Respiratory alkalosis is a condition where the amount of carbon dioxide foundin the blood drops to a level below normal range. This condition produces ashift in the body's pH balance and causes the body's system to become more alkaline (basic). This condition is brought on by rapid, deep breathing calledhyperventilation.
Respiratory alkalosis is an alkali imbalance in the body caused by a lower-than-normal level of carbon dioxide in the blood. In the lungs, oxygen from inhaled air is exchanged for carbon dioxide from the blood. This process takes place between the alveoli (tiny air pockets in the lungs) and the blood vessels that connect to them. When a person hyperventilates, this exchange of oxygen for carbon dioxide is speeded up, and the person exhales too much carbon dioxide. This lowered level of carbon dioxide causes the pH of the blood to increase, leading to alkalosis.
The primary cause of respiratory alkalosis is hyperventilation. This rapid, deep breathing can be caused by conditions related to the lungs like pneumonia, lung disease, or asthma. More commonly, hyperventilation is associated withanxiety, fever, drug overdose, carbon monoxide poisoning, or serious infections. Tumors or swelling in the brain or nervous system can also cause this type of respiration. Other stresses to the body, including pregnancy, liver failure, high elevations, or metabolic acidosis can also trigger hyperventilation leading to respiratory alkalosis.
Hyperventilation, the primary cause of respiratory alkalosis, is also the primary symptom. This symptom is accompanied by dizziness, light headedness, agitation, and tingling or numbing around the mouth and in the fingers and hands. Muscle twitching, spasms, and weakness may be noted. Seizures, irregular heart beats, and tetany (muscle spasms so severe that the muscle locks in a rigid position) can result from severe respiratory alkalosis.
Respiratory alkalosis may be suspected based on symptoms. A blood sample to test for pH and arterial blood gas analysis can be used to confirm the diagnosis.
Treatment focuses on correcting the underlying condition that caused the alkalosis. Hyperventilation due to anxiety may be relieved by having the patientbreath into a paper bag. By rebreathing the air that was exhaled, the patientwill inhale a higher amount of carbon dioxide than he or she would normally.Antibiotics may be used to treat pneumonia or other infections. Other medications may be required to treat fever, seizures, or irregular heart beats. Ifthe alkalosis is related to a drug overdose, the patient may require treatment for poisoning. Use of mechanical ventilation like a respirator may be necessary. If the respiratory alkalosis has triggered the body to compensate by developing metabolic acidosis, symptoms of that condition may need to be treated, as well. If the underlying condition is treated and corrected, there may be no long-term effects. In severe cases, the patient may experience seizuresor heart beat irregularities that may be serious and life threatening.