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Considering th* high spaed capability of this aircraft,autical nlles per admits, an sutcnstio naTlgstton system becomes almost mandatory. It is impracticable to expect the pilot to determine -his position by conrentlonal methods of sun aigbta and drift readings and perform his normal duties and properly fulfill tbe mission.
To this end ve propoae to install an inertlsl reference guidance aystem. At this time, several manufacturers such as Nortronlcs Company, Kearfott Company, Minneapolis Honeywell, and tbe Antranica Company are designing and developing components and complete navigational aystems ef the lnerttal reference and stellar inertial types.
The stellar inertial systems are all basically th* aaa*aylight star tracking talescope mounted ongyro stabiIliad platform vhloh is oonstsntly aligned to the local mass attraction vsrtloal. Thia type of instrument constantly corrects th* gyro etabiUscd platform driftrogram of star sights) thus, th* position error vill nevereutlcal. lgur* 1.
The valght oftsllar inartial ayatom would be approximately
The simpler typen propoeedtabl* platformhree gimbal-three axis aasenbly aligned to the local mass
HAVIQATIOW SYSTEM (COST.)
attraction vertical. If we utilise the stabilized platformeference for determining position, and sines this platform will be uncorrected during the mission flight, it will buildosition error at the endour flightautical.
This error is derivedosition error drift rateautioal mile per hour and sn assumed initial datum erroreet. See Figure 1.
As the MX Ul drtftsight will be used for final pin-pointingosition errorautical mllea will bo more than satisfactory.
The pilot willisplay pansl showing distance traveled and present position in latitude and longitude) he will also have an instrument showing true heading.
The weight of this type of system complete, including electronics and computer, will beounds.
This automatic navigational system will be supplemented by the following components!
MX III Driftsight.
ARK-iU Radio Compass*
lu tandby Compaas.
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JfA/iat/ aircraft corporation
The flight controls in the cockpit ara of the conventional rudder pedal and control stick arrangement. The rudder pedals are also used in the normal manner to apply brakes. Movements of the control stick are mixed mechanically ln the cockpit for elevon oontrol. After the control signal is mixed, the control systea for each elsvon is separate and independent of the other eleven permitting pitch and/or roll control, depending on stick position.
Cab Is Systems
The pilot forces are transmitted from the cockpit to the boosters by control cables. The rudder system has single cables for each direction of movement. Each elevon hasontrol cables for each direction of aovemecti either of theablea in these dual systems can carry
ths full pilot load.
Thase cable systems lnolude tension regulators toearly constant rigging tension regardless of changes of the airframe due to variations in temperature.
Tha hydraulic boosters are located at the control surfaces, one st eaah elevon and one at the rudder. The boostera are all irreversible
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with pilot fool being supplied artificially. Bach booster has dual control valves, dual cylinders and is supplied hydraulic pressure fronndependent systems. Ths failure ofontrol valve, cylinder or hydraulic system will not prevent operation of tha control surface with the remaining system.
Control surface trimming is accomplished by actuators at each control surface booster whloh change the relationship between the sero artificial feel position and the control surface position.
CM If ORNI A
The hydraulic system design shall conform to the requirementsexcept the system opersting pressure vill be JiOCO psi. oil cooler vill be provided toaximum systea Low temperature operation vill be
ydraulio fluid is expected to be used to meet the high temperaturerequirements. Considerable expsrience bas been gained with this fluid and it Is compatible with present hydraulic systsm componenteinimum of system modification.
The design of the hydraulic systemooler will be considered and investigations will be made to determine feasibility of using asystem. Fluids under consideration will be General Electrio0 and turbine engine oil.
The hydraulic pumps"will be engine driven and variable delivery
Dual systems will be provided with each system supplying one half the powerystemill operate the landing gears, nose wheel steering,uel pumps and one half the required hinge moment for the rudder and elevon. System No.ill supply power touel pumps and one half the required hinge moment for the rudder and elevon control 'surfaces.
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Tha fluid reservoir shall be the airless typs. The return system will be closed with returning oil being directed to the pump inlet and the reservoir acting aslow pressure accumulator.
Pressure lines willtalnlsss with steel fittings. Line connections will be flareless type fittings in accordance with the MS standard.
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Special consideration la given to the design problems ofsystem which exist due to the high operating altitudessupersonic flight conditions of ths
High temperature is the basic sleotrioal problem associated with supersonic speed* It causes physical and/or electrical changes in the materiala and equipment used in tbe system. Wire resistance increases, the volume-resistivity of insulation materials is lowered, and the magnetic characteristics of electrical irons and steels change as the temperature Increases.
Since uncoolsd, high-tampersture operation electrical systems are not available, all possible electrical and electronics equipment is installnd in pressurised and cooled compartments.
Where required, high-temperature components such as the following will be usedi
atlckel-clad copper wire and luge.
Teflon fiberglaa clamps.
High-temperature, environmental type connectors, pecial HR series uelng cersmio inserts and crimped sllvsr-alloy contacts is satisfactory at lOOO0?.
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Ii. elay* which art miniaturised, hermetically sealed, and rated for continuous operation at
elays which are rated far continuous operation
Special high-teaperatur* and haraetloally sealed switches.
Another problem associated with supersonic flight which hu aa effect on the electric systea and component design, is that of the so-called "whitehe noise level which is estimated at iSOdb. The basic effect is unusually high induced vibration loads which sre minimised by adequate acoustical vibration and insulation techniques.
High altitude operation presents many electric system problems and Lockheed bas had considerable experience with high altitude aircraft. Corona has deleterious effects on wire insulations and it increasss the hazard of arc-over or voltage breakdown at altitude. Another undesirable side effect of corona is the radio noiae problem created. Any damaging effects of ozone concentrations on the materials will be evaluated! however, the associated high stagnation temperatures will considerably reduce this problem. Alao, lower ionization potentials are required at altitude.
AC and DC generators are available which are bruahless and oil cooled with Integral oil pumps. These generators are lightweight and permit high
Introduction (Cont.) .
teaperature and high altitude oparatlon. C system haa been selected for this aircraft based on known and expected aircraft and military equipment loada. The corona and ionlastion problems at altitude are considerably reduced by using low voltage. Also*DC system is simpler than an AC system, since there ara no frequency or phasing problemsj therefore, it is inherently more reliable,
Two engineA oil coolod, brushless DC generators supply power to the monitored and essential DC busses. Either generator can supply the total electric load. Should both generatorsllvsrcel battery will provide essential DC power for approximatelyl mites.
The purpose of th* radio compass is to guide the aircraftadio transmitting stationts destination, or,avigational aid to take bearinga on such station*, inndicator calibrated ln dsgrees azimuth, continuously Indicates the direction of th* station with respect to th* heading of th* aircraft* In addition, it may beusedadio communications receiver.
Th* AN/ARK-U. is identical to thexoeptc band Is replacedc band. C frequency rang* covers marina tranamisslons such as ship-to-*hore, Coast Guardand dlstress calls. It also covers aircraft communications and certain other transmission*.
ommand Comr.unlcatlons Set
This radio set provide* voice and code transmission and reception In theOO MC frequency range, and will probably replace the Av/ARC-3li ss the standard military HHP command aet. Superior communication capability is available by virtue of0 low-distortion vole* channels, snd in the extra-range margin provided by theatt heavy-duty transmitter and tho highly sensitive receiver. Modular construction allows rsarrangement for different configurations in encased wldtha" upwards andtandard height Ths eatolumetric sits of approximately one half cubic foot and weigh* leas than the
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oaaaunl cations Sat (Coot.)
Anontrol box isn conjunction with tb*eceiver-transmitter to prorldasl*ction versatility. Tw*nty chann*ls can b* presetemory druaf seconds'and th* pilot mar choos* channels slthsr from th* prasat numbar or by satting th* five digits of0 possibl* manual channels. Tha automat io tuning system operate* ao rapidly that th* pilot i* cm th* air with role* communicationsyn lsssonds after making his sslection.
eada*t,nd interphone control components are Installed and used with th* tJHF communication set.
It is or interest to dsteralne the effect upon airplane perforsence of using only* hydrocarbon fuel. Flight testing of airframe, engine endent end crev training as wall ae some tactical missions can be conducted on
more economical basis with the less exotic fuel.
To accomplish the Identical mission radius of the REF equippedplaneuel lead0 poundsake-off weight0 ounds. These numbersounds greater than the HEF equippedowever, th* basic airframe will accommodate th* greater weight of ^fiiiVat the lesser average density because sufficient fuselage diameter andength have already been established by pay load end balance conelderaticns.
Th* increased take-off weight resultsake-off ground runt. The landing weight Is not affected so that the landing distanceeet. Tho initial penetration altitude iseet and the target altitude la reduced 8CO feet, alao by virtu* of the Increased flight weight. The performance is otherwise unaffected by the sols use ofuel.
It is noted at this point that tns use ofxclusively does not shew up to be es muchisadvantage as might at first be expected. This comes about because the fuselage sis* and length required by paylcad and balance requirements can hold more fuel than is compatible with attaining the highest possible sltitude. ml. radius using the HEF fnel
embinatlen. It therefore appears that the basic airplane (Baf.a "Performanceould be overloaded with an EEF fuel combination of : bs. With this overlced of fuel the mission radius will improve
o. mi. with about the same altitude profile aa
attained withuel alone.
mf AIRCRAFT CORPORATION
APPSKDIX TABLE OF COKTEMTS
General Description Performance
Structural Description Cockpit Environment Fuel System Thermodynamics Hlscellaneous Sy sterna Alternate Fuel
I II HI IV
(See Mainl) (See Mainl) VII
(See Main) IX
,I, IIONII DIVISION
irplane presented in thia appendix is proposed OHLY in the event that the core euitable Pratt a>8 engines should be unavailable for use inl airplane. The General3 ngine is the only other potentially available engine lnpeed and altitude regime. While not as outstanding asan be used in the designehicle with quite respectable performance.
A airplane is designed aroundeneral3 afterburning engines using HEP type fuel in the afterburnere andn the engines. The fuel load, la approximately 6yf> HEP0 feet no HKF fuel ie burned in order to avoid undesirable smoke and contamination.
The airplanei. mission radius atnd crosses the target0 feet as shown inn tbe 'ftrformance" section of thia Appendix. This target altitudeeet lower than for9 powered airplane as shown inn the "Performance" section of the main Report.
Tbe configuration is as shown inn the "General Description" section of this Appendix. This configuration is essentially the same as forl airplane except that it is scaled down, as practical, so as to
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be compatible with tbe3 engines. However, the fuselage diameter Is not scaled down since the space provisions for the pilot and payload is considered toractical minimum onl airplane.
In the "Alternate fuel" ssotlon of this Appendix It Is shown thatA airplane can usentirely and accomplish thel. aisaion radius at0 feet less altitudeart of cruise and0 feet over target. This altitude performance withuel is 3CO feet less over target than0 airplanein A airplane, using onlyB essentially the same aa0 airplane. However, the fuselage ofA airplane" larger in diameter than the fuselage ofesultinglightly lower lift/drag ratio forA airplane.
A airplaneery big- altitudeeconuaiaance vehicle designed to perrons the same mission asl, but at slightly lover altitudes,3 engines.
The configuration is identical tol, except that) vlng area is decreasedq.ft. and fuselage length reduced slightly. Military equipment bey, pilot's cc_part_ent and airplane equipment provisions are dimenalocally identical tol airplane.
Structural arrangement and airplane systems are also the same as proposed forl. The lighter and lover3 engines resultighter airplane, as summari-ed belov.
Oil, unusable Fuel
Fuel Wing Fuel
0 lbs.Original document.