Patent application title: Recombinant poxvirus for chimeric proteins of the human immunodeficiency virus
Enrique Iglesias Perez (C. Habana, CU)
Dania M. Vazquez Blomquist (Ciudad Habana, CU)
Carlos A. Duarte Cano (Playa Ciudad Habana, CU)
IPC8 Class: AC12N1563FI
Class name: Chemistry: molecular biology and microbiology vector, per se (e.g., plasmid, hybrid plasmid, cosmid, viral vector, bacteriophage vector, etc.) bacteriophage vector, etc.)
Publication date: 2008-11-13
Patent application number: 20080280354
The invention relates to HIV chimeric gene formed by the union of
fragments of different genes of said virus, wherein said fragments
contains epitopes for cytotoxic T cells (CTL) or HIV-1 auxiliary T cells,
which are presented by a wide range of antigens of type Major
Histocompatibility Complex (HLA-I). Recombinant poxviruses are obtained
from said genes, which are useful for prophylactic and therapeutic
vaccination against HIV/AIDS infections, are capable of generating a
protective immune cell response in vaccinated laboratory animals and are
recognized by the CTL lymphocytes of HIV/AIDS patients.
1. A chimeric gene comprising fragments from different HIV-1 genes, where
those fragments encodes for cytotoxic T cells (CTL) epitopes rich
regions, which are presented by a wide range of Major Histocompatibility
Complex (HLA-1) antigens, and can also contain T helper (Th) cells
epitopes from HIV and at least one B cell epitope that is the target of a
2. A gene as described in claim 1 which encodes for a chimeric poliprotein comprising fragments from at least one HIV structural protein and one HIV non-structural protein.
3. A gene as described in claim 2 which encodes for a chimeric poliprotein comprising fragments from HIV-1 proteins Reverse Transcriptase, P24 and Nef, Th epitopes from gp120, gp41 and vpr and a B cell epitope from gp120.
4. A gene as described in claim 3 which encodes for a chimeric poliprotein comprising fragments 203-259 from Reverse Transcriptase, 219-307 from P24, and 45-147 from Nef, Th cell epitopes T1 and T2 from gp120, 580-594 from gp41 and 566-580 from vpr and B cell epitope from the V3 region MN strain recognized by Mab 2C4.
5. A gene as described in claim 4, which DNA sequence corresponds essentially with that of cr3 gene.
22. A plasmid vector containing chimeric gene as described in claim 1 under the control of a mammalian cells promoter.
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
The present invention is related to the field of immunology and in particular with the development of vaccines for the prevention or treatment of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Chimeric genes and Fowlpox Viruses expressing thereof, useful for the treatment and prevention of AIDS are disclosed.
HIV is the etiological agent of AIDS (Popovic M, Sarngadharan M, Read G, and Gallo R C. Science 1984, 224:497-500). This virus infects not only CD4+ T cells (Klatzman D, Barre Sinoussi F, Nugeyre M T, Dauguet C, Vilmer E, Griscelli C, Brun-Vezinet F, Rouzioux C, Gluckman, J D, Chermann J C and Montagnier L. Science 1984, 225:59-63) but also other cell types such as macrophages, dendritic cells, microglia and epithelial cells.
HIV can escape from the host immune response in spite of the high levels of antibodies that persists through all the infection. At the long term, HIV causes profound immunodeficiency in the host, which becomes highly susceptible to the attack of opportunistic infections.
More than 36 millions persons are living with HIV/AIDS and 94% of the 16 000 daily infections occur in developing countries. (UNAIDS. Report on the global HIV/AIDS epidemic, June 2000). Due to these alarming figures and the absence of an effective and affordable treatment for this disease, there is an urgent need for the development of an HIV vaccine.
Among several characteristics of HIV that difficult this task the more important is perhaps the high degree of genetic variability of its antigens, especially the envelope glycoproteins (gp160) where the main domains involved in the infectious process and targeted by neutralizing antibodies are located.
Vaccine candidates based on neutralizing antibodies have been able to protect against HIV in chimpanzees (Berman P W, Gregory T J, Lavon R, Nakamura G R, Champe M A, Porter J P, Wurm F M, Hershberg R D, Cobb G K and Eichberg J W. Nature 1990, 345: 622-625; Girard M, Kieny M P, Pinter A; Barre-Sinoussi F, Nara P, Kolbe H, Kusumi K, Chaput A, Rainhart T, Muchmore E, Ronco J, Kaczorek M, Gomard E, Gluckman J C and Fultz P N, PNAS 1991, 88: 542-546). However those experiments were performed in nearly ideal conditions where the dose, route and timing of the viral challenge were very different from natural infection. Moreover, those immunogens can't protect against divergent HIV isolates and the antibodies raised fail to neutralize primary HIV isolates.
Different vaccine candidates have been evaluated in Phase I and II clinical trials (Johnston M I. AIDS vaccine development: status and future directions. 1999. XII Colloque des Cent Gardes. Ed. Girard M and Dodet B. 161-163). Most of these are based on the envelope proteins: gp160 and gp120. Only one vaccine, based on recombinant gp120 is currently undergoing efficacy evaluation in Phase III trials in Thailand and USA. Results from previous trials suggested that only very limited protection if any can be expected from this vaccine.
Due to these serious limitations to generate a humoral response able to confer protection against different HIV isolates and subtypes, the efforts of the investigators have mostly switched in the last years toward the development of vaccine candidates capable of stimulate mainly the cellular branch of the immune system and particularly cytotoxic T cells directed against HIV antigens.
Among the experimental findings that strongly suggest the clinical relevance of anti HIV CTIs are: The administration of anti CD8 monoclonal antibody to macaques previously inoculated with Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus (SHIV) markedly enhanced the levels of viremia (Matano T, Shibata R, Simeon C, Connors M, Lane C, Martin M, Administration of an Anti-CD8 monoclonal antibody interferes with the clearance of chimeric Simian/Human Immunodeficiency virus during primary infections of rhesus macaques, J Virol, 1998, 72, 1: 164-169); viral variants able to escape CD8+ T cell recognition are selected in both HIV-infected individuals (Borrow, P., H. Lewicki, X. Wei, M. S. Horwitz, N. Peffer, H. Meyers, J. A. Nelson, J. E. Gairin, B. H. Hahn, M. B. A. Oldstone, and G. M. Shaw. 1997. Antiviral pressure exerted by HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) during primary infection demonstrated by rapid selection of CTL escape virus. Nature Med. 3:205-211.) and SIV-infected macaques (Allen, T. M., O. C. DH, P. Jing, J. L. Dzuris, B. R. Mothe, T. U. Vogel, E. Dunphy, M. E. Liebl, C. Emerson, N. Wilson, K. J. Kunstman, X. Wang, D. B. Allison, A. L. Hughes, R. C. Desrosiers, J. D. Altman, S. M. Wolinsky, A. Sette, and D. I. Watkins. 2000. Tat-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes select for SIV escape variants during resolution of primary viraemia. Nature. 407:386-90); SCID mice populated with PBMC from volunteers injected with HIV-1 recombinant Vaccinia Virus (VV) were protected against challenged in the absence of neutralizing antibodies (Van Kuyk R, Torbett B, Gulizia R et al, Human CTL specific for the nef protein of HIV protect hu-PBL-SCID mice from HIV infection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses, 1993; 9 (suppl 1:S77); a significant proportion of exposed uninfected persons display cellular immune response specific for HIV proteins, this is true for African sex workers (Rowland-Jones S L, J Sotton, K Ariyoshi, T Dong, F Gotch, s McAdams, D Whitby, S Sabally, A Gallimore, T Corrah, M Takiguchi, T Schitz, A McMichael, H Whittle. 1995. HIV-specific cytotoxic T cells in HIV-exposed but uninfected Gambian women. Nature Medicine, 1: 59-64) and children born from seropositive mothers (Rowland-Jones S L, D F Nixon, M C Aldhous, F Gotch, K Aroyoshi, N Hallam, J S Kroll, K Froebel, A McMichael. HIV specific cytotoxic T-cell activity in an HIV-exposed but uninfected infant. Lancet, 1993, 341: 860-861). Additionally long term non progressors exhibit a strong CTL response (Cao, Y, Qin L, Zhang I, Safrit J and Ho D D, New Engl J Med, 1995, 332:201-208; Riviere Y, McChesney M B, Porrot E, et al. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses, 11:903-990); and the HLA class I type has been associated with the rate of disease progression in HIV-1-infected individuals (Carrington, M., G. W. Nelson, M. P. Martin, T. Kissner, D. Vlahov, J. J. Goedert, R. Kaslow, S. Buchbinder, K. Hoots, and O. B. S J. 1999. HLA and HIV-1: heterozygote advantage and B*35-Cw*04 disadvantage. Science. 283:1748-52). The CTL response precede the neutralizing antibodies in the natural infection and has been associated with the control of viremia in acute infection (Koup R A, Safrit J T, Cao Y, et al, Temporal association of cellular immune responses with the initial control of viremia in primary human immunodeficiency syndrome, J Virol, 1994; 68: 4650-4655) and progression to AIDS correlates strongly with the impairment of CTL activity. (Harrer T, Harrer E, Kalams S, Elbeik T, Staprans S, Feinberg M B, Cao Y, Ho D D, Yilma T, Caliendo A, Jonson R P, Buchbinder S, and Walker B. HIV-specific CTL-response in healthy long-term asymptomatic HIV infection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses, 1996, 12, 7: 585-592). Finally vaccines that induce virus-specific CD8+ T cell responses can favorably affect the outcome of infection in SIV models of HIV infection (Barouch, D. H., S. Santra, J. E. Schmitz, M. J. Kuroda, T. M. Fu, W. Wagner, M. Bilska, A. Craiu, X. X. Zheng, G. R. Krivulka, K. Beaudry, M. A. Lifton, C. E. Nickerson, W. L. Trigona, K. Punt, D. C. Freed, L. Guan, S. Dubey, D. Casimiro, A. Simon, M. E. Davies, M. Chastain, T. B. Strom, R. S. Gelman, D. C. Montefiori, M. G. Lewis, E. A. Emini, J. W. Shiver, and N. L. Letvin. 2000. Control of viremia and prevention of clinical AIDS in rhesus monkeys by cytokine-augmented DNA vaccination. Science. 290:486-92; Gallimore, A., M. Cranage, N. Cook, N. Almond, J. Bootman, E. Rud, P. Silvera, M. Dennis, T. Corcoran, J. Stott, A. McMichael, and F. Gotch. 1995. Early suppression of SIV replication by CD8+ nef-specific cytotoxic T cells in vaccinated macaques. Nature Med. 1:1167-1173.)
All this body of experimental findings strongly suggest that therapeutic and prophylactic strategies should include the induction/preservation/restoration of this arm of the immune response as at least one of their goals.
Different methodologies have been developed to generate CTLs in animals or humans. The most effective so far has been the recombinant live vectors. This method uses harmless viruses or bacteria to transport selected genes from the pathogen into the cells of the recipient to produce there the selected antigens. This procedure of gene delivering into cells maximizes the processing of CTL epitopes and their presentation by MHC-I molecules and subsequently the efficient stimulation of CTL clones in the host.
The viruses that have been more successfully used as vectors have been the poxviruses (Poxviridae family). The best-known member of this family is Vaccinia Virus (VV), which was extensively used in humans during smallpox eradication campaign.
Several clinical trials has been carried out with VV recombinant for HIV proteins (Corey L, McElrath J, Weihold K, Matthewa T, Stablein D, Grahm B, Keefer M, Schwartz D, Gorse G. Cytotoxic T Cell and Neutralizing Antibody Responses to Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Envelope with a combination vaccine regimen. J Infectious Dis, 1998, 177:301-9; Graham B S, Matthews T J, Belshe R, Clements M L, Dolin R, Wright P F, Gorse G J, Schwartz D H, Keefer M C, Bolognesi D P, Corey L, Stablein D, Esterlitz J R, Hu S L, Smith G E, Fast P, Koff W, J Infectious Dis, 1993, 167: 533-7). However, VV has two main limitations for human use: (1) A small percentage of vaccinated persons showed strong adverse reactions that can be lethal in the case of immune-compromised individuals (2) persons with previous history of VV vaccination respond poorly against heterologous antigens.
A solution to these drawbacks has been the use of Avipoxvirus instead of VV. These are members of the poxvirus family but their replication is restricted to avian cells and its replication cycle is abortive in human cells. Two Avipoxviruses have been used with these purposes: Canarypox Virus (CPV) and Fowlpox Virus (FPV).
Avipoxviruses recombinants for various human pathogens of tumor-associated antigens induce CTL response in animals (Limbach K J, and E Paoletti. 1996. Non-replicating expression vectors: applications in vaccines development and gene therapy. Epidemiol. Infect. 116:241-256). The use of recombinant Avipoxvirus for vaccine development has been patented in USA (Paoletti E. y cols 1992 U.S. Pat. No. 5,174,993, Paoletti E. et al 1993, U.S. Pat. No. 5,505,941) and specifically a patent application on the use of recombinant avipoxviruses for lentiviral antigens has been presented in Europe. (Paoletti E et al, EP0956360)
A CPV recombinant for HIV-1 gag, pol and env has been evaluated in Phase I and II trials in healthy volunteers (Clements-Mann M L, K Weinhold, T J Matthews, B S Graham, G L Gorse, M C Keefer, M J McElrath, R-H Hsieh, J Mestecky, S Zolla-Pazner, J Mascola, D Schwartz, R Siliciano, L Corey, P F Wright, R Belshe, R Dolin, S Jackson, S Xu, P Fast, M C Walker, D Stablein, J-L Excler, J Tartaglia, A-M Duliege, F Sinangil, E Paoletti. 1998. Immune responses to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Type 1 induced by Canarypox expressing HIV-1MN gp120, HIV-1SF2 recombinant gp120, or both vaccines in seronegative adults. J Infect Dis 177: 1230-1246; Egan M A, W A Pavlat, J Tartaglia, E Paoletti, K J Weinhold, M L Clements, R F Siliciano. 1995. Induction of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1)-specific cytolytic T lymphocyte responses in seronegative adults by a nonreplicating, host-range-restricted canarypox vector (ALVAC) carrying the HIV-1 MN env gene. J Infect Dis 171: 1623-1627). CTLs against at least one HIV antigen were reported in the 50% of vaccinated in a Phase I trial, 30% in a Phase II trial and less than 10% in the last Phase I trial in Uganda. This rCPV (vCP205) was created trough the insertion of HIV genes in three different non-essential regions in the genome to achieve a CTL response against more than one HIV target.
In the other hand FPV has been also used to induce a CTL response in macaques against HIV antigens in combination with DNA immunization. (Robinson H L, D C Montefiori, R P Johnson, K H Manson, M L Kalish, J D Lifson, T A Rizvi, S Lu, S-L Hu, G P Mazzara, D L Panicali, J G Herndon, R Glickmanm, M A Candido, S L Lydy, M S Wyand and H M McClure. 1999. Nature Medicine, 5: 526-534). This combination of immunogens provided some level of protection in the HIV-1/macaca nemestrina infection model (Kent S J, A Zhao, S J Best, J D Chandler, D B Boyle, I A Ramshaw. Enhanced T-Cell immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vaccine regime consisting of a consecutive priming with DNA and boosting with recombinant fowlpox virus. 1998. J Virol, 72: 10180-10188). However this animal model present important limitations since HIV infection in M nemestrina is inefficient and difficult to reproduce.
It has also been reported the generation of a CTL response through the immunization with minigenes composed of a series of exact CTL epitopes from several pathogens (Whitton, L, Sheng N, Oldstone M B, and McKee T. A "string of beads" vaccine, comprising linked minigenes, confers protection from lethal-dose virus challenge, J Virol, 1993, 67, 1:348-352; A multivalent minigene vaccine, containing B-cell, cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte and Th epitopes from several microbes, induces appropriate responses in vivo and confers protection against more than one pathogen. J Virol, 71, 3: 2292-2302). Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) recombinant for a gag derived minigene together with the whole gag gene has been used to induce a CTL response in mice (Hanke T, R V Samuel, T J Blanchard, V C Neumann, T M Allen, J E Boyson, S A Sharpe, N Cook, G L Smith, D I Watkins, M P Cranage, A J McMichael. 1999. Effective induction of simian immunodeficiency virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in macaques by using a multiepitope gene and DNA prime-Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara boost vaccination regimen. J Virol, 73, 9: 7524-7532). Those minigenes consist of a string of discrete CTL epitopes from gag.
The main limitation of the minigene approach is that the combination of individual CTL epitopes only covers a limited range of HLA antigens and therefore the CTL response elicited is by definition to much restricted.
DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
The essence of the present invention is the construction of chimeric genes composed by CTL epitopes rich regions from HIV proteins, where those regions are selected from both, internal conserved proteins and regulatory proteins expressed very early in the viral life cycle.
This solution has advantages over the described HIV minigenes because allows the simultaneous processing of overlapping CTL epitopes presented by many HLA alleles. Another advantage of this solution in comparison to other avipoxvirus recombinant for several HIV-1 proteins is that the concentration of immunologically relevant regions from several proteins in a single gene facilitates the generation of recombinant viruses, and avoid the necessity to use several antibiotic resistance systems in the same recombinant virus. Additionally it facilitates the combination of epitopes from several HIV subtypes in a single recombinante virus. The chosen regions belong to the most conserved viral proteins and to early expressed regulatory products. Those CTL epitopes rich regions are combined with conserved T helper cells epitopes flanked by two lysines to facilitate their processing by cellular proteases. Finally a B cell epitope, recognized by a monoclonal antibody, is added to facilitate the detection of the polypeptide by immunochemical techniques.
The chimeric gene is assembled by joining together different DNA fragments, some of them generated by chemical synthesis and others amplified by Polimerase Chain Reaction (PCR) using HIV genes as templates. The DNA fragments are cloned together in an appropriate plasmid vector, sequenced and translated to a poxvirus recombination vector.
More particularly, this invention refers to the gene cr3, which contains Th cells epitopes from HIV-1 proteins gp120, gp41 and Vpr, the epitope on the V3 loop of gp120 recognized by Mab 2C4 (Duarte C A, Perez L, Vazquez J, Duenas M, Vilarubia O L, Navea L, Valdes R, Reyes O, Montero M, Ayala M, and Gavilondo J. Epitope mapping, V region DNA sequence, and neutralizing Fab fragments of two monoclonal antibodies against the HIV-1 V3 loop. Immunotechnology 1996, 2:11-20) and CTL epitopes rich regions on proteins RT, Gag and Nef.
Those chimeric genes are inserted in the genome of a bacterial or viral lived vector (ej poxvirus, herpesvirus, alphavirus, poliovirus, adenovirus, BCG, Salmonella), being this vector preferentially a poxvirus, and still more specifically an avipoxvirus and even more specifically FPV. Those recombinant live vectors are used to induce a TH1 immune response and cytotoxic T cells against HIV in animals or humans.
Even more specifically this invention relates to FPV recombinant for those chimeric proteins and particularly to the recombinant FPV strains denominated FPCR3 and FPSCR3gpt, which contains the chimeric gene cr3. Once assembled as described above cr3 is cloned in a poxvirus recombination vector, in particular a FPV recombination vector. In this particular case plasmids pEFL29 y pFP67xgpt were used as recombination vectors. pEFL29 presents homologous regions to the 6 kb BamHI terminal fragment of FPB genome, which flanks the transcriptional unit in which the heterologous gene is inserted under the control of VV 7.5K promoter, and contains also the reported gene y lacZ under the control of 4b promoter of FPV. pFP67xgpt employs open reading frames 6 and 7 from the 11.2 kb BamHI region as homologous recombination signals. Those regions flanks the transcriptional unit in which the heterologous gene is place under the synthetic poxviral E/L promoter and it also contains the gpt gene which confers resistance to mycophenolic acid which allows the selection of recombinant viruses.
The resultant plasmids were denominated pFPCR3 y pFPSCR3gpt respectively. Those plasmids are transfected in a primary culture of Chicken Embryo Fibroblasts (CEF) using one of the several transfection techniques available in the state of the art. In this particular case the transfection is carried out using lipofectin (Sigma, USA) in CEF previously infected with the FP29 strain of FPV but other methods such as electroporation and DEAE Dextran, among others, can be used. As a result of the homologous recombination between plasmid and the corresponding non-essential regions on the FPV genome recombinant viruses, which expressed B galactosidase, can be recovered in the case of pFPCR3 or resistant to mycophenolic acid in the case of pFPSCR3gpt. The presence of the selection marker allows the identification of recombinant viral plaques and their purification by several passages on CEF. The presence of the heterologous gene on the selected viruses can be verified by PCR and the expression of the protein can be verified by western blot.
This invention relates also to the use of recombinant FPV, obtained as described, to induce a TH1 immune response with CTL activity in Balb/c mice alone or in combination with a pharmaceutically accepted formulation selected from those in the state of the art.
This invention refers also to a therapeutic or preventive combination of recombinant FPV for the described chimeric genes, and particularly to FPCR3 and FPSCR3gpt, with immunomodulators or adjuvants in particular with cytokines such as IL2, IL12, IFNγ, GMSCF, GSCF, among others, which stimulates preferentially the TH1 immune response.
Particularly it refers to combination of viruses FPCR3 or FPSCR3gpt with daily doses of IL2 in a range between 102 y 107 iu in animals or humans. The daily administration of IL2 to Balb/c mice starting the day of the administration of the FPV or after potentiates the cellular immune response against CR3.
Although it refers particularly to CR3, it is in the essence of this invention that CTL rich fragments other than those in CR3 or fragments equivalent to those in CR3 but from other HIV-1 isolates can also be used.
Similarly, although it refers particularly to FP9 strain of FPV, it is in the essence of this invention that other FPV parental strains can be used to construct the recombinant viruses, as well as another avipoxvirus such as CPV, other poxvirus such as VV or MVA or still other viruses such as herpesvirus, alphavirus, adenovirus, poliovirus or even bacterias such as BCG or Salmonella.
In another embodiment of the present invention the gene can be cloned in a proper plasmid vector for expression in mammalian cells and be injected into a mammal to induce a TH1 immune response and CTL activity in combination with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.
In still another embodiment of the invention it is also included a therapeutic or preventive combination of those recombinant plasmids described above with immunomodulators or adjuvants such as described or still others such as liposomes, polysaccharides, lipopeptides, lipids, proteoliposomes or combinations thereof.
In still another embodiment of this invention those genes can be clones in other plasmids for expression of the recombinant proteins in bacteria, yeast, fungi, insect or mammalian cells, plants or in the milk of transgenic animals. The proteins recovered from these systems could also be used to induce a TH1 immune response and CTL activity in animals or humans when administered in an appropriate expressed in a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.
In still another embodiment of the invention, therapeutic or preventive combinations of CR3 protein with immunomodulators or adjuvants such as described above or still others such as liposomes, polysaccharides, lipids, proteoliposomes or other adjuvants available according to the state of the art capable to potentiate the TH1 type immune response and CTL activity in animals or humans.
DESCRIPTION OF FIGURES
FIG. 1. Plasmid pEFL-cr3, for the homologous recombination in Fowlpox using the ORF-1 from the BamH1 6 Kb terminal region as insertion site. The gene cr3 is under the control of W p7.5K promoter and the reporter gene LacZ under FPV 4b promoter.
FIG. 2. Plasmid pFP67xgpt, for homologous recombination in FPV using the DNA region between ORF-6 and ORF-7 from the 11.2 kb BamHI fragment as insertion site. The gene cr3 is placed under the control of the synthetic promoter E/L and the gene Ecogpt under the control of W 7.5K promoter.
FIG. 3. (A) PCR and (B) Western blot of three independent cr3 recombinant, FPVs: (1) FPCR3.1; (2) FPCR3.2; (3) FPCR3.3; (4) FPL29; (5) DNA molecular weight marker.
FIG. 4. (A) PCR with cr3 internal oligonucleotides (B) Western blot from three independent cr3 recombinant FPV (1) FPSCR3GPT.1; (2) FPSCR3GPT.2; (3) FPSCR3GPT.3; (4) parental virus; (5) Molecular weight marker.
FIG. 5. Stability of CR3 expression assessed by Western blot. Lanes represent three independent samples of FPV infected with FPSCR3GPT from the viral stock (1,2,3) or purified by sucrose cushion (4,5,6). Lane 7 represents CEF infected with the parental virus.
FIG. 6. Results from two independent ELISPOT experiments using splenocytes from mice immunized with FPSCR3gpt and P815 cells loaded with peptide 32 or infected with W recombinant for CR3, Gag or Nef. The results are expressed as number of IFN gamma secreting cells per 106 splenocytes. The values of the corresponding negative controls (P815 alone or VV WR infected) have been subtracted.
FIG. 7. IFN gamma ELISPOT experiments using splenocytes from mice immunized with FPCR3 or FPSCR3gpt and P815 stably transfected with the cr3 gene. The results are expressed as number of IFN gamma secreting cells per 106 splenocytes. The values of the negative controls (parental P815) have been subtracted.
FIG. 8. Recognition of WCR3 infected autologous B cells by T lymphocytes from AIDS patients. The results from an IFNγ ELISPOT are expressed as the number of IFN gamma secreting cells per 106 peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
Obtention of cr3
cr3 is a chimeric gene assembled by fragments of different HIV genes. It was assembled on pTAB11 plasmid, which is essentially equal to pTAB9 (Gomez C E, Navea L, Lobaina L, Dubed M, Exposito N, Soto A and Duarte C A. he V3 loop based Multi-Epitope Polypeptide TAB9 Adjuvated with Montanide ISA720 is Highly Immunogenic in Nonhuman Primates and Induces Neutralizing Antibodies Against Five HIV-1 isolates. Vaccine 17:2311-2319, 1999), but has the T1 and T2 T helper cell epitopes from gp120 at the 5' end extreme of the gene instead of the fragment encoding for the N-terminal part of the P64K protein. A 186 bp blunt-BamHI synthetic DNA fragment encoding for the T2 epitope from gp120, the V3 epitope of the MN strain, and T helper cell epitopes from gp41 and vpr, was cloned into pTAB11 previously digested EcoRV-BamHI. DNA sequences encoding for two consecutive lysines were inserted between individual epitopes to facilitate intracellular processing. The resultant plasmid was named pCR1. A 603 bp fragment encoding for the p66/p51 (RT) protein (pos. 2663-3109 from HIV-1 SF2 provirus) was PCR amplified using the O.2660 and O.2661 primers (table 1). The PCR fragment was extracted from low-melting agarose digested BgIII-EcoRI and subcloned into the BgIII-EcoRI cut pCR1 vector to obtain the pCR2 plasmid encoding for CR2 protein. Next, a 324 bp fragment, comprising a sequence of the nef gene (pos. 8516-8818 from HIV-1 LAI isolate), was PCR amplified with primers O.2662 and O.2663. Finally, another segment of 267 bp in the gag gene (pos. 1451-1696 from HIV-1 SF2) was amplified using primers O.2664 and O.2665 (table 1). Then, an overlapping PCR was accomplished using 20 pmol of primers O.2662 and O. 2666 (table 1). Equal amount of each band (0.47 pmol) were mixed in PCR buffer [KCl 50 mM; Tris-HCl 10 mM, (pH 8.3), at 25° C.; gelatin 0.001%], MgCl2 2.5 mM, dNTP 0.2 mM each and 4 U of Taq Polymerase, in a volume of 50 μL. To promote the annealing of the bands by the complementary 9 bp ends of O.2663 and O. 2664 oligonucleotides, the mixture was first heated at 92° C. for 2 min and then cooled at 50° C. Finally, the temperature was increased to 72° C. during 5 min to extend the annealed segments. Afterward, 10 μL of the above reaction was added to a mixture of PCR Buffer containing 2.5 mM MgCl2, 0.2 mM dNTPs, 20 pmol of O. 2662 and 20 pmol of O.2666 and 4 U Vent pol. in 50 μL as total volume. Standard amplification conditions were 92° C. for 2 min, followed by 30 cycles of 92° C. for 40 sec, 50° C. for 1 min and 72° C. for 1 min, and a final extension at 72° C. for 5 min. Next, the overlapping nef-p24 amplified band was purified from electrophoresis in low-melting agarose and digested with XbaI. Finally, the former blunt-XbaI band was cloned into a pCR2 vector previously cut NruI-XbaI to obtain pCR3 plasmid. cr3 encodes therefore for a chimeric proteins which includes T helper cells and CTL epitopes from gp120, gp41, vpr, RT, nef and gag presented by a wide range of HLA antigens (table 2).
TABLE-US-00001 TABLE 1 DNA SEQUENCE OFOLIGONUCLEOTIDES USED IN PCR REACTIONS Oligonucleotide Sequence (5'-3') O.2660 GAAGATCTGTACAGAAATGGAAAAG O.2661 GGAATTCTCGCGATCCTACATACAAATCATC O.2662 GACATCACAAGTAGCAATACAGC O.2663 CCCTGCATGTGGCTCAACTGGTACTAGCTTG O.2664 GTTGAGCCACATGCAGGGCCTATTGCAC O.2665 GCTCTAGATTATTCGGCTCTTAGAGTTTTATAG O.2666 GCTCTAGATTATTCGGCTCTTAGAG
TABLE-US-00002 TABLE 2 T CELL EPITOPES IN CR3 Epitopos HLAI HLAII p24 87-175 87-101 HAGPIAPGQMREPRG A2 91-110 IAPGQMREPRGSDIAGTTST A2, A24, B13, B38 101-120 GSDIAGTTSTLQEQIGWMTN A26, A30, B38 108-117 TSTLQEQIGW B*5701, B57, B*5801, B57, B58 121-135 NPPIPVGEIYKRWII B8 121-142 NPPIPVGEIYKRWIILGLNKIV B8, B27, A33, B35 122-130 PPIPVGEIY B*3501 124-138 IPVGEIYKRWIILGL B8 127-135 GEIYKRWII B8 128-136 EIYKRWIIL B8, B*0801 129-138 IYKRWIILGL A*2402 130-148 YKRWIILGLNKTVRMYSPT B27 1301-139 KRWIILGLN B27 134-143 IILGLNKIVR A33 136-145 LGLNKIVRMY Bw62 136-146 LGLNKIVRMYS B62 137-145 GLNKIVRMY B*1501, B62 151-170 LDIRQGPKEPRDYVDRFYK ND 162-172 RDYVDRFYKTL (B44, or A26, or B70), B*4402, A*2402 166-174 DRFYKTLRA B*1402, B14 Nef 43-150 68-76 FPVTPQVPL B*3501, B35, B7 68-77 FPVTPQVPLR B7, B*0702 71-79 TPQVPLRPM B*0702 74-81 VPLRPMTY B35 73-82 QVPLRPMTYK A3; A11; B35 74-81 VPLRPMTY B35, B*3501 75-82 PLRPMTYK A*1101 82-91 KAAVDLSHFL Cw8, C*0802 83-94 AAVDLSHFLKEK A11 84-91 AVDLSHFL Bw62 84-92 AVDLSHFLK A11, A*1101 86-94 DLSHFLKEK A3.1 86-100 DLSHFLKEKGGLEGL A2, B35, C4 90-97 FLKEKGGL B8 92-100 KEKGGLEGL B60, B*4001 93-106 EKGGLEGLIHSQRR A1, B8 102-115 HSQRRQDILDLWIY B7 103-127 SQRRQDILDLWIYHTQGYFPDWQNY B13 105-114 RRQDILDLWI B*2305 106-115 RQDILDLWIY B27 115-125 YHTQGYFPDWQ B17 116-125 HTQGYFPDWQ B57 117-128 TQGYFPDWQNYT B17; B37 117-127 TQGYFPDWQNY Bw62, B*1501 120-128 YFPDWQNYT B*3701, B*5701, B15, B37, B57 120-144 YFPDWQNYTPGPGIRYPLTFGWCYK A24 126-137 NYTPGPGVRYPLT B7 128-137 TPGPGVRYPLT B*0702, B*4201, B7, B7(*8101) 130-143 GPGVRYPLTFGWCY B*57 132-147 GVRYPLTFGWCYKLVP B18, A1, B8 133-148 VRYPLTFGWCYKLVPV B57 135-143 YPLTFGWCY B*1801, B18, B35, B49 136-145 PLTFGWCYKL A*0201, A2 RT 36-192 36-52 EICTEMEKEGKISKIGP ND 42-50 EKEGKISKI B*5101, B51 93-101 GIPHPAGLK A3 98-113 AGLKKKKSVTVLDVGD Cw4 103-107 KKSVTVLDVGDAYFS Cw4 107-115 TVLDVGDAY B35, B*3501 108-118 VLDVGDAYFSV A*0201, A2 113-120 DAYFSVPL B*5101, B24 118-127 VPLDEDFRKY B35, B*3501 126-135 KYTAFTIPSI A2 128-135 AFTIPSI B51, B*5101 151-159 QGWKGSPAI B*5101 153-165 WKGSPAIFQSSMT B27 156-164 SPAIFQSSM B7, B35, B*3501 158-166 AIFQSSMTK A*0301, A*1101, A3, A*6801, A11, A3.1, B*0301 175-142 KQNPDIVIY A*3002 177-185 NPDIVIYQY B35, B*3501 181-189 VIYQYMDDL A2, A*0201 181-191 VIYQYMDDLYV A*0201 172-192 FRKQNPDIVIYQYMDDLYVG DR1,2 6 3, 4, 7 T1-T2 gp120 421-440 KQIINMWQEVGKAMYAPPIE A2 several 436-442 KVGKAMY A2 436-443 KVGKAMYA A2 105-117 HEDIISLWNQSLK A2 several 115-123 IISLWNQSL A2.1 gp 41 584-594 ERYLKDQQLLG B14; B8; A24 582-593 YLKDQQLL B8, B*0801, A*2402 580-593 ERYLKDQQLL A2402, B0801, B8 581-592 RYLKDQQL B14, B*1402 Vpr 66-80 QLLFIHFRIGCRHSR ND
Numbers represent positions relative to the HXB2 amino acid sequence of each viral protein, the viral isolate is within parenthesis; ND, not defined.
Cloning of cr3 in pFPL29
In pCR3, the cr3 gene was cloned under the control of pTryp, with a ClaI site on the 5' and the T4 phage gene 32 terminator and a HindIII site at 3'. This plasmid was digested ClaI and HindIII, and treated with Klenow I to obtain a cr3 gene with ATG at the 5' end and translation stop codons at 3'. This DNA fragment was cloned in the poxvirus recombination vector pEFL29.
pEFL29 has the BamHI 6 Kb terminal fragment of FPV as non-essential regions for homologous recombination in the FPV genome. This fragment contains three ORF and the ORF1 is interrupted. Flanked by these homology regions are the W p7.5K, promoter, followed by a SmaI site and the reporter gene lacZ under the control of the late promoter 4b of FPV. This plasmid includes also the kanamycin resistance gene and a bacterial origin of replication.
PEFL29 was SmaI digested, treated with alkaline phosphatase and ligated with a ClaI/HindIII digested band containing cr3 gene. Several clones with cr3 in the right orientation under the p7.5K were selected. E. coli strain DH5α (φ80dlacZΔM15, recA1, endA1, gyrA96, thi-1, hsdR17 (rK- mK+), supE44, relA1, deoR, Δ(lacZYA-argF)U169) was used for propagation and selection of recombinant plasmids in LB medium containing kanamicin (25 μg/ml). All genetic manipulations were made according to Sambrook y col (Sambrook J, Fritsh E F, Maniatis T. 1989. Molecular Cloning. A Laboratory Manual. Sec Ed. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.)
The DNA sequenced of clone pEFL-cr3 (FIG. 1), was verified using an automatic sequence processor (Pharmacia). This clone was purified using CsCl gradient and used to transfect chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF).
Cloning cr3 in pFP67xqpt
cr3 gene was PCR amplified and cloned in pMosblue vector (Amersham, UK). The resultant plasmid was named pTCR3. pTCR3 was HpaI/BamHI digested and the shorter band containing cr3 was cloned in the poxvirus vector pFP67xgpt.
pFP67xgpt has a fragment of the 11.2 Kb BamH1 of FPV genome as non-essential region for homologous recombination in the FPV genome (Tomley F, Binns M, Campwell J, Boursnell M. Sequence Analysis of an 11.2 Kilobase, near-terminal, Bam HI fragment of fowlpox virus, J Gen Virol, 1988, 69, 1025-1040). This fragment contains the open reading frame 6 and 7 of this region and the insertion occurs at the intergenic region. Flanked by these homologous regions are an E/L synthetic promoter (Carroll M W, Moss B. E. coli B-glucoronidase (GUS) as a marker for recombinant vaccinia viruses, Biotechniques, 1995, 19, 3: 352-354), and the reporter gene Ecogpt under the control of 7.5K promoter of VV. This plasmid includes also the kanamycin resistance gene and a bacterial origin of replication.
Plasmid pFP67xgp was cut StuI/BamHI and ligated with a cr3 containing DNA fragment derived from the HpaI/BamHI digestion of pTCR3. Several clones with cr3 in the proper orientation under the E/L synthetic promoter were selected (FIG. 1). E. coli strain DH5α (φ80dlacZΔM15, recA1, endA1, gyrA96, thi-1, hsdR17 (rK- mK+), supE44, relA1, deoR, Δ(lacZYA-argF)U169) was used for propagation and selection of recombinant plasmids in LB medium containing ampicillin (50 μg/ml). All genetic manipulations were made according to Sambrook et al. The DNA sequenced of clone pFP67xgptct was verified using an automatic sequence processor (Pharmacia). This clone was purified using CsCl gradient and used to transfect CEF).
Generation of Recombinant FPVs
The parental FPV used for the generation of recombinants was the attenuated HP-438 strain, which was derived from the pathogenic strain HP-1 by six consecutive passages on CEFs, two further passages on chorioallantoic membranes, and finally 438 passages through CEFs (Mayr A and K Malicki. 1966. Attenuierung von virulentem Huhnerpockenvirus in Zellkulturen und Eigenschaften des attenuierten Virus. Zentralbl. Veterinaermed. Reihe B 13: 1-13). A twice-plaque-purified isolate of HP438 (FP9) was then passaged six times to constitute a stock. FPV stocks were grown on CEFs in 199 medium containing 2% newborn calf serum (NBCS).
Recombinant FPV were generated by homologous recombination between FP9 and plasmid pEFL29 or its derivatives as previously described. CEFs grown in 25 cm2 flasks were infected with FP9 at a multiplicity of infection (m.o.i) of 2 plaque forming units (pfu)/cell, then 2 hours later the cells were transfected with CsCl purified 10 μg of plasmid DNA (pEFL-cr3 or pFP67xgptctl) using 20 μg of Lipofectin (Gibco BRL, USA). Fresh medium (3 ml of 199 medium containing 10% tryptose phosphate broth plus 2% NBCS) was added and the cells were incubated at 37° C. in a CO2 incubator. Fresh medium was added again after 24 h, and then the cells were incubated for a further 3 to 4 days. After that time, the cells were freeze-thawed three times. The cell lysate was then titrated in CEF to select the recombinant viruses. After 2 hrs of adsorption the viral inoculum was removed and a layer of agarose containing EMEN was added. This layer was prepared by mixing identical volumes of 2% low melting agarose and EMEN 2X. (Gibco, Grand Island, N.Y.) with 4% fetal calf serum (Gibco, Grand Island, N.Y.). At day four viral plaques were evident. CEFs transfected with pEFL-cr3 were stained by adding another agarose layer with 0.33% Xgal (Melford Laboratories, UK) to the cultures. Blue plaques were selected and purified three times until 100% of viral plaques were positive for B galactosidase expression. Stocks of lacZ+ viruses were then amplified in CEF grown in 25 cm2 flasks in 199 medium containing 10% tryptose phosphate broth plus 2% NBCS. The selected recombinant FPV was named FPCR3.
Selective medium for transfection with plasmid pFP67xgptctl contained mycophenolic acid (25 μg/ml), xantine (250 μg/ml) and hypoxantine (1 μg/ml). At day four viral plaques were evident. Since gpt and cr3 genes are flanked by the same homology regions the isolation of viral plaques in selective medium indicate that recombination occurred and both genes are inserted in FPV genome. Plaques were purified three consecutive times in CEF. The recombinant virus selected was named FPSCR3GPT.
PCR Analysis of FPCR3
PCR analysis was used to check that the FPCR3 recombinants contained the cr3 gene. Recombinant FPV were propagated in CEFs for 6 days and then the cells were harvested and pelleted. The pellet was suspended and incubated for 2 h at 55° C. in 200 μl of extraction buffer (10 mM Tris HCl, 100 mM NaCl, 10 mM EDTA, 0.5% SDS, 2% β-mercaptoethanol) containing 1.25 mg/ml of proteinase K. The DNA was then phenol-chloroform extracted and ethanol precipitated. DNA from each virus was tested by PCR with the primers described below, complementary to sequences in the 5' and 3' of cr3 gene, respectively. The PCR conditions used were 5 min at 94° C., followed by 25 cycles of 1 min at 94° C., 1 min 30 sec at 45° C. and 1 min 30 sec at 72° C., and a final extension at 72° C. for 10 min. The primer sequences were as follows:
TABLE-US-00003 primer 775, 5' TATTAACATTGCCTAGTAG 3' primer 776, 5' GAAGTAGAATCATAAAGAAC 3'
Three independent CR3 recombinant viruses (FPCR3.1; FPCR3.2; FPCR3.3), showed the expected 1.3 kb band after the PCR reaction. This band was absent for the parental virus FPL29 (FIG. 3A).
PCR Analysis FPSCR3GPT
PCR analysis was used to check that the FPSCR3GPT recombinants contained the cr3 gene. Recombinant FPV were propagated in CEFs for 6 days, and then the cells were harvested and pelleted. The pellet was suspended and incubated for 2 h at 55° C. in 200 μl of extraction buffer (10 mM Tris HCl, 100 mM NaCl, 10 mM EDTA, 0.5% SDS, 2% β-mercaptoethanol) containing 1.25 mg/ml of proteinase K. The DNA was then phenol-chloroform extracted and ethanol precipitated. DNA from each virus was tested by PCR with the primers described below, complementary to sequences in the 5' and 3' of cr3 gene, respectively. The PCR conditions used were 5 min at 94° C., followed by 25 cycles of 1 min at 94° C., 1 min 30 sec at 45° C. and 1 min 30 sec at 72° C., and a final extension at 72° C. for 10 min. The primer sequences were as follows:
TABLE-US-00004 primer 2660, (257-279) 5' GAAGATCTGTACAGAAATGGAAAAG 3' primer 2663, (1029-1059) 5' CCCTGCATGTGGCTCAACTGGTACTAGCTTG 3'
Three independent recombinant viruses (FPSCR3gpt.1; FPSCR3gpt.2; FPSCR3gpt.3), showed the expected 800 pb band after the PCR reaction. This band was absence for the parental virus FPL29 (FIG. 4A).
Evaluation of CR3 Expression by CEF Infected by FPCR3
Expression of CR3 by the FPCR3 was confirmed by Western blotting. Confluent CEFs in 60 mm Petri dishes were infected at 0.5 pfu/cell with recombinant FPV. After 24 hours the cells were harvested, pelleted and suspended in 1×SDS gel-loading buffer (50 mM Tris HCl pH 6.8, 100 mM DTT, 2% SDS, 0.1% bromophenol blue, 10% glycerol). Proteins were fractionated by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) on a 15% gel. They were then electro-transferred onto a nitrocellulose membrane (Hybond-C, Amersham, UK) following standard protocols. After transfer, the membrane was blocked overnight in 5% non-fat dry milk in phosphate buffered saline (PBS: 2.68 mM KCl, 1.47 mM KH2PO4, 0.137M NaCl, 8.06 mM Na2HPO4). It was then incubated for 2 h at room temperature with 10 ug/ml of monoclonal antibody 6.2, diluted in PBS containing 1% dried milk. This monoclonal antibody was produced in mice immunized with CR3 (Iglesias E, Ruiz M, Carrazana Y, Cruz L J, Aguilar A, Jimenez V, Carpio E, Martinez M, Perez M. Martinez C, Cruz O, Martin A, Duarte C. Chimeric proteins containing HIV-1 epitopes. Journal Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, 2001, 5: 109-20.). The membrane was then washed and incubated with a sheep anti-mouse antibody (1:2000) conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (HRPO) (Amersham, UK). After several washes, the immunoblots were developed using the ECL Western blot detection system (Amersham, UK) according to the manufacturers' instructions. A specific band with a molecular weight between 50 y 64 kDa was detected in FPCR3 infected cultures. No protein was detected in CEF infected with the parental FP9 virus (FIG. 3 B)
Evaluation of CR3 Expression by CEF Infected by FPSCR3qpt
Expression of CR3 by the FPSCR3gpt was confirmed by Western blotting following a procedure similar to the one described in the previous example. A specific band with a molecular weight between 50 y 64 kDa was also detected in FPSCR3gpt infected cultures while no protein was detected in CEF infected with the parental FP9 virus (FIG. 4 B).
Purification of FPCR3 and FPSCR3gpt and Immunization of Mice
Large stocks of recombinant FPV were grown on CEFs obtained from eggs of a specific pathogen-free flock. FPV was purified by centrifugation of cytoplasmic extracts through a 25% (w/v) sucrose cushion in a Beckman SW28 rotor at 29000 rpm for 2 hours. Virus titers were then determined by plaque assay on CEF monolayers. FIG. 5 shows that CR3 expression did not varies after scaling up of the culture.
Young adult (five to eight-week-old) female Balb/c mice (obtained from the SPF breeding colony at the Institute for Animal Health, Compton, UK, or the Centro Nacional de Produccion de Animales de Laboratorio (CENPALAB), Cuba) were primed by the intravenous (i.v), intraperitoneal (i.p), or subcutaneous (s.c) routes with 2.5-5×107 pfu of FPCR3, FPSCR3gpt or the negative control virus in 200 μl sterile PBS. Two to four weeks later, mice were boosted by the same route with a second dose of 2.5-9×107 pfu of the same viruses in 200 μl sterile PBS.
Detection of CTL Response Against CR3 in Balb/c Mice
Enzyme-linked-immunospot (ELISPOT) assays for detection of antigen-specific IFN-γ-releasing cells were performed using a method based on that previously described (Tanguay S and J J Killion. Direct comparison of ELISPOT and ELISA-based assays for detection of individual cytokine-secreting cells. 1994. Lymphokine Cytokine Res, 13: 259-263). Briefly, immobilon-P membrane 96-well plates (Millipore, Molsheim, France) were coated with 100 μl/well of 5 μg/ml murine IFN-γ specific monoclonal antibody R4 (Pharmingen, San Diego, Calif.) overnight at 4° C., washed 3× with PBS and blocked using RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 10% FBS at 37° C. for 1 h. Test cells were then added: these were either ex vivo splenocyte suspensions (prepared as described above) from mice primed and boosted with FPCR3 or FPSCR3gpt. Different numbers of test cells were added per well: 106, 2×105 and 4×104. Cells were stimulated by addition of P815 cells incubated with synthetic peptides at 1 μM or infected with VV recombinant for CR3, Gag, or Nef at a m.o.i of 5 pfu/cell. P815 cells without peptide or infected with control vaccinia viruses (vSC8 or wild type vaccinia strain WR) were included to reveal background numbers of IFN-γ-producing cells. Each well had a final volume of 200 μl of R10 medium plus hIL-2. All assay variables were tested in duplicate. After incubation overnight (at least 17 hours), the plates were washed 3× with PBS and 5× with PBS plus 0.05% Tween 20, then a secondary biotin-conjugated antibody XMG1.2 (Pharmingen, San Diego, Calif.) was added at 0.5 μg/ml and reacted at room temperature for 2 h. The wells were washed 5× with PBS plus 0.05% Tween 20, and alkaline phosphatase (AP)-labeled streptavidin (Vector Labs, CA, USA) was added at a 1/1000 dilution in PBS plus 0.05% Tween 20 for 1 h at room temperature. The wells were washed again 3× with PBS plus 0.05% Tween 20 and 3× with PBS, and the spots were developed using an AP activity kit (Biorad, CA, USA). After 15 min, the wells were washed with tap water, dried and the spots counted under a stereoscopic microscope (Leica Microscopy System, Heerbrugg, Switzerland). Alternatively, in some assays we used HRPO-labelled streptavidin (Amersham, UK), diluted 1/800; spots were then developed with 0.1% of 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (Sigma, Saint Louis, USA) in Tris-HCl 50 mM, pH 7.4 and 0.1% of hydrogen peroxide. The results were expressed as the number of spot-forming-cells (SFC) per 106 splenocytes or fractionated cells. Values more than twice the negative control for each group (P815 without peptide or infected with control VV) were considered positive.
Results from two independent ELISPOT assay are shown in FIG. 6. A significant fraction of splenocytes from Balb/c mice immunized with FPCR3 but no with negative virus was positive in IFN gamma ELISPOT against P815 infected either with VVCR3 or VVgag and VVnef or primed with the V3 MN peptides (LKKKRIHIGPGRAFYERY).
In another experiment Balb/c mice were immunized with FPCR3 or FPSCR3gpt as described and the induction of CTLs was measured using a P815 stably transfected with cr3 (P815cr3). The results from this experiment are show in FIG. 7. Both recombinant FPV induced a significant fraction of IFB gamma secreting cells specific for CR3.
Processing and Recognition of CR3 Epitopes by Lymphocytes from AIDS Patients
Autologous B cells from HIV infected patients were EBV transformed and infected with a W recombinant for CR3 (WCR3). Those targets cells were incubated with peripheral blood lymphocytes from HIV patients and the number of IFNγ secreting splenocytes were calculated by ELISPOT. This experiment demonstrated that cr3 gene expressed by poxvirus is capable to present efficiently its epitopes to CTL lymphocytes from HIV infected patients.
9611333DNAHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 1atgcgtatca aacagattat caacatgtgg caggaagtgg gcaaagcgat gtatgccccg 60ccgatttctg gtatggttga gcagatgcat gaagatatca ttagcctgtg ggaccagtct 120cttaagaaaa agcgtatcca cattggccca ggccgtgcat tctatgaaag atacctaaag 180gatcaacagc tcctagggaa aaagcaactg ctgtttattc atttcagaat tgggtgtcga 240catagcagaa agaaagagat ctgtacagaa atggaaaagg aagggaaaat ttcaaaaatt 300gggcctgaaa atccatacaa tactccagta tttgctataa agaaaaaaga cagtactaaa 360tggagaaaac tagtagattt cagagaactt aataaaagaa ctcaagactt ctgggaagtt 420cagttaggaa taccacaccc cgcagggtta aaaaagaaaa aatcagtaac agtattggat 480gtgggtgatg catacttttc agttccctta gataaagact ttagaaagta tactgcattt 540accataccta gtataaacaa tgagacacca gggattagat atcagtacaa tgtgctgcca 600cagggatgga aaggatcacc agcaatattc caaagtagca tgacaaaaat cttagagcct 660tttagaaaac agaatccaga catagttatc tatcaataca tggatgattt gtatgtagga 720tcggacatca caagtagcaa tacagcagct accaatgctg attgtgcctg gctagaagca 780caagaggagg aggagatggg ttttccagtc acacctcagg tacctttaag accaatgact 840tacaaggcag ctgtagatct tagccacttt ttaaaagaaa aggggggact ggaagggcta 900attcactccc aacgaagaca agatatcctt gatctgtgga tctaccacac acaaggctac 960ttccctgatt ggcagaacta cacaccaggg ccaggggtca gatatccact gacctttgga 1020tggtgctaca agctagtacc agttgagcca catgcagggc ctattgcacc aggccaaatg 1080agagaaccaa ggggaagtga catagcagga actactagta cccttcagga acaaatagga 1140tggatgacaa ataatccacc tatcccagta ggagaaatct ataaaagatg gataatcctg 1200ggattaaata aaatagtaag aatgtatagc cctaccagct ttctggacat aagacaagga 1260ccaaaggaac cctttagaga ttatgtagac cggttctata aaactctaag agccgaataa 1320tctagaacgg atc 1333225DNAHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 2gaagatctgt acagaaatgg aaaag 25331DNAHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 3ggaattctcg cgatcctaca tacaaatcat c 31423DNAHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 4gacatcacaa gtagcaatac agc 23531DNAHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 5ccctgcatgt ggctcaactg gtactagctt g 31628DNAHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 6gttgagccac atgcagggcc tattgcac 28733DNAHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 7gctctagatt attcggctct tagagtttta tag 33825DNAHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 8gctctagatt attcggctct tagag 25919DNAHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 9tattaacatt gcctagtag 191020DNAHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 10gaagtagaat cataaagaac 201125DNAHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 11gaagatctgt acagaaatgg aaaag 251231DNAHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 12ccctgcatgt ggctcaactg gtactagctt g 311318PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 13Leu Lys Lys Lys Arg Ile His Ile Gly Pro Gly Arg Ala Phe Tyr Glu1 5 10 15Arg Tyr1415PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 14His Ala Gly Pro Ile Ala Pro Gly Gln Met Arg Glu Pro Arg Gly1 5 10 151520PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 15Ile Ala Pro Gly Gln Met Arg Glu Pro Arg Gly Ser Asp Ile Ala Gly1 5 10 15Thr Thr Ser Thr 201620PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 16Gly Ser Asp Ile Ala Gly Thr Thr Ser Thr Leu Gln Glu Gln Ile Gly1 5 10 15Trp Met Thr Asn 201710PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 17Thr Ser Thr Leu Gln Glu Gln Ile Gly Trp1 5 101815PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 18Asn Pro Pro Ile Pro Val Gly Glu Ile Tyr Lys Arg Trp Ile Ile1 5 10 151922PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 19Asn Pro Pro Ile Pro Val Gly Glu Ile Tyr Lys Arg Trp Ile Ile Leu1 5 10 15Gly Leu Asn Lys Ile Val 20209PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 20Pro Pro Ile Pro Val Gly Glu Ile Tyr1 52115PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 21Ile Pro Val Gly Glu Ile Tyr Lys Arg Trp Ile Ile Leu Gly Leu1 5 10 15229PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 22Gly Glu Ile Tyr Lys Arg Trp Ile Ile1 5239PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 23Glu Ile Tyr Lys Arg Trp Ile Ile Leu1 52410PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 24Ile Tyr Lys Arg Trp Ile Ile Leu Gly Leu1 5 102519PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 25Tyr Lys Arg Trp Ile Ile Leu Gly Leu Asn Lys Thr Val Arg Met Tyr1 5 10 15Ser Pro Thr269PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 26Lys Arg Trp Ile Ile Leu Gly Leu Asn1 52710PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 27Ile Ile Leu Gly Leu Asn Lys Ile Val Arg1 5 102810PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 28Leu Gly Leu Asn Lys Ile Val Arg Met Tyr1 5 102911PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 29Leu Gly Leu Asn Lys Ile Val Arg Met Tyr Ser1 5 10309PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 30Gly Leu Asn Lys Ile Val Arg Met Tyr1 53119PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 31Leu Asp Ile Arg Gln Gly Pro Lys Glu Pro Arg Asp Tyr Val Asp Arg1 5 10 15Phe Tyr Lys3211PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 32Arg Asp Tyr Val Asp Arg Phe Tyr Lys Thr Leu1 5 10339PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 33Asp Arg Phe Tyr Lys Thr Leu Arg Ala1 5349PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 34Phe Pro Val Thr Pro Gln Val Pro Leu1 53510PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 35Phe Pro Val Thr Pro Gln Val Pro Leu Arg1 5 10369PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 36Thr Pro Gln Val Pro Leu Arg Pro Met1 5378PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 37Val Pro Leu Arg Pro Met Thr Tyr1 53810PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 38Gln Val Pro Leu Arg Pro Met Thr Tyr Lys1 5 10398PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 39Val Pro Leu Arg Pro Met Thr Tyr1 5408PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 40Pro Leu Arg Pro Met Thr Tyr Lys1 54110PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 41Lys Ala Ala Val Asp Leu Ser His Phe Leu1 5 104212PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 42Ala Ala Val Asp Leu Ser His Phe Leu Lys Glu Lys1 5 10438PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 43Ala Val Asp Leu Ser His Phe Leu1 5449PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 44Ala Val Asp Leu Ser His Phe Leu Lys1 5459PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 45Asp Leu Ser His Phe Leu Lys Glu Lys1 54615PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 46Asp Leu Ser His Phe Leu Lys Glu Lys Gly Gly Leu Glu Gly Leu1 5 10 15478PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 47Phe Leu Lys Glu Lys Gly Gly Leu1 5489PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 48Lys Glu Lys Gly Gly Leu Glu Gly Leu1 54914PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 49Glu Lys Gly Gly Leu Glu Gly Leu Ile His Ser Gln Arg Arg1 5 105014PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 50His Ser Gln Arg Arg Gln Asp Ile Leu Asp Leu Trp Ile Tyr1 5 105125PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 51Ser Gln Arg Arg Gln Asp Ile Leu Asp Leu Trp Ile Tyr His Thr Gln1 5 10 15Gly Tyr Phe Pro Asp Trp Gln Asn Tyr 20 255210PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 52Arg Arg Gln Asp Ile Leu Asp Leu Trp Ile1 5 105310PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 53Arg Gln Asp Ile Leu Asp Leu Trp Ile Tyr1 5 105411PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 54Tyr His Thr Gln Gly Tyr Phe Pro Asp Trp Gln1 5 105510PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 55His Thr Gln Gly Tyr Phe Pro Asp Trp Gln1 5 105612PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 56Thr Gln Gly Tyr Phe Pro Asp Trp Gln Asn Tyr Thr1 5 105711PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 57Thr Gln Gly Tyr Phe Pro Asp Trp Gln Asn Tyr1 5 10589PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 58Tyr Phe Pro Asp Trp Gln Asn Tyr Thr1 55925PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 59Tyr Phe Pro Asp Trp Gln Asn Tyr Thr Pro Gly Pro Gly Ile Arg Tyr1 5 10 15Pro Leu Thr Phe Gly Trp Cys Tyr Lys 20 256013PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 60Asn Tyr Thr Pro Gly Pro Gly Val Arg Tyr Pro Leu Thr1 5 106111PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 61Thr Pro Gly Pro Gly Val Arg Tyr Pro Leu Thr1 5 106214PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 62Gly Pro Gly Val Arg Tyr Pro Leu Thr Phe Gly Trp Cys Tyr1 5 106316PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 63Gly Val Arg Tyr Pro Leu Thr Phe Gly Trp Cys Tyr Lys Leu Val Pro1 5 10 156416PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 64Val Arg Tyr Pro Leu Thr Phe Gly Trp Cys Tyr Lys Leu Val Pro Val1 5 10 15659PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 65Tyr Pro Leu Thr Phe Gly Trp Cys Tyr1 56610PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 66Pro Leu Thr Phe Gly Trp Cys Tyr Lys Leu1 5 106717PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 67Glu Ile Cys Thr Glu Met Glu Lys Glu Gly Lys Ile Ser Lys Ile Gly1 5 10 15Pro689PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 68Glu Lys Glu Gly Lys Ile Ser Lys Ile1 5699PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 69Gly Ile Pro His Pro Ala Gly Leu Lys1 57016PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 70Ala Gly Leu Lys Lys Lys Lys Ser Val Thr Val Leu Asp Val Gly Asp1 5 10 157115PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 71Lys Lys Ser Val Thr Val Leu Asp Val Gly Asp Ala Tyr Phe Ser1 5 10 15729PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 72Thr Val Leu Asp Val Gly Asp Ala Tyr1 57311PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 73Val Leu Asp Val Gly Asp Ala Tyr Phe Ser Val1 5 10748PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 74Asp Ala Tyr Phe Ser Val Pro Leu1 57510PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 75Val Pro Leu Asp Glu Asp Phe Arg Lys Tyr1 5 107610PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 76Lys Tyr Thr Ala Phe Thr Ile Pro Ser Ile1 5 10778PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 77Thr Ala Phe Thr Ile Pro Ser Ile1 5789PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 78Gln Gly Trp Lys Gly Ser Pro Ala Ile1 57913PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 79Trp Lys Gly Ser Pro Ala Ile Phe Gln Ser Ser Met Thr1 5 10809PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 80Ser Pro Ala Ile Phe Gln Ser Ser Met1 5819PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 81Ala Ile Phe Gln Ser Ser Met Thr Lys1 5829PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 82Lys Gln Asn Pro Asp Ile Val Ile Tyr1 5839PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 83Asn Pro Asp Ile Val Ile Tyr Gln Tyr1 5849PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 84Val Ile Tyr Gln Tyr Met Asp Asp Leu1 58511PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 85Val Ile Tyr Gln Tyr Met Asp Asp Leu Tyr Val1 5 108620PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 86Phe Arg Lys Gln Asn Pro Asp Ile Val Ile Tyr Gln Tyr Met Asp Asp1 5 10 15Leu Tyr Val Gly 208720PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 87Lys Gln Ile Ile Asn Met Trp Gln Glu Val Gly Lys Ala Met Tyr Ala1 5 10 15Pro Pro Ile Glu 20887PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 88Lys Val Gly Lys Ala Met Tyr1 5898PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 89Lys Val Gly Lys Ala Met Tyr Ala1 59013PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 90His Glu Asp Ile Ile Ser Leu Trp Asn Gln Ser Leu Lys1 5 10919PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 91Ile Ile Ser Leu Trp Asn Gln Ser Leu1 59211PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 92Glu Arg Tyr Leu Lys Asp Gln Gln Leu Leu Gly1 5 10938PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 93Tyr Leu Lys Asp Gln Gln Leu Leu1 59410PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 94Glu Arg Tyr Leu Lys Asp Gln Gln Leu Leu1 5 10958PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 95Arg Tyr Leu Lys Asp Gln Gln Leu1 59615PRTHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 96Gln Leu Leu Phe Ile His Phe Arg Ile Gly Cys Arg His Ser Arg1 5 10 15
Patent applications in class VECTOR, PER SE (E.G., PLASMID, HYBRID PLASMID, COSMID, VIRAL VECTOR, BACTERIOPHAGE VECTOR, ETC.) BACTERIOPHAGE VECTOR, ETC.)
Patent applications in all subclasses VECTOR, PER SE (E.G., PLASMID, HYBRID PLASMID, COSMID, VIRAL VECTOR, BACTERIOPHAGE VECTOR, ETC.) BACTERIOPHAGE VECTOR, ETC.)