NIJ (National Institute of Justice)
The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) serves the United States Department of Justice in the areas of research, development, and evaluation. Established under the authority of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968, its purpose is to provide independent, evidencebased tools to assist state and local law enforcement. Its programs address a variety of law-enforcement issues, including use of DNA evidence, drug abuse, and domestic violence.
Appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate, the director of NIJ is responsible for establishing objectives in alignment with Justice Department priorities, as well as the current needs of the field. It works to take account of views from professionals in all areas of criminal justice and related fields in its search for knowledge and tools to guide the policy and practice of law enforcement nationwide. On January 12, 2003, it reorganized, streamlining its structure from three offices to two; the Office of Development and Communications and the Office of Research and Evaluation.
NIJ has set research priorities in a number of fields, including law enforcement and policing; justice systems (sentencing, courts, prosecution, defense); corrections; investigative and forensic sciences (including DNA); counterterrorism and critical incidents; crime prevention/causes of crime; violence and victimization (including violent crimes); drugs, alcohol, and crime; interoperability, spatial information, and automated systems; and program evaluation. Among its programs are the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Program (ADAM); Community Mapping, Planning, and Analysis for Safety Strategies (COMPASS); National Commission on the Future of DNA Evidence; and the Violence Against Women and Family Violence Research and Evaluation Program.
█ FURTHER READING:
Connors, Edward F. Convicted by Juries, Exonerated by Science: Case Studies in the Use of DNA Evidence to Establish Innocence After Trial. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Justice, 1996.
Kelling, George L. Broken Windows and Police Discretion. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Justice, 1999.
Riley, Kevin Jack. Crack, Powder Cocaine, and Heroin: Drug Purchase and Use Patterns in Six U.S. Cities. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Justice, 1998.
"Crime Year in Review." Crime Control Digest 36, no. 35 (August 30, 2002): 1.
"NIJ Technologies for Public Safety." Law & Order 50, no. 8 (August 2002).
Waldron, Ronald J. "National Institute of Justice Helps Facilities Implement Telemedicine Program." Corrections Today 64, no. 2 (April 2002): 184.
National Institute of Justice. < http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij/ > (March 28, 2003).