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(Nov. 10, 2003); Mary C. interview (Oct. 25, 2003); Maureen Baginski interview (Nov. 15, 2003);Thomas Wilson
interview (Dec. 4, 2003). Assistant DCI Charles Allen did redouble his efforts to coordinate and improve collec-
tion at the tactical level, but this was not a plan to address larger weaknesses in the fundamental capabilities of the
intelligence community. See Charles Allen interview (Sept. 22, 2003).
40. For Dempsey's action, see Joan Dempsey interview (Nov. 12, 2003). For Minihan's view, see Joint Inquiry
interview of Kenneth Minihan, Sept. 12, 2002. For the CIA viewing the memorandum as intended for non-CIA
intelligence agencies, see Dave Carey interview (Oct. 31, 2003).
41. George Tenet interview (Jan. 22, 2004); James Pavitt interview (Jan. 8, 2004).
42. For the New York Times article about the Jordanian arrests, see Reuters,"Jordan Seizes 13 and Links Them
to Afghan Explosives Training," New York Times, Dec. 16, 1999, p.A13. For the Ressam story being on the front page,
see, e.g., Sam Howe Verhovek with Tim Weiner,"Man Seized with Bomb Parts at Border Spurs U.S. Inquiry," New
York Times
, Dec. 18, 1999, p. A1. For television coverage, see Vanderbilt University Television News Archive, Dec.
13, 2231, 1999.
12 What to Do? A Global Strategy
1. For spending totals, see David Baumann, "Accounting for the Deficit," National Journal, June 12, 2004, p.
1852 (combining categories for defense discretionary, homeland security, and international affairs).
2.White House press release,"National Strategy for Combating Terrorism," Feb. 2003 (online at www.white-
3. "Islamist terrorism is an immediate derivative of Islamism.This term distinguishes itself from Islamic by the
fact that the latter refers to a religion and culture in existence over a millennium, whereas the first is a political/reli-
gious phenomenon linked to the great events of the 20th century. Furthermore Islamists define themselves as
`Islamiyyoun/Islamists' precisely to differentiate themselves from `Muslimun/Muslims.' . . . Islamism is defined as `an
Islamic militant, anti-democratic movement, bearing a holistic vision of Islam whose final aim is the restoration of
the caliphate.'" Mehdi Mozaffari, "Bin Laden and Islamist Terrorism," Militaert Tidsskrift, vol. 131 (Mar. 2002), p. 1
(online at The Islamist movement, born about
1940, is a product of the modern world, influenced by Marxist-Leninist concepts about revolutionary organiza-
tion. "Islamists consider Islam to be as much a religion as an `ideology,' a neologism which they introduced and
which remains anathema to the ulamas (the clerical scholars)." Olivier Roy, The Failure of Political Islam, trans. Carol
Volk (Harvard Univ. Press, 1994), p. 3. Facing political limits by the end of the 1990s, the extremist wing of the
Islamist movement "rejected the democratic references invoked by the moderates; and as a result, raw terrorism in
its most spectacular and destructive form became its main option for reviving armed struggle in the new millen-
nium." Gilles Kepel, Jihad:The Trail of Political Islam, trans. Anthony Roberts (Harvard Univ. Press, 2002), p. 14.
4. Opening the Islamic Conference of Muslim leaders from around the world on October 16, 2003, then
Malaysian prime minister Mahathir Mohamad said:"Today we, the whole Muslim ummah [community of believ-
ers] are treated with contempt and dishonour. Our religion is denigrated. Our holy places desecrated. Our coun-
tries are occupied. Our people are starved and killed. None of our countries are truly independent.We are under
pressure to conform to our oppressors' wishes about how we should behave, how we should govern our lands, how
we should think even." He added:"There is a feeling of hopelessness among the Muslim countries and their peo-
ple.They feel that they can do nothing right.They believe that things can only get worse.The Muslims will for-
ever be oppressed and dominated by the Europeans and Jews."The prime minister's argument was that the Muslims
should gather their assets, not striking back blindly, but instead planning a thoughtful, long-term strategy to defeat
their worldwide enemies, which he argued were controlled by the Jews. "But today the Jews rule the world by
proxy.They get others to fight and die for them." Speech at the Opening of the Tenth Session of the Islamic Sum-
mit Conference, Oct. 16, 2003 (online at
5. CIA map,"Possible Remote Havens for Terrorist and Other Illicit Activity," May 2003.
6. For the numbers, see Tariq interview (Oct. 20, 2003).
7. For Pakistan playing a key role in apprehending 500 terrorists, see Richard Armitage testimony, Mar. 23,
8. For Pakistan's unpoliced areas, see Tasneem Noorani interview (Oct. 27, 2003).
9. Pakistanis and Afghanis interviews (Oct. 2003); DOD Special Operations Command and Central Command
briefings (Sept. 1516, 2004); U.S. intelligence official interview (July 9, 2004).
10. Pervez Musharraf,"A Plea for Enlightened Moderation: Muslims Must Raise Themselves Up Through Indi-
vidual Achievement and Socioeconomic Emancipation," Washington Post, June 1, 2004, p. A23.
11. For a review of ISAF's role, see NATO report, "NATO in Afghanistan," updated July 9, 2004 (online at
12. United States Institute of Peace report,"Establishing the Rule of Law in Afghanistan," Mar. 2004, pp. 13
(online at
13. For the change, see Lakhdar Brahimi interview (Oct. 24, 2003); U.S. officials in Afghanistan interview (Oct.
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