Created: 9/1/1958

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cia historical review program release in full



A collection el articles on the historical, operational, doctrinal, and theoretical aspects of intelligence.

All statements of fact, opinion or analysis expressed in Studies in Intelligence are those of

the authors. They do not necessarily reflect official positions or views of the Central Intelligence Agency or any other US Government entity, past or present. Nothing in the contents should be construed as asserting or implying US Government endorsement of an article's factual statements and interpretations.


We have spied very few new books worthy of note In this issue: the summer months are usually slow ones for publishers. The exception, to which we are devoting this column, is entitled They Spied Onitle notwithstanding, spies and espionageinor element In this book based on the war diary of MaJ. Oen. Erwin von Lahouscn, the Austrianofficer who was brought Into German militaryafter the German-Austrian oiucAlusi and became chief of the Abwehr's Section IXas responsible for sabotage operations, and the misleading title arises from the authors' habit of equating "saboteur" withriting for the submarines which had been detailed to take the spies to America were berthed. There the saboteurs were accommodatedmall dockslde hotel. [Emphasis supplied.]"

Although it is thus devoted primarily to the operations of saboteurs who occasionally engaged also in the reporting of information, the book does include at least one case-history in the Held of espionage. The authors have supplemented their main source,yped foolscap pages of General von Lahousen's diary covering the war8ymany of the persons Involved in the events it describes.

General von Lahousen was close to Admiral Canaris, the head of the Abwehr, and must have been aware of Canaris'with those engaged in the plot against Hitler. The book cites the evidence pointing to Von Lahousen as the man who supplied (from English stock he had seized) the bomb fuses used In two of the attempts on Hitler's life, evidence similar to that brought out by Glsevlusin discussing the3 plant in Hitler's airplane. After hearing Von Lahousen's testimony for the Allied prosecution at the Nuremberg trials, according to then the dock, exclaimed.another of those we forgot to hang, Rlbbentrop!"

'Br Charles Wlghton and Gmiter Pels. (London: Cdhams Pressp.lso under title Hitler's Spies and (New York; Henryo, IBM.o)

'To The Bitter End. pp. 4SS-0.

We Spied

They Spied on England describes several of Section JTaoperations, including; one not covered by thattitle. This was the submarine landing of saboteurs in the United States, four on the Florida coast and four on Long Island, where George Dasch promptly turned himself over to the FBI and blew the wholehapter on the Nasi attempts to utilixe the Irish Republican Army and otherIrishmen to stir up trouble for tbe British traces the Abwehr's growing disenchantment with this project: the Irish kept asking for arms and supplies but concentrated ontheir own cause without regard to German Interests. The story of the Welsh spy Arthur Owens Illustrates the similar Nazi effort to exploit the fanaticism of Welsh nationalists.s Owens was known to the Abwehr. carried onespionage until his nerves gave way and destroyed his usefulnesshe sabotage and paramilitary activities of the South African Olympic boxer. Robcy Lelbbrandt, are detailed In another chapter.0 Olympic Games In Berlin had convinced this extreme Afrikaner nationalist that Max! life was the life for him, andear after winning the South African heavyweight championship he returned to Germany to be trained for sabotage activities in the dominion. Tbe German Foreign Ministry was also Interested In him; it looked upon him as potential fOhrerouth African fifth column. His operations were successfulime, his defiance and evasion of the South African policeublic scandal, but In the end his movement was penetrated by an agent of the government and he was captured. He was not released from prison until after the Mai an government came to powerH.

The bookood deal of attention to tradecraft,recruiting, training, and cover; tbe authors believe. In particular, that the problem of cover waa not thoroughly thought through by the Abwehr. The kind of cover used was often appropriate enough, but the Abwehr waa not alwaysto provide baekatopping or to brief tbeufficient detail to withstand interrogation It Is pointed out that In one case when the German agents were forced to live their coverbort time before undertaking their mission, British Interrogationwere never able to crack them The British remained suspicious of these men and kept them nv

We Spied

temed tor the duration, but at least their lives were saved. Another episode of interest from the tradecraft point of view Is the story of two Norwegians infiltrated into England. Just as the Abwehr was on the point of sending them out, aInfiltration agent of the British service fell Into Its hands. From the information gained through this lucky catch, the Abwehr was able to launchabotage penetration which otherwise would probably have ended in failure.

The access the authors had to Von Lahousen's diaries and their elaboration of the material make this book an interesting addition to the literature of intelligence operations.

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