Yellow fever is a severe infectious disease, caused by a virus called a "flavivirus." This flavivirus has caused outbreaks of epidemic proportions throughout Africa and tropical America. The first written evidence of such an epidemic occurred in the Yucatan in 1648. Since that time, much has been learned about the interesting transmission patterns of this devastating illness.
In order to understand how yellow fever is passed, several terms need to be defined. The word "host" refers to an animal that can be infected with a particular disease. The term "vector" refers to an organism which can carry a particular disease-causing agent (such as a virus or bacteria) without actually developing the disease. The vector can then pass the virus or bacteria on to anew host.
Many of the common illnesses in the United States (including the common cold,many viral causes of diarrhea, and influenza or "flu") are spread via directpassage of the causative virus between human beings. Yellow fever, however,cannot be passed directly from one infected human being to another. Instead,the virus responsible for yellow fever requires an intermediate vector, a mosquito, which carries the virus from one host to another.
The hosts of yellow fever include both humans and monkeys. The cycle of yellow fever transmission occurs as follows: an infected monkey is bitten by a tree-hole breeding mosquito. This mosquito acquires the virus, and can pass thevirus on to any number of other monkeys that it may bite. When a human is bitten by such a mosquito, the human may acquire the virus. In the case of SouthAmerican yellow fever, the infected human may return to the city, where an urban mosquito (Aedes aegypti) serves as a viral vector, spreading theinfection rapidly by biting humans.
Once a mosquito has passed the yellow fever virus to a human, the chance of disease developing is about 5-20%. Infection may be fought off by the host's immune system, or may be so mild that it is never identified.
In human hosts who develop the disease yellow fever, there are five distinctstages through which the infection evolves. These have been termed the periods of incubation, invasion, remission, intoxication, and convalescence.
Yellow fever's incubation period (the amount of time between the introductionof the virus into the host and the development of symptoms) is three to sixdays. During this time, there are generally no symptoms identifiable to the host.
The period of invasion lasts two to five days, and begins with an abrupt onset of symptoms, including fever and chills, intense headache and lower backache, muscle aches, nausea, and extreme exhaustion. The patient's tongue shows acharacteristic white, furry coating in the center, surrounded by a swollen,reddened margin. While most other infections that cause a high fever also cause an increased heart rate, yellow fever results in an unusual finding, called Faget's sign. This is the simultaneous occurrence of a high fever with a slowed heart rate. Throughout the period of invasion, there are still live viruses circulating in the patient's blood stream. Therefore, a mosquito can bitethe ill patient, acquire the virus, and continue passing it on to others.
The next phase is called the period of remission. The fever falls, and symptoms decrease in severity for several hours to several days. In some patients,this signals the end of the disease; in other patients, this proves only to be the calm before the storm.
The period of intoxication represents the most severe and potentially fatal phase of the illness. During this time, lasting three to nine days, a type ofdegeneration of the internal organs (specifically the kidneys, liver, and heart) occurs. This fatty degeneration results in what is considered the classictriad of yellow fever symptoms: jaundice, black vomit, and the dumping of protein into the urine. Jaundice causes the whites of the patient's eyes and the patient's skin to take on a distinctive yellow color. This is due to liverdamage, and the accumulation of a substance called bilirubin, which is normally processed by a healthy liver. The liver damage also results in a tendencytoward bleeding; the patient's vomit appears black due to the presence of blood. Protein, which is normally kept out of the urine by healthy, intact kidneys, appears in the urine due to disruption of the kidney's healthy functioning.
Patients who survive the period of intoxication enter into a relatively shortperiod of convalescence. They recover with no long term effects related to the yellow fever infection. Further, infection with the yellow fever virus results in lifelong immunity against repeated infection with the virus.
Diagnosis of yellow fever depends on the examination of blood by various techniques in order to demonstrate either yellow fever viral antigens (the part of the virus that stimulates the patient's immune system to respond) or specific antibodies (specific cells produced by the patient's immune system which are directed against the yellow fever virus). The diagnosis can be strongly suspected when Faget's sign is present. When the classic triad of symptoms is noted yellow fever is strongly suspected.
There are no current anti-viral treatments available to combat the yellow fever virus. The only treatment of yellow fever involves attempts to relieve itssymptoms. Fevers and pain should be relieved with acetaminophen, not aspirinor ibuprofen, both of which could increase the already-present risk of bleeding. Dehydration (due to fluid loss both from fever and bleeding) needs to becarefully avoided. This can be accomplished by increasing fluids. The risk of bleeding into the stomach can be decreased through the administration of antacids and other medications. Hemorrhage may require blood transfusions. Kidney failure may require dialysis (a process that allows the work of the kidneys in clearing the blood of potentially toxic substances to be taken over by amachine, outside of the body).
Five to ten percent of all diagnosed cases of yellow fever are fatal. Jaundice occurring during a yellow fever infection is an extremely grave predictor.Twenty to fifty percent of these patients die of the infection. Death may occur due to massive bleeding (hemorrhage), often following a lapse into a comatose state.
A very safe, very effective yellow fever vaccine exists. About 95% of vaccinerecipients acquire long-term immunity to the yellow fever virus. Careful measures to decrease mosquito populations in both urban areas and jungle areas in which humans are working, along with programs to vaccinate all people living in such areas, are necessary to avoid massive yellow fever outbreaks.