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CIA Seal  World Factbook Seal Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Flag of Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Map of Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Introduction Saint Pierre and Miquelon
First settled by the French in the early 17th century, the islands represent the sole remaining vestige of France's once vast North American possessions.
Geography Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Northern North America, islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, south of Newfoundland (Canada)
Geographic coordinates:
46 50 N, 56 20 W
Map references:
North America
total: 242 sq km
note: includes eight small islands in the Saint Pierre and the Miquelon groups
water: 0 sq km
land: 242 sq km
Area - comparative:
1.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
120 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
territorial sea: 12 NM
cold and wet, with much mist and fog; spring and autumn are windy
mostly barren rock
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Morne de la Grande Montagne 240 m
Natural resources:
fish, deepwater ports
Land use:
arable land: 13.04%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 86.96% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Natural hazards:
persistent fog throughout the year can be a maritime hazard
Environment - current issues:
recent test drilling for oil in waters around Saint Pierre and Miquelon may bring future development that would impact the environment
Geography - note:
vegetation scanty
People Saint Pierre and Miquelon
6,954 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 25.4% (male 904; female 864)
15-64 years: 64.4% (male 2,288; female 2,193)
65 years and over: 10.2% (male 303; female 402) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.35% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
14.96 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
6.61 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
-4.89 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
8.18 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.93 years
female: 80.32 years (2002 est.)
male: 75.66 years
Total fertility rate:
2.1 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
noun: Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women)
adjective: French
Ethnic groups:
Basques and Bretons (French fishermen)
Roman Catholic 99%
French (official)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (1982 est.)
Government Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Country name:
conventional long form: Territorial Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon
conventional short form: Saint Pierre and Miquelon
local short form: Saint-Pierre et Miquelon
local long form: Departement de Saint-Pierre et Miquelon
Dependency status:
self-governing territorial collectivity of France
Government type:
Administrative divisions:
none (territorial collectivity of France); note - there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are two communes - Saint Pierre, Miquelon at the second order
none (territorial collectivity of France; has been under French control since 1763)
National holiday:
Bastille Day, 14 July (1789)
28 September 1958 (French Constitution)
Legal system:
French law with special adaptations for local conditions, such as housing and taxation
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Jacques CHIRAC of France (since 17 May 1995), represented by Prefect Claude VALLEIX (since 9 October 2002)
elections: French president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held, first round - 21 April 2002, second round - 5 May 2002 (next to be held NA 2007); prefect appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; president of the General Council is elected by the members of the council
head of government: President of the General Council Marc PLANTAGENEST (since NA)
cabinet: NA
Legislative branch:
unicameral General Council or Conseil General (19 seats - 15 from Saint Pierre and 4 from Miquelon; members are elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms)
elections: elections last held 19 and 26 March 2000 (next to be held NA April 2006)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PS 12, PRG 2, UDF-RPR 5
note: Saint Pierre and Miquelon elect 1 seat to the French Senate; elections last held NA September 1995 (next to be held NA September 2004); results - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - RPR 1; Saint Pierre and Miquelon also elects 1 seat to the French National Assembly; elections last held, first round - 9 June 2002, second round - 16 June 2002 (next to be held NA 2007); results - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - UDF 1
Judicial branch:
Superior Tribunal of Appeals or Tribunal Superieur d'Appel
Political parties and leaders:
PRG [leader NA]; Rassemblement pour la Republique or RPR [leader NA]; Socialist Party or PS [leader NA]; Union pour la Democratie Francaise or UDF [leader NA]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in the US:
none (territorial collectivity of France)
Diplomatic representation from the US:
none (territorial collectivity of France)
Flag description:
a yellow sailing ship facing the hoist side rides on a dark blue background with a black wave line under the ship; on the hoist side, a vertical band is divided into three parts: the top part is red with a green diagonal cross extending to the corners overlaid by a white cross dividing the square into four sections; the middle part has a white background with an ermine pattern; the third part has a red background with two stylized yellow lions outlined in black, one on top of the other; the flag of France is used for official occasions
Economy Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Economy - overview:
The inhabitants have traditionally earned their livelihood by fishing and by servicing fishing fleets operating off the coast of Newfoundland. The economy has been declining, however, because of disputes with Canada over fishing quotas and a steady decline in the number of ships stopping at Saint Pierre. In 1992, an arbitration panel awarded the islands an exclusive economic zone of 12,348 sq km to settle a longstanding territorial dispute with Canada, although it represents only 25% of what France had sought. The islands are heavily subsidized by France to the great betterment of living standards. The government hopes an expansion of tourism will boost economic prospects. Recent test drilling for oil may pave the way for development of the energy sector.
purchasing power parity - $74 million (1996 est.); supplemented by annual payments from France of about $60 million (1996 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
GDP - per capita:
purchasing power parity - $11,000 (1996 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Population below poverty line:
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.1% (1991-96 average)
Labor force:
3,000 (1997) (1997)
Labor force - by occupation:
fishing 18%, industry (mainly fish-processing) 41%, services 41% (1996 est.)
Unemployment rate:
9.8% (1997) (1997)
revenues: $70 million
expenditures: $60 million, including capital expenditures of $24 million
fish processing and supply base for fishing fleets; tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
Electricity - production:
41 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
38.13 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
vegetables; poultry, cattle, sheep, pigs; fish
$12 million f.o.b. (1999)
Exports - commodities:
fish and fish products, soybeans, animal feed, mollusks and crustaceans, fox and mink pelts
Exports - partners:
US 43%, Egypt 14%, Japan 11%, Colombia 8% (1999)
$55 million f.o.b. (1999)
Imports - commodities:
meat, clothing, fuel, electrical equipment, machinery, building materials
Imports - partners:
France 44%, Canada 40% (1999)
Debt - external:
Economic aid - recipient:
approximately $60 million in annual grants from France
euro (EUR); French franc (FRF)
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
euros per US dollar - 1.06594 (January 2001), 1.08540 (2000), 0.93863 (1999); French francs per US dollar - 5.8995 (1998), 5.8367 (1997)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Telephones - main lines in use:
4,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
0 (1994)
Telephone system:
general assessment: adequate
domestic: NA
international: radiotelephone communication with most countries in the world; 1 earth station in French domestic satellite system
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 1, FM 4, shortwave 0 (1998)
4,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
0 (there are, however, two repeaters which rebroadcast programs from France, Canada, and the US) (1997)
4,000 (1997)
Internet country code:
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
1 (2000)
Internet users:
Transportation Saint Pierre and Miquelon
0 km
total: 114 km
paved: 69 km
unpaved: 45 km (1994 est.)
Ports and harbors:
Saint Pierre
Merchant marine:
none (2002 est.)
2 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2002)
Military Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Military - note:
defense is the responsibility of France
Transnational Issues Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Disputes - international:

This page was last updated on 19 March 2003