Gyne refers to female, and mastia refers to the breast. Gynecomastia is strictly a male disease and is any growth of the adipose (fatty) and glandular tissue in a male breast. Not all breast growth in men is considered abnormal, just excess growth.
Breast growth is directed exclusively by female hormones--estrogens. Althoughmen have some estrogen in their system, it is usually insufficient to causemuch breast enlargement because it is counterbalanced by male hormones androgens. Upsetting the balance, either by more of one or less of the other, results in the male developing female characteristics, breast growth beingforemost.
At birth both male and female infants will have little breast buds from theirmother's hormones. These recede until adolescence, when girls always, and boys sometimes, have breast growth. At this time, the boy's breast growth is minimal, often one-sided and temporary.
Extra or altered sex chromosomes can produce intersex problems of several kinds. Breast growth along with male genital development is seen in Klinefelter syndrome--the condition of having an extra X (female) chromosome--anda few other chromosomal anomalies. One of the several glands that produce hormones can malfunction for reasons other than chromosomes. Failure of androgenproduction is as likely to produce gynecomastia as overabundant estrogen production. Testicular failure and castration can also be a cause. Some cancersand some benign tumors can make estrogens. Lung cancer is known to increase estrogens.
If the hormone manufacturing organs are functioning properly, problems can still arise elsewhere. The liver is the principle chemical factory in the body.Other organs like the thyroid and kidneys also effect chemical processes. Ifany of these organs are diseased, a chemical imbalance can result that alters the manufacturing process. Men with cirrhosis of the liver will often develop gynecomastia from increased production of estrogens.
Finally, drugs can also cause breast enlargement. Estrogens are given to mento treat prostate cancer and a few other diseases. Marijuana and heroin, along with some prescription drugs, have estrogen effects in some men. On the list are methyldopa (for blood pressure), cimetidine (for peptic ulcers), diazepam (Valium), antidepressants, and spironolactone (a diuretic).
Carefully feeling the area beneath the nipple of an adolescent boy with breast enlargement will reveal a discreet and sometimes tender lump the size of afat nickel or quarter. For more serious gynecomastia, the underlying diseasewill require evaluation, if it is not already well understood.
This condition is usually not treated. If it is the result of endocrine disease, hormone manipulations may reduce the effects of the imbalance. There area number of medical and surgical interventions possible. Radiation of misbehaving organs and cancers is considered an effective treatment.