John Simon Biography (1816-1904)
Simon was a physician by training, but he is most famous for his dramatic reforms of London's public health system, which set the standard for 19th-century urban sanitation and health measures. Of the era's public health advocates,Simon is generally regarded as one of the most influential.
Born in London, Simon received his early medical education during his work asan apprentice to a well-known local surgeon at the St. Thomas Hospital. He completed his formal studies at the University of London's King's College, andfrom 1840 to 1847 served as a surgeon at the school's associated hospital.
Simon became the City of London's first medical officer of health in 1848, and in that capacity issued annual reports that led directly to the Sanitary Act of 1866. This landmark legislation formed the backdrop for industrial hygiene policy and created the first mandatory, universal, and science-based public health law. Simon's involvement here helped transform the issue of public health from a political platform to one rooted in scientific investigation andanalysis. His reports also provided impetus for the Public Health Act of 1875, which established a comprehensive sanitary code that evolved and lasted for a century.
Simon remained in the city post until 1855, when he was appointed the first medical officer in the kingdom's central government. As such, Simon is credited with being a major force behind the 1858 Medical Reform Act. He used his office to establish a state medical department to oversee public health, solidify the concept of state scientific research, strengthen the existing public vaccination system, and supervise members of the medical profession.
Among Simon's other accomplishments while working for the central governmentwere his implementation of building inspections, his development of methods to make the water supply cleaner and sewers more effective, his abolition of cesspools, and his creation of a set of procedures to follow for outbreaks ofcontagious diseases. He stepped down from his government post in 1876.
Aside from his considerable achievements as a government official, Simon wasalso a respected lecturer, researcher (particularly in the field of glandularphenomena), and surgeon. One of his most famous surgical feats was his development of a perineal urethra puncture method to correct urine retention caused by stricture. A chapter he wrote in System of Surgery (Holmes) on inflammation is now regarded as a classic on the subject. In his later years the physician wrote several books, including English Sanitary Institutions (1890) and Personal Recollections (1898). He received a knighthoodin 1887 for his contributions to public health and welfare. Simon died in London in 1904.