EM, like all variants of poker, individuals compete for the pot through skillful manipulation of a random deal of cards. Because the cards dealt are outside the player's control, each player strives to outlast all other players in the game based on the hands that player chooses to hold or fold. The player that prevails claims the pot.
As with other versions of X CHIP POKER, each table is arranged for eight players, with dummy hands dealt to any empty seat. Each player deposits the entrance fee in the pot before taking one of the live seats and each live seat is given 3 option chips.
Blake's THREE CHIP HOLD 'EM is much like other Hold'em poker games, differing primarily in the replacement of the betting round with the options round. A dealer is selected and the dealer button is issued to that player. The button is passed to the next live seat to the left when the set concludes. Like most poker games, the deck is a standard fifty-two card deck, no jokers.
In all sets except the first, play begins with the dealer's re-buy offer to any eligible eliminated players and then the deal. After the re-buy option round, the set begins with each player being dealt three cards face down (the players' pocket cards). The pocket cards are the only cards each player individually receives and are likely only to be revealed at showdown.
After the pocket cards are dealt, but pre-flop, the dealer offers each player, clockwise in turn, the option to hold or fold (with the customary surrender of one option chip on fold). For faster game play, this option round may be skipped if players are allowed to fold after the flop. After the pre-flop option round, assuming there remains at least two active players in the set, the dealer deals the flop (three cards to the center of the table, face up for community use). The dealer initiates a second option round, similar to the first. To prevent advantage from marked cards, the dealer takes the card from the top of the deck and discards it (burns the card) before the flop and the post-flop (explained below).
After the flop option round ends, the dealer deals the turn (a final single community card), followed by a showdown. The players are offered the option to fold pre-flop and on the flop, but not on the post-flop. If two or more players remain after the post-flop, the dealer declares the showdown. At showdown, each player calls the best five-card poker hand realizable from the seven cards available, the three pocket cards and four community cards. The player holding the lowest ranking hand after is eliminated from the game (eligible eliminated players can re-buy).
As an optional rule, the dummy chip can be used to indicate active players with no remaining chips.
Tournament play is much like individual table play with the addition of advancement rules dependent on the number of players and tables involved. In every instance there is one final table, but in some instances one player and in other instances two or three players advance to the semi-final game tables. Seating at the table is chosen according to venue practice, and can be as simple as sign-in order or as complicated as lottery-type schemes.
Each time a player takes a seat at a table, whether for the first game or in a semi-final or final game, that player is given a new set of X option chips, with no carry-overs from prior games. In addition, and similar to individual play, the value of X and the availability of re-buy is declared before the first set of the first game is played. The initial declarations remain constant throughout the tournament and are not reiterated before each subsequent elimination game, unless initially declared otherwise by the tournament host.
The following optimum tournament seating table is organized according to the number of starting players and shows the recommended number of starting tables (ST), the number of players advancing from the ST to the semi-final tables (SFT), the number of players advancing from the SFT to the final table (FT), and the number of Dummy Seats (DS) at each level. The following table is started at five players just for completeness, but if less than ten players sign up for the tournament, the event is realistically only a single table game. If less than five sign up, the same uneasy advantage goes to the Dummy Seats as is described above.
TABLE-US-00001 Number of Number of Players Tables SFT and FT Advancement DS at SFT DS at FT 5-8 1 ST (also FT) None (ST is FT) No SFT 0-3 DS as needed 10-16 2 ST 3 ea advance to FT No SFT 2 DS at FT 15-19 3 ST 2 ea advance No SFT 2 DS at FT 20-32 4 ST 2 ea advance No SFT No DS at FT 30-48 6 ST 1 ea advances No SFT 2 DS at FT 35-56 7 ST 1 ea advances No SFT 1 DS at FT 40-64 8 ST 1 ea advances No SFT No DS at FT 60-96 12 ST, 4 SFT 2 ea advance to SFT; 2 DS at SFT No DS at FT 2 ea advance to FT 80-128 16 ST, 4 SFT 2 ea advance to SFT; No DS at SFT No DS at FT 2 ea advance to FT 120-192 24 ST, 8 SFT 2 ea advance to SFT; 2 DS at SFT No DS at FT 1 ea advances to FT 160-256 32 ST, 8 SFT 2 ea advance to SFT; No DS at SFT No DS at FT 1 ea advances to FT 240-384 48 ST, 8 SFT 1 ea advances to SFT; 2 DS at SFT No DS at FT 1 ea advances to FT 280-448 56 ST, 8 SFT 1 ea advances to SFT; 1 DS at SFT No DS at FT 1 ea advances to FT 320-512 64 ST, 8 SFT 1 ea advances to SFT; No DS at SFT No DS at F 1 ea advances to FT
For example, if you have fifteen players, then you can have either two tables with seven players and a Dummy Seat at one table and eight players at the other, or you can seat five players at three tables with three Dummy Seats each.
Any more than five hundred and twelve players can be divided up in to four or eight pods and the winner of each pod gains a seat at a "Final" table. A pod can be considered a "mini tournament" within the main tournament. For example, if a tournament starts with 1,200 players, then four pods of three hundred players is organized. Each pod can be considered a separate tournament, but the award is not the pot; it is a seat at the final table. Two top players from each pod advance to the final table and play until only one remains to claim the pot.
Note that the following equations concerning game revenue may be adjusted to conform to legal norms in a given venue. The following examples show a template to be used for estimating the pot sizes and the host shares resulting from typical play.
In a private social game, the entry fee is deposited directly into the pot, and the pot goes to the game winner. In an hosted game, the rules change slightly; the host takes it's share, typically one entrance fee, from the pot prior to first deal. The winner takes the total pot minus the host share. Since the pot is always a fixed amount, accounting becomes easy and floor estimates become simpler. See the equations below for a more complete mathematical description:
Entrance Fee(F)×Number of Tables(T)=Host Cut(H)
Number of players(P)×Entrance fee(F)-Host Cut(H)=Winnings(W)
For example, consider a five to eight player tables with a twenty dollar entrance fee. The percentage of the host cut decreases as more players enter the game, but the cut stays the same. By equation, ((Host Cut)/((Number of Players)×(Entrance Fee)))×100=Host Cut Percentage; or 100(H/(P*F))=HC %.
TABLE-US-00002 Players Pot Award Host Host/Pot (HC %) 5 $100.00 $80.00 $20.00 20% 6 $120.00 $100.00 $20.00 16.7% 7 $140.00 $120.00 $20.00 14.3% 8 $160.00 $140.00 $20.00 12.5%
Note that the largest host cut is 20% and the least is 12.5%. Regardless of the number of players, the host always takes its cut before the game is played. The host is also paid for all re-buys, which can vary between $0 to X multiplied by the number of players multiplied by the entrance fee (where X is the number of chips each player is given at the beginning of the game). By equation, the host payment from re-buys can be as hight as X*(P)*(F).
To illustrate, consider an eight player game of THREE CHIP FIVE CARD DRAW with a fifty dollar entrance fee; the winner claims three hundred and fifty dollars while the host is paid fifty dollars. If a player decides to "re-buy", that player posts another fifty dollars and surrenders an option chip. That player can still win three hundred and fifty dollars, but the host now realizes one hundred dollars. In fact, the winner still claims three hundred and fifty dollars even if all players re-buy three times (winner's cost is two hundred dollars), but now the host realizes $1,250.00.
In a major tournament (more than two tables), the players may have the same re-buy option, if declared. If the winners of a starting table move to the semi-final and then to the final table, they surrender all of their option chips at the end of the prior game and receive a full set of option chips to start with at the start of the next game. Since a large award is available, most re-buy options are likely to be exercised in any one game.
To illustrate the potential costs and earnings for the winner and the host, consider an eighty player tournament of THREE CHIP OMAHA HOLD 'EM (from the table above, sixteen starting tables, four semi-final tables, and one final table) with a two hundred dollar entrance fee. The winner's award is $12,800.00 and the initial host share is $3,200.00. In the extreme scenario, the winner exhausts all nine option chips in re-buys and has a total of two thousand dollars invested for the chance at a $12,800.00 award. Extrapolating further, if all players re-buy the maximum times throughout the game, as did the winner in the prior example, then the host realizes $75,200.00 from the tournament.
Patent applications in class Ultimate outcome dependant upon relative odds of a card or tile combination (e.g., poker, etc.)
Patent applications in all subclasses Ultimate outcome dependant upon relative odds of a card or tile combination (e.g., poker, etc.)