PEACEFUL, COEXISTENCE AND INTERNATIONAL COMMUNISM
In the Soviet definition, peaceful coexistence furthers the cause of International Communsm; it pertains only to relations between governments but not to relations between the actual political forces standing behind these governments. Therefore, Soviet doctrine and Soviet practice continue to teach and promote the destructive and subversive mission of International Communism in the Free World.
8 the State Publishing House for Political Literature in Moscow for instanceextbook called Foundations of Marxist Philosophy. This work sets out Communist world philosophy and strategy for the benefit of Soviet students at higher educational institutions and for self-study. The book has been favorably reviewed in the Soviet press and can therefore be regarded as an authoritative source.
Chapter Fifteen of this work is devoted to the crucial problem of the classhe proposition that Communist Parties everywhere will ride to power by inciting, manipulating, exploiting and organizing class hatred. One lapidary sentence in the book cited reminds us forcefully that the fundamental long-term aim of Soviet/Communism remains unchanged. uote from, "The final aim of the class struggle of the proletariat is the destruction of capitalist" The term proletariat is of course synooymous with the Communist Party and its auxdlariea which organize aad control the class struggle everywhere.
On, Foundations of Marxist Philosophy teaches further that "the proletariat conducts its struggle against capitalism In three main forms: economic, political,onsidering the economic struggle inadequate for the destruction of capitalism, the book turns to the "political struggle" asowards this aim. "
Lest we forget what this political struggle implies, the work reveala onuite frankly that "The political struggle ranges over many forms: from participation in elections to governmental organs to mass demonstrations, from peaceful exploitationarliamentary forum to the revolutionary struggle for power. The main task of the political struggle of the proletariat is the overthrow of the power of tbe capitalist class and the establishment of its own regime, the dictatorship of the working class, and afterwards, when this end has been achieved, the strengthening of this regimeool for the establishmentommunist society. "
One receive the timely reminder that "peaceful coexistence between socialism and capitalism signifies by noessation of the struggle betweenThis struggle,the work continues"does not necessarily acquire the character of armed collisions but unfolds ia the spheres of economics, politics aa well aa ideology."
The November issue of the Soviet controlled review Problems of Peace and Socialism, the successor publication to the Cominform journal which transmits the Soviet line to the International Communist Movement, contains an article "Peaceful Coexistence and the Struggle ofigh-ranking Soviet Party functionary. The article further advises the International Communist Movement authoritatively on the extent and limitations of the concept of peaceful coexistence. First, tbe article makes abundantly clear that the fundamental orientation of Communism remainsIn the ideological field there never was peaceful coexistence between socialism and capitalism, and there never can be. The Communists conduct and will conduct their struggle on behalf of Communist ideas, the revolutionary ideology of the working class." The article asks "Can for instance, the Communists give up their struggle for the victory of the proletariannd answers, "No, they cannot,
for this would mean the perpetuation of th* capitalist aystem."
The article artificially divorces the problem of maintaining peaceful relatione between governments from the problem of subversioneans of interfering with the national sovereignty of free countries. The fact that Communists mean by peaceful coexistence only an improvement of relations between governments ls made quite clear in the definition of coexistence given In the cited article: "Coexistence--that is eaaentiaOy no lessontinuation of the struggle /between socialism and capitalism?"by peaceful means, no leas, furthermore,orm of the class struggle which haa been generated in the period of the transition from capitalism tone need not be an expert iu Communist ideology to understand that any form of the class struggle is aimed at tho "destruction of capitalisthe Free World and especially the United States. This concept ia basic and
prevails today as always. As if to dispel any doubt in the minds of Communists anywhere as to their destructive and subversive mission the article warns, "But deeply mistaken will be the one who thinks that in the trading of one or the other concession concerning political or economic relations, he may possibly receive from the socialist
ommunist/ states concessions of an ideological character, or that the road toward the normalization of international relatione may possibly leadeconcilation
of ideologies,enouncement of principles. " In brief,"*
the Soviets define peaceful coexistencetage in the development of international Communism during which the Soviet Union finds it advantageous to trade political and
economic concessions without, however, giving up its
fundamental enmity towards the Free World.
Again, the cited Soviet textbook Foundations of Marxist
Philosophy illustrates this point when it deals with Khrushchev'
much advertised thesis of peaceful transition to socialism,
he proposition that Communist Parties are now instructed to seize power by democratic means only. The evasions and deceptions found in these fundamental teachings are useful object lessons in peaceful coexistence.
In one place wetatement which appears to bePeaceful seizure of power by the working class excludes auch forms of the class struggle and organized use of violence as armed insurrection or civil war. " Close by, however, weualifying statement teaching that it depends entirely on circumstance whether or not power can be conqueredThe possibilities for peaceful development of theommunist/revolution may contract or, in turn, expand according to changing historical conditions and the relation of class forces. "
Right around the corner we are reminded that peaceful seizure of power does not proceederious struggle or even an armedAt first sight, one
could maintain that peaceful seizure of power by the working class is carried outevolution. Butoncept is erroneous. The conquest of power by the working class isevolution, whether or not it is carried out peacefully or by means of armed insurrection." And further on, we are told that "It would be erroneous to thinkhe concept/ of peaceful seizure of power by the working classlass struggle, No,lass struggle, and consequently without the smashing of the opposing class enemies of theocialist transformation cannot be realized. " Howeizure of power doea Soviet doctrine actually prescribe for the International Communist Movement? In answer to this question, we find in tbe cited text that armed strugglerand scale may be entirely justifiable. uote "There may arise such historical circumstances when the armed struggle in the first stage of the revolution creates the conditionselatively peaceful development of the
revolution during tho later stages. " The book continues "Such was the case, (or instance, in China in the course of the transformation of the democraticocialist revolution. " In plain words, Soviet teachings on the so-called peaceful transition to socialism include full approval of and justificationrotracted civil war of enormous proportions on the Red Chinese model. Such teaching! necessarily invalidate the professed principle of peaceful coexistence.
The ideological positions of the Soviet leaders cannot be dismissed lightly. They repreaent--ea alwaysto action, and available ovidence bears thia out.
Tho proposition that peaceful coexistence ia only another form of the class struggle which will inevitably climax into thi complete annihilation of capitalist society haa been accepted y many Communist leaders in the Free World. In their confidential talke with Free World Communists the Soviet leaders maintain that it will eventually be easier to carry off
revolutions in free countries under conditions of peaceful coexistence because the US will not be able to acteterrent. Free World Communists have been told that under conditions of peaceful coexistence not only can the US be expected to become weakened militarily, but alao that US public opinion will gradually soften to the point where there will be little desire to oppose the Soviets and reinstate "Cold War" conditions. Such developments in the US would directly undermine opposition by other Free Nations to Soviet/Communist encroachments. Meanwhile, Sino/Soviet Bloc accomplishmenta in tbe economic and scientific fields would further demoralize Western public opinion. -frnmr of
the-Ceei1 in IhftWerMrr- -
jjt kancouraged-and-ere'beginning-to ente riain- notionein their country, This kind of evidence which shows that peaceful coexistence is regardedactic by Communist leaders in the Free World makes
it impossible to believe in the sincerity of the Soviet peace campaign.
The Soviet leadership has gone to great lengths in order to conceal the aims of the peaceful coexistence tactic. Att Extraordinary Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, for instance, the assembled leaders of Free World Communist Parties were requested to omit from their Party literature all references to the leading role of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union within the International Communist Movement. The reason for this move was clearly to conceal Soviet domination of the International Communist Movement and to strengthen its facade of respectability. However, the Soviet leadership did not goerbal camouflage. The evidence shows that the Soviet party/government still claims for itself the exclusive role of controlling and coordinating the Communist movement, with the exception perhaps of a
few countries in South East Asia where the Soviets recognize the predominance of Communist China's subversive interests. The best confirming evidence comes from sporadic resistance within the International Communist Movement against Soviet hegemony.
The complex apparatus of the Soviet Communistcontrol and coordination of the Internationalis expanding. We estimate that thereoviet party and government officials involvedform or another in international activities relating toand guidance of the International This estimate does not include the
The staff organization of the review Problems of Peace and Socialism in Prague probably exceeds in number and quality the staff of the defunct Cominform whichoviet colony of. Among the various sections identified there are some concerned with the coordination
of the propaganda of) Communist front organizations and. more ominously, with the so-called national liberation movement. The World Peace Movement,
in the past one of the most prolific producers of the most
slanderous anti-US propaganda, has been instructed to
intensify its subversion of the many genuine and non-
Communist pacifist groups, individuals and organizations
exiating throughout the world. The Afro-Aaian Solidarity
Movement is reorienting Itself primarily towards the
penetration of the nationalist movements in Africa. The
World Federation of Trade Unions has placed penetration
of the African labor movementriority basis and has
begun to train aod indoctrinate African trade unionists
in its school in Budapest. The by now traditional efforts in
Latin America of the World Federation of Democratic
Youth and the International Union of Students as well as
the international Communist women's front, continue unabated.
Under recent Soviet guidance, the Communist Parties of Western Europe are seeking new ways and means to disrupt European integration and to isolate West Germany from the European community. Their leaders met recently in Rome to coordinate their programsecret conference, in the Middle Eaat the Communist Party of Iraq has slowed down the tempo but not the intensity of its effort to penetrate tbe power structure of the country. Faced with the shock-effect of Red Chinese pressure on India, the Communist Party of India ia regrouping and concentrating on penetration and subversion, particularly io the State of Kerala where elections arc pending. The evidence indicates careful coordination with the Soviet leadership. In the Far East, new democratic governments, from industrial Japan to helpless Laos, are subjected to an unrelenting pressureilitant Red China, in coordination with the subversive activities of their own Communist parties.
Upon Soviet and Red Chinese advice, the Latin American Communist Parties are continuing to exploit and manipulate the Cuban revolution and to incite throughout the hemisphere nationalist elements against "Yankee imperialism". Take, for example, the current situation in Panama. The question of Panamanian rights in the Canal Zone have longavorite basis for local agitation. The Communists alio have long played on this theme. However, sinceh Congress of the Soviet Communist Party int which the theme of "peaceful coexistence" was expounded by Khrushchev--ihr Soviets have intensified their efforts torisis in Panama. They have done thlaariety of clandestine channels and have used tho camouflage of nationalism. They have sought to make the "sovereignty issue" into the main political issue in Panama so that every ambitious politician will have to attack the US or risk defeat. They have carefully studied the history of Panama and have used
the books and articles written by the most fierythey have republished for an internationalhave encouraged the writing of more,the medium of covertly sponsored In Octoberfirst year of
"peaceful coexistence"number of new crypto- publications increased significantly. In
of those published in Mexico, for example, we find an editorial citing the history of the Panama Canalase of "United States aggression and imperialist penetration committed not only through soldiers with fixed bayonets, but also through the replacementegitimate sovereignty by another which shows Itself to be illegitimate and unacceptable."
Through their clandestine Communist network, the Soviets sought toarallel between the Suez Canal issue and tbat of Panama, They have continued tirelessly torisis. We know that the anti-American demonstrations of November 3rd were inspired by Communists
and Communist-influenced nationalists. Subsequently, the Cuban Communist newspaper Hoy gave wide coverage to thehough emphasizing that they represent the "culminationong struggle by the Panamanianimilarly, the Communists helped inspire tbe anti-American demonstrations ofh, which they were prepared to cover, for propaganda purposes, through correspondents and cameramen from the Communist-infiltrated news service Prcnsa Latina. It is safe to say that the chief agitators in these demonstrations have been under the influence of the Soviet Union, exerted through clandestine channels. The chief exploiters of these demonstrations are again the agencies or agents of the Soviet Union, and the chief beneficiary--should US control of the Panama Canal be limitedis again tha Soviet Union.
This is the pattern of Soviet subversion in Latin America. Examples from other Latin American countries could be cited. They all reflect the same strategy, however: cultivate
irresponsible nationalism; develop, manipulate, and then publicise hatred of the US; subvert and compromise government officials, legislators, and opposition leaders so that they must adopt anti-American policies; and, simultaneously, charge that the US government is reluctant toolicy of peaceful coexistence.
Beyond the propagandiatic exploitation of the "Camp David Spirit" the record does not indicate any basic change in the ideological and activity pattern of tho International Communist Movement as directed by the Soviet leaders. The latter are dearly bent on strengthening the operational capabilities of International Communism. The ambitious training program for Free World Communists at the Higher Party School in Moscow and Chinese Party establishments in Peking is going full blast. Communist Parties in the Free World have been urged by the Soviets and the Chinese to improve their clandestine/illegal
organizations, and the Soviets have indicated toCommunist Movement that theythis era of peacefultepped
campaign for the penetration and subversion ofsecurity
In brief, the evidence does not bear out the often repeated Soviet claim that the Soviet regime does not interfere with the national sovereignty of free countries through the medium of International Communism. Khrushchev and his ideologists tell the Free World reassuringly that Communist doctrine expressly interdicts the "export of revolutions." The record, however, shows that the Soviet regime continues to import and re-export revolutionaries, for instance, great numbers of foreign trainees aa well as delegations and individuals from Communist Parties and front organizations; that it exports funds for the support of Communist Parties and international
from organizations, especially in support of election campaigns of Communist Parties; that it exports enormous amounts of propaganda and agitation materials; that it exports specific guidance to the International Communist Movement through travelling Soviet officials and Soviet diplomatic establishments abroad; that it exports its disciplinary measures through which it holds the Communist movement together; in short, that it exports all the component parts which go into the makingevolution.