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Flag of San Marino
Map of San Marino
Introduction San Marino
The third smallest state in Europe (after the Holy See and Monaco) also claims to be the world's oldest republic. According to tradition, it was founded by a Christian stonemason named Marinus in 301 A.D. San Marino's foreign policy is aligned with that of Italy. Social and political trends in the republic also track closely with those of its larger neighbor.
Geography San Marino
Southern Europe, an enclave in central Italy
Geographic coordinates:
43 46 N, 12 25 E
Map references:
total: 61.2 sq km
water: 0 sq km
land: 61.2 sq km
Area - comparative:
about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
total: 39 km
border countries: Italy 39 km
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
none (landlocked)
Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers
rugged mountains
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Torrente Ausa 55 m
highest point: Monte Titano 755 m
Natural resources:
building stone
Land use:
arable land: 16.67%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 83.33% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Natural hazards:
Environment - current issues:
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Nuclear Test Ban
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution
Geography - note:
landlocked; smallest independent state in Europe after the Holy See and Monaco; dominated by the Apennines
People San Marino
27,730 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 16.1% (male 2,300; female 2,161)
15-64 years: 67.5% (male 9,102; female 9,625)
65 years and over: 16.4% (male 1,956; female 2,586) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
1.41% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
10.64 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
7.79 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
11.29 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.09 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
6.09 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 81.33 years
female: 85.18 years (2002 est.)
male: 77.79 years
Total fertility rate:
1.3 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
noun: Sammarinese (singular and plural)
adjective: Sammarinese
Ethnic groups:
Sammarinese, Italian
Roman Catholic
definition: age 10 and over can read and write
total population: 96%
male: 97%
female: 95% (1976 est.)
Government San Marino
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of San Marino
conventional short form: San Marino
local short form: San Marino
local long form: Repubblica di San Marino
Government type:
independent republic
San Marino
Administrative divisions:
9 municipalities (castelli, singular - castello); Acquaviva, Borgo Maggiore, Chiesanuova, Domagnano, Faetano, Fiorentino, Monte Giardino, San Marino, Serravalle
3 September 301
National holiday:
Founding of the Republic, 3 September (301)
8 October 1600; electoral law of 1926 serves some of the functions of a constitution
Legal system:
based on civil law system with Italian law influences; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: cochiefs of state Captain Regent Giuseppe Maria MORGANTI and Captain Regent Mauro CHIARUZZI (for the period 1 October 2002-31 March 2003)
elections: cochiefs of state (captains regent) elected by the Great and General Council for a six-month term; election last held NA September 2002 (next to be held NA April 2003); secretary of state for foreign and political affairs elected by the Great and General Council for a five-year term; election last held 17 December 2002 (next to be held NA June 2007)
note: the popularly elected parliament (Grand and General Council) selects two of its members to serve as the Captains Regent (cochiefs of state) for a six-month period; they preside over meetings of the Grand and General Council and its cabinet (Congress of State) which has ten other members, all selected by the Grand and General Council; assisting the captains regent are ten secretaries of state; the secretary of state for Foreign Affairs has assumed some of the prerogatives of a prime minister
election results: Giuseppe Maria MORGANTI and Mauro CHIARUZZI reelected captains regent; percent of legislative vote - NA%; Fiorenzo STOLFI elected secretary of state for foreign and political affairs; percent of legislative vote - 40%
cabinet: Congress of State elected by the Great and General Council for a five-year term
head of government: Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs Fiorenzo STOLFI (since 17 December 2002)
Legislative branch:
unicameral Grand and General Council or Consiglio Grande e Generale (60 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 10 June 2001 (next to be held by June 2006)
election results: percent of vote by party - PDCS 41.4%, PSS 24.2%, PD 20.8%, APDS 8.2%, RC 3.4%, AN 1.9%; seats by party - PDCS 25, PSS 15, PD 12, APDS 5, RC 2, AN 1
Judicial branch:
Council of Twelve or Consiglio dei XII
Political parties and leaders:
Communist Refoundation or RC [Ivan FOSHI]; Ideas in Movement or IM [Alessandro ROSSI]; National Alliance or AN [leader NA]; Party of Democrats or PD [Claudio FELICI]; San Marino Christian Democratic Party or PDCS [Romeo RIORRI]; San Marino Popular Alliance of Democrats or APDS [Roberto GIORGETTI]; San Marino Socialist Party or PSS [Augusto CASALI]; Socialists for Reform or SR [Renzo GIARDI]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in the US:
San Marino does not have an embassy in the US
honorary consulate(s) general: Washington, DC and New York
honorary consulate(s): Detroit and Honolulu
Diplomatic representation from the US:
the US does not have an embassy in San Marino; the US Consul General in Florence (Italy) is accredited to San Marino
Flag description:
two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and light blue with the national coat of arms superimposed in the center; the coat of arms has a shield (featuring three towers on three peaks) flanked by a wreath, below a crown and above a scroll bearing the word LIBERTAS (Liberty)
Economy San Marino
Economy - overview:
The tourist sector contributes over 50% of GDP. In 2000 more than 3 million tourists visited San Marino. The key industries are banking, wearing apparel, electronics, and ceramics. Main agricultural products are wine and cheeses. The per capita level of output and standard of living are comparable to those of the most prosperous regions of Italy, which supplies much of its food.
purchasing power parity - $940 million (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
7.5% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
purchasing power parity - $34,600 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Population below poverty line:
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.3% (2001)
Labor force:
18,500 (1999) (1999)
Labor force - by occupation:
services 57%, industry 42%, agriculture 1% (2000 est.)
Unemployment rate:
2.6% (2001)
revenues: $400 million
expenditures: $400 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
tourism, banking, textiles, electronics, ceramics, cement, wine
Industrial production growth rate:
6% (1997 est.)
Electricity - production:
0 kWh
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: NA%
other: NA%
nuclear: NA%
hydro: NA%
Electricity - consumption:
184.5 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh
note: electric power supplied by Italy (1999)
Electricity - imports:
185 kWh
note: electricity supplied by Italy (2000)
Agriculture - products:
wheat, grapes, corn, olives; cattle, pigs, horses, beef, cheese, hides
trade data are included with the statistics for Italy
Exports - commodities:
building stone, lime, wood, chestnuts, wheat, wine, baked goods, hides, ceramics
trade data are included with the statistics for Italy
Imports - commodities:
wide variety of consumer manufactures, food
Debt - external:
Economic aid - recipient:
euro (EUR); Italian lira (ITL)
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
euros per US dollar - 1.1324 (January 2002), 1.1175 (2001), 1.08540 (2000), 0.93863 (1999); Italian lire per US dollar - 1,736.2 (1998), 1,703.1 (1997)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications San Marino
Telephones - main lines in use:
18,000 (1998)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
3,010 (1998)
Telephone system:
general assessment: adequate connections
domestic: automatic telephone system completely integrated into Italian system
international: connected to Italian international network
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 0, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)
16,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
1 (San Marino residents also receive broadcasts from Italy) (1997)
9,000 (1997)
Internet country code:
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
2 (2000)
Internet users:
Transportation San Marino
0 km; note - there is a 1.5-km cable railway connecting the city of San Marino to Borgo Maggiore
total: 220 km
paved: 220 km
unpaved: 0 km (2001)
Ports and harbors:
none (2001)
Military San Marino
Military branches:
Voluntary Military Force (Corpi Militari Voluntar), Gendarmerie; note - the Voluntary Military Force performs ceremonial duties and limited police assistance
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$700,000 (FY00/01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Transnational Issues San Marino
Disputes - international:

This page was last updated on 19 March 2003