Guatemala gained its independence from Spain in 1821. After colonial rule, the region was politically dominated by rival large-land owners.
In the modern era, guerilla warfare refers to armed resistance by paramilitary or irregular groups toward an occupying force. Guerilla warfare also describes a set of tactics employed by smaller forces against larger, better equipped, and better supplied forces.
HAMAS was formed in late 1987 as an outgrowth of the Palestinian branch of the Muslim Brotherhood. Various HAMAS elements have used both political and violent means, including terrorism, to pursue the goal of establishing an Islamic Palestinian state in place of Israel.
Harakat ul-Jihad-I-Islami (HUJI)—Movement of Islamic Holy War—is a Sunni extremist group that follows the Deobandi tradition of Islam, and was founded in 1980 in Afghanistan to fight in the Jihad against the Soviets. It is also affiliated with the Jamiat Ulema-I-Islam Fazlur Rehman faction (JUI-F) and the Deobandi school of Sunni Islam.
The mission of Harakat ul-Jihad-I-Islami/Bangladesh (HUJIB) (Movement of Islamic Holy War), led by Shauqat Osman, is to establish Islamic rule in Bangladesh. HUJI-B has connections to the Pakistani militant groups Harakat ul-Jihad-I-Islami (HUJI) and Harakat ul-Mujahidin (HUM), who advocate similar objectives in Pakistan and Kashmir.
The Harakat ul-Mujahidin is an Islamic militant group based in Pakistan that operates primarily in Kashmir. It is politically aligned with the radical political party, Jamiat Ulema-I Islam Fazlur Rehman faction (JUI-F).
In a general sense, hardening is the process of securing a computer. More specifically, hardening is the removal or disabling of all components in a computer system that are not necessary to its principal function or functions.
The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is responsible for overseeing government departments and programs devoted to public health. The HHS manages federal health insurance programs Medicare and Medicaid for certain citizens.
Heavy water is water (H2O) in which oxygen is bound to atoms of the hydrogen isotope deuterium (2H). Heavy water is so named because it is significantly more dense (>1.1 g/cm3) than ordinary ("light") water, 1H2O (1 gm/cm3).
Hemorrhagic diseases are caused by infection with viruses or bacteria. As the name implies, a hallmark of a hemorrhagic disease is copious bleeding.
Hizballah (Party of God) (also operates as, or is known as: Islamic Jihad, Revolutionary Justice Organization, Organization of the Oppressed on Earth, and Islamic Jihad for the Liberation of Palestine) was formed in 1982 in response to the Israeli invasion of Lebanon. This Lebanon-based radical Shi'a group takes its ideological inspiration from the Iranian revolution and the teachings of the Ayatollah Khomeini.
The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is a direct outgrowth of the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, which highlighted America's vulnerability to terrorism. Initiated by President George W.
Human intelligence, or HUMINT, is the gathering of information through human contact. It is, along with signals intelligence and imagery intelligence (SIGINT and IMINT respectively), one of the three traditional means of intelligence gathering.
Part of the Empire of Austria-Hungary preceding World War I, Hungary gained its independence following the collapse of the imperial government in 1918. After World War II, the nation fell under the Soviet sphere of influence as a reluctant satellite nation.
A supersonic aircraft flies faster than Mach 1, or the speed of sound, whereas a hypersonic aircraft is a plane capable of flying at Mach 5, or five times the speed of sound. At sea-level atmospheric pressure, with air temperatures of 59°F (15°C), the speed of sound is about 760 miles per hour (1,225 kph).
The Interagency Border Inspection System (IBIS) is a database of names and other identifying information used to deter and apprehend suspects—including suspected terrorists—as they attempt to pass through international border crossing checkpoints.
The Automated Biometric Identification System (IDENT) is a database system using automated fingerprint identification systems (AFIS) technology as part of programs supervised by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security that intend to thwart illegal entry into the United States by criminal aliens.
Identity theft is among the fastest growing crimes in America. A thief typically steals someone's identity, opens checking and credit card accounts in that person's name, then goes on a spending spree.
Identification friend or foe (IFF) systems are methods of identifying aircraft using electronic means. Applied by both military and civilian entities, IFF—which in its civilian form is more properly known as the air traffic control radar beacon system, or ATCRBS—uses radar to identify aircraft, which are assigned unique identifier codes.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an economic organization that promotes financial cooperation, economic stability, and fair trade among its 184 member nations and provides temporary monetary assistance to countries in need.
IMINT, or imagery intelligence, is one of the four major branches of intelligence, along with HUMINT, MASINT, and SIGINT (human, measurement and signatures, and signals intelligence respectively). Formerly known as photographic intelligence, or PHOTINT, IMINT is derived from photography, infrared sensors, synthetic aperture radar, and other forms of imaging technology.
Espionage and intelligence appears in the recorded history of the Indus Valley as early as the fifth century. The modern nation of India gained its independence from Britain in 1947.
Once the Netherlands's colonial stronghold in the Asian Pacific region, Indonesia gained its independence in 1949. The nation fell under military-influenced authoritarian rule for four decades, but began the transition to demilitarized, popular government in 1985.
Infectious diseases are those diseases that are caused by microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses, many of which are spread from person to person. An intermittent host, or vector, aids the spread of some infectious diseases.
Information security, often compressed to "infosec," is the preservation of secrecy and integrity in the storage and transmission of information. Whenever information of any sort is obtained by an unauthorized party, information security has been breached.
The Office of Information Security (OIS) is a unit within the General Service Administration (GSA) charged with the protection of computer data for the federal government. It employs a team of skilled technicians and specialists to manage, store, process, and most importantly provide security for electronic information systems.
The term "information warfare" refers not to a single idea or phenomenon, but to a variety of tools and techniques all centered around the concept that military success is as much a matter of information and ideas as of weapons and tactics. According to the National Defense University's Martin C.
Infrared detection devices are sensors that detect radiation in the infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum (>1012 to 5 × 1014 Hz). Often, such devices form the information they gather into visible-light images for the benefit of human users; alternatively, they may communicate directly with an automatic system, such as the guidance system of a missile.
Formerly a unit of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the National Infrastructure Protection Center (NIPC) moved to the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) when the latter began its functions in March 2003. NIPC is charged with assessing threats to critical infrastructure—particularly computer systems—and providing warnings concerning threats and vulnerabilities.