231. Judaism

See also 151. FAITH ; 183. GOD and GODS ; 349. RELIGION ; 392. THEOLOGY .

an attitude or policy of hatred and hostility toward Jewish people. —anti-Semite , n .
Hasidism, def. 2.
1. the principles or doctrines of the cabala, a system of theosophy, theurgy, and mystical Scriptural interpretive methods originated by rabbis about the 8th century and affecting later Christian thinkers.
2. an interpretation made according to these doctrines.
3. an extreme traditionalism in theological concepts or Biblical interpretation.
4. obscurantism, especially that resulting from the use of obscure vocabulary. —cabalist , n . —cabalistic , adj.
the scattering of the Jews after the period of Babylonian exile.
a student of or expert on the Gemara, or second book of the Talmud. —Gemaric , adj.
the state or quality of being non-Jewish. —gentile , n ., adj.
Haggada, Haggadah, Aggada, Aggadah
1. the explanatory matter in rabbinic and Talmudic literature, interpreting or illustrating the Scriptures.
2. a book in which is printed the liturgy for the Seder service. —haggadic, haggadical , adj.
1. a student of the Haggada.
2. a writer of the Haggada.
Halaka, Halakah, Halachah
the entire body of Jewish law, comprising Biblical laws, oral laws transcribed in the Talmud, and subsequent codes altering traditional teachings. —Halakist, Halachist , n . — Halakic , adj.
Hasidism, Chasidism
1. the beliefs and practices of a mystical Jewish sect, founded in Poland about 1750, characterized by an emphasis on prayer, religious zeal, and joy.
2. the beliefs and practices of a pious sect founded in the 3rd century B.C. to resist Hellenizing tendencies and to promote strict observance of Jewish laws and rituals. Also Assideanism . —Hasidic , adj. —Hasidim , n. pi.
the thought, spirit, and practice characteristic of the Hebrews. —Hebraist , n. —Hebraistic, Hebraistical , adj.
1. the Jewish people collectively.
2. an area inhabited solely or mostly by Jews.
1. the Jewish religion, rites, customs, etc.
2. adherence to the Jewish religion, rites, etc. —Judaist , n. Judaic, Judaistic , adj.
Judophobism, Judophobia
a hatred of Jews and of Jewish culture. Also called Judaeophobia .
a Jewish theology based on literal interpretation of the Old Testament and rejection of rabbinical commentary. —Karaite , n .
the custom under the Mosaic code (Deut. xxv: 5-10) that required a widow to marry her dead husband’s brother if she had no sons. —levirate, leviratical , adj.
Masorete, Masorite
any of the Jewish scribes of the 10th century who compiled the Masora. —Masoretic, —Masoretical , adj.
1. a belief in a Messiah coming to deliver the Jews, restore Israel, and rule righteously, first mentioned by the Prophet Isaiah.
2. the Christian belief that Jesus Christ was the Messiah prophesied.
3. the vocation of a Messiah. —Messianic , adj.
the condition of being rooted in Mosaic tradition.
1. the system of laws and rituals established by Moses.
2. devotion to the Mosaic laws. —Mosaist , n. —Mosaic , adj.
Phariseeism, Pharisaism
1. the beliefs and practices of an ancient Jewish sect, especially strictness of religious observance, close adherence to oral laws and traditions, and belief in an afterlife and a coming Messiah. Cf. Sadducecism.
2. (l.c.) the behavior of a sanctimonious and self-righteous person. —Pharisee, pharisee n . —Pharisaic, pharisaic , adj.
the philosophy of Philo Judaeus, lst-century B.C. Alexandrian, combining Judaism and Platonism and acting as a precursor of Neoplatonism. —Philonian , adj. —Philonic , adj.
the beliefs, practices, and precepts of the rabbis of the Talmudic period. —rabbinic, rabbinical , adj.
the beliefs and principles underlying a strict observance of the Sabbath. —Sabbatarian , n ., adj.
Sadduceeism, Sadducism
the beliefs and practices of an ancient Jewish sect made up largely of the priestly aristocracy and opposing the Pharisees in both political and doctrinal matters, especially literal and less legalistic interpretation of the Jewish law, rejection of the rabbinical and prophetic traditions, and denying immortality, retribution in a future life, and the existence of angels. Cf. Phariseeism . —Sadducee , n. —Sadducean , adj.
the beliefs and actions of Jewish scribes during the life of Christ.
the study of Semitic languages and culture. —Semitist, Semiticist , n.
1. the state or quality of being Jewish.
2. anything typical or characteristic of Judaism, as customs, beliefs, influence, etc.
Sepher Torah
Torah, def. 2.
1. the teachings of the collection of Jewish law and tradition called the Talmud.
2. the observance of and adherence to these teachings. —Talmudist , n . —Talmudic , adj.
1. the first flve books of the Old Testament; the Pentateuch.
2. a scroll of these scriptures in Hebrew used for liturgical purposes. Also called Sepher Torah .
3. the entire body of Jewish law and tradition as found in the Old Testament and the Talmud.
a writer of tosaphoth.
the explanatory and critical glosses made usually in the margins of Talmudic literature.
1. the worship of Yahweh (Jehovah).
2. the act or custom of naming Jehovah Yahweh.
the beliefs, activities, and spirit of an ancient radical group in Judea that advocated overthrowing Roman rule.
a worldwide Jewish movement for the establishment in Palestine of a national homeland for Jews. —Zionist, Zionite , n . —Zionist, Zionistic , adj.

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