|Revision 0.9.1||2002-08-14||Revised by: EH3|
|Small update for using X11 (sockets).|
|Revision 0.9||2001-12-03||Revised by: EH3|
As a developer, there is occasionally a need to code and/or test programs on multiple Linux distributions. This mini-howto outlines a neat chroot trick that can, in many cases, obviate the need to reboot into different Linux distributions to do testing or development.
In a nutshell, the "trick" is to place all the files from a particular linux distribution into a single directory and then chroot into that directory to develop/test/debug your program. This approach will work provided that:
The kernel version of the "main" or "primary" distribution that you are running is (at least somewhat) compatible with the "secondary" or chroot'ed distributions, and
Your application is primarily user-space (ie. no kernel modules) and does not depend intimately on any particular kernel features (ie. /proc behavior).
This document is copyright 2001 by Ed Hill III. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is available at http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html.
We assume that you already have:
One "main" or "primary" Linux distribution installed that is running a 2.4-series or newer kernel,
a free partition with 2--4Gigs available, and
sufficient disk space for the secondary installs (and any subsequent development/testing work).
Given those assumptions, the following outline is one way to setup the multiple secondary Linux distributions that will be used for development, testing, or other purposes:
First, create or locate an unused partition on one of your hard drives that is large enough (usually 2--4Gb is sufficient) to do a basic install of one of the secondary Linux distributions.
Install the secondary distro into this partition but do not add it to your boot configuration. Note that this install need only include the packages that your target application (or tests) require. For instance, you may be able to ignore applications such as the X server or other space-hogs.
Reboot your primary Linux distribution and mount the partition containing the freshly-installed "secondary" distro. Copy (preferably using tar -cp or some other method that preserves permissions) all the files from the secondary distro to a location such as /opt/distros/DISTRO_NAME.
Repeat steps 2--3 for any additional distributions that you wish to install. The result should be a directory structure resembling:
/opt/distros/redhat_6.2/ suse_7.2/ mandrake_8.1/ debian-potato/ slackware_8.0/
where each directory contains the complete set of files resulting from each distribution install.
With the secondary distributions installed, the steps to use them are:
It is important to use a 2.4-series or newer Linux kernel in the "primary" Linux distribution in order to take advantage of the multiple mount points feature that the 2.4-series permits. For many tasks, the /proc and /tmp filesystems will have to be remounted in the secondary distribution using:
mount --bind /proc /opt/distros/redhat_6.2/proc mount --bind /tmp /opt/distros/redhat_6.2/tmp
Also, it can be helpful to remount (rather than copy) the source tree from the primary to the secondary distro:
mount --bind /home/USER/src/PROJECT /opt/distros/redhat_6.2/USER/src/PROJECT
Become root and use:
xhost +localhost chroot /opt/distros/redhat_6.2 /bin/bash
Finally, create a user (if necessary) within the chroot-ed shell and develop, build, and/or test your application within this "separate" Linux distribution! Not that you may also have to specify your DISPLAY environment variable if you'd like to use X applications.
Done! You now have a shell that is, for all practical purposes, running within the secondary Linux distribution of your choice.