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CIA Seal  World Factbook Seal Bermuda
Flag of Bermuda
Map of Bermuda
Introduction Bermuda
Bermuda was first settled in 1609 by shipwrecked English colonists headed for Virginia. Tourism to the island to escape North American winters first developed in Victorian times. Tourism continues to be important to the island's economy, although international business has overtaken it in recent years. Bermuda has developed into a highly successful offshore financial center. A referendum on independence was soundly defeated in 1995.
Geography Bermuda
North America, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, east of North Carolina (US)
Geographic coordinates:
32 20 N, 64 45 W
Map references:
North America
total: 53.3 sq km
water: 0 sq km
land: 53.3 sq km
Area - comparative:
about one-third the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
0 km
103 km
Maritime claims:
exclusive fishing zone: 200 NM
territorial sea: 12 NM
subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in winter
low hills separated by fertile depressions
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Town Hill 76 m
Natural resources:
limestone, pleasant climate fostering tourism
Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 100% (55% developed, 45% rural/open space) (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
NA sq km
Natural hazards:
hurricanes (June to November)
Environment - current issues:
asbestos disposal; water pollution; preservation of open space; sustainable development
Geography - note:
consists of about 138 coral islands and islets with ample rainfall, but no rivers or freshwater lakes; some land, reclaimed and otherwise, was leased by US Government from 1941 to 1995
People Bermuda
63,960 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 19.2% (male 6,058; female 6,225)
15-64 years: 69.4% (male 21,950; female 22,442)
65 years and over: 11.4% (male 3,163; female 4,122) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.69% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
11.82 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
7.49 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
2.61 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 0.94 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
9.28 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 77.3 years
female: 79.27 years (2002 est.)
male: 75.21 years
Total fertility rate:
1.81 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
noun: Bermudian(s)
adjective: Bermudian
Ethnic groups:
black 58%, white 36%, other 6%
non-Anglican Protestant 39%, Anglican 27%, Roman Catholic 15%, other 19%
English (official), Portuguese
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male: 98%
female: 99% (1970 est.)
Government Bermuda
Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Bermuda
former: Somers Islands
Dependency status:
overseas territory of the UK
Government type:
parliamentary British overseas territory with internal self-government
Administrative divisions:
9 parishes and 2 municipalities*; Devonshire, Hamilton, Hamilton*, Paget, Pembroke, Saint George*, Saint George's, Sandys, Smith's, Southampton, Warwick
none (overseas territory of the UK)
National holiday:
Bermuda Day, 24 May
8 June 1968, amended 1989
Legal system:
English law
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor Sir John VEREKER (since NA April 2002)
head of government: Premier Jennifer SMITH (since 10 November 1998)
cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the premier, appointed by the governor
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed premier by the governor
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (an 11-member body appointed by the governor, the premier, and the opposition) and the House of Assembly (40 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last general election held 9 November 1998 (next to be held NA November 2003)
election results: percent of vote by party - PLP 54%, UBP 44%, NLP 1%, independents 1%; seats by party - PLP 26, UBP 14
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; Magistrate Courts
Political parties and leaders:
National Liberal Party or NLP [Dessaline WALDRON]; Progressive Labor Party or PLP [Jennifer SMITH]; United Bermuda Party or UBP [Chairman Wayne FURBERT]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Bermuda Employer's Union [Eddie SAINTS]; Bermuda Industrial Union or BIU [Derrick BURGESS]; Bermuda Public Services Association or BPSA [leader NA]; Bermuda Union of Teachers [Michael CHARLES]
International organization participation:
Caricom (observer), CCC, ICFTU, Interpol (subbureau), IOC
Diplomatic representation in the US:
none (overseas territory of the UK)
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Consul General Denis Patrick COLEMAN, Jr.
consulate(s) general: Crown Hill, 16 Middle Road, Devonshire DVQ3
mailing address: P. O. Box HM325, Hamilton HMBX; American Consulate General Hamilton, Department of State, 5300 Hamilton Place, Washington, DC 20520-5300
telephone: [1] (441) 295-1342
FAX: [1] (441) 295-1592, [1] (441) 296-9233
Flag description:
red, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Bermudian coat of arms (white and green shield with a red lion holding a scrolled shield showing the sinking of the ship Sea Venture off Bermuda in 1609) centered on the outer half of the flag
Economy Bermuda
Economy - overview:
Bermuda enjoys one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, with its economy primarily based on providing financial services for international business and luxury facilities for tourists. The effects of 11 September 2001 have had both positive and negative ramifications for Bermuda. On the positive side, a number of new reinsurance companies have located on the island, contributing to the expansion of an already robust international business sector. On the negative side, Bermuda's already weakening tourism industry - which derives over 80% of its visitors from the US - has been further hit as American tourists have chosen not to travel. Most capital equipment and food must be imported, with the US serving as the primary source of goods, followed by the UK. Bermuda's industrial sector is small, although construction continues to be important. Agriculture is limited, only 6% of the land being arable.
purchasing power parity - $2.2 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
2.9% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
purchasing power parity - $34,800 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 1%
industry: 10%
services: 89% (1995 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3% (July 2001)
Labor force:
37,472 (2000)
Labor force - by occupation:
clerical 22%, services 20%, laborers 17%, professional and technical 17%, administrative and managerial 13%, sales 8%, agriculture and fishing 3% (2000 est.)
Unemployment rate:
4.5% (1993)
revenues: $609.5 million
expenditures: $574.6 million, including capital expenditures of $54.8 million (FY00/01)
tourism, international business, light manufacturing
Industrial production growth rate:
Electricity - production:
595 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 100%
hydro: 0%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
553.35 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
bananas, vegetables, citrus, flowers; dairy products
$51 million (2000)
Exports - commodities:
reexports of pharmaceuticals
Exports - partners:
EU excluding UK 77.9%, US 9.8%, UK 6.9% (1999)
$719 million (2000)
Imports - commodities:
machinery and transport equipment, construction materials, chemicals, food and live animals
Imports - partners:
EU excluding UK 35.4%, US 17.8%, UK 15.4%, Russia 14.6% (1999)
Debt - external:
$145 million (FY99/00)
Economic aid - recipient:
Bermudian dollar (BMD)
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
Bermudian dollar per US dollar - 1.0000 (fixed rate pegged to the US dollar)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March
Communications Bermuda
Telephones - main lines in use:
52,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
7,980 (1996)
Telephone system:
general assessment: NA
domestic: modern, fully automatic telephone system
international: 3 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 5, FM 3, shortwave 0 (1998)
82,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
3 (1997)
66,000 (1997)
Internet country code:
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
20 (2000)
Internet users:
25,000 (2000)
Transportation Bermuda
0 km
total: 450 km
paved: 450 km
note: public roads - 209 km; private roads - 241 km (2002)
unpaved: 0 km
Ports and harbors:
Hamilton, Saint George's, Dockyard
Merchant marine:
total: 102 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,485,450 GRT/8,782,869 DWT
note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Croatia 5, Denmark 2, Germany 1, Greece 1, Hong Kong 9, Indonesia 1, Norway 2, Sweden 11, United Kingdom 52, United States 13 (2002 est.)
ships by type: bulk 28, cargo 4, container 16, liquefied gas 6, passenger 3, petroleum tanker 17, refrigerated cargo 16, roll on/roll off 9, short-sea passenger 3
1 (2002)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2002)
Military Bermuda
Military branches:
no regular indigenous military forces; Bermuda Regiment, Bermuda Police Force, Bermuda Reserve Constabulary
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$4,027,970 (January 2002)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
0.11% (FY00/01)
Military - note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK
Transnational Issues Bermuda
Disputes - international:

This page was last updated on 19 March 2003