Patent application title: Independently moving rod with holder for lobed journal crank to produce The Apex Engine
Carlo Rene' Calalay (Oklahoma, OK, US)
IPC8 Class: AF01L114FI
Class name: Internal-combustion engines poppet valve operating mechanism rod
Publication date: 2008-12-04
Patent application number: 20080295790
The Independently Moving Rod 12 and Holder 30 for Lobe 24 (Apex) of Crank
20, will allow production of extremely fuel efficient reciprocating
piston 42 and cylinder 41 engines, regardless of fuel type, without the
need for many years of research and development or, R & D. The efficiency
is increased because rod 12 moves independently to crank 20, which
controls piston 42's movement and speed during most of the power stroke,
and by using greater leverage per any certain amount of stroke. The Apex
Engine can also be manufactured to be rebuilt by having a few parts
replaced. The Apex Engine is simple, soundly engineered, need not be
expensive, and will operate.
1. A rod shaped to move in a holder connecting structure to a crank with a
shaped lobe on a journal of said crank for an engine of at least one
reciprocating a piston and a cylinder design wherein the improvement
comprises:(a) said rod is not connected to said crank allowing said rod
to move slidably and independently in said holder connecting structure
compared to said crank including,(b) said shaped lobe of said crank
pushes on said rod whereby providing a means of controlled movement of
said piston connected to the top of said rod further including(c) said
rod pushes on said lobe which is the area that provides using the
greatest leverage of said crank.
CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH
SEQUENCE LISTING OR PROGRAM
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The conventional reciprocating piston and cylinder engine using a conventional crank is inherently inefficient, and many people have aspired for a long time to increase efficiency.
The background of the prior art is of conventional piston and cylinder reciprocating engines, which have inherently poor efficiency due to the physics of the crank shaft. Advancements leading to modern engines (internal combustion) have been mainly performance oriented and have only increased efficiency by small increments at a time, from about 17% to 25%. A few modern engines may be around the 27% range. About 75% of the energy in the fuel, regardless of the type of fuel, such as gasoline, diesel, ethanol, natural gas or propane, steam, etc., can not go towards rotational energy when using a conventional crank. Some early attempts of different crank designs failed due to complexity, fragility and breakage or just did not work, hence cranks have been thought by many as too simple to change.
(a) The physics of cranks for engines, in which the leverage to stroke ratio averages about a 1:2, provides little leverage per cylinder volume and fuel. The greatest usable leverage to stroke ratio is about a 1.25:2, for 1/10 of the power stroke or from about 28° to 45°. This is due to the connector journal diameter being large, commonly larger, than the distance in the amount of offset of the connector journal from the axis, in other words, journal diameter is very close in size to the radius. The connector rod, during the power stroke exerts pressure to the connector journal, but the pressure is somewhat spread out across 180° of the journal's surface, and it is difficult to calculate leverage exactly. The large journal is like a double edged sword, giving a 1.25:2 of leverage to stroke when pushing near the top of the journal, but loses leverage rapidly after only 80°. At 90° pressure is mainly applied to the mid-point of the journal, although pressure (force) is somewhat spread out, but basically uses a leverage to stroke of a 1:2. Leverage is dwindling rapidly after 80°, as pressure is being applied closer to the bottom of the journal, which is closer to the axis of the crank. Leverage continues to decline through the rest of the power stroke to bottom dead center 180° (BDC).
(b) Another reason for the inherent poor efficiency of using a conventional crank with an average 1:2 of leverage to stroke, is that it gives too much piston movement or speed in meters per second (mps) of the piston. Pressure in the cylinder or kilograms per cubic centimeters (kg/cc) decreases suddenly at around 85° to 110° of the power stroke with atmospheric pressure aspirated (normally aspirated) engines. A more rapid and/or greater decrease in pressure occurs, as well as earlier during the power stroke, as piston speed increases with increased revolutions per minute (RPM). The compression stroke and ignition of fuel/air intake builds pressure, but pressure is only retained after TDC when piston movement downward is occurring, because the fuel burns and expands at a faster rate in meters per second (mps) than the piston speed in mps. In most engines, at 6,000 to 7,000 RPM, or red-line, piston movement in mps is about half the speed in mps than public use gasoline burns. At this piston speed nearly twice the fuel is needed to produce and maintain any certain pressure in kilograms per cubic centimeters (Kg/cc) than at 3,000 rpm, and a recharge occurs at least twice as often. So, four (4) times the fuel is needed for only about two and a half (21/2) times the power. Although higher rpm's will provide greater performance and power, greater piston speeds decrease efficiency by decreasing the total force of a/each power stroke per amount of fuel.
(c) The useable good connector/crank angle, that will easily create rotation during the power stroke, is not constant. Good connector/crank alignment does occur together with the most leverage used for about 83°, but there are other factors. The actual working degrees of good connector/crank alignment, is from about 26° to 165°. AT 90°, the angle of the connector and crank are in the best position for downward force of pressure in the cylinder during the power stroke to be converted to rotation. The rapid decrease in pressure around 85° to 110° during the power stroke, that normally aspirated engines commonly suffer occurs at the worst time, when leverage has rapidly been decreasing, and during the best connector/crank alignment.
(d) The Time (T) of pressure or force is part of making power. Due to the rapid decrease in kg/cc, many techniques have been used in an attempt to battle this problem. Pressure can be maintained for greater degrees of rotation with techniques such as super-charging, turbo-charging, along with high compression ratios, better fuel/air mixture flow, or even a second squirt of fuel after TDC; anything to get more fuel and air in the cylinder. These techniques may increase performance, but also reduce efficiency. Efficiency is decreased because the extra fuel can not be utilized for rotation well, when very little leverage is being used after 100°.
(e) The total force of each power stroke is referred to as the Impulse (I) of that power stroke. Time (T) is a factor of Impulse. In normally aspirated engines the useful (T) of high pressure or force occurs from about 2° to 110°. The actual time is determined by RPM's and any certain amount of degrees. Good connector/crank alignment, any significant amount of leverage, and high kg/cm3 of pressure coincide (overlap) or occur together for about of a power stroke. When the physics of these dynamics of the/a full power stroke is analyzed, the conventional engine falls quite short of the full potential of the maximum possible impulse (I).
The leverage to stroke ratios in this conventional breakdown, are only approximations for the leverage used at these degrees, since pressure is somewhat spread out on the journal: (a) TDC to 25°; not useful, (b) 26° to 45° a 1.25:2, (c) 46° to 80° a 1.125:2, (d) 81° to 110° a 1:2, (e) 111° to 140° a 0.67:2, (f) 141° to 160° a 0.6:2, not all useful, (g) 161° to 180° a 0.5:2, not effective. An average leverage to stroke ratio of (b), (c), (d), (e), and part of (f), =0.92:2 from 26° to 135°, or 110° of duration will be considered to be the effective part of the power stroke.
OBJECT AND ADVANTAGES
(a) The unique structure allows manufacturing of "The Apex Engine" that will use an increased leverage to stroke ratio significantly greater than the basic conventional 1:2. Depending on the application and engine characteristics needed, the leverage can be increased up to an actual (used) leverage to stroke maximum of about 1.5:2. Leverage can be increased without increasing the stroke. Greater leverage will be used near the beginning of the power stroke, and greater leverage continues for most of the rest of the power stroke, or up to about 165° of rotation. Leverage will increase to a maximum, and then decrease as pressure is applied closer to the bottom of the journal after 110°. The pressure of the rod to the rod journal, will not be spread out nor be distributed across a large area, but rather, confined to different but definite places on the journal at certain degrees of rotation. Measuring and calculating the leverage that will be used, at any certain degree of rotation, can be made accurately. The leverage will not diminish rapidly, until late in the power stroke.
(b) Piston speed will be slowed down or the amount of piston movement reduced by a predetermined amount during certain degrees. Less piston movement per crank movement will increase utilization of the expanding gasses, while maintaining high pressure in the cylinder during more of the power stroke per any given, volume, load, and amount of fuel intake. This is getting almost twice the crank movement per amount of piston movement.
(c) High pressure will now be able to be used or coincide during the same and all degrees of good rod/crank alignment, and useful leverage (26° to 168°), without wasting fuel. A total of about 142°, or about 4/5 of the power stroke will be very effective under most operating conditions. High pressure burns fuel more completely.
(d) Pressure being maintained for greater degrees of rotation will also increase the duration or Time (T) of force. High pressure techniques can be used that would be beneficial, such as, a second squirt of fuel and/or air mixture, and/or turbo/super-charged. The extra fuel would not be wasted, due to using greater leverage during more degrees of rotation. Time of pressure will increase, as RPM's decrease, another factor to impulse. More time allows for more complete combustion.
(e) Impulse (I=Force×Time×Area) will be significantly increased, due to higher pressure or greater force (F), for a longer time (T) to a surface area (A). The greater impulse will be applied to greater leverage during greater degrees of rotation, for about 142°, increasing power (P). The result will be a substantial increase in impulse, power per displacement, and much greater efficiency.
Modern engines have reached a plateau in efficiency, because it is the crank that has not been changed much, and it is the physics of the crank journal movement compared to piston movement, and amount of leverage used, that dictates the basic efficiency of only about 25%.
The Independently Moving Rod with Holder for Lobed Crank, is my invention to produce, "The Apex Engine"; able to manipulate piston movement, will better utilize and convert kg/cm3 of pressure in the cylinder into rotation, and uses greater leverage. This will greatly increase the power, and significantly increase efficiency of each power stroke per any certain load and amount of fuel. The Apex Engine will be a good choice alone, or used in hybrid technology. Calculations give an expected efficiency greater than 75%. This would allow engines to be produced that are extremely fuel efficient with existing fuel types, and will not need many years of research and development (R & D). We should use the most efficient engine that we have, as soon as possible, to complete other technologies and to build infrastructures needed. This is probably the best immediate and long term solution, to make it easier to cope with soaring oil and gasoline prices, and also conserve a great amount of oil.
FIG. 1 shows a Rod 12, as one of the two basic versions. Both versions of rod 12 will have a shaft 15 suitable or capable of being held slidably in a holder 30. The top of shaft 15 accommodates a piston 42 in a conventional manner via a hole and/or sleeve or hole 13, and a wrist pin or pin 40. Shown in FIG. 1 is the one-sided version of rod 12. The one-sided version will have a spring tab 17 or tab 17, with a spring peg 18 or peg 18 on one side near a base end 16, and on the other side of base end 16 a flange tab 19. Flange tab 19 does not have to be as long as spring tab 17, will not have peg 18, and the top surface will be prepared (machined), via polishing and honing. The two spring or two-sided version of rod 12 is very similar (FIG. 4d), will have two tabs 17 near the base end 16, one on both sides, and no flange tab 19. Each tab 17 will have peg 18 to hold one end (bottom) of a compression spring 25 or spring 25 (FIG. 4e), in place.
FIG. 2 show two versions of holder 30 that holds rod 12. FIG. 2a shows the two-sided (two-spring) version of holder 30. The main-portion or top of holder 30 is hollow and split (made in two pieces) longitudinally or on a side plane, to allow insertion of shaft 15 of rod 12. The two halves of holder 30 are held together with a bolt(s) or screw(s) 33 or bolt(s) 33, and both sides have a spring tab 38 or tab 38 near the top. The bottom is split horizontally (to allow connection), and held together by bolts 33. FIG. 2b shows holder 30 (one-spring) one-sided version, which is also split to allow shaft 15 of rod 12 to be inserted. The side shown has a cover 35 to hold shaft 15. The cover has a piece or slot cut out and/or abbreviated as much as possible to trim off weight. Bolts 33 will hold cover 35 onto holder 30. FIG. 2c shows the other side (main portion) of holder 30 (one-sided version), which incorporates tab 38 and a slot 32, and is similar to both sides of the two-sided holder 30. Slot 32 allows clearance for spring tab 17 on rod 12. Both versions of holder 30 bottom halves are split horizontally to be attached to a journal(s) 26 on a crank 20. The bottom half/halves are held to the main portion of holder 30 with bolts 33. Both holder 30 versions will also have a clearance 28 allowing a lobe 24 to sweep by.
FIG. 3 show some variations in base end 16 of rod 12. FIG. 3a shows the most basic design considering shape and function. FIG. 3b shows a shape which will have some mechanical advantages. The arrow indicates the direction of crank 20 rotation. 3c shows another version, with base end 16 incorporating a roller bearing 14. FIGS. 3a, 3b, and 3c do not show tabs 17 nor flange tab 19, since these would interfere with the current concern of a simplistic view of the profile (width) to show shape for function.
FIGS. 4a-c show basic aspects of lobe 24 on a round journal(s) 26 or journal 26, on crank 20. Crank 20 can be produced with the same techniques as conventional cranks, with state-of-the-art metallurgy and machining. The section of crank 20 with journal(s) 26 and lobe 24 are collectively referred to as a journal set 27, for a cylinder 41 or each respective cylinder 41. There are two basic versions of crank 20, or differences needed depending on whether crank 20 is produced for the two-sided holder 30, or one-sided version of holder 30. FIG. 4a shows the section of journal set 27 with journals 26 and lobe 24 for the two-sided version of crank 20, machined to accommodate the two-sided holder 30 for one cylinder 41. The arrow indicates the direction of rotation, as if crank 20 is rotating or rolling away from the viewer. FIG. 4b shows the two-sided version of journal set 27, and the relationship in position to the base end 16 of rod 12. The dotted lines show the rise of lobe 24 on journal 26 at its greatest height or the apex (at about 90°), compared to the TDC level of journal 26. FIG. 4c shows journal set 27 of crank 20 machined for the one-sided holder 30, that will be repeated for each cylinder 41 for multiple cylinder engines. This version of crank 20 has only one full width journal 26 for holder 30, and a spacer section shown on the right, and one lobe 24 in between. Crank 20 can use conventional means to transfer rotational power by being connected using a gear, spline, or commonly a plate to a drive train/transmission to perform work. Other peripheral mechanisms can also be designed to operate in conventional ways. Some of these mechanisms would be the valve train, oil pump, water pump, and alternator. Crank 20 will also incorporate conventional a counter weights 23, or weight 23.
Unless specifically engineered otherwise, crank 20 will have some additional weight per cylinder. FIG. 4d shows a section of crank 20 designed for the two-sided holder 30, but does not show holder 30, and does show the room or clearance for holder 30. The two-sided version of crank 20 uses two springs 25; not shown, but show rod 12 having two tabs 17 with peg 18 near base end 16. This section is for either a one cylinder 41 engine or a section of crank 20 for cylinder 41 in a multi-cylinder engine, but excludes the above mentioned conventional connections for the drive-train and peripheral mechanisms. The horizontal dotted lines indicate it was opted to reduce weight by making journal set 27 hollow, or basically a tube. This drawing is at TDC and shows that base end 16 would already be on the rise of lobe 24 up to 20% of the apex, due to the advance of the rise. FIG. 4e shows a section of crank 20 for one cylinder, representative to accommodate the one-sided holder 30, and includes showing the one-sided holder 30 in place. The one-sided version of crank 20 has one other significant difference; a flange 29. This is also a TDC depiction and base end 16 is up to about 15% of the apex. Only one Spring 25 is needed and shown, with the position indicated. Both FIGS. 4d and 4e show or point out an axis 21 of crank 20.
FIG. 5 show sequential views during one power stroke. The later being from top dead center (TDC) or 0° to 180° of rotation. FIG. 5a TDC, FIG. 5b 25°, FIG. 5c 45°, FIG. 5d 67.5°, FIG. 5e 90°, FIG. 5f 115°, FIG. 5g 145°, and FIG. 5h 180° FIG. 5 drawings show the relationships of angles and different distances of vertical movement between the most vital parts used to increase efficiency. Two of the suggested base ends (FIGS. 3b & 3c) are shown, which switch from one to the other from one sequence to the next, but of course only one or the other would be used. The bottom 1/4-1/3 of rod 12 is shown, indicating the angle compared to the other parts. The dotted lines of FIGS. 5g and h indicate the angle of crank 20 at these degrees of rotation. Flange tab 19 and spring tab 17 are not shown.
The two spring version will allow low to medium RPM operation. The one-sided flange version, will allow medium or higher RPM operation.
12. Rod 13. Hole and sleeve or Hole 14. Roller Bearing on Base End 16 15. Shaft of Rod 12 16. Base End of shaft, or Base End 16 17. Tabs for Spring(s) 25 or tab 17 on rod 12 18. Peg on Tabs 19. Tab for Flange 20. Crank shaft or Crank 21. Axis of crank 22. reserved 23. Counter weight(s) 24. Lobe 25. Spring(s) (compression) 26. Journal that is round 27. Journal Set (both 24 & 26) 28. Clearance for lobed journal 24 29. Flange 30. Holder 31. reserved 32. Slot(s) on Holder for movement of tab 17 33. Screws or Bolts 35. Cover for one-sided Holder 30 37. reserved 38. Tab(s) on Holder 30 for top end of spring 25 40. Wrist Pin or Pin 40 41. Cylinder 42. Piston(s)
The power stroke will be referred to as the start of the cycles. So, in a four stroke (cycle) engine, top dead center (TDC) is 0°, 360°, and 720°. Therefore, the writing following assumes, 0° to 180° is the power stroke. The exhaust stroke refers to 181° to 360°. The intake stroke would be 361° to 540°, and 541° to 719° is the compression stroke.
The Apex Engine leverage to stroke ratio breakdown are approximations of the maximum leverage that can be engineered and used at: (a) TDC to 25° not useful, (b) 26° to 45° a 1.45:2, (c) 46° to 80° a. 1.5:2, (d) 81° to 110° a 1.5:2, (e) 111° to 140° a 1.25:2, (f) 141° to 168° a 0.9:2, (g) 169° to 180° a. 0.5:2, not useful. An average leverage to stroke ratio of (b), (c), (d), (e), and (f)=1.32:2, from 26° to 168°, or for a duration of 142°.
Production will be an engine using the reciprocating piston 42 and cylinder 41 design, which could be made to operate with four (4) stroke or two (2) stroke technologies. The crank shaft 20 or crank 20 has two (2) basic versions, and is supported by main bearing journals in a conventional manner, allowing rotation.
Crank 20 will have journal(s) 26 that are offset and round, to attach one of the versions of holder 30 to crank 20 for each corresponding cylinder 41 and piston 42. If crank 20 is machined to use the one-sided holder 30, there will also be flange 29 on crank 20, for each respective cylinder. All surfaces that slide against other surfaces in the engine will be prepared (machined) for durability, and the least friction possible, as well as, properly oiled. The round journal(s) 26 (FIGS. 4a & 4c) and lobe(s) 24 will be some of these surfaces. Crank 20 will have counter weight(s) 23, where and as many needed for multi-cylinder engines.
Only one lobe 24 is needed on each journal set 27. The shape of lobe 24 would probably be best if shaped like the profile of an egg, but similar to a lobe on a cam that operates valves. Lobe 24 can be up to about 200° of the surface, on journal set 27. In most cases, journal set 27 will have more weight than desired, then it is recommended to produce and/or machine out a hollow in the middle of journal set 27, as large as engineering will permit.
Rod 12 (FIG. 1), should be machined/made from a solid piece of metal or suitable material. Titanium would be one of the suitable materials, by being light weight and extremely strong and tough. The top end of rod 12 will accommodate piston 42 in a conventional manner via hole 13, and pin 40. Shaft 15 of rod 12 will be prepared, such as polished and honed, as well as, the very bottom of base end 16. The version of rod 12 in FIG. 3c, shows bearing 14 protruding from base end 16. Another good design would be to have base end 16 fitted with replaceable inserts for the versions in FIGS. 3a and 3b. Both sides of shaft 15, near base end 16 of rod 12, will have two tab structures extending longitudinal with crank 20. There are several versions of tab structures basically similar in shape, thickness, width and strength. These structures on rod 12 are tabs 17 for the two-sided holder 30, or one tab 17 and one flange tab 19, (FIG. 1) for the one-sided holder 30.
Rod 12 produced for the two-sided holder will have two tabs 17 near base end 16; also longitudinal to crank 20. Tab 17 will have peg 18 facing up or away from crank 20 to hold one end of spring 25 in place. Also, there will be a corresponding tab 38 with peg 18 on holder 30 to hold the other end (top end) of the same spring 25. Since spring 25 should be designed to have to be compressed to be put in place, it is recommended to let spring 25 hold its self in place on pegs 18. This will allow for an easier engine rebuild. Otherwise, peg 18 would have to be pressed with an appropriate shaped die, or otherwise machined to act as a rivet to hold spring 25 firmly in place. If the tab structure is flange tab 29, it will lack peg 18 and be shorter, see FIG. 1. The top of flange tab 19 or the side facing away from crank 20, is to be polished and honed, or prepared.
There could be many slight variations possible for holder 30. All versions will serve the same purpose (FIGS. 2 & 4e) of holding shaft 15 of rod 12, and connecting to crank 20. Two basic versions of holder 30 are shown and described. The top of holder 30 will be produced in halves (split) in a side plane or longitudinally to allow shaft 15 to be inserted. The inside surface of the top halves of holder 30 will be prepared for shaft 15 to slide up and down smoothly in holder 30. The halves will be bolted 33 together after shaft 15 is inserted. Also, recommended is the use of self tightening threads for bolts 33. This will eliminate cutting metal out for relief of a nut, and leave more material for greater strength.
Holder 30 must have tab 38 for each tab 17 of rod 12, together holding one compression spring 25. The bottom of spring 25 will be held near the bottom of base end 16 by tab 17, and spring 25 held at the top with the corresponding tab 38 on holder 30. Tab(s) 17 will protrude through slot 32 from holder 30. These slots provide clearance for movement of tab(s) 17, moving up and down with rod 12. In the intended design, the top of tab(s) 38 on holder 30 will clear the bottom of cylinder(s) 41 at TDC, in other words, tabs 38 will never enter cylinder 41. The inside surfaces of the bottom half of holder 30 form a circle and are prepared, and shaped to accommodate roller bearings or replaceable bearing shells (inserts), to glide on journal(s) 26 smoothly. To allow holder(s) 30 to connect to crank 20, the bottom(s) are split transversely, and held together with bolt(s) 33. This configuration is similar to any connecter rod attached to any crank, however in this case, rod 12 does not connect to crank 20, and holder(s) 30 must take on the function of connecting to crank 20.
The version of crank 20 using flange 29 (FIGS. 4c & 4e), for the one-sided version of holder 30 (one-spring), will allow higher RPM operation. Flange 29 is simply a curved, sturdy, flattened extension or lip a predetermined distance from axis 21. This is an extension of the top portion (on the inside edge) of one of the two counter weights 23 for each cylinder 41, (FIG. 4e). The inside of the arch or curved surface of flange 29 facing crank 20, will be prepared by polishing and/or honing, etc. Flange 29 rotates with crank 20, and must be carefully produced and machined to take into account the difference in movement, caused by lobe 24, to match the movement of flange tab 19 due to the advancement of the rise. The inside of the curved surface will graze the top of the prepared surface of flange tab 19. This arrangement will not allow compression of spring 25 near TDC. FIG. 4e is at TDC, and flange 29 is about to release flange tab 19. The arch of Flange 29 can be abbreviated as much as engineering will permit, or be more substantial as in FIG. 4e. The inside surface of flange 29 could also accommodate an insert that could be replaced, if a certain amount of wear occurs.
Piston 42 is connected to the top end of rod 12 in a conventional manner using pin 40. Rod 12 is inserted into one of the top halves of holder 30. Then the other top half (i.e. cover 35), is bolted 33 to the first half using the proper torque. In the version of rod 12, as in FIG. 3c, the metal from tabs 17 and/or flange tab 19 (not shown) will fortuitously provide the extra metal needed to sufficiently increase the strength of base end 16. This will allow enough room for a hollowed area in the very bottom for bearing 14. Base end 16 in FIG. 3c with bearing 14, is shown a little thicker than the other versions of rod 12 and will also be a little wider. Bearing 14 could be solidly held in place with raised places on the outside of bearing 14 corresponding with indented places on the inside of base end 16. Base end 16 will be produced large enough to accommodate bearing 14 in the hollowed out portion of base end 16, and pressed in place. Any number of conventional pressing techniques or procedures could be used, including hot and/or forge pressed at the time of production of rod 12. After the pressing procedure, base end 16 will be the appropriate size and shape to be machined to precision.
The bottom of holder 30 is shaped round and halved transversely, so the bottom halves can be bolted to the top halves. The inside surface of the bottom halves are produced to accommodate insertion of bearing shells (inserts) or roller bearings and attached to journal(s) 26 of crank 20. Crank 20, has one journal set 27 and holder 30, for each corresponding cylinder 41, piston 42, and rod 12.
The crank will be put in place (in the bottom engine crank case) in a conventional manner on main journals with bearing shells or roller bearings. Piston(s) 42 are guided into the cylinder(s), as the cylinder head is placed and bolted down, or by any conventional techniques.
Theory of Operation
Gaseous pressure is made in a cylinder(s) and contained with a reciprocating piston(s) 42; see FIG. 1. The pressure on the top surface area of piston 42 forces piston 42 to slide down cylinder 41 (conventional), and this downward force is transferred to crank 20 (FIG. 4d) through movement of rod 12 (FIG. 1), which is attached to piston 42. The base end 16 of rod 12 applies force to a point of significantly greater leverage (lobe 24 of offset journal 26), and crank 20 will turn on main journals.
Operation of the Apex Engine should be engineered for low to medium RPM's, and high kg/cm3 of pressure, to achieve best efficiency. The greater the difference of piston speed, i.e. meters per second (mps), being slower, compared to the mps that the fuel burns and expands, the more completely the power of the expanding gaseous matter will be utilized and converted to rotational power. This increases efficiency. The purpose of the unique design of rod 12 not being connected to crank 20, is to allow rod 12 and piston 42 to move independently of journal 26 and crank 20. Due to the rise of lobe 24 being in "contact" with base end 16, this will provide a relative lift to rod 12 and piston 42, which is actually a reduction of piston movement and speed during the most lucrative part of the power stroke. The rise of the lobe is referred to as a percentage of the diameter of journal 26; the diameter will usually be about the same as the radius. Another result was discovered. The lobe can be used to increase leverage.
The slowed or reduced piston 42 movement will increase pressure significantly, per any certain size cylinder, RPM, driving conditions, load, and any certain throttle setting. This, combined with using lobe 24 to increase leverage, allows the greater pressure or force to be applied to the increased leverage. In particular, the slant or angle of the apex of lobe 24 compared to crank 20, due to an advance of the apex, is what allows greater leverage to be used.
The slowed piston speed, increased leverage, and low to medium RPM operation increases efficiency, and the functioning of compression springs 25, of the two-sided version, will limit operation to what is considered low to medium RPM. Lower RPM's also allow the fuel more time to burn completely. The function of spring(s) 25 is as a compression spring, to hold base end 16 of rod 12 in constant "contact" or close proximity to lobe 24 on an oil film. Springs 25 will also be what stops piston 42 from contacting the top of cylinder 41 and/or valves at TDC. This is the main RPM limiting factor. Having spring(s) 25 made of different stiffness, and the different size and weights of piston 42 and rod 12, will determine the certain RPM when springs 25 will start to compress. Piston 42 and rod 12 should be designed as light weight as possible, which would not limit RPM's by too much. Spring(s) 25 will also be subjected to lesser compression forces during the intake stroke. The engine should have a computer controlled governor. An operation of 3500 RPM's and 4500 RPM's before springs 25 start to compress, should be a reasonable engineering goal to strive for if using cylinders respectively of 1000 cc to 500 cc. This would provide a red-line of 3,000 to 4,000 rpm. Smaller cylinders with smaller pistons and rods of lighter weight will be able to operate at higher RPM's.
Crank 20 will provide enough weight, leverage, impulse, and momentum, to allow a low idle (about 500 rpm), and usable power at idle and above. If medium RPM's are desired, the flange version of crank 20 using the one-sided holder 30, can be used to increase operation by about 1,500 RPM. Flange 29 will have "contact" with the top of flange tab 19 at TDC, 360°, and 720°. Total degrees of contact can be engineered as seen fit for each application or use. This will prevent compression of spring 25, and keep piston 42 from hitting the top of the cylinder.
Since rod 12 is not attached to crank 20, but only pushes on crank 20, shaft 15 is free to be slidably a predetermined distance up and down in holder 30. With a 60% rise, rod 12 will have to slide up and down in holder 30 by 30% of the stroke. The suggested shape of lobe 24 is basically an egg shaped profile, except the trailing side of the apex would not have the bulge of the leading side. Although, still very similar to a lobe on a valve train, and rises to an apex, then declines to the base level (size) of journal set 27. Since the Apex of the rise is smaller than the base diameter of journal set 27, the leverage will not diminish after 90° when pressure from base end 16 is applied to the other side of lobe 24, in fact, leverage will increase until about 110°. A maximum of almost 50% greater amount of leverage could be used per any given distance of stroke, with the currently perceived maximum practical rise at the apex of 60%. Basic calculations point in the range of 57-60% rise of lobe 24 for greatest efficiency. The greater the rise of lobe 24 the more difficult it will be to engineer. The first proto-types could be made in increments of rise, i.e. 42%, 48%, 57%.
A moderate rise will operate well. As little as, a 25%-40% rise, will produce an engine with significantly greater efficiency. As greater rises (40%-60%) are used efficiency will increase, until engineering becomes impossible and gains diminish. A single intake per power stroke, will operate well, but the Apex Engine must be engineered (i.e. copper head gasket) to withstand high pressure. When using a high percentage rise, a more elaborate fuel delivery system could be developed.
The more elaborate fuel intake system of the Apex Engine could be a duel, or multiple fuel intake system. Either system could be engineered to be turbo or super-charged to ensure high pressure until the end of the power stroke.
The simple suggestion of the dual intake would have an intake stroke with the fuel fed gingerly, but with liberal air intake, or a lean fuel to air intake, and then a second squirt of fuel can be given at about 80°, which will ignite instantly. The suggestion is for the first intake to be about 60% of what is needed for any certain driving condition, and then a second squirt of fuel of about 55%-60% to maintain pressure until the end of the power stroke. A full throttle recharge being, the total fuel of about 120% per displacement (than conventional normal aspiration) will maintain a more constant pressure longer. The double intake system is not practical for a two-stroke engine. After about 135° of the power stroke, the exhaust ports are opened. But, the 10% to 20% extra fuel per each intake with a four-stroke engine will not be wasted, due to still using a good amount of leverage, and connector alignment is not quite as important as it is in the beginning of the power stroke. Displacement will only need to be about 0.50 or 50% for any particular use.
A three (3) point technique is envisioned to secure rod 12. (1) Rod 12 will be held at the top by piston 42 and cylinder 41. (2) Rod 12 is held in the middle by holder 30. (3) Rod 12 is secured at base end 16 to lobe 24 via spring 25 and tab 17, and through any number of machining techniques, including prepared surface(s) and/or grooves.
To increase leverage significantly it is necessary that The Apex Engine be built with an advancement of apex of the lobe by about 20°-40°. The advancement of the apex of the rise changes the angle of the apex of lobe 24 on journal 26 compared to the angle of crank 20, and moves the apex further away from axis 21. This will coordinate maximum leverage with the best rod/crank alignment. The lobe rise and apex advancement has another advantage. Since at TDC base end 16 of rod 12 will already be lifted partly onto the rise, the amount of piston movement from TDC to 90° will not be reduced too much when using a high percentage (%) of rise, and still use more leverage than a lesser rise. For example, with about a 30° advancement of the apex, a 60% lobe rise could be used, for maximum leverage, and reduction of piston 42 movement from TDC to 90° will still only be about 80%. This example will provide a maximum leverage to stroke of about a 1.5:2.
When using the flange 29 version of crank 20, the structure of the inside curved surface of flange 29 rotates with crank 20. Flange 29 will start to sweep across the top of tab 19 at a predetermined degree, grazing the top of flange tab 19, which will not allow compression of spring 25 when not desired. During rotation, the inside of the prepared surface of flange 29 will be the distance of the top of flange tab 19 is from axis 21 of crank 20. Flange 29 starts to sweep by slightly above the prepared top surface of flange tab 19 and then make light "contact" a few degrees later using an oil film. The inside surface of flange tab 19 being precisely machined to match the movement of the top of flange tab 19, so the two surfaces will graze one another for the predetermined degree of rotation. The arch of Flange 29 can vary with each design of an engine. The inside surface of flange 29, could accommodate an insert, that could be replaced after a certain amount of wear occurs.
Using flange 29 will only need one spring 25 with enough stiffness not to compress during the intake stroke, but "full" stiffness is recommended to help balance out the pull on the top of flange tab 19. An enclosed spring 25 like a mini-shock, would serve no purpose, and would produce friction and heat buildup. Heat buildup from friction, is also why a mini-hydraulic shock was not suggested. Using spring 25 will be functional, well oiled, compact and simple. The base end 16 as shown in FIG. 3b, which could use a replaceable insert, has several advantages over using bearing 14 as in FIG. 3c. (a) Less production cost. (b) Less complexity. (c) Provides a "ramp" or acclivity to help base end 16 slide across lobe 24. (d) Will provide and prolong the most leverage during the power stroke. This is particularly evident in FIG. 5f, you can visually see that using bearing 14 would use less leverage.
Holder 30 should be made of high quality metal and/or composites to be slim and sleek, and have strong tab(s) 38. Cover 35 could be made of aluminum.
This basic formula can easily and quickly determine roughly the engine displacement, and number of cylinders needed for any particular application for best efficiency. (a) Reduce the number of cylinders in half, unless only one or two cylinders were formerly used, (b) reduce total displacement to about 50%, if not done by step (a). Trucks (correctly called tractors) have all along taken advantage, of relatively a few large cylinders for good low RPM torque and horse power (HP). Therefore with the normal number of six (6) cylinders of tractor engines, there is not a need to reduce cylinders in half, and four (4) cylinders would be better.
These are a few equations used. (a) Volume=pi×radius2×Height [(H) stroke], or cylinder V=πR2×H. (b) Impulse=Force (i.e., kg/cc)×Time×Area (surface area force is applied to top of piston), or I=F×T×A. Leverage (L) must be taken into account, which gives Power (P)=F×T×A×L. Efficiency (E) is found by another set of equations. The following statistics of the Apex Engine apply, if journal 26 is offset a larger distance from axis 21 of crank 20, than half the base diameter of lobed journal 26, and using about a 20°-40° advancement of the apex of lobe 24.
The conventional example will also have the same offset percentage, as well as other base line variables.
Consider a representative example of, a full size sport utility vehicle (SUV) with a conventional carbureted or fuel injection engine with an eight (8) cylinder 5.5 liter engine. Normally aspirated will usually provide best efficiency. This would be eight (8) cylinders (square-bore) of about 687 cc each, with a bore and stroke of 9.55 cm, and a radius of 4.775 cm. The usable average leverage to stroke of 0.92:2, is from 26° to 136°, which gives 110° of usable power stroke with the average usable leverage of 4.39 cm or 1.73''. Maximum leverage used 1.25:2, which is 5.97 cm, or 2.35'', from about 30° to 55°, or for 25° total.
In comparison, with the Apex Engine, we would now use a four (4) cylinder engine (if a 4 stroke) of 2.75 liters for the full size SUV. An engine of a four (4) stroke example with four (4) 687 cc cylinders, would be 1/2 the total displacement. A square bore design will give a bore and stroke of approximately 9.55 cm. Using the conditions described above in bold, a rise of 60%, and an advancement of the apex of about 30%, will provide an average usable leverage to stroke ratio for all the useful power stroke, of about 1.32:2, or 6.30 cm for 142°. Maximum leverage is from 45° to 110°, or for 65°, and 7.16 cm, or 2.82''. Although RPM's will be limited, this is actually quite reasonable with modern five (5) and six (6) gear or speed automatic transmissions with over-drive, and constant variable ratio transmissions.
This is one set of equations that can be used to find an accurate fuel efficiency estimation: (1) First find Force (F), as Area=πR2×Height (H), is using (H) to determine the fuel for a certain volume, part of finding force. (2) Area (A)=πR2 is used in, (3) Impulse (I)=Force (F)×Time (T)×Area (A), and add×Leverage (L) for (4) Power (P). But, the following example comparisons will be made simpler by using the statistics or variables from the full size SUV's (mentioned above) using the same size cylinders, so the Area or πR2 portion of the equation can be left out, because equal is ×'s one (1). Now the basic equation is, P=F×T×L=a base number, used for both engines to signify Power (P). Power (P), is referring to horse power (h.p.), or torque.
First Efficiency Example is with The Apex Engine using the above mentioned double or multiple fuel delivery system. The slowed piston or reduced movement, must also be included in the Apex equations, and will be added to the Force variable. The Time variable will also be increased due to average lower RPM operation. The average lower RPM operation also affects the (F) variable.
Using, Power (P)=Force (F)×Time (T)×Leverage (L). (a) Produce and compare both an Apex engine Power base number and the conventional base number, by dividing the Apex (P) by conventional (P). (b) Fuel (f), per total displacement, is figured out for both engines. (c) Calculate Power per fuel used for the Apex Engine in comparison to the conventional engine. (d) The Apex factor for Power per fuel consumption is multiplied by the conventional basic 25% or 0.25 for efficiency, giving the Apex efficiency estimation.
Example one: The conventional engine example is normally aspirated: P=Force (F) 2 (twice the number of cylinders of the same size), ×Time (T) of 135° (not all is useful-deduct 25°), or 110°×average Leverage (L) 4.39 cm, using P=F×T×L, gives P=2×110×4.39=965.8, as the conventional base number for Power (P). If more degrees were used i.e. 135°, this would decrease the leverage variable, which is already very low. I gave the conventional engine all the benefit(s) possible. If turbo/super-charger variables were used, efficiency would drop due to the increased fuel variable, and the leverage variable would drop even more when accounting for the longer pressure; up to 150° or more. The extra (T) variable of 125 would not make up for the other losses. If a lesser degree variable than 110 is used, the leverage variable will increase, but not enough to make up for the lesser degree (T) variable.
At the same time, I leaned towards the conservative side for the Apex variables, while still being accurate.
The Apex engine example: P=Force (F) same size cylinders, or 100% or 1 for Force per amount of fuel. With a 60% rise and a 30° advancement of the apex would give about 80% reduced piston movement from TDC to 90° adding to (F), and add some for reduced movement after 90° and some for average lower rpm, gives a conservative 56% more or 1.56 for (F). Useful degrees of rotation (T) of the power stroke of 142°, and add some (T) due to reduced average RPM of operation; add 0.25, =1.775 for Time (T) or 1.775× the average (L) of 6.30 cm (1.32:2). Using P=F×T×L, gives, P=1.56×177.5×6.30=1744, as the Apex base number for Power (P).
(a) The main comparison is the Apex base (P) number divided by the conventional base (P) number, or 1744 divided by 965.8=1.80 times the Power (P) for the Apex Engine. The conventional base (P) number of 965.8 is considered as 100% or 1. The conventional engine is about 25% efficient.
The Apex Engine Power per fuel factor starts with 1.80 times the power. (b) With fuel figured by 50% Displacement (D), and add extra fuel (probably turbo or super-charged) of 20% to 50%=60% fuel, but minus 20% less fuel due to lower RPM's, finally gives 48% fuel to produce 1.80×'s the power. (c) Now we have, 1.80 divided by 0.48=3.75 ×'s power per fuel. (d) The (P)/fuel number derived for the Apex engine is 3.75, giving 3.75×0.25 (efficiency of the conventional engine)=0.9375, or about 94% efficient.
Example two: Example of The Apex Engine manufactured to operate using a single intake will increase pressure greatly. People have proven, with some simple modifications, that racing engines can withstand many times more pressure. Both a single intake design, and the multiple intake design should have a high performance head gasket, as well as, any other techniques necessary for high pressure.
The second Apex Engine example; is of a single fuel intake system, using flange 29 for higher rpm and assuming a turbo or super-charger is used, with the same size SUV engine of four cylinders of 687 cc each. There will be a peak(s) of very high pressure, and the inherent rapid drop in pressure, or kg/cm3, but only late in the power stroke. The second Apex example is with a 57% rise, and about a 27° advancement of the apex. Using P=F×T×L, gives, P=Force (F) 100% or 1, and due to the amount of reduced piston movement of 45%, and some for reduced movement beyond 90°, add 0.9 to Force due to higher pressure, or 1.9 (F)×Time (T) of 142° (add 15% due to lower RPM), gives 163.3 for (T)×Leverage (L) average of 5.35 cm. This is, P=1.9×163.3×5.35=1660, as the base number for (P).
The conventional engine will be the same as the last example or comparison, with the variables from the SUV. P=2×110°×4.39=965.8, as the base number (P).
The Apex base number is divided by the conventional base number, giving the Apex Power or increase in (P). 166° divided by 965.8=1.72 or 72% more, giving 1.72 (P). Apex Displacement of 50% will use 0.50 fuel, add 15% due to extra fuel, or 0.575 but deduct 12% due to 12% lower RPM's, giving 0.51. The Apex Engine figures are, 1.72 times the (P) with 0.51 fuel, gives 1.72 divided by 0.51=3.37×'s the (P) per fuel, giving 3.37×0.25=0.84 or about 84% efficiency. The first estimated comparison of 94% efficiency, and the second estimate of 84% shows that at least three (3 ×'s) as efficient is a conservative estimate. The Apex engine will have more time and pressure to burn the fuel more completely. These two engines and comparisons are the analysis of only single power strokes under the condition of full throttle, which indicates a near completely useful power stroke for The Apex engine. However, at any throttle setting, the fuel that The Apex Engine receives will be used very efficiently, or in the currently expected range of 75% to 90% efficient.
At such a high percentage of efficiency, either one of the examples, of The Apex Engine would get fuel economy of about 25 kilometers per liter of gasoline, or 60 miles per gallon for our full size SUV example.
CONCLUSION, RAMIFICATION, AND SCOPE
Using the efficiency of the Apex engine is a good choice alone, or used in hybrid technology. Efficiency and economy are two different things. The term efficiency is often used when economical is more correct. Current Hybrid technology is not significantly more efficient than a conventional engine vehicle (only a few percentage points), and some are merely more economical.
Fuel cell technology has been moving slowly due to costly complex logistics and variables, such as, electric use for production and lighting, mainly from burning fossil fuels (coal) for most of The United States electricity. Most of the rest of the energy source originates from oil in one way or another, such as transporting products, and employees commuting, constructing buildings, as well as, manufacturing. In other words, it takes conventional engines and technology to produce fuel cell applications. According to a very recent television news segment, a particular 2008 model fuel cell car can be purchased now for $700,000, or wait about 8-9 years for prices to be more affordable.
Electric vehicles are good and clean, however the United States and most other countries are in a crisis now, due to electric demands exceeding supply. This problem probably will not be solved for many years. Furthermore, it will need quite a lot of basically rebuilding the world's infrastructure, and development to come up with other workable technologies. Solar power is not completely reliable under certain environments (i.e. high latitudes), or many weather conditions. Small light electric vehicles are fine for commuting to work or to get groceries, but people still want power, and quick acceleration. All electric vehicles must sacrifice electricity needed for propulsion to use a heater or air-conditioner. Also, construction and commercial vehicles must be sturdy and have a certain weight, as well as, power (such as semi-tractors with trailers, etc.) to perform lifting, pulling, or any other work duties. We should use "The Apex Engine", the most promising, simple, and efficient engine possible, to start the rebuilding process.
People rely on their vehicle with their lives, and with redundancy back ups a vehicle is more reliable. Even in the future, when most vehicles may use many different technologies, such as solar, fuel cell, etc.; hybrid technology can be more reliable with an efficient auxiliary or main internal combustion engine. Even if it is only a one cylinder engine, people will appreciate having a "real" engine.
The former descriptions of The Apex engine suggest some possible combinations of different embodiments of parts or slight variations, which should not be construed as limitations, but are only some of many possibilities.