Patent application title: CHOLESTEROL CONTROL AGENT
Vladislav Nikolaevich Laskavy (Saratov, RU)
Aleksandr Nikolaevich Shokhin (Moscow, RU)
Sergei Ivanovich Ivanenko (Moscow, RU)
IPC8 Class: AA61K31115FI
Class name: Designated organic active ingredient containing (doai) aldehyde doai formaldehyde
Publication date: 2010-06-10
Patent application number: 20100144889
The invention relates to medicine and can be used for producing a
medicinal agent for normalising the cholesterol level. The aim of the
invention is to develop a physiologically acceptable cholesterol-control
agent which is nontoxic and does not cause addiction of organism. In
preferred embodiments, the method for producing said agent consists in
using 2-6 weight parts of a 36.5-40.0% formaldehyde medicinal solution
and in adding 998-994 weight parts of a sterile 0.85-0.95% sodium
chloride solution which is used for injection in such a way as to produce
a 0.07-024% formaldehyde solution. The agent is stored at a temperature
of 15-35° C. It also encompasses a method for treatment of
patients for lowering their cholesterol levels that comprises
administering the agent to the patients as intramuscular injections with
a predetermined dose at a predetermined time interval.
1. A preparation, possessing cholesterol-lowering action, consisting
essentially of:an active substance in the form of an aqueous solution of
formaldehyde with a concentration of 36.5-40%, said active substance
constitutes from 2 to 6 weight units; andan additive in the form of an
isotonic solution of sodium chloride with a concentration of 0.85-0.95%,
said additive constitutes from 998 to 994 weight units accordingly, to
make the total of 1000 weight units.
2. A method for obtaining a preparation comprising the steps of:providing an aqueous solution of formaldehyde with a concentration of 36.5-40% in the amount of from 2 to 6 weight units;providing an isotonic solution of sodium chloride with a concentration of 0.85-0.95% in the amount of from 998 to 994 weight units; andadding said aqueous solution into said isotonic solution thereby obtaining said preparation.
3. The method of claim 2, further comprising the step of storing said preparation in a dark place at temperature of 15-35.degree. C.
4. A method for treatment of patients for lowering their cholesterol levels comprising:administering the preparation of claim 1 to the patients as intramuscular injections with a predetermined dose at a predetermined time interval.
5. The method of claim 4, wherein said predetermined dose constitutes 5 mL.
6. The method of claim 4, wherein said predetermined time interval is selected from the group consisting of 7, 21, 30, and 60-day intervals.
CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
This application is a U.S. national phase application of a PCT application PCT/RU2008/000203 filed on 2 Apr. 2008, published as WO2009/005396, whose disclosure is incorporated herein in its entirety by reference, which PCT application claims priority of a Russian patent application RU2007/125298 filed on 4 Jul. 2007.
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The invention is related to medicine and can be used to make a cholesterol-lowering drug.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
Blood cholesterol is an important characteristic of lipid metabolism. Cholesterol-lowering therapy provided for patients with atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease results in a reduction of the cardiovascular death rate by 30-40%. There is a direct relationship between blood cholesterol levels and coronary diseases.
Cholesterol-lowering drugs are known which are based on plant preparations. In particular, a cholesterol-lowering drug (see RF Patent No. 2162333 according to IPC A61K35/78, published on Jan. 27, 2001) is known, which contains Licopodium (wolfs-claws), Aurum iodatum (auric iodate), Barium carbonicum (barium carbonate), Alluim sativum (garlic) taken in equal proportions at CI2 dilution. This drug is a mix of homeopathic preparations, each of these preparations being used for specific indications from arterial hypertension and atherosclerotic processes to chronic liver disease, urolithiasis, adiposity, etc. Use of a multicomponent drug like that described above is equivalent to polyprogmasy which usually makes patient's response to treatment difficult to interpret and ultimately precludes from making up an optimal treatment plan.
Another cholesterol-lowering drug based on plant preparation (see RF Patent No. 2152221 according to IPC A61K35/78, published on Jul. 10, 2000) is known which contains Salsola Collina herb dry extract as active substance.
Use of this plant preparation based on Salsola Collina is equivalent to the use of a combination of chemical substances because, as stated in the patent description, the active complex contains flavonoids, polysaccharides, carotinoids, sterines, saponins, lipids, amino acids and trace elements. As with above analogue, the variety like this is equivalent to polyprogmasy and will interfere with correct interpretation of patient's response to treatment. Furthermore, the content of active substance in the drug varies from 0.25 to 99.9% which is indicative of a low level of the drug standardization.
Other cholesterol-lowering drugs based on chemical preparations are known. Of particular interest are such drugs as nicotinic acid and its derivatives, bile acids sequestrants, fibric acid derivatives (fibrates), probucol (see Okorokov, A. N. Treatment of Internal Diseases/Practical Guide. Minsk: Vysheshaya Shkola, Vitebsk: Belmedkniga, 1996, vol. 3, book 1, pp. 19-41).
However, treatment with nicotinic acid is associated with a number of side effects, such as liver function impairment, exacerbation of chronic gastritis, gastric ulcer, and also can cause hyperglycemia, skin hyperemia and an elevation of blood levels of uric acid.
Therapy with sequestrants is associated with such side effects as nausea, flatulence, constipation and diarrhea. The treatment can also lead to elevation of triglycerides levels and impairment of digestion of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, K) and folic acid.
Side effects of the use of fibrates (e.g. bezafibrate, fenophibrate, gemfibrozil) are muscle affection, an increase of lithiasis in biliary tracts, and a possibility to cause leucopenia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia.
Probucol favors ventricular arrythmias, dyspeptic disorders and can increase liver dysfunction.
Lovastatin (synonyms: Mevacor, Lovacor, Medostatin, Recol, Rovacol), a cholesterol-lowering drug, which regulates metabolic processes and contains an active substance of a chemical origin and special-purpose excipients, is the most closely related art drug to the claimed drug (see Vidal's Guide. Drugs in Russia. Moscow: AstraFarmServis, 2000, pp. B-364 to B-365).
The active substance of the related art drug belongs to statins and is [IS(I α(R*), 3α,7β,8β(2S*,4S*),8αβ]1,2,3,7,8α,-Hexahy- dro-3,7-dimethyl-8[2-(tetrahydro)-4-hydroxy-6-oxo-2H-pyran-2-yl]-1-naphtha- lenyl 2-methyl butanoate. The substance acts by inhibiting cholesterol biosynthesis. In the body, lovastatin is metabolized to give β-oxyacid which is a competitive inhibitor of an enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase.
The related art drug also contains lactose, gelated starch, microcrystalline cellulose, butylated hydroxyanisol, indigotin (E132), and magnesium stearate as excipients.
A drawback of statins, including lovastatin, is that these drugs should be taken for long. Furthermore, statins can affect liver, muscles, gastrointestinal tract, cause sleep disturbances, headaches. In repeated drug administrations, the efficacy of the drug therapy can be reduced (tachyphylaxis) (see Cromwell W. C. Ziajka P. E. Development of tachyphylaxis among patients taking HMG CoA reductase inhibitors./ Am J. Cardiol 2000; 86: 1123-1127// The translation is published in CONSILIUM medicum journal, 2001, vol. 3, no. 2. Translated by Elagin, R. I. Razvitie takhifilaksii u patsientov, poluchayushchikh ingibitory HMG-CoA reductasy). In addition, statins show xenobiotic properties.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
The goal of the present invention is to develop a physiologically acceptable cholesterol-lowering preparation causing no toxicity and tachyphylaxis.
The mentioned goal is achieved by providing the inventive cholesterol control agent that includes an aqueous solution of formaldehyde with 36.5-40% concentration as an active substance and an isotonic solution of sodium chloride for injections with 0.85-0.95% concentration as a special-purpose additive (excipient) at the following correlation of the weight parts (units by weight):
TABLE-US-00001 aqueous solution of formaldehyde with 36.5-40% concentration - 2-6 isotonic solution of sodium chloride for injections 994-998 with 0.85-0.95% concentration
To the authors' knowledge, no data are available in patents and scientific-technical literature on any drugs lowering cholesterol levels through increasing receptor affinity.
Formaldehyde is known to be a natural product of cellular metabolism (see Hunter B. K. et al. Formaldehyde metabolism by Escherichia coli. Carbon and solvent deuterium incorporation into glycerol, 1,2-propanediol and 1,3-propanediol.// Biochemistry, 1985, vol. 24, no. 15, pp. 4148-4155). Formaldehyde is produced as a result of metabolic activities from alcohols and amino acids in eukaryotes and prokaryotes and found in cells either free or bound to other metabolites, primarily, to tetrahydrofolate and glutathione. Formaldehyde is also known to be used as immune-modulator (see RF Patent No. 2077882 according to IPC A61K31/115, published on Apr. 27, 1997).
The mechanism of regulation of blood cholesterol is based on the ability of formaldehyde, discovered by the authors, to trigger a hypermutation mechanism, which leads to an increase of the affinity of receptors regulating the cholesterol levels.
The instant authors have established experimentally that introduction of formaldehyde `in vitro` leads to a decrease of the level of the transforming growth factor, which provokes apoptosis or programmed cell death. Apoptosis participates in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis of heart coronary vessels (see, for example, Storozhakov G. I., Uteshev D. B. Apoptosis' role in the development of atherosclerosis, myocardial ischemia and cardiac insufficiency/Cardiac insufficiency--2000.--vol. 1.--No 4). In pathogenesis of atherosclerosis one of the important aspects is impairment of endothelium function. Now endothelium dysfunction is understood as (see, for example, Cherkashin D. V. Clinical significance and correction of endothelium function--htt:/www.Cardiolog.ru) imbalance between mediators providing normally optimal course of all endothelium depending processes, including also the transforming growth factor, relating to prosclerous cytokines (see, for example, Cooper M. E., Rumbler Y., Komers R. et. al.--Diabets.--1994.--No 43--P. 1221-1228).
At that not only abnormal cells of vascular walls but also of other tissues such as liver, thyroid, adrenals are exposed to apoptosis. This, in turn, results in functional recovery of the organs, including reactivation of enzymes responsible for lipid breakdown, and normalization of a physicochemical condition of blood proteins which, ultimately, leads to normalization of the blood cholesterol levels.
An aqueous solution of formaldehyde is a transparent colorless liquid with a specific sharp odor, miscible with water and alcohol in all proportions.
Formaldehyde belongs to the class of aldehydes HCOH and is a colorless gas with a sharp odor, having a molecular weight of 30.03, density (at 20° C.) of 0.815, melting point of -92° C. and boiling point of -19.2° C. It is well soluble in water and alcohol. The substance is easily polymerized to form paraformaldehyde in an aqueous medium or polyoxymethylene in non-aqueous media (butane, hexane).
Isotonic solution of sodium chloride for injections is a colorless liquid with saline taste. The solution is sterile and apyrogenic.
Sodium chloride is cubic crystals or white crystalline powder with saline taste, odorless and soluble in water (1:3).
The claimed preparation (cholesterol control agent) is a transparent colorless solution, that is odorless slightly saline in taste.
DETAIL DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS OF THE INVENTION
While the invention may be susceptible to embodiment in different forms, there are described in detail herein, specific embodiments of the present invention, with the understanding that the present disclosure is to be considered an exemplification of the principles of the invention, and is not intended to limit the invention to that as exemplified herein.
Inventive Preparation and Method Therefor.
The preparation is preferably made in the following way:
Take 2-6 weight parts of 36.5-40% medicinal solution of formaldehyde, add it to 998-994 (accordingly to make the total of 1000 weight parts) weight parts of sterile 0.85-0.95% solution of sodium chloride for injections to receive 0.07-0.24% solution of formaldehyde. The preparation should be stored in a dark place at temperature of 15-35° C.
Take 0.2 ml of 37% medicinal solution of formaldehyde, add it to 99.8 ml of sterile 0.9% (or 0.95%) isotonic solution of sodium chloride. The so obtained solution mixture is stirred thoroughly. The final concentration of formaldehyde in the received preparation will make 0.074 mass %.
Take 0.6 ml of 37% medicinal solution of formaldehyde, add it to 99.4 ml of sterile 0.9% (or 0.95%) isotonic solution of sodium chloride. The so obtained solution mixture is stirred thoroughly. The final concentration of formaldehyde in the received preparation will make 0.222 mass %.
Take 0.6 ml of 40% medicinal solution of formaldehyde. Make the preparation according to the method described in example 2. The final concentration of formaldehyde will make 0.24 mass %.
Take 3 ml of 40% medicinal solution of formaldehyde, add it to 997 ml of sterile 0.95% isotonic solution of sodium chloride. The so obtained solution mixture is stirred thoroughly. The final concentration of formaldehyde in the received preparation will make 0.12 mass %.
Experiments on Toxic Effect
To prove the absence of any toxic effect of the claimed preparation, experiments on mice were performed.
The experimental study was conducted on 56 outbreed ICR male and female mice weighing 18 to 24 g. The experimental animals were kept in a standard living and care environment of a vivarium on steady diet and provided with unlimited access to water and feed.
Animal observations were carried out during 14 days post administration of the preparation. During the follow-up period, general condition, motor activity, behavior, reaction to stimuli and reflexes were assessed. When required by the protocol of experiments, animals were weighted and consumptions of food and water were determined. The animals, died during the experiments, were dissected and an assessment of changes was made and organ weight ratios were determined (brain, liver, heart, spleen, kidneys, adrenals, testicles, ovaries). The survived animals were crucified at the end of the follow-up period by dislocation of the cervical spine and dissected. A postmortem examination was conducted to assess macroscopic changes of the internals, if any.
Toxicity was assessed by the Litchield and Wilcoxon method of probit analysis using S. Rot's nomograms.
The preparation containing 0.2 mL of 37% formaldehyde solution and 99.8 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride solution was administered once intramuscularly at doses of 5, 25 and 50 mL/kg body weight. During the follow-up period, test animals were weighted trice (1, 7 and 14 days post dose administration).
The study did not reveal any changes in general condition and behavior of the test animals after injection of the preparation at a dose of 5.0 mL/kg. There was no case of animal death during the follow-up period. Weight gains were within the normal range. No difference was found in general condition and behavior between male and female animals.
In the 25 mL/kg group, the picture was close to that described above. General condition, behavior, food and water consumptions, weight gains were within normal ranges both in male and female animal subgroups.
In the 50 mL/kg group, animals showed a short-term (lasting up to 1 min) slight agitation, but after that the condition of the animals in this group did not differ significantly from that in other experimental groups.
At the end of the follow-up period (14 days post dose administration), test animals were crucified by dislocation of the cervical spine, dissected and subjected to macroscopic examination. After that, the internals were removed, weighted and organ weight ratios were determined. The post mortem study showed that organ weight ratios did not differ significantly between experimental groups and were within normal ranges. No local reactions (infiltrate, hyperemia, hair loss, etc.) were observed.
In another study, the preparation was administered at a concentration as high as 10 times the strength of drug product, i.e. containing 2 mL of 37% formaldehyde solution and 98 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride solution.
The preparation was administered i.m. to ICR mice (male and female) at doses of 6, 12.5 and 25 mL/kg.
During the first 5-6 hours post dose administration, test animals showed a moderate depression of excitability and reactivity. There was a gradual acceleration of breathing and heart beating. However, no case of animal death was registered during the first 24 h post administration of the preparation. Only one mouse died from respiratory arrest on day 4 post administration of the dose of 25 mL/kg.
Post dose administration, all animals developed a local reaction as muscular tissue induration. At the end of the experiment, hair loss and formation of dense infiltrate were seen at the site of injection.
The study showed that the initial toxic dose did not have any significant influence on weight gain of the test animals. Variations of the values of weight gain in male and female groups were within limits of tolerance.
At the end of the experiment, test animals were crucified and subjected to macroscopic examination, the internals were removed, weighted and organ weight ratios were calculated.
The study showed that in test animals, both male and female, who received the preparation at a dose as high as 10 times therapeutic dose, organ weight ratios for brain, heart, liver, spleen, kidney, adrenals, testicles (ovaries) at the end of study period did not differ significantly from respective normal values in general population.
Thus, the results obtained suggest a low toxicity of the applied preparation.
Inventive Method of Treatment
The inventive method of treatment in preferred embodiments consists in that the inventive preparation is administered given as intramuscular injections at a predetermined dose, preferably of 5 mL at predetermined time intervals, preferably: 7, 21, 30, and 60-day intervals.
To measure the cholesterol levels in patients, venous blood samples were taken from the ulnar vein in the morning hours.
The clinical study of the preparation was conducted at Republican Infectious Hospital of the Republic of Belarus (Minsk) in compliance with principles of Declaration of Helsinki, requirements of international ethic standards and scientific standards of quality and design of studies involving human subjects, Public Health Law of the Republic of Belarus and Order of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Belarus No. 254 dated Aug. 18, 2000 On Conducting Clinical Studies of Drugs.
Efficacy of the treatment was determined 7, 28, 35 and 65 days post dose administration. Patients with cholesterol levels up to 5.2 mM/L are considered normal (see Okorokov, A. N. Treatment of Internal Diseases/Practical Guide. Minsk: Vysheshaya Shkola, Vitebsk: Belmedkniga, 1996, vol. 3, book 1, pp. 19-41), from 5.2 to 6.2 mM/L moderately and higher than 6.2 mM/L heavily hypercholesterinemic.
The results of cholesterol level correction are given in Table 1.
TABLE-US-00002 TABLE 1 Blood serum cholesterol levels, mM/L 7 days post dose 28 days post dose 35 days post dose 65 days post dose Baseline administration administration administration administration (M ± m) (M ± m) (M ± m) (M ± m) (M ± m) 4.35 ± 0.26 4.67 ± 0.45 5.31 ± 0.46 3.58 ± 0.15 3.17 ± 0.18 Treatment efficacy (n = 20) P < 0.05 for differences between days 35 and 65 and baseline.
Data presented in Tables 2 and 3 are demonstrative of the efficacy of treatment in patients with moderate and heavy hypercholesterinemia.
TABLE-US-00003 TABLE 2 Results of treatment of moderately hypercholesterinemic patients Blood serum cholesterol levels, mM/L 7 days post dose 28 days post dose 35 days post dose 65 days post dose Patient Baseline administration administration administration administration K. 5.4 8.5 8.5 4.6 3.6 P. 5.7 4.3 3.0 2.8 4.6
TABLE-US-00004 TABLE 3 Results of treatment of heavily hypercholesterinemic patients Blood serum cholesterol levels, mM/L 7 days 28 days 35 days 65 days Patient Baseline post dose post dose post dose post dose V. 6.8 7.3 4.6 3.08 2.8 O. 6.8 3.3 4.6 3.2 1.96
Thus, the claimed preparation lowers blood cholesterol levels without causing toxicity and tachyphylaxis.
Patent applications by Aleksandr Nikolaevich Shokhin, Moscow RU
Patent applications by Sergei Ivanovich Ivanenko, Moscow RU
Patent applications by Vladislav Nikolaevich Laskavy, Saratov RU
Patent applications in class Formaldehyde
Patent applications in all subclasses Formaldehyde