Patent application title: Optical Disc Apparatus
Roger J. Davis (Princeton, MA, US)
Joel Raingeaud (Palaiseau, FR)
Benoit Derijard (Nice, FR)
IPC8 Class: AC12Q148FI
Class name: Drug, bio-affecting and body treating compositions immunoglobulin, antiserum, antibody, or antibody fragment, except conjugate or complex of the same with nonimmunoglobulin material binds antigen or epitope whose amino acid sequence is disclosed in whole or in part (e.g., binds specifically-identified amino acid sequence, etc.)
Publication date: 2009-02-26
Patent application number: 20090053231
Disclosed are human mitogen-activated (MAP) kinase kinase isoforms (MKKs).
MKKs mediate unique signal transduction pathways that activate human MAP
kinases p38 and JNK, which result in activation of other factors,
including activating transcription factor-2 (ATF2) and c-Jun. The
pathways are activated by a number of factors, including cytokines and
environmental stress. Methods are provided for identifying reagents that
modulate MKK function or activity and for the use of such reagents in the
treatment of MKK-mediated disorders.
38. A method of measuring the activity of a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MKK) in a biological test sample, said method comprising:a) incubating said test sample with an MKK substrate for a substantially pure human mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MKK) polypeptide having serine, threonine, and tyrosine kinase activity, and phosphorylating human mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase p38, and labeled phosphate under conditions sufficient to allow phosphorylation of said substrate, andb) determining the rate of incorporation of labeled phosphate into said substrate, wherein said rate of incorporation is a measure of MKK activity.
39. A method of claim 38 wherein said MKK substrate is selected from the group consisting of p38 and JNK MAP kinases, activating transcription factor-2 (ATF2), ATFa, cAMP response element binding protein (CRE-BPa), and c-Jun.
40. A method of claim 38 wherein said biological test sample is fluid, cells, or tissue obtained from a mammal.
41. A method for measuring the level of expression of MKK in a test sample, comprising the steps of:a) isolating polyadenylated RNA from the test sample;b) incubating polyadenylated RNA with a polynucleotide probe specific for a substantially pure human mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MKK) polypeptide having serine, threonine, and tyrosine kinase activity, and phosphorylating human mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase p38;c) determining the amount of said probe hybridized said polyadenylated RNA, wherein the level of expression of MKK is directly related to the amount of MKK probe hybridized to said RNA.
42. A method of treating an MKK-mediated disorder in a patient, the method comprising administering to the patient a therapeutically effective amount of a reagent that modulates MKK activity.
43. The method of claim 42, wherein the MKK-mediated disorder is selected from the group consisting of ischemic heart disease, kidney failure, oxidative liver damage, respiratory distress syndrome, burns from heat, radiation burns, septic shock, rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune disorders, and inflammatory diseases.
44. The method of claim 43, wherein the radiation burn is caused by exposure to UV, X-rays, γ particles, or β particles.
45. The method of claim 42, wherein the MKK-mediated disorder is selected from the group consisting of a proliferative disorder, psoriasis, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and malignancy.
46. The method of claim 42, wherein the reagent inhibits cell growth or causes apoptosis.
47. The method of claim 42, wherein the reagent inhibits the secretion of an inflammatory cytokine.
48. The method of claim 47, wherein the inflammatory cytokine is a tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or interleukin-1 (IL-1).
49. The method of claim 42, wherein the reagent is an antibody that specifically binds to a polypeptide having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:2 (MKK3), SEQ ID NO:6 (MKK4-.alpha.), SEQ ID NO:8 (MKK4-.beta.), SEQ ID NO:10 (MKK4-.gamma.), or SEQ ID NO:4 (MKK6).
50. The method of claim 42, wherein the reagent is a polypeptide having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:2 (MKK3), SEQ ID NO:6 (MKK4-.alpha.), SEQ ID NO:8 (MKK4-.beta.), SEQ ID NO:10 (MKK4-.gamma.), or SEQ ID NO:4 (MKK6), or a fragment thereof.
51. The method of claim 42, wherein the reagent modulates MKK3 activity.
52. The method of claim 42, wherein the reagent modulates the activity of MKK4.alpha., MKK4.beta., or MKK4.gamma..
53. The method of claim 42, wherein the reagent modulates MKK6 activity.
54. The method of claim 42, wherein the reagent suppresses MKK phosphorylation of p38, JNK, or ATF2.
CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION
This application is a continuation-in-part of pending application Ser. No. 08/446,083, filed May 19, 1995, which application is incorporated herein by reference and to which application we claim priority under 35 USC § 120.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
This invention relates to protein kinases.
Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases are important mediators of signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Multiple MAP kinases have been described in yeast including SMK1, HOG1, NPK1, FUS3, and KSS1. In mammals, the MAP kinases identified are extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase (ERK), c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 kinase (Davis (1994) Trends Biochem. Sci. 19:470). These MAP kinase isoforms are activated by dual phosphorylation on threonine and tyrosine.
Activating Transcription Factor-2 (ATF2), ATFa, and cAMP Response Element Binding Protein (CRE-BPa) are related transcription factors that bind to similar sequences located in the promoters of many genes (Ziff (1990) Trends in Genet. 6:69). The binding of these transcription factors leads to increased transcriptional activity. ATF2 binds to several viral proteins, including the oncoprotein E1a (Liu and Green (1994) Nature 368:520), the hepatitis B virus X protein (Maguire et al. (1991) Science 252:842), and the human T cell leukemia virus 1 tax protein (Wagner and Green (1993) Science 262:395). ATF2 also interacts with the tumor suppressor gene product Rb (Kim et al. (1992) Nature 358:331), the high mobility group protein HMG(I)Y (Du et al. (1993) Cell 74:887), and the transcription factors nuclear NF-κB (Du et al. (1993) Cell 74:887) and c-Jun (Benbrook and Jones (1990) Oncogene 5:295).
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
We have identified and isolated a new group of human mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MKKs). The MKK isoforms described herein, MKK3, MKK6, and MKK4 (including MKK4-α, -β, and -γ), have serine, threonine, and tyrosine kinase activity, and specifically phosphorylate the human MAP kinase p38 at Thr180 and Tyr182. The MKK4 isoforms also phosphorylate the human MAP kinases JNK (including JNK1 and JNK2) at Thr183 and Tyr185.
Accordingly, the invention features a substantially pure human MKK polypeptide having serine, threonine, and tyrosine kinase activity that specifically phosphorylates human p38 MAP kinase. MKK3 has the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:2. The invention further includes MKK6 having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:4 and having serine, threonine, and tyrosine kinase activity that specifically phosphorylates human p38 MAP kinase.
The invention further features a substantially pure human MKK polypeptide having serine, threonine, and tyrosine kinase activity that specifically phosphorylates human p38 MAP kinase and JNK. MKK4 isoform MKK4-α has the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:6. MKK4 isoform MKK4-β, has the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:8. MKK4 isoform MKK4-γ has the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO: 10.
As used herein, the term "mitogen-activating protein kinase kinase" or "MKK" means a protein kinase which possesses the characteristic activity of phosphorylating and activating a human mitogen-activating protein kinase. Examples of MKKs include MKK3 and MKK6, which specifically phosphorylate and activate p38 MAP kinase at Thr180 and Tyr182, and MKK4 isoforms which specifically phosphorylate and activate p38 MAP kinase at Thr180 and Tyr182, and JNK at Thr183 and Tyr185.
The invention includes the specific p38 MKKs disclosed, as well as closely related MKKs which are identified and isolated by the use of probes or antibodies prepared from the polynucleotide and amino acid sequences disclosed for the MKKs of the invention. This can be done using standard techniques, e.g., by screening a genomic, cDNA, or combinatorial chemical library with a probe having all or a part of the nucleic acid sequences of the disclosed MKKs. The invention further includes synthetic polynucleotides having all or part of the amino acid sequence of the MKKs herein described.
The term "polypeptide" means any chain of amino acids, regardless of length or post-translational modification (e.g., glycosylation or phosphorylation), and includes natural proteins as well as synthetic or recombinant polypeptides and peptides.
The term "substantially pure," when referring to a polypeptide, means a polypeptide that is at least 60%, by weight, free from the proteins and naturally-occurring organic molecules with which it is naturally associated. A substantially pure human MKK polypeptide is at least 75%, more preferably at least 90%, and most preferably at least 99%, by weight, human MKK polypeptide. A substantially pure human MKK can be obtained, for example, by extraction from a natural source; by expression of a recombinant nucleic acid encoding a human MKK polypeptide, or by chemically synthesizing the protein. Purity can be measured by any appropriate method, e.g., column chromatography, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, or HPLC analysis.
In one aspect, the invention features isolated and purified polynucleotides which encode the MKKs of the invention. In one embodiment, the polynucleotide is the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1. In other embodiments, the polynucleotide is the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO:3, SEQ ID NO:5, SEQ ID NO:7, or SEQ ID NO:9, respectively.
As used herein, "polynucleotide" refers to a nucleic acid sequence of deoxyribonucleotides or ribonucleotides in the form of a separate fragment or a component of a larger construct. DNA encoding portions or all of the polypeptides of the invention can be assembled from cDNA fragments or from oligonucleotides that provide a synthetic gene which can be expressed in a recombinant transcriptional unit. Polynucleotide sequences of the invention include DNA, RNA, and cDNA sequences, and can be derived from natural sources or synthetic sequences synthesized by methods known to the art.
As used herein, an "isolated" polynucleotide is a polynucleotide that is not immediately contiguous (i.e., covalently linked) with either of the coding sequences with which it is immediately contiguous (i.e., one at the 5' end and one at the 3' end) in the naturally-occurring genome of the organism from which the polynucleotide is derived. The term therefore includes, for example, a recombinant polynucleotide which is incorporated into a vector, into an autonomously replicating plasmid or virus, or into the genomic DNA of a prokaryote or eukaryote, or which exists as a separate molecule independent of other sequences. It also includes a recombinant DNA which is part of a hybrid gene encoding additional polypeptide sequences.
The isolated and purified polynucleotide sequences of the invention also include polynucleotide sequences that hybridize under stringent conditions to the polynucleotide sequences specified herein. The term "stringent conditions" means hybridization conditions that guarantee specificity between hybridizing polynucleotide sequences, such as those described herein, or more stringent conditions. One skilled in the art can select posthybridization washing conditions, including temperature and salt concentrations, which reduce the number of nonspecific hybridizations such that only highly complementary sequences are identified (Sambrook et al. (1989) in Molecular Cloning, 2d ed.; Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.).
The isolated and purified polynucleotide sequences of the invention also include sequences complementary to the polynucleotide encoding MKK (antisense sequences). Antisense nucleic acids are DNA or RNA molecules that are complementary to at least a portion of a specific mRNA molecule (Weintraub (1990) Scientific American 262:40). The invention includes all antisense polynucleotides capable of inhibiting production of MKK polypeptides. In the cell, the antisense nucleic acids hybridize to the corresponding mRNA, forming a double-stranded molecule. Antisense oligomers of about 15 nucleotides are preferred, since they are easily synthesized and introduced into a target MKK-producing cell. The use of antisense methods to inhibit the translation of genes is known in the art, and is described, e.g., in Marcus-Sakura Anal. Biochem., 172:289 (1988).
In addition, ribozyme nucleotide sequences for MKK are included in the invention. Ribozymes are RNA molecules possessing the ability to specifically cleave other single-stranded RNA in a manner analogous to DNA restriction endonucleases. Through the modification of nucleotide sequences encoding these RNAs, molecules can be engineered to recognize specific nucleotide sequences in an RNA molecule and cleave it (Cech (1988) J. Amer. Med. Assn. 260:3030). A major advantage of this approach is that, because they are sequence-specific, only mRNAs with particular sequences are inactivated.
There are two basic types of ribozymes namely, tetrahymena-type (Hasselhoff (1988) Nature 334:585) and "hammerhead"-type. Tetrahymena-type ribozymes recognize sequences which are four bases in length, while "hammerhead"-type ribozymes recognize base sequences 11-18 bases in length. The longer the sequence, the greater the likelihood that the sequence will occur exclusively in the target mRNA species. Consequently, hammerhead-type ribozymes are preferable to tetrahymena-type ribozymes for inactivating a specific mRNA species, and 18-base recognition sequences are preferable to shorter recognition sequences.
The MKK polypeptides can also be used to produce antibodies that are immunoreactive or bind epitopes of the MKK polypeptides. Accordingly, one aspect of the invention features antibodies to the MKK polypeptides of the invention. The antibodies of the invention include polyclonal antibodies which consist of pooled monoclonal antibodies with different epitopic specificities, as well as distinct monoclonal antibody preparations. Monoclonal antibodies are made from antigen-containing fragments of the MKK polypeptide by methods known in the art (, for example, Kohler et al. (1975) Nature 256:495).
The term "antibody" as used herein includes intact molecules as well as fragments thereof, such as Fa, F(ab')2, and Fv, which are capable of binding the epitopic determinant. Antibodies that bind MKK polypeptides can be prepared using intact polypeptides or fragments containing small peptides of interest as the immunizing antigen. The polypeptide or peptide used to immunize an animal can be derived from translated cDNA or chemically synthesized, and can be conjugated to a carrier protein, if desired. Commonly used carriers that are chemically coupled to peptides include bovine serum albumin and thyroglobulin. The coupled peptide is then used to immunize the animal (e.g., a mouse, a rat, or a rabbit).
The invention also features methods of identifying subjects at risk for MKK-mediated disorders by measuring activation of the MKK signal transduction pathway. Activation of the MKK signal transduction pathway can be determined by measuring MKK synthesis; activation of MKK isoforms; activation of MKK substrates p38 or JNK isoforms; or activation of p38 and JNK substrates such as ATF2, ATFa, CRE-BPa, and c-Jun. The term "JNK" or "JNK isoforms" includes both JNK1 and JNK2. The term "MKK substrate" as used herein include MKK substrates, as well as MKK substrate substrates, e.g., p38, JNK, ATF2, and c-Jun.
In one embodiment, activation of the MKK signal transduction pathway is determined by measuring activation of the MKK signal transduction pathway substrates p38, JNK isoforms, ATF2, or c-Jun. MKK activity is measured by the rate of substrate phosphorylation as determined by quantitation of the rate of P incorporation. The specificity of MKK substrate phosphorylation can be tested by measuring p38 and JNK activation, or by employing mutated p38 and JNK molecules that lack the sites of MKK phosphorylations. Altered phosphorylation of the substrate relative to control values indicates alteration of the MKK signal transduction pathway, and increased risk in a subject of an MKK-mediated disorder. MKK activation of p38 and JNK can be detected in a coupled assay with the MKK signal transduction substrate ATF2, or related compounds such as ATFa and CRE-BPa. Activation can also be detected with the substrate c-Jun. When ATF2 is included in the assay, it is present as an intact protein or as a fragment of the intact protein, e.g., the activation domain (residues 1-109, or a portion thereof). ATF2 is incubated with a test sample in which MKK activity is to be measured and [γ-32P]ATP, under conditions sufficient to allow the phosphorylation of ATF2. ATF2 is then isolated and the amount of phosphorylation quantitated. In a specific embodiment, ATF2 is isolated by immunoprecipitation, resolved by SDS-PAGE, and detected by autoradiography.
In another embodiment, activation of the MKK signal transduction pathway is determined by measuring the level of MKK expression in a test sample. In a specific embodiment, the level of MKK expression is measured by Western blot analysis. The proteins present in a sample are fractionated by gel electrophoresis, transferred to a membrane, and probed with labeled antibodies to MKK. In another specific embodiment, the level of MKK expression is measured by Northern blot analysis. Polyadenylated [poly(A).sup.+] mRNA is isolated from a test sample. The mRNA is fractionated by electrophoresis and transferred to a membrane. The membrane is probed with labeled MKK cDNA. In another embodiment, MKK expression is measured by quantitative PCR applied to expressed mRNA.
The MKKs of the invention are useful to screen reagents that modulate MKK activity. MKKs are activated by phosphorylation. Accordingly, in one aspect, the invention features methods for identifying a reagent which modulates MKK activity, by incubating MKK with the test reagent and measuring the effect of the test reagent on MKK synthesis, phosphorylation, function, or activity. In one embodiment, the test reagent is incubated with MKK and P-ATP, and the rate of MKK phosphorylation determined, as described above. In another embodiment, the test reagent is incubated with a cell transfected with an MKK polynucleotide expression vector, and the effect of the test reagent on MKK transcription is measured by Northern blot analysis, as described above. In a further embodiment, the effect of the test reagent on MKK synthesis is measured by Western blot analysis using an antibody to MKK. In still another embodiment, the effect of a reagent on MKK activity is measured by incubating MKK with the test reagent, P-ATP, and a substrate in the MKK signal transduction pathway, including one or more of p38, JNK, and ATF2. The rate of substrate phosphorylation is determined as described above.
The term "modulation of MKK activity" includes inhibitory or stimulatory effects. The invention is particularly useful for screening reagents that inhibit MKK activity. Such reagents are useful for the treatment or prevention of MKK-mediated disorders, for example, inflammation and oxidative damage.
The invention further features a method of treating a MKK-mediated disorder by administering to a subject in need thereof an effective dose of a therapeutic reagent that inhibits the activity of MKK.
By the term "MKK-mediated disorder" is meant a pathological condition resulting, at least in part, from excessive activation of an MKK signal transduction pathway. The MKK signal transduction pathways are activated by several factors, including inflammation and stress. MKK-mediated disorders include, for example, ischemic heart disease, burns due to heat or radiation (UV, X-ray, γ, β, etc.), kidney failure, liver damage due to oxidative stress or alcohol, respiratory distress syndrome, septic shock, rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune disorders, and other types of inflammatory diseases.
As used herein, the term "therapeutic reagent" means any compound or molecule that achieves the desired effect on an MKK-mediated disorder when administered to a subject in need thereof.
MKK-mediated disorders further include proliferative disorders, particularly disorders that are stress-related. Examples of stress-related MKK-mediated proliferative disorders are psoriasis, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, malignancies of various tissues of the body, including malignancies of the skin, bone marrow, lung, liver, breast, gastrointestinal system, and genito-urinary tract. Preferably, therapeutic reagents inhibit the activity or expression of MKK inhibit cell growth or cause apoptosis.
A therapeutic reagent that "inhibits MKK activity" interferes with a MKK-mediated signal transduction pathway. For example, a therapeutic reagent can alter the protein kinase activity of MKK, decrease the level of MKK transcription or translation, e.g., an antisense polynucleotide able to bind MKK mRNA, or suppress MKK phosphorylation of p38, JNK, or ATF2, thus disrupting the MKK-mediated signal transduction pathway. Examples of such reagents include antibodies that bind specifically to MKK polypeptides, and fragments of MKK polypeptides that competitively inhibit MKK polypeptide activity.
A therapeutic reagent that "enhances MKK activity" supplements a MKK-mediated signal transduction pathway. Examples of such reagents include the MKK polypeptides themselves, which can be administered in instances where the MKK-mediated disorder is caused by underexpression of the MKK polypeptide. In addition, portions of DNA encoding an MKK polypeptide can be introduced into cells that underexpress an MKK polypeptide.
A "therapeutically effective amount" is an amount of a reagent sufficient to decrease or prevent the symptoms associated with the MKK-mediated disorder.
Therapeutic reagents for treatment of MKK-mediated disorders identified by the method of the invention are administered to a subject in a number of ways known to the art, including parenterally by injection, infusion, sustained-release injection or implant, intravenously, intraperitoneally, intramuscularly, subcutaneously, or transdermally. Epidermal disorders and disorders of the epithelial tissues are treated by topical application of the reagent. The reagent is mixed with other compounds to improve stability and efficiency of delivery (e.g., liposomes, preservatives, or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)). Polynucleotide sequences, including antisense sequences, can be therapeutically administered by techniques known to the art resulting in introduction into the cells of a subject suffering from the MKK-mediated disorder. These methods include the use of viral vectors (e.g., retrovirus, adenovirus, vaccinia virus, or herpes virus), colloid dispersions, and liposomes.
The materials of the invention are ideally suited for the preparation of a kit for the detection of the level or activity of MKK. Accordingly, the invention features a kit comprising an antibody that binds MKK, or a nucleic acid probe that hybridizes to a MKK polynucleotide, and suitable buffers. The probe or monoclonal antibody can be labeled to detect binding to a MKK polynucleotide or protein. In a preferred embodiment, the kit features a labeled antibody to MKK.
Unless otherwise defined, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this invention belongs. Although methods and materials similar or equivalent to those described herein can be used in the practice or testing of the present invention, the preferred methods and materials are described below. In addition, the materials, methods, and examples are illustrative only and not intended to be limiting.
Other features and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the detailed description, and from the claims.
The drawings will first be described.
FIG. 1 is a comparison of the amino acid sequences of MKK3 (SEQ ID NO:2), MKK4-α (SEQ ID NO:6), the human MAP kinase kinases MEK1 (SEQ ID NO:11) and MEK2 (SEQ ID NO: 12), and the yeast HOG1 MAP kinase kinase PBS2 (SEQ ID NO: 13). MKK3 and MKK4 sequences were compared with the PILE-UP program (version 7.2; Wisconsin Genetics Computer Group). The protein sequences are presented in single letter code [A, Ala; C, Cys; D, Asp; E, Glu; F, Phe; G, Gly; H, His; I, Ile; K, Lys; L, Leu; M, Met; N, Asn; P, Pro; Q, Gln; R, Arg; S, Ser; T, Thr; V, Val; W, Trp, and Y, Tyr]. The PBS2 sequence is truncated at both the NH2-- (<) and COOH-- (>) termini. Gaps introduced into the sequences to optimize the alignment are illustrated by a dash. Identical residues are indicated by a period. The sites of activating phosphorylation in MEK are indicated by asterisks.
FIG. 2 is a dendrogram showing the relation between members of the human and yeast MAP kinase kinases. The dendrogram was created by the unweighted pair-group method with the use of arithmetic averages (PILE-UP program). The human (hu) MAP kinase kinases MEK1, MEK2, MKK3, and MKK4; the Saccharomyces cerevisiae (sc) MAP kinase kinases PBS2, MKK1, and STE7; and the Saccharomyces pombe (sp) MAP kinase kinases WIS1 and BYR1 are presented.
FIG. 3 is a schematic representation of the ERK, p38, and JNK signal transduction pathways. MEK1 and MEK2 are activators of the ERK subgroup of MAP kinase. MKK3 and MKK4 are activators of the p38 MAP kinase. MKK4 is identified as an activator of both the p38 and JNK subgroups of MAP kinase.
FIG. 4 is a representation of the nucleic acid (SEQ ID NO: 1) and amino acid sequences (SEQ ID NO:2) for MKK3.
FIG. 5 is a representation of the nucleic acid (SEQ ID NO:3) and amino acid sequences (SEQ ID NO:4) for MKK6.
FIG. 6 is a representation of the nucleic acid (SEQ ID NO:5) and amino acid sequences (SEQ ID NO:6) for MKK4α.
FIG. 7 is a representation of the nucleic acid (SEQ ID NO:7) and amino acid sequences (SEQ ID NO:8) for MKK4β.
FIG. 8 is a representation of the nucleic acid (SEQ ID NO:9) and amino acid sequences (SEQ ID NO: 10) for MKK4γ.
Human Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases
The human MAP kinase kinases MKK3 and MKK4 (MKK3/4), and MKK6 described herein mediate the transduction of specific signals from the cell surface to the nucleus along specific pathways. These signal transduction pathways are initiated by factors such as cytokines, UV radiation, osmotic shock, and oxidative stress. Activation of MKK3/4 results in activation of the MAP kinases p38 (MKK3/4) and JNK (MKK4). p38 and JNK in turn activate a group of related transcription factors such as ATF2, ATFa, and CRE-BPa. These transcription factors in turn activate expression of specific genes. For example, ATF2 in known to activate expression of human T cell leukemia virus 1 (Wagner and Green (1993) Science 262:395), transforming growth factor-b2 (Kim et al. (1992) supra), interferon-β(Du et al. (1993) Cell 74:887), and E-selectin (DeLuca et al. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269:19193). In addition, ATF2 is implicated in the function of a T cell-specific enhancer (Georgopoulos et al. (1992) Mol. Cell. Biol. 12:747).
The isolation of human MKKs is described in Example 1 and in Derijard et al. (1995) Science 267:682-685. Distinctive regions of the yeast PBS2 sequence were used to design polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers. Amplification of human brain mRNA with these primers resulted in the formation of specific products which were cloned into a plasmid vector and sequenced. Two different complementary DNAs (cDNAs) that encoded human protein kinases were identified: one encoding a 36 kD protein (MKK3), and one encoding a 44 kD protein (MKK4). MKK4 includes 3 isoforms that vary slightly at the NH2-terminal, identified as α, β, and γ. The amino acid sequences of MKK3 (SEQ ID NO:2), MKK4-α (SEQ ID NO:6), MKK4-β (SEQ ID NO:8), and MKK4-γ (SEQ ID NO:10) are shown in FIG. 1. The nucleic acid and amino acid sequences of MKK3 (FIG. 5), MKK6 (FIG. 6), MKK4α (FIG. 7), MKK4β (FIG. 8), and MKK4γ (FIG. 9) are also provided. MKK6 was isolated from a human skeletal muscle library by cross-hybridization with MKK3. Except for differences at the N-terminus, MKK6 is homologous to MKK3. Other human MKK3 and MKK4 isoforms that exist can be identified by the method described in Example 1.
The expression of these human MKK isoforms was examined by Northern (RNA) blot analysis of mRNA isolated from eight adult human tissues (Example 2). Both protein kinases were found to be widely expressed in human tissues, with the highest expression seen in skeletal muscle tissue.
The substrate specificity of MKK3 was investigated in an in vitro phosphorylation assay with recombinant epitope-tagged MAP kinases (JNK1, p38, and ERK2) as substrates (Example 3). MKK3 and MKK6 phosphorylated p38, but did not phosphorylate JNK1 or ERK2. Phosphoaminoacid analysis of p38 demonstrated the presence of a phosphothreonine and phosphotyrosine. Mutational analysis of p38 demonstrated that replacement of phosphorylation sites Thr180 and Tyr182 with Ala and Phe, respectively, blocked p38 phosphorylation. These results establish that MKK3 functions in vitro as a p38 MAP kinase kinase. The substrate specificity of MKK6 is similar to that of MKK3, but the specific activity of MKK6 is approximately 300-fold greater than that of MKK3.
Studies of the in vitro substrate specificity of MKK4 are described in Example 4. MKK4 incubated with [γ-32P]ATP, and JNK1, p38, or ERK2 was found to phosphorylate both p38 and JNK1. MKK4 activation of JNK and p38 was also studied by incubating MKK4 with wild-type or mutated JNK1 or p38. The p38 substrate ATF2 was included in each assay. MKK4 was found to exhibit less autophosphorylation than MKK3. MKK4 was also found to be a substrate for activated MAP kinase. Unlike MKK3 and MKK6, MKK4 was also found to activate JNK1. MKK4 incubated with wild-type JNK1, but not mutated JNK1, resulted in increased phosphorylation of ATF2. These results establish that MKK4 is a p38 MAP kinase that also phosphorylates the JNK subgroup of MAP kinases.
In vivo activation of p38 by UV-stimulated MKK3 is described in Example 5. Cells expressing MKK3 were exposed in the presence or absence of UV radiation. MKK3 was isolated by immunoprecipitation and used for protein kinase assays with the substrates p38 or JNK. ATF2 was included in some assays as a substrate for p38 and JNK. MKK3 from non-activated cultured COS cells caused a small amount of phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase, resulting from basal activity of MKK3. MKK3 from UV-irradiated cells caused increased phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase, but not of JNK1. An increase in p38 activity was also detected in assays in which ATF2 was included as a substrate. These results establish that MKK3 is activated by UV radiation.
The effect of expression of MKK3 and MKK4 on p38 activity was examined in COS-1 cells (Example 6). Cells were transfected with a vector encoding p38 and a MEK1, MKK3, or MKK4. Some of the cells were also exposed to EGF or UV radiation. p38 was isolated by immunoprecipitation and assayed for activity with [γ-32P]ATP and ATF2. The expression of the ERK activator MEK1 did not alter p38 phosphorylation of ATF2. In contrast, expression of MKK3 or MKK4 caused increased activity of p38 MAP kinase. The activation of p38 caused by MKK3 and MKK4 was similar to that observed in UV-irradiated cells, and was much greater than that detected in EGF-treated cells. These in vitro results provide evidence that MKK3 and MKK4 activate p38 in vivo.
A series of experiments was conducted to examine the potential regulation of ATF2 by JNK1. These experiments are described in Gupta et al. (1995) Science 267:389-393. The effect of UV radiation on ATF2 phosphorylation was investigated in COS-1 cells transfected with and without epitope-tagged JNK1 (Example 7). Cells were exposed to UV radiation, and JNK1 and JNK2 visualized by in-gel protein kinase assay with the substrate ATF2. JNK1 and JNK2 were detected in transfected and non-transfected cells exposed to UV radiation; however, JNK1 levels were higher in the transfected cells. These results demonstrate that ATF2 is a substrate for the JNK1 and JNK2 protein kinases, and that these protein kinases are activated in cells exposed to UV light.
The site of JNK1 phosphorylation of ATF2 was examined by deletion analysis (Example 8). Progressive NH2-terminal domain deletion GST-ATF2 fusion proteins were generated, and phosphorylation by JNK1 isolated from V-irradiated cells was examined. The results showed that JNK1 requires the presence of ATF2 residues 1-60 for phosphorylation of the NH2-terminal domain of ATF2.
The ATF2 residues required for binding of JNK1 were similarly examined. JNK1 was incubated with immobilized ATF2, unbound JNK1 was removed by extensive washing, and bound JNK1 was detected by incubation with [γ-32P]ATP. Results indicate that residues 20 to 60 of ATF2 are required for binding and phosphorylation by JNK1. A similar binding interaction between ATF2 and the 55 kD JNK2 protein kinase has also been observed.
Phosphorylation by JNK1 was shown to reduce the electrophoretic mobility of ATF2 (Example 9). Phosphoamino acid analysis of the full-length ATF2 molecule (residues 1-505) demonstrated that JNK phosphorylated both Thr and Ser residues. The major sites of Thr and Ser phosphorylation were located in the NH2 and COOH terminal domains, respectively. The NH2-terminal sites of phosphorylation were identified as Thr69 and Thr71 by phosphopeptide mapping and mutational analysis. These sites of Thr phosphorylation are located in a region of ATF2 that is distinct from the sub-domain required for JNK binding (residues 20 to 60).
The reduced electrophoretic mobility seen with phosphorylation of ATF2 was investigated further (Example 10). JNK1 was activated in CHO cells expressing JNK1 by treatment with UV radiation, pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1), or serum. A decreased electrophoretic mobility of JNK1-activated ATF2 was observed in cells treated with UV radiation and IL-1. Smaller effects were seen after treatment of cells with serum. These results indicate that ATF2 is an in vivo substrate for JNK1.
The effect of UV radiation on the properties of wild-type (Thr69,71) and phosphorylation-defective (Ala69,71) ATF2 molecules was investigated (Example 11). Exposure to UV caused a decrease in the electrophoretic mobility of both endogenous and over-expressed wild-type ATF2. This change in electrophoretic mobility was associated with increased ATF2 phosphorylation. Both the electrophoretic mobility shift and increased phosphorylation were blocked by the replacement of Thr69 and Thr71 with Ala in ATF2. This mutation also blocked the phosphorylation of ATF2 on Thr residues in vivo.
Transcriptional activities of fusion proteins consisting of the GAL4 DNA binding domain and wild-type or mutant ATF2 were examined (Example 12). Point mutations at Thr69 and/or Thr71 of ATF2 significantly decreased the transcriptional activity of ATF2 relative to the wild-type molecule, indicating the physiological relevance of phosphorylation at these sites for activity.
The binding of JNK1 to the NH2-terminal activation domain of ATF2 (described in Example 8) suggested that a catalytically inactive JNK1 molecule could function as a dominant inhibitor of the wild-type JNK1 molecule. This hypothesis was investigated by examining the effect of a catalytically inactive JNK1 molecule on ATF2 function (Example 13). A catalytically-inactive JNK1 mutant was constructed by replacing the sites of activating Thr183 and Tyr185 phosphorylation with Ala and Phe, respectively (Ala183,Phe185, termed "dominant-negative"). Expression of wild-type JNK1 caused a small increase in serum-stimulated ATF2 transcriptional activity. In contrast, dominant-negative JNK1 inhibited both control and serum-stimulated ATF2 activity. This inhibitory effect results from the non-productive binding of the JNK1 mutant to the ATF2 activation domain, effectively blocking ATF2 phosphorylation.
The tumor suppressor gene product Rb binds to ATF2 and increases ATF2-stimulated gene expression (Kim et al. (1992) Nature 358:331). Similarly, the adenovirus oncoprotein E1A associates with the DNA binding domain of ATF2 and increases ATF2-stimulated gene expression by a mechanism that requires the NH2-terminal activation domain of ATF2 (Liu and Green (1994) Nature 368:520). ATF2 transcriptional activity was investigated with the luciferase reporter gene system in control, Rb-treated, and E1A-treated cells expressing wild-type or mutant ATF2 molecules (Example 14). Rb and E1A were found to increase ATF2-stimulated gene expression of both wild-type and mutant ATF2. However, mutant ATF2 caused a lower level of reporter gene expression than did wild-type ATF2. Together, these results indicate a requirement for ATF2 phosphorylation (on Thr69 and Thr71) plus either Rb or E1A for maximal transcriptional activity. Thus, Rb and E1A act in concert with ATF2 phosphorylation to control transcriptional activity.
A series of experiments were conducted to examine the action of p38 activation and to establish the relationship of the p38 MAP kinase pathway to the ERK and JNK signal transduction pathways (Raingeaud et al. (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270:7420). Initially, the substrate specificity of p38 was investigated by incubating p38 with proteins that have been demonstrated to be substrates for the ERK and/or JNK groups of MAP kinases (Example 15). We examined the phosphorylation of MBP (Erickson et al. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265:19728), EGF-R (Northwood et al. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266:15266), cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) (Lin et al. (1993) Cell 72:269), c-Myc (Alvarez et al. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266:15277), Iκb, c-Jun, and wild-type (Thr69,71) or mutated (Ala69,71) ATF2. p38 phosphorylated MBP and EGF-R, and to a lesser extent IκB, but not the other ERK substrates, demonstrating that the substrate specificity of p38 differs from both the ERK and JNK groups of MAP kinases. Wild-type ATF2, but not mutated ATF2 (Ala69,71), was found to be an excellent p38 substrate.
The phosphorylation of ATF2 by p38 was associated with an electrophoretic mobility shift of ATF2 during polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. We tested the hypothesis that p38 phosphorylates ATF2 at the same sites as JNK1 by replacing Thr69 and Thr71 with Ala (Ala69,71). It was found that p38 did not phosphorylate mutated ATF2, which demonstrates that p38 phosphorylates ATF2 within the NH2-terminal activation domain on Thr69 and Thr71.
A comparison of the binding of JNK and p38 to ATF2 was conducted by incubating extracts of cells expressing JNK1 or p38 with epitope alone (GST) or GST-ATF2 (residues 1-109 containing the activation domain) (Example 16). Bound protein kinases were detected by Western blot analysis. The results demonstrate that both p38 and JNK bind to the ATF2 activation domain.
EGF and phorbol ester are potent activators of the ERK signal transduction pathway (Egan and Weinberg (1993) Nature 365:781), causing maximal activation of the ERK sub-group of MAP kinases. These treatments, however, cause only a small increase in JNK protein kinase activity (Derijard et al. (1994) supra; Hibi et al. (1993) supra). The effects of EGF or phorbol esters, as well UV radiation, osmotic shock, interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor, and LPS, on p38 activity were all tested (Example 17). Significantly, EGF and phorbol ester caused only a modest increase in p38 protein kinase activity, whereas environmental stress (UV radiation and osmotic shock) caused a marked increase in the activity of both p38 and JNK. Both p38 and JNK were activated in cells treated with pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF and IL-1) or endotoxic LPS. Together, these results indicate that p38, like JNK, is activated by a stress-induced signal transduction pathway.
ERKs and JNKs are activated by dual phosphorylation within the motifs Thr-Glu-Tyr and Thr-Pro-Tyr, respectively. In contrast, p38 contains the related sequence Thr-Gly-Tyr. To test whether this motif is relevant to the activation of p38, the effect of the replacement of Thr-Gly-Tyr with Ala-Gly-Phe was examined (Example 18). The effect of UV radiation on cells expressing wild-type (Thr180,Tyr182) or mutant p38 (Ala180,Phe182) was studied. Western blot analysis using an anti-phosphotyrosine antibody demonstrated that exposure to UV radiation caused an increase in the Tyr phosphorylation of p38. The increased Tyr phosphorylation was confirmed by phosphoaminoacid analysis of p38 isolated from [γ-32P]phosphate-labeled cells. This analysis also demonstrated that UV radiation caused increased Thr phosphorylation of p38. Significantly, the increased phosphorylation on Thr180 and Tyr182 was blocked by the Ala180/Phe182 mutation. This result demonstrates that UV radiation causes increased activation of p38 by dual phosphorylation.
It has recently been demonstrated that ERK activity is regulated by the mitogen-induced dual specificity phosphatases MKP1 and PAC1 (Ward et al. (1994) Nature 367:651). The activation of p38 by dual phosphorylation (Example 18) raises the possibility that p38 may also be regulated by dual specificity phosphatases. We examined the effect of MKP1 and PAC1 on p38 MAP kinase activation (Example 19). Cells expressing human MKP1 and PAC1 were treated with and without UV radiation, and p38 activity measured. The expression of PAC1 or MKP1 was found to inhibit p38 activity. The inhibitory effect of MKP1 was greater than PAC1. In contrast, cells transfected with a catalytically inactive mutant phosphatase (mutant PAC1 Cys257/Ser) did not inhibit p38 MAP kinase. These results demonstrate that p38 can be regulated by dual specificity phosphatases PAC1 and MKP1.
The sub-cellular distribution of p38 MAP kinase was examined by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy (Example 20). Epitope-tagged p38 MAP kinase was detected using the M2 monoclonal antibody. Specific staining of cells transfected with epitope-tagged p38 MAP kinase was observed at the cell surface, in the cytoplasm, and in the nucleus. Marked changes in cell surface and nuclear p38 MAP kinase were not observed following UV irradiation, but an increase in the localization of cytoplasmic p38 MAP kinase to the perinuclear region was detected.
A series of experiments were conducted to study the activation of JNK by hyper-osmotic media (Example 21). These experiments were reported by Galcheva-Gargova et al. (1994) Science 265:806. CHO cells expressing epitope-tagged JNK1 were incubated with 0-1000 mM sorbitol, and JNK1 activity measured in an immune complex kinase assay with the substrate c-Jun. Increased JNK1 activity was observed in cells incubated 1 hour with 100 mM sorbitol. Increased JNK1 activity was observed within 5 minutes of exposure to 300 mM sorbitol. Maximal activity was observed 15 to 30 minutes after osmotic shock with a progressive decline in JNK1 activity at later times. The activation of JNK by osmotic shock was studied in cells expressing wild-type (Thr183, Tyr185) or mutated (Ala183, Phe185) JNK1. JNK1 activity was measured after incubation for 15 minutes with or without 300 mM sorbitol. Cells expressing wild-type JNK1 showed increased JNK1 activity, while cells expressing mutated JNK1 did not. These results demonstrate that the JNK signal transduction pathway is activated in cultured mammalian cells exposed to hyper-osmotic media.
The results of the above-described experiments are illustrated in FIG. 3, which diagrams the ERK, p38, and JNK MAP kinase signal transduction pathways. ERKs are potently activated by treatment of cells with EGF or phorbol esters. In contrast, p38 is only slightly activated under these conditions (Example 15). However, UV radiation, osmotic stress, and inflammatory cytokines cause a marked increase in p38 activity. This difference in the pattern of activation of ERK and p38 suggests that these MAP kinases are regulated by different signal transduction pathways. The molecular basis for the separate identity of these signal transduction pathways is established by the demonstration that the MAP kinase kinases that activate ERK (MEK1 and MEK2) and p38 (MKK3, MKK6, and MKK4) are distinct.
MKK isoforms are useful for screening reagents which modulate MKK activity. Described in the Use section following the examples are methods for identifying reagents capable of inhibiting or activating MKK activity.
The discovery of human MKK isoforms and MKK-mediated signal transduction pathways is clinically significant for the treatment of MKK-mediated disorders. One use of the MKK isoforms is in a method for screening reagents able to inhibit or prevent the activation of the MKK-MAP kinase-ATF2 pathways.
The following examples are meant to illustrate, not limit, the invention.
MKK Protein Kinases
The primary sequences of MKK3 and MKK4 were deduced from the sequence of cDNA clones isolated from a human fetal brain library.
The primers TTYTAYGGNGCNTTYTTYATHGA (SEQ ID NO: 14) and ATBCTYTCNGGNGCCATKTA (SEQ ID NO:15) were designed based on the sequence of PBS2 (Brewster et al. (1993) Science 259:1760; Maeda et al. (1994) Nature 369:242). The primers were used in a PCR reaction with human brain mRNA as template. Two sequences that encoded fragments of PBS2-related protein kinases were identified. Full-length human cDNA clones were isolated by screening of a human fetal brain library (Derijard et al. (1994) supra). The cDNA clones were examined by sequencing with an Applied Biosystems model 373A machine. The largest clones obtained for MKK3 (2030 base pairs (bp)) and MKK4 (3576 bp) contained the entire coding region of these protein kinases.
The primary structures of MKK3 (SEQ ID NO:2) and MKK4α (SEQ ID NO:6) are shown in FIG. 1. An in-frame termination codon is located in the 5' untranslated region of the MKK3 cDNA, but not in the 5' region of the MKK4 cDNA. The MKK4 protein sequence presented starts at the second in-frame initiation codon.
These sequences were compared to those of the human MAP kinase kinases MEK1 (SEQ ID NO:11) and MEK2 (SEQ ID NO:12) (Zheng and Guan (1993) J. Biol. Chem 268:11435) and of the yeast MAP kinase kinase PBS2 (SEQ ID NO: 13) (Boguslawaski and Polazzi (1987) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84:5848) (FIG. 1). The identity and similarity of the kinases with human MKK3 (between subdomains I and XI) were calculated with the BESTFIT program (version 7.2; Wisconsin Genetics Computer Group) (percent of identity to percent of similarity): MEK1, 41%/63%; MEK2, 41%/62%; MKK4α, 52%/73%; and PBS2, 40%/59%). The identity and similarity of the kinases with human MKK4α were calculated to be as follows (percent of identity to percent of similarity): MEK1, 44%/63%; MEK2, 45%/61%; MKK3, 52%/73%; and PBS2, 44%/58%.
The cDNA sequences of MKK3 and MKK4γ have been deposited in GenBank with accession numbers L36719 and L36870, respectively. The MKK4γ cDNA sequence contains both the cDNA sequences of MKK4α and MKK4β, which are generated in vivo from alternate splicing sites. One of ordinary skill in the art can readily determine the amino acid sequences of MKK3 and MKK4 isoforms from the deposited cDNA sequences.
Human MKK6 cDNA clones were isolated from a skeletal muscle library by screening with an MKK3 probe at low stingency. Mammalian MKK6 expression vectors were constructed by sub-cloning the MKK6 cDNA in the HindIII and XbaI sites of pCDNA3 (Invitrogen Inc.). The sequences of all plasmids were confirmed by automated sequencing with an Applied Biosystems model 373A machine.
Expression of MKK3 and MKK4 mRNA in Adult Human Tissue
Northern blot analysis was performed with polyadenylated [poly(A).sup.+] mRNA (2 μg) isolated from human heart, brain, placenta, lung, liver, muscle, kidney, and pancreas tissues. The mRNA was fractionated by denaturing agarose gel electrophoresis and was transferred to a nylon membrane. The blot was probed with the MKK3 and MKK4 cDNA labeled by random priming with [α-32P]ATP (deoxyadenosine triphosphate) (Amersham International PLC). MKK3 and MKK4 were expressed in all tissues examined; the highest expression of MKK3 and MKK4 was found in skeletal muscle tissue.
The relation between members of the human and yeast MAP kinase kinase group is presented as a dendrogram (FIG. 2). MKK3/4 form a unique subgroup of human MAP kinase kinases.
In Vitro Phosphorylation of p38 MAP Kinase by MKK3
GST-JNK1, and GST-ERK2 have been described (Derijard et al. (1994) supra; Gupta et al. (1995) Science 267:389; Wartmann and Davis (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269:6695). GST-p38 MAP kinase was prepared from the expression vector pGSTag (Dressier et al. (1992) Biotechniques 13:866) and a PCR fragment containing the coding region of the p38 MAP kinase cDNA. GST-MKK3 and MKK4 were prepared with pGEX3X (Pharmacia-LKB Biotechnology) and PCR fragments containing the coding region of the MKK3 and MKK4 cDNAs. The GST fusion proteins were purified by affinity chromatography with the use of GSH-agarose (Smith and Johnson (1988) Gene 67:31). The expression vectors pCMV-Flag-JNK1 and pCMV-MEK1 have been described (Derijard et al. (1994) supra; Wartmann and Davis (1994) supra). The plasmid pCMV-Flag-p38 MAP kinase was prepared with the expression vector pCMV5 (Andersson et al. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264:8222) and the p38 MAP kinase cDNA. The expression vectors for MKK3 and MKK4 were prepared by subcloning of the cDNAs into the polylinker of pCDNA3 (Invitrogen). The Flag epitope (Asp-Tyr-Lys-Asp-Asp-Asp-Asp-Lys (SEQ ID NO: 16); Immunex, Seattle, Wash.) was inserted between codons 1 and 2 of the kinases by insertional overlapping PCR (Ho et al. (1989) Gene 77:51).
Protein kinase assays were performed in kinase buffer (25 mM 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethansulfonic acid, pH 7.4, 25 mM β-glycerophosphate, 25 mM MgCl2, 2 mM dithiothreitol, and 0.1 mM orthovanadate). Recombinant GST-MKK3 was incubated with [γ-32P]ATP and buffer, GST-JNK1, GST-p38 MAP kinase, or GST-ERK2. The assays were initiated by the addition of 1 μg of substrate proteins and 50 μM [γ-32P]ATP (10 Ci/mmol) in a final volume of 25 μl. The reactions were terminated after 30 minutes at 25° C. by addition of Laemmli sample buffer. The phosphorylation of the substrate proteins was examined after SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) by autoradiography. Phosphoaminoacid analysis was performed by partial acid hydrolysis and thin-layer chromatography (Derijard et al. (1994) supra; Alvarez et al. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266:15277). Autophosphorylation of MKK3 was observed in all groups. MKK3 phosphorylated p38 MAP kinase, but not JNK1 or ERK2.
A similar insertional overlapping PCR procedure was used to replace Thr180 and Tyr182 of p38, with Ala and Phe, respectively. The sequence of all plasmids was confirmed by automated sequencing on an Applied Biosystems model 373A machine. GST-MKK3 was incubated with [γ-32P]ATP and buffer, wild-type GST-p38 MAP kinase (TGY), or mutated GST-p38 MAP kinase (AGF). The phosphorylated proteins were resolved by SDS-PAGE and detected by autoradiography. Only phosphorylation of wild-type p38 was observed.
MKK6 was similarly tested and shown to phosphorylate p38 MAP kinase on Thr180 and Tyr182, but not JNK1 or ERK2. The specific activity of MKK6 was approximately 300-fold greater than that of MKK3.
In Vitro Phosphorylation and Activation of JNK and p38 MAP Kinase by MKK4
Protein kinase assays were conducted as described in Example 3. Recombinant GST-MKK4 was incubated with [γ-32P]ATP and buffer, GST-JNK1, GST-p38 MAP kinase, or GST-ERK2. JNK1 and p38 were phosphorylated, as was MKK4 incubated with JNK1 and p38.
GST-MKK4 was incubated with [y-32P]ATP and buffer, wild-type JNK1 (Thr183, Tyr185), or mutated GST-JNK1 (Ala183, Phe185). The JNK1 substrate ATF2 (Gupta et al. (1995) supra) was included in each incubation. ATF2 was phosphorylated in the presence of MKK4 and wild-type JNK1. The results establish that MKK4 phosphorylates and activates both p38 and JNK1.
Phosphorylation and Activation of p38 MAP Kinase by UV-Stimulated MKK3
Epitope-tagged MKK3 was expressed in COS-1 cells maintained in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum (5%)(Gibco-BRL). The cells were transfected with the lipofectamine reagent according to the manufacturer's recommendations (Gibco-BRL) and treated with UV radiation or EGF as described (Derijard et al. (1994) supra).
The cells were exposed in the absence and presence of UV-C (40 J/m2). The cells were solubilized with lysis buffer (20 mM tris, pH 7.4, 1% Triton X-100, 10% glycerol, 137 mM NaCl, 2 mM EDTA, 25 mM γ-glycerophosphate, 1 mM Na orthovanadate, 1 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, and leupeptin (10 μg/ml)) and centrifuged at 100,000×g for 15 minutes at 4° C. MKK3 was isolated by immunoprecipitation. The epitope-tagged protein kinases were incubated for 1 hour at 4° C. with the M2 antibody to the Flag epitope (IBI-Kodak) bound to protein G-Sepharose (Pharmacia-LKB Biotechnology). The immunoprecipitates were washed twice with lysis buffer and twice with kinase buffer.
Protein kinase assays were conducted with the substrate GST-p38 MAP kinase or JNK1. ATF2 was included in some assays. Basal levels of MKK3 phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase were observed. UV-irradiation resulted in increased phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase, but not of JNK1. The increased p38 MAP kinase activity resulted in increased phosphorylation of ATF2.
Activation of p38 MAP Kinase in Cells Expressing MKK3 and MKK4
COS-1 cells were transfected with epitope-tagged p38 MAP kinase, together with an empty expression vector or an expression vector encoding MEK1, MKK3, or MKK4α. Some of the cultures were exposed to UV radiation (40 J/m2) or treated with 10 nM EGF. p38 MAP kinase was isolated by immunoprecipitation with M2 monoclonal antibody, and the protein kinase activity was measured in the immunecomplex with [γ-32P]ATP and ATF2 as substrates. The product of the phosphorylation reaction was visualized after SDS-PAGE by autoradiography. ATF2 was not phosphorylated in the control MEK1, or EGF-treated groups, but was phosphorylated in the MKK3, MKK4, and UV-irradiated groups. MKK3 and MKK4 phosphorylation of ATF2 was similar to that seen with p38 MAP kinase isolated from UV-irradiated cells.
Phosphorylation of ATF2 by JNK1 and JNK2
COS-1 cells were maintained in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with bovine serum albumin (5%) (Gibco-BRL). Metabolic labeling with p was performed by incubation of cells for 3 hours in phosphate-free modified Eagle's medium (Flow Laboratories Inc.) supplemented with [32P]orthophosphate (2 mCi/ml) (Dupont-NEN). COS-1 cells were transfected without (Mock) and with epitope-tagged JNK1 (JNK1). Plasmid expression vectors encoding the JNK1 cDNA have previously been described (Derijard et al. (1994) Cell 76:1025). Plasmid DNA was transfected into COS-1 cells by the lipofectamine method (Gibco-BRL). After 48 hours of incubation, some cultures were exposed to 40 J/m2 UV radiation and incubated for 1 hour at 37° C.
Cells were lysed in 20 mM Tris, pH 7.5, 25 mM β-glycerophosphate, 10% glycerol, 1% Triton X-100, 0.5% (w/v) deoxycholate, 0.1% (w/v) SDS, 0.137 M NaCl, 2 mM pyrophosphate, 1 mM orthovanadate, 2 mM EDTA, 10 μg/ml leupeptin, 1 mM PMSF. Soluble extracts were prepared by centrifugation in a microfuge for 20 minutes at 4° C. JNK1 immunoprecipitates were also prepared by reaction with a rabbit antiserum prepared with recombinant JNK1 as an antigen.
In-gel protein kinase assays were performed with cell lysates and JNK1 immunoprecipitates after SDS-PAGE by renaturation of protein kinases, polymerization of the substrate (GST-ATF2, residues 1-505) in the gel, and incubation with [γ-32P]ATP (Derijard et al. (1994) supra). The incorporation of [32P]phosphate was visualized by autoradiography and quantitated with a Phosphorimager and ImageQuant soft-ware (Molecular Dynamics Inc., Sunnyvale, Calif.). The cell lysates demonstrate the presence of 46 kD and 55 kD protein kinases that phosphorylate ATF2 in extracts prepared from UV-irradiated cells. The 46 kD and 55 kD protein kinases were identified as JNK1 and JNK2, respectively.
Binding of JNK1 to ATF2 and Phosphorylation of the NH2-Terminal Activation Domain
The site of JNK1 phosphorylation of ATF2 was investigated by generation of progressive NH2-terminal domain deletions of ATF2. Plasmid expression vectors encoding ATF2 (pECE-ATF2) (Liu and Green (1994) and (1990)), have been described. Bacterial expression vectors for GST-ATF2 fusion proteins were constructed by sub-cloning A=F2 cDNA fragments from a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) into pGEX-3X (Pharmacia-LKB Biotechnology Inc.). The sequence of all constructed plasmids was confirmed by automated sequencing with an Applied Biosystems model 373A machine. The GST-ATF2 proteins were purified as described (Smith and Johnson (1988) Gene 67:31), resolved by SDS-PAGE and stained with Coomassie blue. GST-ATF2 fusion proteins contained residues 1-505, 1-349, 350-505, 1-109, 20-109, 40-109, and 60-109.
The phosphorylation of GST-ATF2 fusion proteins by JNK1 isolated from UV-irradiated cells was examined in an immunocomplex kinase assay. Immunecomplex kinase assays were performed with Flag epitope-tagged JNK1 and the monoclonal antibody M2 (IBI-Kodak) as described by Derijard et al. (1994) supra). Immunecomplex protein kinase assays were also performed with a rabbit antiserum prepared with recombinant JNK1 as an antigen. The cells were solubilized with 20 mM Tris, pH 7.5, 10% glycerol, 1% Triton X-100, 0.137 M NaCl, 25 mM β-glycerophosphate, 2 mM EDTA, 1 mM orthovanadate, 2 mM pyrophosphate, 10 μg/ml leupeptin, and 1 mM PMSF. JNK1 was immunoprecipitated with protein G-Sepharose bound to a rabbit polyclonal antibody to JNK or the M2 monoclonal antibody to the Flag epitope. The beads were washed three times with lysis buffer and once with kinase buffer (20 mM Hepes, pH 7.6, 20 mM MgCl2, 25 mM β-glycerophosphate, 100 μM Na orthovanadate, 2 mM dithiothreitol). The kinase assays were performed at 25° C. for 10 minutes with 1 μg of substrate, 20 μM adenosine triphosphate and 10 μCi of [γ-32P]ATP in 30 μl of kinase buffer. The reactions were terminated with Laemmli sample buffer and the products were resolved by SDS-PAGE (10% gel). JNK1 phosphorylates GST-ATF2 fusion proteins containing residues 1-505, 1-349, 1-109, 20-109, and 40-109, but not 60-109. These results indicate that the presence of ATF2 residues 1-60 are required for phosphorylation by JNK.
The binding of immobilized GST-ATF2 fusion proteins was examined in a solid-phase kinase assay as described by Hibi et al. (1993) Genes Dev. 7:2135. JNK1 from UV-irradiated cells was incubated with GST-ATF2 fusion proteins bound to GSH-agarose. The agarose beads were washed extensively to remove the unbound JNK1. Phosphorylation of the GST-ATF2 fusion proteins by the bound JNK1 protein kinase was examined by addition of [y-32P]ATP. JNK1 bound GST-ATF2 fusion proteins containing residues 1-505, 1-349, 1-109, 20-109, and 40-109, indicating that the presence of residues 20-60 were required for binding of JNK1 to ATF2.
Phosphorylation of the NH2-Terminal Activation Domain of ATF2 on Thr69 and Thr71 by JNK1
The effect of UV radiation on the properties of wild-type (Thr69,71) and phosphorylation-defective (Ala69,71) ATF2 molecules was examined. Mock-transfected and JNK1-transfected COS cells were treated without and with 40 J/m2 UV radiation. The epitope-tagged JNK1 was isolated by immunoprecipitation with the M2 monoclonal antibody. The phosphorylation of GST-ATF2 (residues 1 to 109) was examined in an immunocomplex kinase assay as described above. The GST-ATF2 was resolved from other proteins by SDS-PAGE and stained with Coomassie blue. The phosphorylation of GST-ATF2 was detected by autoradiography. JNK1-transfected cells, but not mock-transfected cells, phosphorylated ATF2. JNK1 phosphorylation of ATF2 was greater in cells exposed to UV radiation. Phosphorylation of ATF2 by JNK1 was associated with a decreased electrophoretic mobility.
In a separate experiment, GST fusion proteins containing full-length ATF2 (residues 1 to 505), an NH2-terminal fragment (residues 1 to 109), and a COOH-terminal fragment (residues 95 to 505) were phosphorylated with JNK1 and the sites of phosphorylation analyzed by phosphoamino acid analysis. The methods used for phosphopeptide mapping and phosphoamino acid analysis have been described (Alvarez et al. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266:15277). The horizontal dimension of the peptide maps was electrophoresis and the vertical dimension was chromatography. The NH2-terminal sites of phosphorylation were identified as Thr69 and Thr71 by phosphopeptide mapping and mutational analysis. Site-directed mutagenesis was performed as described above, replacing Thr69 and Thr71 with Ala. Phosphorylation of mutated ATF2 was not observed.
Reduced Electrophoretic Mobility of JNK-Activated ATF2
CHO cells were maintained in Ham's F12 medium supplemented with 5% bovine serum albumin (Gibco-BRL). Cells were labeled and transfected with JNK1 as described above. CHO cells were treated with UV-C (40 J/m2), IL-1α (10 ng/ml) (Genzyme), or fetal bovine serum (20%) (Gibco-BRL). The cells were incubated for 30 minutes at 37° C. prior to harvesting. The electrophoretic mobility of ATF2 after SDS-PAGE was examined by protein immuno-blot analysis. A shift in ATF2 electrophoretic mobility was observed in cells treated with UV, IL-1, and serum. These results indicate that JNK1 activation is associated with an electrophoretic mobility shift of ATF2, further suggesting that ATF2 is an in vivo substrate for JNK1.
Increased ATF2 Phosphorylation After Activation of JNK
COS-1 cells were transfected without (control) and with an ATF2 expression vector (ATF2), as described above (Hai et al. (1989) supra). The effect of exposure of the cells to 40 J/m2 UV-C was examined. After irradiation, the cells were incubated for 0 or 30 minutes (control) or 0, 15, 30, and 45 minutes (ATF2) at 37° C. and then collected. The electrophoretic mobility of ATF2 during SDS-PAGE was examined by protein immuno-blot analysis as described above. The two electrophoretic mobility forms of ATF2 were observed in ATF2-transfected cells, but not in control cells.
The phosphorylation state of wild-type (Thr69,71) ATF2 and mutated (Ala69,71) ATF2 was examined in cells labeled with p, treated without and with 40 J/m2 UV-C, and then incubated at 37° C. for 30 minutes (Hai et al. (1989) supra). The ATF2 proteins were isolated by immunoprecipitation and analyzed by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography. The phosphorylated ATF2 proteins were examined by phosphoamino acid analysis as described above. Both forms of ATF2 contained phosphoserine, but only wild-type ATF2 contained phosphothreonine.
Tryptic phosphopeptide mapping was used to compare ATF2 phosphorylated in vitro by JNK1 with ATF2 phosphorylated in COS-1 cells. A map was also prepared with a sample composed of equal amounts of in vivo and in vitro phosphorylated ATF2 (Mix). Mutation of ATF2 at Thr69 and Thr71 resulted in the loss of two tryptic phosphopeptides in maps of ATF2 isolated from UV-irradiated cells. These phosphopeptides correspond to mono- and bis-phosphorylated peptides containing Thr69 and Thr71. Both of these phosphopeptides were found in maps of ATF2 phosphorylated by JNK1 in vitro.
Inhibition of ATF2-Stimulated Gene Expression by Mutation of the Phosphorylation Sites Thr69 and Thr71
A fusion protein consisting of ATF2 and the GAL4 DNA binding domain was expressed in CHO cells as described above. The activity of the GAL4-ATF2 fusion protein was measured in co-transfection assays with the reporter plasmid pG5E1bLuc (Seth et al. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267:24796. The reporter plasmid contains five GAL4 sites cloned upstream of a minimal promoter element and the firefly luciferase gene. Transfection efficiency was monitored with a control plasmid that expresses β-galactosidase (pCH110; Pharmacia-LKB Biotechnology). The luciferase and β-galactosidase activity detected in cell extracts was measured as the mean activity ratio of three experiments (Gupta et al. (1993) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90:3216). The results, shown in Table 1, demonstrate the importance of phosphorylation at Thr69 and Thr71 for transcriptional activity.
TABLE-US-00001 TABLE 1 INHIBITION OF ATF-2 STIMULATED GENE EXPRESSION BY MUTATION OF THE PHOSPHORYLATION SITES THR69,71 LUCIFERASE ACTIVITY PROTEIN (Light Units/OD) GAL4 45 GAL4-ATF2 (wild type) 320,000 GAL4-ATF2 (Ala69) 24,000 GAL4-ATF2 (Ala71) 22,000 GAL4-ATF2 (Ala69,71) 29,000 GAL4-ATF2 (Glu69) 27,000
Effect of Dominant-Negative JNK1 Mutant on ATF2 Function
The luciferase reporter plasmid system was used to determine the effect of point mutations at the ATF2 phosphorylation sites Thr69 and Thr71 in serum-treated CHO cells transfected with wild-type (Thr183, Tyr185) or mutant (Ala183, Phe185) JNK1. Control experiments were done with mock-transfected cells. The CHO cells were serum-starved for 18 hours and then incubated without or with serum for 4 hours. Expression of wild-type ATF2 caused a small increase in serum-stimulated ATF2 transcriptional activity. In, contrast, mutant JNK1 inhibited both control and serum-stimulated ATF2 activity.
Effect of Tumor Suppressor Gene Product Rb and Adenovirus Oncoprotein E1A on ATF2-Stimulated Gene Expression
The effect of expression of the Rb tumor suppressor gene product and adenovirus oncoprotein E1A on ATF2 transcriptional activity were investigated with a luciferase reporter. plasmid and GALA-ATF2 (residues 1-505), as described above. Cells were transfected with wild-type (Thr69,71) or mutated (Ala69,71) ATF2. No effect of Rb or E1A on luciferase activity was detected in the absence of GAL4-ATF2. Rb and E1A were found to increase ATF2-stimulated gene expression of both wild-type and mutated ATF2. However, mutated ATF2 caused a lower level of reporter gene expression than did wild-type ATF2. These results indicate a requirement for ATF2 phosphorylation (on Thr69 and Thr71) plus either Rb or E1A for maximal transcriptional activity.
Substrate Specificity of p38 MAP Kinase
Substrate phosphorylation by p38 MAP kinase was examined by incubation of bacterially-expressed p38 MAP kinase with IκB, cMyc, EGF-R, cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), c-Jun, and mutated ATF2 (Thr69,71) and ATP[γ-32P] (Raingeaud et al. (1995) J. Biol. Chem 270:7420. GST-IκB was provided by Dr D. Baltimore (Massachusetts Institute of Technology). GST-cMyc (Alvarez et al. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266:15277), GST-EGF-R (residues 647-688) (Koland et al. (1990) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 166:90), and GST-c-Jun (Derijard et al. (1994) supra) have been described. The phosphorylation reaction was terminated after 30 minutes by addition of Laemmli sample buffer. The phosphorylated proteins were resolved by SDS-PAGE and detected by autoradiography. The rate phosphorylation of the substrate proteins was quantitated by PhosphorImager (Molecular Dynamics Inc.) analysis. The relative phosphorylation of ATF2, MBP, EGF-R, and IκB was 1.0, 0.23, 0.04, and 0.001, respectively.
Binding of p38 MAP Kinase to ATF2
Cell extracts expressing epitope-tagged JNK1 and p38 MAP kinase were incubated with a GST fusion protein containing the activation domain of ATF2 (residues 1-109) immobilized on GSH agarose. The supernatant was removed and the agarose was washed extensively. Western blot analysis of the supernatant and agarose-bound fractions was conducted as follows: proteins were fractionated by SDS-PAGE, electrophoretically transferred to an Immobilon-P membrane, and probed with monoclonal antibodies to phosphotyrosine (PY20) and the Flag epitope (M2). Immunocomplexes were detected using enhanced chemiluminescence (Amersham International PLC). Control experiments were performed using immobilized GST.
p38 MAP Kinase and JNK1 Activation by Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines and Environmental Stress
The effect of phorbol ester, EGF, UV radiation, osmotic stress, IL-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and LPS on p38 MAP kinase and JNK1 activity were measured in immunecomplex protein kinase assays using ATP[γ-32P] and ATF2 as substrates. TNFα and IL-1α were from Genzyme Corp. Lipolysaccharide (LPS) was isolated from lyophilized Salmonella minesota Re595 bacteria as described (Mathison et al. (1988) J. Clin. Invest. 81:1925). Phorbol myristate acetate was from Sigma. EGF was purified from mouse salivary glands (Davis (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263:9462). Kinase assays were performed using immunoprecipitates of p38 and JNK. The immunocomplexes were washed twice with kinase buffer (described above), and the assays initiated by the addition of 1 μg of ATF2 and 50 μM [Y-32P]ATP (10 Ci/nμmol) in a final volume of 25 μl. The reactions were terminated after 30 minutes at 30° C. by addition of Laemmli sample buffer. The phosphorylation of ATF2 was examined after SDS-PAGE by autoradiography, and the rate of ATF2 phosphorylation quantitated by PhosphorImager analysis.
The results are shown in Table 2. Exposure of HeLa cells to 10 nM phorbol myristate acetate very weakly activated p38 and JNK1. Similarly, treatment with 10 nM EGF only weakly activated p38 and JNK1. By contrast, treatment with 40 J/m2 UV-C, 300 mM sorbitol, 10 ng/ml interleukin-1, and 10 ng/ml TNFα strongly activated p38 and JNK1 activity. The effect of LPS on the activity of p38 was examined using CHO cells that express human CD14. Exposure of CHO cells to 10 ng/ml LPS only slightly activated p38 and JNK1 activity.
TABLE-US-00002 TABLE 2 p38 AND JNK1 ACTIVATION BY PRO-INFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES AND ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS. Relative Kinase JNK p38 Protein Activity Control 1.0 1.0 Epidermal Growth Factor (10 nM) 1.9 2.1 Phorbol Ester (10 nM) 2.3 2.9 Lipopolysaccharide (10 ng/ml) 3.6 3.7 Osmotic Shock (300 mM sorbitol) 18.1 4.2 Tumor Necrosis Factor (10 ng/ml) 19.3 10.3 Interleukin-1 (10 ng/ml) 8.9 6.2 UV (40 J/m2) 7.4 17.1
p38 MAP Kinase Activation by Dual Phosphorylation on Tyr and Thr
COS-1 cells expressing wild-type (Thr180, Tyr182) or mutated (Ala180, Phe182) p38 MAP kinase were treated without and with UV-C (40 J/m2). The cells were harvested 30 minutes following exposure with or without UV radiation. Control experiments were performed using mock-transfected cells. The level of expression of epitope-tagged p38 MAP kinase and the state of Tyr phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase was examined by Western blot analysis using the M2 monoclonal antibody and the phosphotyrosine monoclonal antibody PY20. Immune complexes were detected by enhanced chemiluminescence.
Wild-type and mutant p38 were expressed at similar levels. Western blot analysis showed that UV radiation caused an increase in the Tyr phosphorylation of p38. The increased Tyr phosphorylation was confirmed by phosphoamino acid analysis of p38 isolated from [32P]phosphate-labeled cells. The results also showed that UV radiation increased Thr phosphorylation of p38. The increased phosphorylation on Tyr and Thr was blocked by mutated p38. Wild-type and mutated p38 were isolated from the COS-1 cells by immunoprecipitation. Protein kinase activity was measured in the immune complex using [γ-32P]ATP and GST-ATF2 as substrates. The phosphorylated GST-ATF2 was detected after SDS-PAGE by autoradiography. UV radiation resulted in a marked increase in the activity of wild-type p38, while the mutant p38 was found to be catalytically inactive. These results show that p38 is activated by dual phosphorylation within the Thr-Gly-Tyr motif.
MAP Kinase Phosphatase Inhibits p38 MAP Kinase Activation
The cells were treated without and with 40 J/m2 UV-C. Control experiments were performed using mock-transfected cells (control) and cells transfected with the catalytically inactive mutated phosphatase mPAC1 (Cys 257/Ser) and human MKP1. The activity of p38 MAP kinase was measured with an immunecomplex protein kinase assay employing [Y-32 P]ATP and GST-ATF2 as substrates. The expression of PAC1 or MKP1 was found to inhibit p38 phosphorylation, demonstrating that p38 can be regulated by the dual specificity phosphatases PAC1 and MKP1.
Subcellular Distribution of p38 MAP Kinase
Epitope-tagged p38 MAP kinase was expressed in COS cells. The cells were treated without or with 40 J/m2 UV radiation and then incubated for 60 minutes at 37° C. The p38 MAP kinase was detected by indirect immunofluorescence using the M2 monoclonal antibody. The images were acquired by digital imaging microscopy and processed for image restoration.
Immunocytochemistry. Coverslips (22 mm×22 mm No. 1; Gold Seal Cover Glass; Becton-Dickinson) were pre-treated by boiling in 0.1 N HCl for 10 minutes, rinsed in distilled water, autoclaved and coated with 0.01% poly-L-lysine (Sigma; St. Louis Mo.). The coverslips were placed at the bottom of 35 mm multiwell tissue culture plates (Becton Dickinson, UK). Transfected COS-1 cells were plated directly on the coverslips and allowed to adhere overnight in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 5% fetal calf serum (Gibco-BRL). 24 hours post-transfection, the cells were rinsed once and incubated at 37° C. for 30 minutes in 25 mM Hepes, pH 7.4, 137 mM NaCl, 6 mM KCl, 1 mM MgCl2, 1 mM CaCl2, 10 mM glucose. The cells were rinsed once with phosphate-buffered saline and the coverslips removed from the tissue culture wells. Cells were fixed in fresh 4% paraformaldehyde in phosphate-buffered saline for 15 minutes at 22° C. The cells were permeabilized with 0.25% Triton X-100 in phosphate-buffered saline for 5 minutes and washed three times in DWB solution (150 mM NaCl, 15 mM Na citrate, pH 7.0, 2% horse serum, 1% (w/v) bovine serum albumin, 0.05% Triton X-100) for 5 minutes. The primary antibody (M2 anti-FLAG monoclonal antibody, Eastman-Kodak Co., New Haven, Conn.) was diluted 1:250 in DWB and applied to the cells in a humidified environment at 22° C. for 1 hour. The cells were again washed three times as above and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated goat anti-mouse Ig secondary antibody (Kirkegaard & Perry Laboratories Inc. Gaithersburg, Md.) was applied at a 1:250 dilution for 1 hour at 22° C. in a humidified environment. The cells were then washed three times in DWB and then mounted onto slides with Gel-Mount (Biomeda Corp. Foster City, Calif.) for immunofluorescence analysis. Control experiments were performed to assess the specificity of the observed immunofluorescence. No fluorescence was detected when the transfected cells were stained in the absence of the primary M2 monoclonal antibody, or mock-transfected cells.
Digital Imaging Microscopy and Image Restoration
Digital images of the fluorescence distribution in single cells were obtained using a Nikon 60× Planapo objective (numerical aperture=1.4) on a Zeiss IM-35 microscope equipped for epifluorescence as previously described (Carrington et al. (1990) in: Non-invasive Techniques in Cell Biology (Fosbett & Grinstein, eds.), Wiley-Liss, NY; pp. 53-72; Fay et al. (1989) J. Microsci. 153:133-149). Images of various focal planes were obtained with a computer controlled focus mechanism and a thermoelectrically cooled charged-coupled device camera (model 220; Photometrics Ltd., Tucson, Ariz.). The exposure of the sample to the excitation source was determined by a computer-controlled shutter and wavelength selector system (MVI, Avon, Mass.). The charge-coupled device camera and microscope functions were controlled by a microcomputer, and the data acquired from the camera were transferred to a Silicon Graphics model 4D/GTX workstation (Mountainview, Calif.) for image processing. Images were corrected for non-uniformities in sensitivity and for the dark current of the charge coupled device detector. The calibration of the microscopy blurring was determined by measuring the instrument's point spread function as a series of optical sections at 0.125 μm intervals of a 0.3 μm diameter fluorescently labeled latex bead (Molecular Probes Inc.). The image restoration algorithm used is based upon the theory of ill-posed problems and obtains quantitative dye density values within the cell that are substantially more accurate than those in an un-processed image (Carrington et al. (1990) supra; Fay et al. (1989) supra). After image processing, individual optical sections of cells were inspected and analyzed using computer graphics software on a Silicon Graphics workstation. p38 MAP kinase was observed at the cell surface, in the cytoplasm, and in the nucleus. After irradiation, an increased localization of cytoplasmic p38 to the perinuclear region was detected.
Activation of the MKK Signal Transduction Pathway by Osmotic Shock
CHO cells were co-transfected with the plasmid pCMV-Flag-Jnk1 and pRSV-Neo (Derijard et al. (1994) supra). A stable cell line expressing epitope-tagged Jnk1 (Flag; Immunex Corp.) was isolated by selection with Geneticin (Gibco-BRL). The cells were incubated with 0, 100, 150, 300, 600, or 1000 mM sorbitol for 1 hour at 37° C. The cells were collected in lysis buffer (20 mM Tris, pH 7.4, 1% Triton X-100, 2 mM EDTA, 137 mM NaCl, 25 mM β-glycerophosphate, 1 mM orthovanadate, 2 mM pyrophosphate, 10% glycerol, 1 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, 10 μg/ml leupeptin) and a soluble extract was obtained by centrifugation at 100,000 g for 30 minutes at 4° C. The epitope-tagged JNK1 was isolated by immunoprecipitation with the monoclonal antibody M2 (Immunex Corp.). The immunoprecipitates were washed extensively with lysis buffer. Immunecomplex kinase assays were done in 25 μl of 25 mM Hepes, pH 7.4, 25 mM MgCl2, 25 mM β-glycerophosphate, 2 mM dithiothreitol, 100 μM orthovanadate, and 50 μM ATP [γ-32p] (10 Ci/mmole) with 2.5 μg of bacterially expressed c-Jun (residues 1-79) fused to glutathione-S-transferase (GST) as a substrate. The phosphorylation of c-Jun was examined after SDS-PAGE by autoradiography and PhosphorImager (Molecular Dynamics Inc.) analysis. JNK1 activation was observed at all concentrations of sorbitol exposure.
The time course of JNK1 protein kinase activation was measured in cells incubated in medium supplemented with 300 mM sorbitol as described above. Increased JNK1 activity was observed within 5 minutes of exposure to sorbitol, with maximum activity occurring after 15-30 minutes.
Mutation of JNK1 at the phosphorylation sites Thr183 and Tyr185 blocked the activation of JNK1 protein kinase activity by osmotic shock. CHO cells were transfected with vector, wild-type JNK1 (Thr183,Tyr185), and mutated JNK1 (Ala183, Phe185). The cells were incubated in medium supplemented without or with 300 mM sorbitol for 15 minutes before measurement of JNK1 protein kinase activity as described above. JNK1 activation was seen in the wild-type but not mutated JNK1.
The MKK polypeptides and polynucleotides of the invention are useful for identifying reagents which modulate the MKK signal transduction pathways. Reagents that modulate an MKK signal transduction pathway can be identified by their effect on MKK synthesis, MKK phosphorylation, or MKK activity. For example, the effect of a reagent on MKK activity can be measured by the in vitro kinase assays described above. MKK is incubated without (control) and with a test reagent under conditions sufficient to allow the components to react, then the effect of the test reagent on kinase activity is subsequently measured. Reagents that inhibit an MKK signal transduction pathway can be used in the treatment of MKK-mediated disorders. Reagents that stimulate an MKK signal transduction pathway can be used in a number of ways, including induction of programmed cell death (apoptosis) in tissues. For example, the elimination of UV damaged cells can be used to prevent cancer.
Generally, for identification of a reagent that inhibits the MKK signal transduction pathway, the kinase assay is tested with a range of reagent concentrations, e.g., 1.0 nM to 100 mM, a MKK substrate, and a radioactive marker such as [γ-32P]ATP. Appropriate substrate molecules include p38, JNK1, JNK2, or ATF2. The incorporation of P into the substrate is determined, and the results obtained with the test reagent compared to control values. Of particular interest are reagents that result in inhibition of p of about 80% or more.
Assays that test the effect of a reagent on MKK synthesis can also be used to identify compounds that inhibit MKK signal transduction pathways. The effect of the test reagent on MKK expression is measured by, for example, Western blot analysis with an antibody specific for MKK. Antibody binding is visualized by autoradiography or chemiluminescence, and is quantitated. The effect of the test reagent on MKK mRNA expression can be examined, for example, by Northern blot analysis using a polynucleotide probe or by polymerase chain reaction.
Reagents found to inhibit MKK signal transduction pathways can be used as therapeutic agents for the treatment of MKK-mediated disorders. Such reagents are also useful in drug design for elucidation of the specific molecular features needed to inhibit MKK signal transduction pathways.
In addition, the invention provides a method for the treatment of MKK-mediated stress-related and inflammatory disorders. The method includes administration of an effective amount of a therapeutic reagent that inhibits MKK function. Suitable reagents inhibit either MKK activity or expression. The concentration of the reagent to be administered is determined based on a number of factors, including the appropriate dosage, the route of administration, and the specific condition being treated. The appropriate dose of a reagent is determined by methods known to those skilled in the art including routine experimentation to optimize the dosage as necessary for the individual patient and specific MKK-mediated disorder being treated. Specific therapeutically effective amounts appropriate for administration are readily determined by one of ordinary skill in the art (see, for example, Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences. 18th ed., Gennaro, ed., Mack Publishing Company, Easton, Pa., 1990).
The invention provides methods for both acute and prophylactic treatment of stress-related and inflammatory disorders. For example, it is envisioned that ischemic heart disease will be treated during episodes of ischemia and oxidative stress following reperfusion. In addition, a patient at risk for ischemia can be treated prior to ischemic episodes.
In another example, a therapeutic agent which inhibits MKK function or activity is administered to control inflammatory responses by inhibiting the secretion of inflammatory cytokines, including TNF and IL-1.
Stress-related proliferative disorders can also be treated by the method of the invention by administering a therapeutic reagent that inhibits MKK function or activity. Such therapeutic reagents can be used alone or in combination with other therapeutic reagents, for example, with chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of malignancies. Indeed, the control of stress-activated MKK by the therapeutic reagents provided by this invention can modulate symptoms caused by other therapeutic strategies that induce stress.
The therapeutic reagents employed are compounds which inhibit MKK function or activity, including polynucleotides, polypeptides, and other molecules such as antisense oligonucleotides and ribozymes, which can be made according to the invention and techniques known to the art. Polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies (including fragments or derivatives thereof) that bind epitopes of MKK also can be employed as therapeutic reagents. Dominant-negative forms of MKK which effectively displace or compete with MKK for substrate binding and/or phosphorylation can be used to decrease protein kinase activity. Dominant-negative forms can be created by mutations within the catalytic domain of the protein kinases, as described above.
In some cases, augmentation of MKK activity is desirable, e.g., induction of apoptosis. The methods of the invention can be used to identify reagents capable of increasing MKK function or activity. Alternatively, increased activity is achieved by over-expression of MKK. When a MKK-mediated disorder is associated with underexpression of MKK, or expression of a mutant MKK polypeptide, a sense polynucleotide sequence (the DNA coding strand) or MKK polypeptide can be introduced into the cell.
The antibodies of the invention can be administered parenterally by injection or by gradual infusion over time. The monoclonal antibodies of the invention can be administered intravenously, intraperitoneally, intramuscularly, subcutaneously, intracavity, or transdermally.
Preparations for parenteral administration of a polypeptide or an antibody of the invention include sterile aqueous or non-aqueous solutions, suspensions, and emulsions. Examples of non-aqueous solvents are propylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, vegetable oils such as olive oil, and injectable organic esters such as ethyl oleate. Aqueous carriers include water, alcoholic/aqueous solutions, emulsions or suspensions, including saline and buffered media. Parenteral vehicles include sodium chloride solution, Ringer's dextrose, dextrose and sodium chloride, lactated Ringer's, or fixed oils. Intravenous vehicles include fluid and nutrient replenishers, electrolyte replenishers (such as those based on Ringer's dextrose) and the like. Preservatives and other additives can also be present, such as, for example, antimicrobials, antioxidants, chelating agents, and inert gases, and the like.
Polynucleotide sequences, including antisense sequences, can be therapeutically administered by various techniques known to those skilled in the art. Such therapy would achieve its therapeutic effect by introduction of the MKK polynucleotide into cells of mammals having a MKK-mediated disorder. Delivery of MKK polynucleotides can be achieved using free polynucleotide or a recombinant expression vector such as a chimeric virus or a colloidal dispersion system. Especially preferred for therapeutic delivery of nucleotide sequences is the use of targeted liposomes.
Targeting of the therapeutic reagent to specific tissues is desirable to increase the efficiency of delivery. The targeting can be achieved by passive mechanisms via the route of administration. Active targeting to specific tissues can also be employed. The use of liposomes, colloidal suspensions, and viral vectors allows targeting to specific tissues by changing the composition of the formulation containing the therapeutic reagent, for example, by including molecules that act as receptors for components of the target tissues. Examples include sugars, glycoplipids, polynucleotides, or proteins. These molecules can be included with the therapeutic reagent. Alternatively, these molecules can be included by indirect methods, for example, by inclusion of a polynucleotide that encodes the molecule, or by use of packaging systems that provide targeting molecules. Those skilled in the art will know, or will ascertain with the use of the teaching provided herein, which molecules and procedures will be useful for delivery of the therapeutic reagent to specific tissues.
It is to be understood that while the invention has been described in conjunction with the detailed description thereof, that the foregoing description is intended to illustrate and not limit the scope of the invention, which is defined by the scope of the appended claims. Other aspects, advantages, and modifications are within the scope of the following claims.
1612030DNAHomo sapiens 1tggctggcaa tggccttgct gacctcgagc cgggcccacg tggggacctt tggagcacag 60cctacgatcc tggtgcaagg ccggtggatg cagaggccag tccatatacc acccaggcct 120gcgaggagcg tggtccccac ccatccagcc catatgtgca agtgcccttg acagagaggc 180tggtcatatc catggtgacc atttatgggc cacaacaggt ccccatctgc gcagtgaacc 240ctgtgctgag caccttgcag acgtgatctt gcttcgtcct gcagcactgt gcggggcagg 300aaaatccaag aggaagaagg atctacggat atcctgcatg tccaagccac ccgcacccaa 360ccccacaccc ccccggaacc tggactcccg gaccttcatc accattggag acagaaactt 420tgaggtggag gctgatgact tggtgaccat ctcagaactg ggccgtggag cctatggggt 480ggtagagaag gtgcggcacg cccagagcgg caccatcatg gccgtgaagc ggatccgggc 540caccgtgaac tcacaggagc agaagcggct gctcatggac ctggacatca acatgcgcac 600ggtcgactgt ttctacactg tcaccttcta cggggcacta ttcagagagg gagacgtgtg 660gatctgcatg gagctcatgg acacatcctt ggacaagttc taccggaagg tgctggataa 720aaacatgaca attccagagg acatccttgg ggagattgct gtgtctatcg tgcgggccct 780ggagcatctg cacagcaagc tgtcggtgat ccacagagat gtgaagccct ccaatgtcct 840tatcaacaag 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cacactttgg cccagggtgg ccacacctct 1740atcccggctt tggtgcgggg tacacaagag gggatgagtt gtgtgaatac cccaagactc 1800ccatgaggga gatgccatga gccgcccaag gccttcccct ggcactggca aacagggcct 1860ctgcggagca cactggctca cccagtcctg cccgccaccg ttatcggtgt cattcacctt 1920tcgtgttttt tttaatttat cctctgttga ttttttcttt tgctttatgg gtttggcttg 1980tttttcttgc atggtttgga gctgatcgct tctcccccac cccctagggg 20302318PRTHomo sapiens 2Met Ser Lys Pro Pro Ala Pro Asn Pro Thr Pro Pro Arg Asn Leu Asp1 5 10 15Ser Arg Thr Phe Ile Thr Ile Gly Asp Arg Met Phe Glu Val Glu Ala20 25 30Asp Asp Leu Val Thr Ile Ser Glu Leu Gly Arg Gly Ala Tyr Gly Val35 40 45Val Glu Lys Val Arg His Ala Gln Ser Gly Thr Ile Met Ala Val Lys50 55 60Arg Ile Arg Ala Thr Val Asn Ser Gln Glu Gln Lys Arg Leu Leu Met65 70 75 80Asp Leu Asp Ile Asn Met Arg Thr Val Asp Cys Phe Tyr Thr Val Thr85 90 95Phe Tyr Gly Ala Leu Phe Arg Glu Gly Asp Val Trp Ile Cys Met Glu100 105 110Leu Met Asp Thr Ser Leu Asp Lys Phe Tyr Arg Lys Val Leu Asp Lys115 120 125Asn Met Thr Ile Pro Glu Asp Ile Leu Gly Glu Ile Ala Val Ser Ile130 135 140Val Arg Ala Leu Glu His Leu His Ser Lys Leu Ser Val Ile His Arg145 150 155 160Asp Val Lys Pro Ser Asn Val Leu Ile Asn Lys Glu Gly His Val Lys165 170 175Met Cys Asp Phe Gly Ile Ser Gly Tyr Leu Val Asp Ser Val Ala Lys180 185 190Thr Met Asp Ala Gly Cys Lys Pro Tyr Met Ala Pro Glu Arg Ile Asn195 200 205Pro Glu Leu Asn Gln Lys Gly Tyr Asn Val Lys Ser Asp Val Trp Ser210 215 220Leu Gly Ile Thr Met Ile Glu Met Ala Ile Leu Arg Phe Pro Tyr Glu225 230 235 240Ser Trp Gly Thr Pro Phe Gln Gln Leu Lys Gln Val Val Glu Glu Pro245 250 255Ser Pro Gln Leu Pro Ala Asp Arg Phe Ser Pro Glu Phe Val Asp Phe260 265 270Thr Ala Gln Cys Leu Arg Lys Asn Pro Ala Glu Arg Met Ser Tyr Leu275 280 285Glu Leu Met Glu His Pro Phe Phe Thr Leu His Lys Thr Lys Lys Thr290 295 300Asp Ile Ala Ala Phe Val Lys Lys Ile Leu Gly Glu Asp Ser305 310 31531602DNAHomo sapiens 3tagctgcagc acagccttcc ctaacgttgc aactggggga aaaatcactt tccagtctgt 60tttgcaaggt gtgcatttcc atcttgattc cctgaaagtc catctgctgc atcggtcaag 120agaaactcca cttgcatgaa gattgcacgc ctgcagcttg catctttgtt gcaaaactag 180ctacagaaga gaagcaaggc aaagtctttt gtgctcccct cccccatcaa aggaaagggg 240aaaatgtctc agtcgaaagg caagaagcga aaccctggcc ttaaaattcc aaaagaagca 300tttgaacaac ctcagaccag ttccacacca cctagagatt tagactccaa ggcttgcatt 360tctattggaa atcagaactt tgaggtgaag gcagatgacc tggagcctat aatggaactg 420ggacgaggtg cgtacggggt ggtggagaag atgcggcacg tgcccagcgg gcagatcatg 480gcagtgaagc ggatccgagc cacagtaaat agccaggaac agaaacggct actgatggat 540ttggatattt ccatgaggac ggtggactgt ccattcactg tcacctttta tggcgcactg 600tttcgggagg gtgatgtgtg gatctgcatg gagctcatgg atacatcact agataaattc 660tacaaacaag ttattgataa aggccagaca attccagagg acatcttagg gaaaatagca 720gtttctattg taaaagcatt agaacattta catagtaagc tgtctgtcat tcacagagac 780gtcaagcctt ctaatgtact catcaatgct ctcggtcaag tgaagatgtg cgattttgga 840atcagtggct acttggtgga ctctgttgct aaaacaattg atgcaggttg caaaccatac 900atggcccctg aaagaataaa cccagagctc aaccagaagg gatacagtgt gaagtctgac 960atttggagtc tgggcatcac gatgattgag ttggccatcc ttcgatttcc ctatgattca 1020tggggaactc catttcagca gctcaaacag gtggtagagg agccatcgcc acaactccca 1080gcagacaagt tctctgcaga gtttgttgac tttacctcac agtgcttaaa gaagaattcc 1140aaagaacggc ctacataccc agagctaatg caacatccat ttttcaccct acatgaatcc 1200aaaggaacag atgtggcatc ttttgtaaaa ctgattcttg gagactaaaa agcagtggac 1260ttaatcggtt gaccctactg tggattggtg ggtttcgggg tgaagcaagt tcactacagc 1320atcaatagaa agtcatcttt gagataattt aaccctgcct ctcagagggt tttctctccc 1380aattttcttt ttactccccc tcttaagggg gccttggaat ctatagtata gaatgaactg 1440tctagatgga tgaattatga taaaggctta ggacttcaaa aggtgattaa atatttaatg 1500atgtgtcata tgagtcctca aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa 1560aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aa 16024334PRTHomo sapiens 4Met Ser Gln Ser Lys Gly Lys Lys Arg Asn Pro Gly Leu Lys Ile Pro1 5 10 15Lys Glu Ala Phe Glu Gln Pro Gln Thr Ser Ser Thr Pro Pro Arg Asp20 25 30Leu Asp Ser Lys Ala Cys Ile Ser Ile Gly Asn Gln Asn Phe Glu Val35 40 45Lys Ala Asp Asp Leu Glu Pro Ile Met Glu Leu Gly Arg Gly Ala Tyr50 55 60Gly Val Val Glu Lys Met Arg His Val Pro Ser Gly Gln Ile Met Ala65 70 75 80Val Lys Arg Ile Arg Ala Thr Val Asn Ser Gln Glu Gln Lys Arg Leu85 90 95Leu Met Asp Leu Asp Ile Ser Met Arg Thr Val Asp Cys Pro Phe Thr100 105 110Val Thr Phe Tyr Gly Ala Leu Phe Arg Glu Gly Asp Val Trp Ile Cys115 120 125Met Glu Leu Met Asp Thr Ser Leu Asp Lys Phe Tyr Lys Gln Val Ile130 135 140Asp Lys Gly Gln Thr Ile Pro Glu Asp Ile Leu Gly Lys Ile Ala Val145 150 155 160Ser Ile Val Lys Ala Leu Glu His Leu His Ser Lys Leu Ser Val Ile165 170 175His Arg Asp Val Lys Pro Ser Asn Val Leu Ile Asn Ala Leu Gly Gln180 185 190Val Lys Met Cys Asp Phe Gly Ile Ser Gly Tyr Leu Val Asp Ser Val195 200 205Ala Lys Thr Ile Asp Ala Gly Cys Lys Pro Tyr Met Ala Pro Glu Arg210 215 220Ile Asn Pro Glu Leu Asn Gln Lys Gly Tyr Ser Val Lys Ser Asp Ile225 230 235 240Trp Ser Leu Gly Ile Thr Met Ile Glu Leu Ala Ile Leu Arg Phe Pro245 250 255Tyr Asp Ser Trp Gly Thr Pro Phe Gln Gln Leu Lys Gln Val Val Glu260 265 270Glu Pro Ser Pro Gln Leu Pro Ala Asp Lys Phe Ser Ala Glu Phe Val275 280 285Asp Phe Thr Ser Gln Cys Leu Lys Lys Asn Ser Lys Glu Arg Pro Thr290 295 300Tyr Pro Glu Leu Met Gln His Pro Phe Phe Thr Leu His Glu Ser Lys305 310 315 320Gly Thr Asp Val Ala Ser Phe Val Lys Leu Ile Leu Gly Asp325 33053497DNAHomo sapiens 5ctagggtccc cggcgccagg ccacccggcc gtcagcagca tgcagggtaa acgcaaagca 60ctgaagttga attttgcaaa tccacctttc aaatctacag caaggtttac tctgaatccc 120aatcctacag gagttcaaaa cccacacata gagagactga gaacacacag cattgagtca 180tcaggaaaac tgaagatctc ccctgaacaa cactgggatt tcactgcaga ggacttgaaa 240gaccttggag aaattggacg aggagcttat ggttctgtca acaaaatggt ccacaaacca 300agtgggcaaa taatggcagt taaaagaatt cggtcaacag tggatgaaaa agaacaaaaa 360caacttctta tggatttgga tgtagtaatg cggagtagtg attgcccata cattgttcag 420ttttatggtg cactcttcag agagggtgac tgttggatct gtatggaact catgtctacc 480tcgtttgata agttttacaa atatgtatat agtgtattag atgatgttat tccagaagaa 540attttaggca aaatcacttt agcaactgtg aaagcactaa accacttaaa agaaaacttg 600aaaattattc acagagatat caaaccttcc aatattcttc tggacagaag tggaaatatt 660aagctctgtg acttcggcat cagtggacag cttgtggact ctattgccaa gacaagagat 720gctggctgta ggccatacat ggcacctgaa agaatagacc caagcgcatc acgacaagga 780tatgatgtcc gctctgatgt ctggagtttg gggatcacat tgtatgagtt ggccacaggc 840cgatttcctt atccaaagtg gaatagtgta tttgatcaac taacacaagt cgtgaaagga 900gatcctccgc agctgagtaa ttctgaggaa agggaattct ccccgagttt catcaacttt 960gtcaacttgt gccttacgaa ggatgaatcc aaaaggccaa agtataaaga gcttctgaaa 1020catcccttta ttttgatgta tgaagaacgt gccgttgagg tcgcatgcta tgtttgtaaa 1080atcctggatc aaatgccagc tactcccagc tctcccatgt atgtcgattg atatcgtgct 1140acatcagact ctagaaaaaa gggctgagag gaagcaagac gtaaagaatt ttcatcccgt 1200atcacagtgt ttttattgct cgcccagaca ccatgtgcaa taagattggt gttcgtttcc 1260atcatgtctg tatactcctg tcacctagaa cgtgcatcct tgtaatacct gattgatcac 1320acagtgttag tgctggtcag agagacctca tcctgctctt ttgtgatgaa catattcatg 1380aaatgtggaa gtcagtacga tcaagttgtt gactgtgatt agatcacatc ttaaattcat 1440ttctagactc aaaacctgga gatgcagcta ctggaatggt gttttgtcag acttccaaat 1500cctggaagga cacagtgatg aatgtactat atctgaacat agaaactcgg gcttgagtga 1560gaagagcttg cacagccaac gagacacatt gccttctgga gctgggagac aaaggaggaa 1620tttactttct tcaccaagtg caatagatta ctgatgtgat attctgttgc tttacagtta 1680cagttgatgt ttggggatcg atgtgctcag ccaaatttcc tgtttgaaat atcatgttaa 1740attagaatga atttatcttt accaaaaacc atgttgcgtt caaagaggtg aacattaaaa 1800tatagagaca ggacagaatg tgttcttttc tcctctacca gtcctatttt tcaatgggaa 1860gactcaggag tctgccactt gtcaaagaag gtgctgatcc taagaatttt tcattctcag 1920aattcggtgt gctgccaact tgatgttcca cctgccacaa accaccagga ctgaaagaag 1980aaaacagtac agaaggcaaa gtttacagat gtttttaatt ctagtatttt atctggaaca 2040acttgtagca gctatatatt tccccttggt cccaagcctg atactttagc catcataact 2100cactaacagg gagaagtagc tagtagcaat gtgccttgat tgattagata aagatttcta 2160gtaggcagca aaagaccaaa tctcagttgt ttgcttcttg ccatcactgg tccaggtctt 2220cagtttccga atctctttcc cttcccctgt ggtctattgt cgctatgtga cttgcgctta 2280atccaatatt ttgccttttt tctatatcaa aaaaccttta cagttagcag ggatgttcct 2340taccgaggat ttttaacccc caatctctca taatcgctag tgtttaaaag gctaagaata 2400gtggggccca accgatgtgg taggtgataa agaggcatct tttctagaga cacattggac 2460cagatgagga tccgaaacgg cagcctttac gttcatcacc tgctagaacc tctcgtagtc 2520catcaccatt tcttggcatt ggaattctac tggaaaaaaa tacaaaaagc aaaacaaaac 2580cctcagcact gttacaagag gccatttaag tatcttgtgc ttcttcactt acccattagc 2640caggttctca ttaggttttg cttgggcctc cctggcactg aaccttaggc tttgtatgac 2700agtgaagcag cactgtgagt ggttcaagca cactggaata taaaacagtc atggcctgag 2760atgcaggtga tgccattaca gaaccaaatc gtggcacgta ttgctgtgtc tcctctcaga 2820gtgacagtca taaatactgt caaacaataa agggagaatg gtgctgttta aagtcacatc 2880cctgtaaatt gcagaattca aaagtgatta tctctttgat ctacttgcct catttcccta 2940tcttctcccc cacggtatcc taaactttag acttcccact gttctgaaag gagacattgc 3000tctatgtctg ccttcgacca cagcaagcca tcatcctcca ttgctcccgg ggactcaaga 3060ggaatctgtt tctctgctgt caacttccca tctggctcag catagggtca ctttgccatt 3120atgcaaatgg agataaaagc aattctggct gtccaggagc taatctgacc gttctattgt 3180gtggatgacc acataagaag gcaattttag tgtattaatc atagattatt ataaactata 3240aacttaaggg caaggagttt attacaatgt atctttatta aaacaaaagg gtgtatagtg 3300ttcacaaact gtgaaaatag tgtaagaact gtacattgtg agctctggtt atttttctct 3360tgtaccatag aaaaatgtat aaaaattatc aaaaagctaa tgtgcaggga tattgcctta 3420tttgtctgta aaaaatggag ctcagtaaca taactgcttc ttggagcttt ggaatatttt 3480atcctgtatt cttgttt 34976363PRTHomo sapiens 6Met Gln Gly Lys Arg Lys Ala Leu Lys Leu Asn Phe Ala Asn Pro Pro1 5 10 15Phe Lys Ser Thr Ala Arg Phe Thr Leu Asn Pro Asn Pro Thr Gly Val20 25 30Gln Asn Pro His Ile Glu Arg Leu Arg Thr His Ser Ile Glu Ser Ser35 40 45Gly Lys Leu Lys Ile Ser Pro Glu Gln His Trp Asp Phe Thr Ala Glu50 55 60Asp Leu Lys Asp Leu Gly Glu Ile Gly Arg Gly Ala Tyr Gly Ser Val65 70 75 80Asn Lys Met Val His Lys Pro Ser Gly Gln Ile Met Ala Val Lys Arg85 90 95Ile Arg Ser Thr Val Asp Glu Lys Glu Gln Lys Gln Leu Leu Met Asp100 105 110Leu Asp Val Val Met Arg Ser Ser Asp Cys Pro Tyr Ile Val Gln Phe115 120 125Tyr Gly Ala Leu Phe Arg Glu Gly Asp Cys Trp Ile Cys Met Glu Leu130 135 140Met Ser Thr Ser Phe Asp Lys Phe Tyr Lys Tyr Val Tyr Ser Val Leu145 150 155 160Asp Asp Val Ile Pro Glu Glu Ile Leu Gly Lys Ile Thr Leu Ala Thr165 170 175Val Lys Ala Leu Asn His Leu Lys Glu Asn Leu Lys Ile Ile His Arg180 185 190Asp Ile Lys Pro Ser Asn Ile Leu Leu Asp Arg Ser Gly Asn Ile Lys195 200 205Leu Cys Asp Phe Gly Ile Ser Gly Gln Leu Val Asp Ser Ile Ala Lys210 215 220Thr Arg Asp Ala Gly Cys Arg Pro Tyr Met Ala Pro Glu Arg Ile Asp225 230 235 240Pro Ser Ala Ser Arg Gln Gly Tyr Asp Val Arg Ser Asp Val Trp Ser245 250 255Leu Gly Ile Thr Leu Tyr Glu Leu Ala Thr Gly Arg Phe Pro Tyr Pro260 265 270Lys Trp Asn Ser Val Phe Asp Gln Leu Thr Gln Val Val Lys Gly Asp275 280 285Pro Pro Gln Leu Ser Asn Ser Glu Glu Arg Glu Phe Ser Pro Ser Phe290 295 300Ile Asn Phe Val Asn Leu Cys Leu Thr Lys Asp Glu Ser Lys Arg Pro305 310 315 320Lys Tyr Lys Glu Leu Leu Lys His Pro Phe Ile Leu Met Tyr Glu Glu325 330 335Arg Ala Val Glu Val Ala Cys Tyr Val Cys Lys Ile Leu Asp Gln Met340 345 350Pro Ala Thr Pro Ser Ser Pro Met Tyr Val Asp355 36073553DNAHomo sapiens 7caacaatggc ggctccgagc ccgagcggtg gcggcggcag cggcaccccc ggccccgtag 60ggtccccggc gccaggccac ccggccgtca gcagcatgca gggtaaacgc aaagcactga 120agttgaattt tgcaaatcca cctttcaaat ctacagcaag gtttactctg aatcccaatc 180ctacaggagt tcaaaaccca cacatagaga gactgagaac acacagcatt gagtcatcag 240gaaaactgaa gatctcccct gaacaacact gggatttcac tgcagaggac ttgaaagacc 300ttggagaaat tggacgagga gcttatggtt ctgtcaacaa aatggtccac aaaccaagtg 360ggcaaataat ggcagttaaa agaattcggt caacagtgga tgaaaaagaa caaaaacaac 420ttcttatgga tttggatgta gtaatgcgga gtagtgattg cccatacatt gttcagtttt 480atggtgcact cttcagagag ggtgactgtt ggatctgtat ggaactcatg tctacctcgt 540ttgataagtt ttacaaatat gtatatagtg tattagatga tgttattcca gaagaaattt 600taggcaaaat cactttagca actgtgaaag cactaaacca cttaaaagaa aacttgaaaa 660ttattcacag agatatcaaa ccttccaata ttcttctgga cagaagtgga aatattaagc 720tctgtgactt cggcatcagt ggacagcttg tggactctat tgccaagaca agagatgctg 780gctgtaggcc atacatggca cctgaaagaa tagacccaag cgcatcacga caaggatatg 840atgtccgctc tgatgtctgg agtttgggga tcacattgta tgagttggcc acaggccgat 900ttccttatcc aaagtggaat agtgtatttg atcaactaac acaagtcgtg aaaggagatc 960ctccgcagct gagtaattct gaggaaaggg aattctcccc gagtttcatc aactttgtca 1020acttgtgcct tacgaaggat gaatccaaaa ggccaaagta taaagagctt ctgaaacatc 1080cctttatttt gatgtatgaa gaacgtgccg ttgaggtcgc atgctatgtt tgtaaaatcc 1140tggatcaaat gccagctact cccagctctc ccatgtatgt cgattgatat cgtgctacat 1200cagactctag aaaaaagggc tgagaggaag caagacgtaa agaattttca tcccgtatca 1260cagtgttttt attgctcgcc cagacaccat gtgcaataag attggtgttc gtttccatca 1320tgtctgtata ctcctgtcac ctagaacgtg catccttgta atacctgatt gatcacacag 1380tgttagtgct ggtcagagag acctcatcct gctcttttgt gatgaacata ttcatgaaat 1440gtggaagtca gtacgatcaa gttgttgact gtgattagat cacatcttaa attcatttct 1500agactcaaaa cctggagatg cagctactgg aatggtgttt tgtcagactt ccaaatcctg 1560gaaggacaca gtgatgaatg tactatatct gaacatagaa actcgggctt gagtgagaag 1620agcttgcaca gccaacgaga cacattgcct tctggagctg ggagacaaag gaggaattta 1680ctttcttcac caagtgcaat agattactga tgtgatattc tgttgcttta cagttacagt 1740tgatgtttgg ggatcgatgt gctcagccaa atttcctgtt tgaaatatca tgttaaatta 1800gaatgaattt atctttacca aaaaccatgt tgcgttcaaa gaggtgaaca ttaaaatata 1860gagacaggac agaatgtgtt cttttctcct ctaccagtcc tatttttcaa tgggaagact 1920caggagtctg ccacttgtca aagaaggtgc tgatcctaag aatttttcat tctcagaatt 1980cggtgtgctg ccaacttgat
gttccacctg ccacaaacca ccaggactga aagaagaaaa 2040cagtacagaa ggcaaagttt acagatgttt ttaattctag tattttatct ggaacaactt 2100gtagcagcta tatatttccc cttggtccca agcctgatac tttagccatc ataactcact 2160aacagggaga agtagctagt agcaatgtgc cttgattgat tagataaaga tttctagtag 2220gcagcaaaag accaaatctc agttgtttgc ttcttgccat cactggtcca ggtcttcagt 2280ttccgaatct ctttcccttc ccctgtggtc tattgtcgct atgtgacttg cgcttaatcc 2340aatattttgc cttttttcta tatcaaaaaa cctttacagt tagcagggat gttccttacc 2400gaggattttt aacccccaat ctctcataat cgctagtgtt taaaaggcta agaatagtgg 2460ggcccaaccg atgtggtagg tgataaagag gcatcttttc tagagacaca ttggaccaga 2520tgaggatccg aaacggcagc ctttacgttc atcacctgct agaacctctc gtagtccatc 2580accatttctt ggcattggaa ttctactgga aaaaaataca aaaagcaaaa caaaaccctc 2640agcactgtta caagaggcca tttaagtatc ttgtgcttct tcacttaccc attagccagg 2700ttctcattag gttttgcttg ggcctccctg gcactgaacc ttaggctttg tatgacagtg 2760aagcagcact gtgagtggtt caagcacact ggaatataaa acagtcatgg cctgagatgc 2820aggtgatgcc attacagaac caaatcgtgg cacgtattgc tgtgtctcct ctcagagtga 2880cagtcataaa tactgtcaaa caataaaggg agaatggtgc tgtttaaagt cacatccctg 2940taaattgcag aattcaaaag tgattatctc tttgatctac ttgcctcatt tccctatctt 3000ctcccccacg gtatcctaaa ctttagactt cccactgttc tgaaaggaga cattgctcta 3060tgtctgcctt cgaccacagc aagccatcat cctccattgc tcccggggac tcaagaggaa 3120tctgtttctc tgctgtcaac ttcccatctg gctcagcata gggtcacttt gccattatgc 3180aaatggagat aaaagcaatt ctggctgtcc aggagctaat ctgaccgttc tattgtgtgg 3240atgaccacat aagaaggcaa ttttagtgta ttaatcatag attattataa actataaact 3300taagggcaag gagtttatta caatgtatct ttattaaaac aaaagggtgt atagtgttca 3360caaactgtga aaatagtgta agaactgtac attgtgagct ctggttattt ttctcttgta 3420ccatagaaaa atgtataaaa attatcaaaa agctaatgtg cagggatatt gccttatttg 3480tctgtaaaaa atggagctca gtaacataac tgcttcttgg agctttggaa tattttatcc 3540tgtattcttg ttt 35538393PRTHomo sapiens 8Met Ala Ala Pro Ser Pro Ser Gly Gly Gly Gly Ser Gly Thr Pro Gly1 5 10 15Pro Val Gly Ser Pro Ala Pro Gly His Pro Ala Val Ser Ser Met Gln20 25 30Gly Lys Arg Lys Ala Leu Lys Leu Asn Phe Ala Asn Pro Pro Phe Lys35 40 45Ser Thr Ala Arg Phe Thr Leu Asn Pro Asn Pro Thr Gly Val Gln Asn50 55 60Pro His Ile Glu Arg Leu Arg Thr His Ser Ile Glu Ser Ser Gly Lys65 70 75 80Leu Lys Ile Ser Pro Glu Gln His Trp Asp Phe Thr Ala Glu Asp Leu85 90 95Lys Asp Leu Gly Glu Ile Gly Arg Gly Ala Tyr Gly Ser Val Asn Lys100 105 110Met Val His Lys Pro Ser Gly Gln Ile Met Ala Val Lys Arg Ile Arg115 120 125Ser Thr Val Asp Glu Lys Glu Gln Lys Gln Leu Leu Met Asp Leu Asp130 135 140Val Val Met Arg Ser Ser Asp Cys Pro Tyr Ile Val Gln Phe Tyr Gly145 150 155 160Ala Leu Phe Arg Glu Gly Asp Cys Trp Ile Cys Met Glu Leu Met Ser165 170 175Thr Ser Phe Asp Lys Phe Tyr Lys Tyr Val Tyr Ser Val Leu Asp Asp180 185 190Val Ile Pro Glu Glu Ile Leu Gly Lys Ile Thr Leu Ala Thr Val Lys195 200 205Ala Leu Met His Leu Lys Glu Asn Leu Lys Ile Ile His Arg Asp Ile210 215 220Lys Pro Ser Asn Ile Leu Leu Asp Arg Ser Gly Met Ile Lys Leu Cys225 230 235 240Asp Phe Gly Ile Ser Gly Gln Leu Val Asp Ser Ile Ala Lys Thr Arg245 250 255Asp Ala Gly Cys Arg Pro Tyr Met Ala Pro Glu Arg Ile Asp Phe Ser260 265 270Ala Ser Arg Gln Gly Tyr Asp Val Arg Ser Asp Val Trp Ser Leu Gly275 280 285Ile Thr Leu Tyr Glu Leu Ala Thr Gly Arg Phe Pro Tyr Pro Lys Trp290 295 300Asn Ser Val Phe Asp Gln Leu Thr Gln Val Val Lys Gly Asp Pro Pro305 310 315 320Gln Leu Ser Asn Ser Glu Glu Arg Glu Phe Ser Pro Ser Phe Ile Asn325 330 335Phe Val Asn Leu Cys Leu Thr Lys Asp Glu Ser Lys Arg Pro Lys Tyr340 345 350Lys Glu Leu Leu Lys His Pro Phe Ile Leu Met Tyr Glu Glu Arg Ala355 360 365Val Glu Val Ala Cys Tyr Val Cys Lys Ile Leu Asp Gln Met Pro Ala370 375 380Thr Pro Ser Ser Pro Met Tyr Val Asp385 39093576DNAHomo sapiens 9ctcccaacaa tggcggctcc gagcccgagc ggcggcggcg gctccggggg cggcagcggc 60agcggcaccc ccggccccgt agggtccccg gcgccaggcc acccggccgt cagcagcatg 120cagggtaaac gcaaagcact gaagttgaat tttgcaaatc cacctttcaa atctacagca 180aggtttactc tgaatcccaa tcctacagga gttcaaaacc cacacataga gagactgaga 240acacacagca ttgagtcatc aggaaaactg aagatctccc ctgaacaaca ctgggatttc 300actgcagagg acttgaaaga ccttggagaa attggacgag gagcttatgg ttctgtcaac 360aaaatggtcc acaaaccaag tgggcaaata atggcagtta aaagaattcg gtcaacagtg 420gatgaaaaag aacaaaaaca acttcttatg gatttggatg tagtaatgcg gagtagtgat 480tgcccataca ttgttcagtt ttatggtgca ctcttcagag agggtgactg ttggatctgt 540atggaactca tgtctacctc gtttgataag ttttacaaat atgtatatag tgtattagat 600gatgttattc cagaagaaat tttaggcaaa atcactttag caactgtgaa agcactaaac 660cacttaaaag aaaacttgaa aattattcac agagatatca aaccttccaa tattcttctg 720gacagaagtg gaaatattaa gctctgtgac ttcggcatca gtggacagct tgtggactct 780attgccaaga caagagatgc tggctgtagg ccatacatgg cacctgaaag aatagaccca 840agcgcatcac gacaaggata tgatgtccgc tctgatgtct ggagtttggg gatcacattg 900tatgagttgg ccacaggccg atttccttat ccaaagtgga atagtgtatt tgatcaacta 960acacaagtcg tgaaaggaga tcctccgcag ctgagtaatt ctgaggaaag ggaattctcc 1020ccgagtttca tcaactttgt caacttgtgc cttacgaagg atgaatccaa aaggccaaag 1080tataaagagc ttctgaaaca tccctttatt ttgatgtatg aagaacgtgc cgttgaggtc 1140gcatgctatg tttgtaaaat cctggatcaa atgccagcta ctcccagctc tcccatgtat 1200gtcgattgat atcgctgcta catcagactc tagaaaaaag ggctgagagg aagcaagacg 1260taaagaattt tcatcccgta tcacagtgtt tttattgctc gcccagacac catgtgcaat 1320aagattggtg ttcgtttcca tcatgtctgt atactcctgt cacctagaac gtgcatcctt 1380gtaatacctg attgatcaca cagtgttagt gctggtcaga gagacctcat cctgctcttt 1440tgtgatgaac atattcatga aatgtggaag tcagtacgat caagttgttg actgtgatta 1500gatcacatct taaattcatt tctagactca aaacctggag atgcagctac tggaatggtg 1560ttttgtcaga cttccaaatc ctggaaggac acagtgatga atgtactata tctgaacata 1620gaaactcggg cttgagtgag aagagcttgc acagccaacg agacacattg ccttctggag 1680ctgggagaca aaggaggaat ttactttctt caccaagtgc aatagattac tgatgtgata 1740ttctgttgct ttacagttac agttgatgtt tggggatcga tgtgctcagc caaatttcct 1800gtttgaaata tcatgttaaa ttagaatgaa tttatcttta ccaaaaacca tgttgcgttc 1860aaagaggtga acattaaaat atagagacag gacagaatgt gttcttttct cctctaccag 1920tcctattttt caatgggaag actcaggagt ctgccacttg tcaaagaagg tgctgatcct 1980aagaattttt cattctcaga attcggtgtg ctgccaactt gatgttccac ctgccacaaa 2040ccaccaggac tgaaagaaga aaacagtaca gaaggcaaag tttacagatg tttttaattc 2100tagtatttta tctggaacaa cttgtagcag ctatatattt ccccttggtc ccaagcctga 2160tactttagcc atcataactc actaacaggg agaagtagct agtagcaatg tgccttgatt 2220gattagataa agatttctag taggcagcaa aagaccaaat ctcagttgtt tgcttcttgc 2280catcactggt ccaggtcttc agtttccgaa tctctttccc ttcccctgtg gtctattgtc 2340gctatgtgac ttgcgcttaa tccaatattt tgcctttttt ctatatcaaa aaacctttac 2400agttagcagg gatgttcctt accgaggatt tttaaccccc aatctctcat aatcgctagt 2460gtttaaaagg ctaagaatag tggggcccaa ccgatgtggt aggtgataaa gaggcatctt 2520ttctagagac acattggacc agatgaggat ccgaaacggc agcctttacg ttcatcacct 2580gctagaacct ctcgtagtcc atcaccattt cttggcattg gaattctact ggaaaaaaat 2640acaaaaagca aaacaaaacc ctcagcactg ttacaagagg ccatttaagt atcttgtgct 2700tcttcactta cccattagcc aggttctcat taggttttgc ttgggcctcc ctggcactga 2760accttaggct ttgtatgaca gtgaagcagc actgtgagtg gttcaagcac actggaatat 2820aaaacagtca tggcctgaga tgcaggtgat gccattacag aaccaaatcg tggcacgtat 2880tgctgtgtct cctctcagag tgacagtcat aaatactgtc aaacaataaa gggagaatgg 2940tgctgtttaa agtcacatcc ctgtaaattg cagaattcaa aagtgattat ctctttgatc 3000tacttgcctc atttccctat cttctccccc acggtatcct aaactttaga cttcccactg 3060ttctgaaagg agacattgct ctatgtctgc cttcgaccac agcaagccat catcctccat 3120tgctcccggg gactcaagag gaatctgttt ctctgctgtc aacttcccat ctggctcagc 3180atagggtcac tttgccatta tgcaaatgga gataaaagca attctggctg tccaggagct 3240aatctgaccg ttctattgtg tggatgacca cataagaagg caattttagt gtattaatca 3300tagattatta taaactataa acttaagggc aaggagttta ttacaatgta tctttattaa 3360aacaaaaggg tgtatagtgt tcacaaactg tgaaaatagt gtaagaactg tacattgtga 3420gctctggtta tttttctctt gtaccataga aaaatgtata aaaattatca aaaagctaat 3480gtgcagggat attgccttat ttgtctgtaa aaaatggagc tcagtaacat aactgcttct 3540tggagctttg gaatatttta tcctgtattc ttgttt 357610399PRTHomo sapiens 10Met Ala Ala Pro Ser Pro Ser Gly Gly Gly Gly Ser Gly Gly Gly Ser1 5 10 15Gly Ser Gly Thr Pro Gly Pro Val Gly Ser Pro Ala Pro Gly His Pro20 25 30Ala Val Ser Ser Met Gln Gly Lys Arg Lys Ala Leu Lys Leu Asn Phe35 40 45Ala Asn Pro Pro Phe Lys Ser Thr Ala Arg Phe Thr Leu Asn Pro Asn50 55 60Pro Thr Gly Val Gln Asn Pro His Ile Glu Arg Leu Arg Thr His Ser65 70 75 80Ile Glu Ser Ser Gly Lys Leu Lys Ile Ser Pro Glu Gln His Trp Asp85 90 95Phe Thr Ala Glu Asp Leu Lys Asp Leu Gly Glu Ile Gly Arg Gly Ala100 105 110Tyr Gly Ser Val Asn Lys Met Val His Lys Pro Ser Gly Gln Ile Met115 120 125Ala Val Lys Arg Ile Arg Ser Thr Val Asp Glu Lys Glu Gln Lys Gln130 135 140Leu Leu Met Asp Leu Asp Val Val Met Arg Ser Ser Asp Cys Pro Tyr145 150 155 160Ile Val Gln Phe Tyr Gly Ala Leu Phe Arg Glu Gly Asp Cys Trp Ile165 170 175Cys Met Glu Leu Met Ser Thr Ser Phe Asp Lys Phe Tyr Lys Tyr Val180 185 190Tyr Ser Val Leu Asp Asp Val Ile Pro Glu Glu Ile Leu Gly Lys Ile195 200 205Thr Leu Ala Thr Val Lys Ala Leu Asn His Leu Lys Glu Asn Leu Lys210 215 220Ile Ile His Arg Asp Ile Lys Pro Ser Asn Ile Leu Leu Asp Arg Ser225 230 235 240Gly Asn Ile Lys Leu Cys Asp Phe Gly Ile Ser Gly Gln Leu Val Asp245 250 255Ser Ile Ala Lys Thr Arg Asp Ala Gly Cys Arg Pro Tyr Met Ala Pro260 265 270Glu Arg Ile Asp Pro Ser Ala Ser Arg Gln Gly Tyr Asp Val Arg Ser275 280 285Asp Val Trp Ser Leu Gly Ile Thr Leu Tyr Glu Leu Ala Thr Gly Arg290 295 300Phe Pro Tyr Pro Lys Trp Asn Ser Val Phe Asp Gln Leu Thr Gln Val305 310 315 320Val Lys Gly Asp Pro Pro Gln Leu Ser Asn Ser Glu Glu Arg Glu Phe325 330 335Ser Pro Ser Phe Ile Asn Phe Val Asn Leu Cys Leu Thr Lys Asp Glu340 345 350Ser Lys Arg Pro Lys Tyr Lys Glu Leu Leu Lys His Pro Phe Ile Leu355 360 365Met Tyr Glu Glu Arg Ala Val Glu Val Ala Cys Tyr Val Cys Lys Ile370 375 380Leu Asp Gln Met Pro Ala Thr Pro Ser Ser Pro Met Tyr Val Asp385 390 39511393PRTHomo sapiens 11Met Pro Lys Lys Lys Pro Thr Pro Ile Gln Leu Asn Pro Ala Pro Asp1 5 10 15Gly Ser Ala Val Asn Gly Thr Ser Ser Ala Glu Thr Asn Leu Glu Ala20 25 30Leu Gln Lys Lys Leu Glu Glu Leu Glu Leu Asp Glu Gln Gln Arg Lys35 40 45Arg Leu Glu Ala Phe Leu Thr Gln Lys Gln Lys Val Gly Glu Leu Lys50 55 60Asp Asp Asp Phe Glu Lys Ile Ser Glu Leu Gly Ala Gly Asn Gly Gly65 70 75 80Val Val Phe Lys Val Ser His Lys Pro Ser Gly Leu Val Met Ala Arg85 90 95Lys Leu Ile His Leu Glu Ile Lys Pro Ala Ile Arg Asn Gln Ile Ile100 105 110Arg Glu Leu Gln Val Leu His Glu Cys Asn Ser Pro Tyr Ile Val Gly115 120 125Phe Tyr Gly Ala Phe Tyr Ser Asp Gly Glu Ile Ser Ile Cys Met Glu130 135 140His Met Asp Gly Gly Ser Leu Asp Gln Val Leu Lys Lys Ala Gly Arg145 150 155 160Ile Pro Glu Gln Ile Leu Gly Lys Val Ser Ile Ala Val Ile Lys Gly165 170 175Leu Thr Tyr Leu Arg Glu Lys His Lys Ile Met His Arg Asp Val Lys180 185 190Pro Ser Asn Ile Leu Val Asn Ser Arg Gly Glu Ile Lys Leu Cys Asp195 200 205Phe Gly Val Ser Gly Gln Leu Ile Asp Ser Met Ala Asn Ser Phe Val210 215 220Gly Thr Arg Ser Tyr Met Ser Pro Glu Arg Leu Gln Gly Thr His Tyr225 230 235 240Ser Val Gln Ser Asp Ile Trp Ser Met Gly Leu Ser Leu Val Glu Met245 250 255Ala Val Gly Arg Tyr Pro Ile Pro Pro Pro Asp Ala Lys Glu Leu Glu260 265 270Leu Met Phe Gly Cys Gln Val Glu Gly Asp Ala Ala Glu Thr Pro Pro275 280 285Arg Pro Arg Thr Pro Gly Arg Pro Leu Ser Ser Tyr Gly Met Asp Ser290 295 300Arg Pro Pro Met Ala Ile Phe Glu Leu Leu Asp Tyr Ile Val Asn Glu305 310 315 320Pro Pro Pro Lys Leu Pro Ser Gly Val Phe Ser Leu Glu Phe Gln Asp325 330 335Phe Val Asn Lys Cys Leu Ile Lys Asn Pro Ala Glu Arg Ala Asp Leu340 345 350Lys Gln Leu Met Val His Ala Phe Ile Lys Arg Ser Asp Ala Glu Glu355 360 365Val Asp Phe Ala Gly Trp Leu Cys Ser Thr Ile Gly Leu Asn Gln Pro370 375 380Ser Thr Pro Thr His Ala Ala Gly Val385 39012400PRTHomo sapiens 12Met Leu Ala Arg Arg Lys Pro Val Leu Pro Ala Leu Thr Ile Asn Pro1 5 10 15Thr Ile Ala Glu Gly Pro Ser Pro Thr Ser Glu Gly Ala Ser Glu Ala20 25 30Asn Leu Val Asp Leu Gln Lys Lys Leu Glu Glu Leu Glu Leu Asp Glu35 40 45Gln Gln Lys Lys Arg Leu Glu Ala Phe Leu Thr Gln Lys Ala Lys Val50 55 60Ser Glu Leu Lys Asp Asp Asp Phe Glu Arg Ile Ser Glu Leu Gly Ala65 70 75 80Gly Asn Gly Gly Val Val Thr Lys Val Gln His Arg Pro Ser Gly Leu85 90 95Ile Met Ala Arg Lys Leu Ile His Leu Glu Ile Lys Pro Ala Ile Arg100 105 110Asn Gln Ile Ile Arg Glu Leu Gln Val Leu His Glu Cys Asn Ser Pro115 120 125Tyr Ile Val Gly Phe Tyr Gly Ala Phe Tyr Ser Asp Gly Glu Ile Ser130 135 140Ile Cys Met Glu His Met Asp Gly Gly Ser Leu Asp Gln Val Leu Lys145 150 155 160Glu Ala Lys Arg Ile Pro Glu Glu Ile Leu Gly Lys Val Ser Ile Ala165 170 175Val Leu Arg Gly Leu Ala Tyr Leu Arg Glu Lys His Gln Ile Met His180 185 190Arg Asp Val Lys Pro Ser Asn Ile Leu Val Asn Ser Arg Gly Glu Ile195 200 205Lys Leu Cys Asp Phe Gly Val Ser Gly Gln Leu Ile Asp Ser Met Ala210 215 220Asn Ser Phe Val Gly Thr Arg Ser Tyr Met Ala Pro Glu Arg Leu Gln225 230 235 240Gly Thr His Tyr Ser Val Gln Ser Asp Ile Trp Ser Met Gly Leu Ser245 250 255Leu Val Glu Leu Ala Val Gly Arg Tyr Pro Ile Pro Pro Pro Asp Ala260 265 270Lys Glu Leu Glu Ala Ile Phe Gly Arg Pro Val Val Asp Gly Glu Glu275 280 285Gly Glu Pro His Ser Ile Ser Pro Arg Pro Arg Pro Pro Gly Arg Pro290 295 300Val Ser Gly His Gly Met Asp Ser Arg Pro Ala Met Ala Ile Phe Glu305 310 315 320Leu Leu Asp Tyr Ile Val Asn Glu Pro Pro Pro Lys Leu Pro Asn Gly325 330 335Val Phe Thr Pro Asp Phe Gln Glu Phe Val Asn Lys Cys Leu Ile Lys340 345 350Asn Pro Ala Glu Arg Ala Asp Leu Lys Met Leu Thr Asn His Thr Phe355 360 365Ile Lys Arg Ser Glu Val Glu Glu Val Asp Phe Ala Gly Trp Leu Cys370 375 380Lys Thr Leu Arg Leu Asn Gln Pro Gly Thr Pro Thr Arg Thr Ala Val385 390 395 40013668PRTSaccharomyces cerevisiae 13Met Glu Asp Lys Phe Ala Asn Leu Ser Leu His Glu Lys Thr Gly Lys1 5 10 15Ser Ser Ile Gln Leu Asn Glu Gln Thr Gly Ser Asp Asn Gly Ser Ala20 25 30Val Lys Arg Thr Ser Ser Thr Ser Ser His Tyr Asn Asn Ile Asn Ala35 40 45Asp Leu His Ala Arg Val Lys Ala Phe Gln Glu Gln Arg Ala Leu Lys50 55 60Arg Ser Ala Ser Val Gly Ser Asn Gln Ser Glu Gln Asp Lys Gly Ser65 70 75 80Ser Gln Ser Pro Lys His Ile Gln Gln Ile Val Asn Lys Pro Leu Pro85 90 95Pro Leu Pro Val Ala Gly Ser Ser Lys Val Ser Gln Arg Met Ser Ser100 105 110Gln Val Val Gln Ala Ser Ser Lys Ser Thr Leu Lys Asn Val Leu Asp115 120 125Asn Gln Glu Thr Gln Asn Ile Thr Asp Val Asn Ile Asn Ile
Asp Thr130 135 140Thr Lys Ile Thr Ala Thr Thr Ile Gly Val Asn Ile Gly Leu Pro Ala145 150 155 160Thr Asp Ile Thr Pro Ser Val Ser Asn Thr Ala Ser Ala Thr His Lys165 170 175Ala Gln Leu Leu Asn Pro Asn Arg Arg Ala Pro Arg Arg Pro Leu Ser180 185 190Thr Gln His Pro Thr Arg Pro Asn Val Ala Pro His Lys Ala Pro Ala195 200 205Ile Ile Asn Thr Pro Lys Gln Ser Leu Ser Ala Arg Arg Gly Leu Lys210 215 220Leu Pro Pro Gly Gly Met Ser Leu Lys Met Pro Thr Lys Thr Ala Gln225 230 235 240Gln Pro Gln Gln Phe Ala Pro Ser Pro Ser Asn Lys Lys His Ile Glu245 250 255Thr Leu Ser Asn Ser Lys Val Val Glu Gly Lys Arg Ser Asn Pro Gly260 265 270Ser Leu Ile Asn Gly Val Gln Ser Thr Ser Thr Ser Ser Ser Thr Glu275 280 285Gly Pro His Asp Thr Val Gly Thr Thr Pro Arg Thr Gly Asn Ser Asn290 295 300Asn Ser Ser Asn Ser Gly Ser Ser Gly Gly Gly Gly Leu Phe Ala Asn305 310 315 320Phe Ser Lys Tyr Val Asp Ile Lys Ser Gly Ser Leu Asn Phe Ala Gly325 330 335Lys Leu Ser Leu Ser Ser Lys Gly Ile Asp Phe Ser Asn Gly Ser Ser340 345 350Ser Arg Ile Thr Leu Asp Glu Leu Glu Phe Leu Asp Glu Leu Gly His355 360 365Gly Asn Tyr Gly Asn Val Ser Lys Val Leu His Lys Pro Thr Asn Val370 375 380Ile Met Ala Thr Lys Glu Val Arg Leu Glu Leu Asp Glu Ala Lys Phe385 390 395 400Arg Gln Ile Leu Met Glu Leu Glu Val Leu His Lys Cys Asn Ser Pro405 410 415Tyr Ile Val Asp Phe Tyr Gly Ala Phe Phe Ile Glu Gly Ala Val Tyr420 425 430Met Cys Met Glu Tyr Met Asp Gly Gly Ser Leu Asp Lys Ile Tyr Asp435 440 445Glu Ser Ser Glu Ile Gly Gly Ile Asp Glu Pro Gln Leu Ala Phe Ile450 455 460Ala Asn Ala Val Ile His Gly Leu Lys Glu Leu Lys Glu Gln His Asn465 470 475 480Ile Ile His Arg Asp Val Lys Pro Thr Asn Ile Leu Cys Ser Ala Asn485 490 495Gln Gly Thr Val Lys Leu Cys Asp Phe Gly Val Ser Gly Asn Leu Val500 505 510Ala Ser Leu Ala Lys Thr Asn Ile Gly Cys Gln Ser Tyr Met Ala Pro515 520 525Glu Arg Ile Lys Ser Leu Asn Pro Asp Arg Ala Thr Tyr Thr Val Gln530 535 540Ser Asp Ile Trp Ser Leu Gly Leu Ser Ile Leu Glu Met Ala Leu Gly545 550 555 560Arg Tyr Pro Tyr Pro Pro Glu Thr Tyr Asp Asn Ile Phe Ser Gln Leu565 570 575Ser Ala Ile Val Asp Gly Pro Pro Pro Arg Leu Pro Ser Asp Lys Phe580 585 590Ser Ser Asp Ala Gln Asp Phe Val Ser Leu Cys Leu Gln Lys Ile Pro595 600 605Glu Arg Arg Pro Thr Tyr Ala Ala Leu Thr Glu His Pro Trp Leu Val610 615 620Lys Tyr Arg Asn Gln Asp Val His Met Ser Glu Tyr Ile Thr Glu Arg625 630 635 640Leu Glu Arg Arg Asn Lys Ile Leu Arg Glu Arg Gly Glu Asn Gly Leu645 650 655Ser Lys Asn Val Pro Ala Leu His Met Gly Gly Leu660 6651423DNAArtificial SequencePrimer 14ttytayggng cnttyttyat hga 231520DNAArtificial SequencePrimer 15atbctytcng gngccatkta 20168PRTArtificial SequenceSynthetically generated peptide 16Asp Tyr Lys Asp Asp Asp Asp Lys1 5
Patent applications by Benoit Derijard, Nice FR
Patent applications by Joel Raingeaud, Palaiseau FR
Patent applications by Roger J. Davis, Princeton, MA US
Patent applications in class Binds antigen or epitope whose amino acid sequence is disclosed in whole or in part (e.g., binds specifically-identified amino acid sequence, etc.)
Patent applications in all subclasses Binds antigen or epitope whose amino acid sequence is disclosed in whole or in part (e.g., binds specifically-identified amino acid sequence, etc.)