NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY - SECTION 81 - GROUND FORCES; IRAQ

Created: 4/1/1959

OCR scan of the original document, errors are possible

iraq

SECTIONROUND FORCES

approved for release date: 5

CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY Washington. D. C

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TABLE OF CONTENTS FOR SECTION 81

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High

Territorial

Arms and

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Combat

Service units .

River

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Strategic problems and

Permanent

Basic tactical

Special

Procurement and terms of

Quality

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Reserve

Mobilization

Mobilization

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Unit, combined, and

Schools and

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Peacetime storage and

War supply and

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Tabular

M. Quasi-military and other ground

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The Iraqi Police

The Mobile Police

Desert

OF FIGURES

Fig.command

Fig.headquarters

Fig.Division

Fig.Division

Fig.Division

Fig.Armored Division

Fig.brigade

Fig.Division Signal Regiment

Fig.Division Signal Regiment

Fig.force dispositions

Fig.rates

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Fig.

Fig.

Fig.of grade .

Fig.arms

Fig.recoUless and rocket weapons

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Fig.

Fig.combat vehicles

Fig.equipment

Fig.Oeneral of Police

Section was prepared for the NIS by the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff forHeadquarters, Department of the Army, with contributions from the Office of Naval Intelligence and the Army Technical Services.

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81. Ground Forces

,the information in this Section in, referring to Section SO, tntMductlon, lor discussion* of the position of the armB in Ihe defense structure, totalthondsubtect* common to the services. Information on the air force

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General

The Iraq Army consists0eneral headquartersthree infantry divisions, an armoredthree tradningartially formed infantry division, three separate regiments, and limited support troops.

Tho army could probably resist invasion by Iran or any one of Iraq's Arab neighbors, but against invasionajor power the army could offer only minor harassing action The capability of the army to maintain internal security isas it ls dependent on the unknown factors of loyalty and cohesiveuess of the organic units. Logi5tically, Iraq is Incapable of supporting more than one Infantry division outside of the country.

The top leadership was considered satisfactory In the past, but after the revolution ofhe highest ranking officers were imprisonedreat many others at all levels were retired. The younger officers who have taken their place are inexperienced and their leadership qualities are unknown.

Although the ground forces are fairly "well equipped and well trained by Middle East starid-ards, the shortage of well trained and efficient officers, the low level of general and technical education, the lack of combat experience, and the lack of adequate reserve and mobilization plans are serious limitations on the effectiveness of the army.

None of the divisions is at full personnel strength, but It is considered that the armswhich are primarily of British. Worldesign, are adequate for the divisions'strength. Since theuly revolution, arms shipments from the Soviet Union, whilethe army logistics problem, will enable the divisions to replace old equipment and activate new units.

Although the new revolutionary government hasolicy of strict neutrality in the field of International relationsesire toriendly relationship with the West, subsequent actions haveesire toWestern personnel and influence from the country. In response to Iraqi requests, themilitary training units in Iraq have left the country, and the activities of. MAAO are terminating. Almost all of the. Air Force training personnel sent to IraqAP agreement have been evacuated. The Iraqihowever, requested and received from the UAR two MIG squadrons which were stationed at the Kabbaniya air base for Iraqi air defense until their withdrawal ineries of economic,and technical cooperation agreements with the United Arab Republic, but it dismissed those top government officials who desired union with the UAR.

Soviet influence is also increasing in Iraq by such means as the completionradea development aid program and the arrival of Soviet arms.

B. Administrative organization

I. High command

a. StbuctukiThe provisional constitution of the new revolutionary government does not specify the structure of defense responsibility. The constitution states only that "the armed forces of the Republic of Iraq belong to theand "defense regulations shall be defined byince no new defense laws have beenit would appear that the organization of the high command Is based primarily on the regulations of the previous regime. Under these regulations control of the army ls exercised by the Prime Minister, through the Minister ofwith the Chief of the General Staff as the principal militaryefense Council, made up of the chiefs of the principal highdepartments and the divisionalwith the Chief of the General Staff asiseparate coordination level and Isdirectly to tho Minister of Defense.

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Ministry of Defense Is organized with the Chief of the Oeneral Staff, the MilitaryOeneral. the Advocate Oeneral, and theCourt of Cassation on the same level and each reports directly to the Minister of Defense.

The Oeneralnodiflcatlon of the British divisional general staff, Is divided Into two main sectionseputy Chief of Staffeputy Chief of Staff forThe combat divisions and the Iraqi Air Force are controlled directly by the Chief of the Oeneral Staff.

b. FunctionsThe Defense Council wasto Insure proper coordination between the departments of the high command, but it has not been convened for many years.

The Minister of Defense is concerned with budget and fiscal matters and with administrative functions required by law. He serves as the civil-political link In the chain of command between the Prime Minister and the armed forces.

The Chief of the Oeneral Staff supervises the formulation of policy matters of the General Staff, exercises command of the army divisions and, in practice, operationally controls the Iraqi Air Force as,an integral part of the army at the division level. The General Staff Is charged with theof advising the Chief on policy and planning matters relating to strategic plans, training, weapons evaluation, intelligence,requirements, personnel utilization, and logistics- It is organized into two main branches, Operations and Administration,eputy Chief of Staff in charge of each.

The Operations branch assists the Chief of the General Staff in the functions of operations,intelligence, and organization. The branch is comparable to the combined Intelligence and Operations portion of the US Army General Staff orranchritish-type staff. TheChief of the General Staff, Operations, isto the Chief of the General Staff for the coordination and supervlalon of the activities of the following directorates and units: the Director of Military Operations, the Director of Plans, the Director of Military Training, the Director ofIntelligence, the Director of Artillery, and the Director of Signals.

The Administration branch combines theof the British Administration and Supply branches. The Deputy Chief of the General Staff, Administration, coordinates and supervises the activities of the following directorates: theGeneral, Ihe Quartermaster General, theof Production, the Director of provisions, and the Director of Medical Services.

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The functions and responsibilities of thein both branches of the General Staff are as implied by their designations.

The Military Accountant General is responsible for planning, administration, and control of army finance. This arrangementodification of the British system in that the MilitaryGeneral in the Iraq Army is not only on the same level as the Chief of the General Stall, but Is also responsible directly to the Minister of

organization

Iraq has been divided into four divisional areas based on troop locations. The 1st Division isin southern Iraq and charged with theof the area. Theivision Is located In the mountainous areas of northern Iraq and Its mission is to defend in the north with specialfor the two principal avenues of approach through passes In the Zagros Mountains. Theivision is charged with the security of central Iraq and is stationed close to Baghdad. The 4th Armored Division has its headquarters In the area west of Baghdad with the probable mission of defending Baghdad from any threat in the west. The newly activated 5th Division is stationed in Baghdad but no assigned area for It has been

and services

Personnel and troop units are divided Into arms and services similar to those in the British Army.

The combat branches consist of the following: Armored Forcenfantry (Muhaati, Artilleryavalrynd Signals (Mukhabara).

The service branches consist of the following: Transportation (Naqliyat atedical and Veterinary (Tibaabatnd Ordnance (Atena).

C. Tactical organization

The army has no tactical organization higher than the division. There ls no corps or armyplanswo-corps organization have never been implemented.

There are no field staffs above the division level. The division staff, shown insalong British lines.

units

Aj*TOr divtsiokThe infantry division has had no standard table of organization, but hasonglomerate of components suited to the estimated needs of the locality to which theis assigned: The 1st andivisions arefor operations in the plains area ol the south and west and are largely motorized; theivision, because it Is deployed in theareas of the northeast, has artilleryof the pack type and animal transport. (See5 for organization of the three infantry divisions.)

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Infantry brigadeThe infantryhas an organization similar to that of the British brigade (the practical equivalent of. Armynd consists of athree Infantry battalions, and threerepair detachments. When operationallythe brigade is usually expanded into agroup by the addition of an artillerya field company ofieldcompany,ransport company.

Rifle battalions and subordinateThe rifle battalion is the smallest self-sustaining fighting unit In the army. Thefollows very closely that of similar units of the British Army and consists of aa support company, and four rifleThe support company is the practicalof. World War Il-typecompany and headquarters companyThe rifle section is similar to. Army irrfantry squad.

b. Armored divisionThere is one armored division, the 4th Armored Division, which was formed in the latter part7 with aan armored brigade, and certain support units. Two other armored brigades were to be formed as soon as possible, but there was evidence as9 to Indicate that only one,h Armored Brigade, has in fact been- The division also has one separate armored careparate light tank regiment, and an artillery regiment attached directly to division headquarters. The tables ofand equipment (TOE) for the division are currently unknown.

rmored brigadeThe only armored brigades currently known to be activated are the 6th Armored Brigade, andh ArmoredThe brigade headquarters is regulated by TOE but tactical units are assigned lo it on an attached basis. Support units are also attached to the brigades from the division and Iraqi Army headquarters for any specific operation. (See)

Armored cartwo armored car regiments, designated the 3dReconnaissance Regiment (formerly the Khalid Armored Car Regiment) and the 1stCar Regiment (formerly the Faisal Armored Carave the same general TOEthe cars differ in make and armament. Theivision Reconnaissance Regiment uses the Humber Mark IV car equipped withmm AT gun andm Besa machine gun. The 1st Armored Car Regiment has the Daimler car equipped withounder AT gun andm Besa machine gun. The regimenteadquarters squadronnd three carars) of four troopsars) each. The total strength isnlisted men andrmored cars.

Armored regimentsThe armored regiment is organized with three tank squadrons ofanks each. The tanks for the armoredhave been British Centurions, but any newly formed regiments presumably are to be equipped with44 tanks. The 4th Armored Division Reconnaissance Regimentthe Mansur Light Tankquipped4 light tanks, is probably organized in the same manner as the armored regiments.

c Artillery raiments

echanized field artillery regimentThose regiments, the standard artillery support In the infantry divisions, are equipped withpounder gun-howitzers. The TOE is based on the British medium artillery regiment withuthorized guns divided among three batteries.

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field artilleryIs only one heavy artillery regiment, located near Baghdad under the control of the Director of Ar-Ullery. The regiment is organized with threench howitzers in each of four heavy

Medium field arzfUerjv regimentThe organization of this regiment ls patterned after that ofpounder artillery regiment except for the substitutionnch howitzers. The one regiment of this type in the army is under the control of the Director of Artillery.

Light field artillery regimentEach of the infantry divisions has one of thesewhich are equipped withnchorganized in three light batteries.

Mountain artillery segmentsTheivision is organized with mountain artilleryequipped withnch packwhich are being replacedmm pack howitzers.

Heavy antiaircraft artilleryThe sole regiment of this type is located in the Baghdad area under the control of theof Artillery. It is equipped withmm antiaircraft guns organized into two heavy

Light antiaircraft artillery regimentThere is one of these regiments In each of thedivisions. They are organized Into three light batteries and are equipped withmm antiaircraft guns of British and US. manufacture.

d. PAaAcsun battalionThe army Is in the process ofarachute battalionen organized into acompany, three parachute companies,eavy weapons company. The parachute school ls at Rashid Camp, near Baghdad, and istraining using United Arab RepublicThe transport aircraft will presumably be Soviet llyushlna.

ervice units

. battalion-sizeorganized according to modifiedTOE.ull strengthnd aTO strength. is organic toivisions. Organic to theivisionheadquarters only (fullofregiment,ull TO strength. Theunit thus far identified with theDivision is an engineer service company.

Thereignal regiment,in size. Army battalion,each of the three Infantry divisions.units are organized to implement theand area responsibility of the divisionthey are assigned. The 1st and 2dprovide communications for theirdivisions, while theignaladdition to providing divisionfield training for all armypersonnel. The signal section of theForce, which operates as part of the 1stprovides communications betweenRiver Force Headquarters, andthe four gunboats. The Chief Signal Officerdivision headquarters is also commanderdivision signal regiment.

The Army Signal Company maintains andthe Ministry of Defense communication systems, including telephone exchanges and radio

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nets. The organization and strength of selected signal units are shown in8

c. TranspobtationThe basic units of transportation are motor transport companies. However, there ore two animal transport unitsort detachment. There are no rail orwaterway transportation service units nor are there plans for organizing such units.

Each motor transport company consistsompany headquarters section, three operating platoons,ight aid detachment. Each of the companies, it is believed, alsoompositeas an integral part of Its organizationnone have been reported.

There areotor transport companies In the army. Six, assigned to General Headquarterscommand of the Director of Supply andare held in general reserve and utilized to provide additional transportation support for any army command In the field. The other sixassigned as organic units to divisions, are operationally controlled by each divisional supply and transport column.

The 4th Armored Division which has been in the process of activation since7 isivisional supply and transporthowever, no motor transport companies have been assigned to support this new division.

Most of theotor transport companies are under-strength; only two have all of theirvehicles. The basic task vehicles. and British 6x6 truckson capaci-Ucs

The two animal transport units are assigned to theivision and are directly subordinate to the Divisional Supply and Transport ColumnActual personnel and animal strength of the 1st Companyen.ules. Theompanyen,ules.

The Portewly organized unit subordinate toh Brigade. Basra Garrison, has the primary mission of movement control. It processes Incoming shipments of militaryand supplies through the port of Basra. The actual personnel strengtharrant officer,en.

There are only two squadrons in the Iraqi Air Force which perform army-aviation-typeThe liaison squadron, equippedS.9 observation aircraft, performsspotting and communication missions for the support of army tactical units. The transport squadron, although limited in equipment and per-

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Is the only unit within the air forceof conducting air transport operations. The unit consistse Havillandristole Havilland Herons (all British.ormally this unit performs administrative flying for the air force and provides airfor dignitaries. It could, however, in an emergency, airliftristol Freighterse Havilland Herons.

The supply services,primarily for providing the supportof the combat arms, are modeledof the British Army. Field servicecomposed of three levels of support units.element Islatoon,which are groupedompanyAll platoons are, however,eparateand frequently operateThe third element is the columnheadquarters.

Examples of the three support levels are: asupply and transport column which isfor the storage, issue, and transport of rations, fuel, and equipment for elements of theobile field bakery company, composed of three field bakery platoons/capableounds of bread inours; and aplatoon, equippedon truck,on trucks,on water trailer, capable ofstoring, and issuing rations, fodder, fuel, water (whenisinfectants, andsuppliesorceupply platoon is normallyfficers,oncommissioned officers, andrivates. '

Ordnance service units arcas far as is practicable, alongField units of the Ordnance Service,and Mechanical Engineers, and theTransport Servicetypefunctions, as well as some that areby other technical services in theThe Iraqi Army Ordnance Service Isfor the receipt, storage, and issuetransport vehicles) of materiel, theMechanical Engineers for repair andand the Mechanical Transport Serviceof transport vehicles.

Iraqi Armyield ambulance units organic1st. 2d, andivisions. Each, ineadquarters and 5with authorized personnel strength6 officersnlisted menis below theseedicalIncludes ambulances and mobile surgicalFunctions of field ambulance units areearly treatment, and evacuation. When operationally employed, one field ambulance unit Is allocated to each brigade. No information Is currently available concerning the organicsupport for the 4th and 5th Divisions.

In general, each garrison and camp of aarea headquartersospital orwithndedical personnel Patients in the 1st Divisional Area Headquarters who require major operations or extendedtreatment generally are evacuated to tbehospital at Adr mayivilian hospital in an emergency; thaw in theivisional area,ase hospital (cither at KirkOk orhose In theivisional area, to the military hospital at Baqubah.

Overall, the IAMS hasilitary hospitalsaseBaghdad (Camp Rashid).Mosul. Ad DTwanlyab, and9 garrison hospitals)otal bed capacity of.

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The River Flotilla, consisting of four gunboats, is an Integral part of the 1st Division. Crows are army artillerymen. The flotilla has provedin police actions and in tribal control.

D. Order of battle

For detailed identifications and locations of units of the Iraqi ground forces, see the latest issues of the quarterly Order of Battle Summary, Foreign Ground Forces, published by the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence.Department of the Army.

trength

Personnel strength wastofficers0areerhe rest areof the officers are members of thewho received commissions uponthe Military College. Personnelsections of the country

The army currently consists ofHeadquarters establishment, threedivisions, an armored division, aInfantry division, three trainingattached to each of the infantryseparate artillery andimited number of support troops.

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Rivet Flotilla, an organic part of the 1st Division,orce offficersther ranks based at Basra. Authorized strengthfficers anden assigned to each of the four gunboats. Its mission is maintenance of internal security along the rivers, and support of 1st Division

c.The authorized and actual quantities of armor, artillery and mortars are shown below. The authorized strength columnompilation of TOE requirements of the individual army divisions and the separate tactical units.

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ispositions

The disposition of the ground forces is planned to accomplish two missions: guarding likely routes of approach of an Invading army and maintaining internal security. The present distribution of units provides for defense in depth from north to south and from the west. The major dispositions, as ofre as shown in the following tabulation and in:

E. Strategy and defenses

trategic problems and doctrine

The strategic factors which the Prime Minister, who is also the acting Defense Minister, and his military leaders must consider and plan for fall generally into the categories of: military, political, and economic.

a. Militaryunder foreseeableconditions of an International nature, has eight potential enemies: Israel, Jordan, the UAR, Turkey, the Soviet Union, Iran, the Unitedand the United States. Because ofand political considerations, an invasion of Iraq by Israel through Jordan or Syria is unlikely, involving, as it would, the defeat of the Jordan armed forces and the forces of Syria, with Egypt at Israel's rear. In all probability, the logistical problems facing Israel would be too great and the political results too unfavorable for the country to make such an attempt.

The threat of an invasion from Jordan or Syria is diminished somewhat by the desert areas which would seriously hinder access to the heart of Iraq from the westerly direction- Whenever thesituation, however, indicatedhreat of Invasion could arise from the Jordan or Syrian desert area, the Iraqi high command has shifted the bulk of its armored forces to positions west of Baghdad to protect the desert approach.

An attack by Turkey or Iran would have to pass through the mountainous areas of the north and northeast In which Iraqi mountain troops areThe obstructive effect of the mountains against an attack from Iran would be lessened by the fact that the approaches to most of the passes are situated in Iran and permit only partialby Iraq. Iraqi defense doctrine apparently relies on mobile armored-air reserves to support and reinforce the mountain troops which would have the mission of holding or delaying until help arrives.

If the Western Powers of the United States and/or the United Kingdom invaded Iraq from the Persian Gulf area, they would be met by the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, which, having few bridges, make formidable parallel obstacles,In the flood season. Other obstacles in this area are irrigation canals and the large marsh and water-basin areas In the south along the Shatt a! Arab. Iraqi doctrine again would prescribe the use of mobile armored-air reserves to support and reinforce the troops that are permanentlyin that area.

The Soviet Unkm would have to pass through either Iran or Turkey to attack Iraq, and this could be accomplished only under tho conditions of

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general war In which the Soviets were alsoIran and Turkey.

The Iraqi Government is presently building up its defense forces with Soviet armor, artillery and other materiel in order to acquire the capability of defense against neighboring states withouton outside support. All defense preparations indicate that the doctrine Is to regard thearea as the vital center that is to be protected and the troops in the peripheral areas wouldapproaches to the center or delay along them.

Presumably, with the newly establishedbetween the Soviet Union and Iraq, the Utter would rely on the Soviets to deter any attack by the larger Western Powers.

b. PoliticalThe Government of Iraq mustine balance in its relationships with elements that are potentially disruptive. Some of these elements are those represented by therivalries of the Shiah and Sunni Muslim sects, and the fragmentary and dissidentsects which include the sizable Assyrian group; the divergent Interests of the ethnicsuch as the Kurds and tho Turkomans; and the divergency between the urban elements and the many nomadic tribes who are more strongly Influenced by their sheikhs than they are by governmental authority.

The government has, since theonsidered the Western presence, especially that of the United Kingdom and the United States,olitical threat. Thiseflection of the general Iraqi populace attitude of distrust hi in ess of the West which is considered exploitatlonjst, domlnationlst. and pro-Zionist. The distrust and dislike generallyealization ol themenace.mall hard core of Communists and sympathisers takes advantage of everyto increase its ranks and to further anti-Western, Iraqi nationalism. With the Iraqirelease of all political prisoners.Communists, and the tolerance of Communist activities, the influence of the Soviei Union In Iraq has Increased considerably. The Sovietcan be expected to Increase political agitation through the Communist Party of Iraq andpolitical subversion with the newlySoviet bloc diplomatic missions in Baghdad.

The UAR has supported elements in Iraq that favor immediate union with the UAR, but their influence and activities have been repressed so far by the present regime with the aid of Communist support. The Communists in Iraq have been working against union with the UAR on the theory that they can Increase their activities In anIraq but would be suppressed under a

UAR regime as was the Communist Party in Syria. Iraq, thus, has been the scene of the first explicit clash of UAR and Soviet interests in the Middle East. The present doctrine of the Government of Iraq is to attempt to maintain its Independent political status in the Middle East while relying on Soviet economic and arms aid and localpolitical support.

c. EconomicIraq Is one of the fewof the Middle East which is agriculturally self-sufficient under lis present marginalof living, but war would cause seriousof food production. The very low state ofdevelopment requires tho importation of all war materiel, machinery, and mostgoods. It is doubtful whether any real plans have been made for this contingency since the government has cut itself off from all supply sources except the Soviet Union.

ermanent fortifications

a. General systemTroop dispositions are based on defense of likely avenues of invasion. Demolition sites have been prepared at the mouths of mountain passes and on strategicparticularly In the Raw&nduz and Panjwim areas. (The main parts of these access routes are within the territory of Iran, with which nodefense plans exist. This situationIraq to provide defenses only against andebouchment from the passes.) Stockpiling of plastic explosives has been provided near the demolition sites, which were originally prepared by the British Army during World War TJ. he Iraqis began renovating the wartime sitesiew of incorporating them into the overall defense plan of the country.he army had established many roadbed demolition sites in the mountainous avenues of approach and bad marked them with concrete posts to facilitate identification. The chambers at the sites are' and varyelow the surface. They are designed toounds ofand the sites are situated to insure gaps of ateters. Explosives are stored in five magazines along the routes.

b. Land fortificationsIraq has no system of permanent fortifications. During World Warumber of blockhouses covering passes and fords were constructed In scattered areas. These offer protection only against rifle fire, however, and have been turned over to the police force for use as stations.

Iraq has no coastal defenses.

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Tactics

tactical doctrines

' The army has no original tactical doctrines but employs those of the British Army, due to the tutelage of the previous British Military Mission.

ery limited extent, each of the threedivisions is tactically suited to itsmission: Theivision is basicallyand its artillery ls pack type; the 1st Division is basically motor-transported; and the combat elements of theivision areto enable them to fulfill their dual mission of assisting civil authority and ol covering the Khanaqin border area.

In the event of invasionajor power such tactical doctrines as may be extant probably would be disregarded, since only token resistance by Iraqi forces may be anticipated. The history of Iraqi forces in the Israeli conflict was one of frequent disregard for even elementary tactical rules.

The Arab propensity to use "writings" causes difficulty, inasmuch as even minor details are in writing. Confusion exists in the combining ofand administrative orders.forms patterned after those employed by the British Army are used.

operations

Considerablehas been given in cooperation withFleet. Local river craft, relativelymilitary use, however, are the only craftin Iraq. Cover for crossings or fora river is provided by protectivebank, stationed, or moving, according toof operation, in box formation. As manybattalions may be used to cover thea brigade. The River Flotilla has developeddegree of skill in fire support forAir support, in the form ofenemy to the ground, has been practicedexercises.

air forcedirect control of the Chief of GeneralDuring operations the air forceoccupies quarters with the groundAir force liaison officers areto the headquarters of brigade groups.

The air force commander provides air support at the request of the ground force commander at Force Headquarters, by signal to the airfield at which air support is located. Air supportconsisting of voice and code radio and dropped messages, is provided by the air force.

G. Personnel

Personnel administration is controlled by the Adjutant General (AG) under the Deputy Chief of Staff, Administration, and byranches at lower unit levels.

The rank structure corresponds to that of the British Army.

Distinction is made on the enlisted level between conscripts and volunteer personnel, in terms of pay. required term of service, and TOE positions.

The rank of deputy officer (naib dabit) isor comparable to the British. Army warrant officer. Formerly this rank was awarded to graduates of the Royal Military College and held for one year before the graduateommission. This practice is no longer In effect. Cadets now attend the Military College for three years and, upon graduation, are commissionedlieutenants. Naib debits are now procured from selected noncommissioned officers (NCO) and dvlllans whoechnical orspecialty required by the army.

The chaplain or imamerm which includes all personnel employed by the army to perform religious duties) is treatedeparate class of noncombatant officer personnel, subject to special rules for procurement and administration. The intern gives religious instruction and guidance to individuals; he does not lead organized prayer. In addition to his religious duties, the imam may be designated assistant quartermaster, with theof issuing rations and keeping ration accounts. Commanding officers, however, usually reserve this duty for themselves.

Technician grades of noncommissioned officers are distinguished by special titles, insignia, and pay.ists the various ranks in the Iraqi Army, their literal. Army equivalents, and basic annual rates of pay.

a. Basic payPay administration in the army follows the ordinary British pay system and functions with somewhat more efficiency than in other Middle Eastern countries. Payajor morale issue. The basic pay scales were set up by the National Defense Actss amended, and the officers' service lawollowing World Warystem of cost-of-living allowances was set up for all ranksconscripts to meet the great rise in living co3ts. These allowances have broughteasonably adequate adjustment.

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Officer Incomes when augmented byallowances and other perquisites compare favorably with the incomes of their civilian

On the enlisted level, volunteers receivemore than do conscripts. They alsoproficiency and specialist bonuses notto conscripts. Armor personnellightly higher rate of pay than dismountedConscripts lose much of their pay In charges for barracks maintenance costs.

Officers are subject to placement on the half-pay list for sickness, bad conduct, inefficiency, or because they are surplus to army personnelOfficers may be carried on the half-pay list for one year and then are retired.

b. Ai-lowancrsAll personnel receivewhich have increased their monthly pay by one-third to one-half. In addition to the cost-of-living allowance, officers receive an allowance for servants and another for uniforms.osition filing for an officer of higher rankupplementary allowance at the rate .of one-fifth the pay of the position. Recent legislation provides that officers passed over on promotion lists shall receive pay of the next higher grade for which they are eligible in terms ofArmy doctors and dentistspecial allowance in addition to those regularly received by officers. Also, officers who pass proficiency tests in foreign languages receive ratings forand lump-sum gratuities of SO Iraqi dinars.

The imam although classed with officerIs eligible for cost-of-living allowancesto those of senior NCO.

Cost-of-living allowances for enlisted men are small, ranging from approximately one dinar for the conscript to five dinars per month for senior NCO. Conscripts are not eligible for otherbut volunteers serving In technicalsuch as drivers, signalmen, andpecial allowance or "trades pay" designed to correct the basic pay scale. Thispay or trades pay ranges from one to eight dinars per month.

rocurement and terms of service

a. OfficersProcurement and service ofarc governed by ine Army Officers Service Law

rocurementOfficers are obtainedariety of sources. Procurement isby law and officers are acquired or called to active duty as the need arises.

The regular and reserve officers (asfrom the temporary officers) in addition to belongingranch or corps in the army are further divided into two general categories:and noncombatant.

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Regular permanent officers for the various branches and corps of the army are obtained from the Iraqi Military College or from foreign military colleges approved by the Ministry of Defense. Permanent officers for technical services,medical, dental, engineering, and signalare graduates of nonmilitaryrogram of government-subsidized education. Following the college course and prior to entrance on active duty theywo-year course at the Iraqi Military College.

Reserve officers are obtained from the follcrwing sources: graduates of the Reserve Officer College, physicians, dentists, pharmacists, veterinarians, pensioned regular officers who are still physically fit and within the age limits and warrant andofficers who are properly qualified.

Candidates for reserve commissions, except the professional services, must be graduates ofsecondary or higher schools and attendmonth course at the Reserve Officers College. This course is divided intoonth phases with the first phase devoted primarily towork in the college, the second phase assigning the studentroop unit, and the third phase returning the student to the college for further theoretical training. Those who fail this course are made reserve warrant officers. Reserveare obligated to serve when needed by the army. Other than medical, there are at present very few reserve officers on active duty.

Temporary officers include chiefs of tribes and sheikhs when their tribes are brought into the serviceeneral mobilization; foreign officers employed under contract by the army;and specialists such as physicians, lawyers, and certain engineers as required by the mililary service; officers employed In the gendarmerierank, presumably to provide military guidance and liaison between the army and the national policeew Iraqi Army officers are on duty with the police at thisivilian officers andemployed on special contracts (usually short term) to carryarticular military job, such as wartime construction, and consultation on engineering techniques.

erms of serviceOfficers areto serveears, at the end of which they arc eligible to retire. Under provisions of the Officers Service Law an officer may resign at any time; but If the resignation of an officer isbefore the lapse ofears service, he is required to refund to the government all expenses incurred by him during courses of study In and outside Iraq.

arc eligibleto the next higher rank uponof the following specified minimum termsthe lower figure Indicates years incombatant officers, and the higher figureto noncombatant officers:

Second

First Lieutenant

Captain

Major

Lieutenant

Brigadier

In theory, eligible company-grade officers areaccording to seniority and militaryas demonstrated by written and practicalField-grade officers are promotedto seniority and efficiency, subjectacancy. Promotion to the rank of general officer is selective and based on existenceacancy. In practice, all promotions arebut regulations permit granting ofand exceptional promotion for distinguished service during military operations or In wartime.

Promotions are controlledoard composed of representatives of the five divisions and the Minister of Defense, meeting semiannually.

Assignment and transferThere is no organized rotation system orprogram. Officers who have completed staff college and are serving in Ihe Ministry of Defense or on divisional staffs are required, at prescribed Intervals, to serve In field commands In the past, there hasarked tendency to assignfield commanders to administrative posts and senior artillery officers to choice staff positions.

Leave policiesOfficers accrue leave-of-absence eligibility at the rate ofays per year and areaximum accrued leaveonths,ays. Personnel taking leave continue on full pay status, but allowances for rations are forfeited.

HospitalisationFor illness, disease, or infirmity acquired In line of duty, officers are allowed an Indefinite term of hospitalisation and additional sick leave not exceeding one year on full pay. For sickness not in line of duty, the maximum period of hospitalization on full pay is two months, with additional sick leave on full pay for three months. If, after taking maximum sick leave, the officer is not physically fit for duty, he is put on half pay or is pensioned. Officers in Iraq are treated in hospitals at governmentand outside Iraq are so treated subject to approvaledical board and resolution by the Council of Ministers.

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DischargeOfficers who havethe full terms ofears) are eligible lo retire on pension. Officers also may be discharged in the interest of the service. Officers are automatically pensioned upon reaching the following maximum age limits; the lower ageapply to combatant officers, and the higher figures to noncombatant officers.

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First and Second Lieutenant .

8

Captain and Major

Lieutenant Colonel and colonel

Brigadier

Major General

Lieutenant Oeneral

General

In the interest of the service, an officer's active duty may, by Cabinet resolution, be extendedthese limits three years.

Pensions are calculated according to theng formula: The average salary will be multiplied by the total number of months of creditablefor retirement, the total will be divided, and the quotient will be the amount of monthly retirement pay due, provided that the retirement pay plus the certain specified increments docs notf the highest salary earned by the officer during the lastonths of his service, orinars per month.

The retirement pay for those who suffer from disability, other than fliers, will not exceedinars per month, not counting the certainincrements In any case, the totalpay. is not to exceed the salary of the last rank held. For fliers who suffer frometirement pay plus increments may exceed the salary of the last rank held.

The payensioner will be increasedIf he Isf he is supporting twof he Is supportingf he is supporting four or more children who are entitled to family pay, even if their father Is deceased. However, this increment will be reduced byor each child who becomes ineligible to receive such allowances.

Certain other factors prescribed by law affect the pay of pensioners and members of his family.

b. ChaplainsAppointment and promotion .of (mom grades are by order of the Minister ofaccording to qualifications and eligibilityby special regulation. The imam Isfor promotioninimum period of three years In grade and is promoted one gradeime, subject to the existenceO vacancy. Chaplains are free to resign at any time and are eligible for pension according to the formulafor officers. Maximum age for service

C. ENUSTRO PERSONNEL.

rocurement and terms of serviceProcurement of enlisted personnel is governed by the National Defense Laws amended, which provides for conscription of every physically flt male person at the age ofears. Under this law, all conscripts are required to undergo three monthsraining unit; those assigned to an Infantry uniturtheronths color (active) service; those assigned to any of the other branches serve an additionalonths color This is the first stage ofears' liability to military service; the second and third stages are phases of reserve duty. Certain personnel arefrom such liability because of dependents or special occupations; for example, religiouspolice, and teachers. The service of students is postponed until completion of their program of study orh year of age, whichever isCollege and secondary-school graduates are liable for calleserve officer's training course. The calling up of conscripts takes place by classear of birth) twice yearly. The estimated maximum number of conscripts called each year If the classertain year exceeds quotas of army space, the group to be conscripted immediately Is chosenrawing of lots and the surplus Is placedaiting list. Employmentystem of proportionate conscription In tribal areas is attempted with varying success.

Recruiting and conscription are directedentral recruiting bureau in Baghdad, headed by the Director ofrigadier. Forpurposes, the country Is divided intoreas, corresponding to the Itwas (administrativeach of which controlsecruiting offices. The duties of theseare to maintain, through contact with local civilian administrative authorities, registers of all personnel liable for service. These offices are also charged with the task of conducting exemption tribunals, serving callup notices, and arranging medical examinations.

Any physically-fit civilian or conscript at any stage in his duty may volunteer for service in the army; however, two percent or less of each class volunteers in thisolunteer mayhis service by two-year renewals for infantry and renewals varyingoears in branches where considerable technical work and training areolunteer may servethe agehen he Is discharged with no further military liability.

romotionEnlisted promotions are on the basis of vacancies.

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policyEnlisted personnel are eligible forays' leave per fiscal year, which must be taken within the year during which it accrues. Commanders are encouraged to grant leaves of absence, especially to enlisted personnel, for the sake of the savings in rations

DischargeDischarge procedures arc administered by the Director of Recruiting.

Conscripts are discharged from active duty into the second stage of military service, the first class reserve.

Volunteer enlisted men and noncommissioned officers arc eligible for discharge with bonus or pension, depending on length of service; maximum age for enlisted service in the armywho complete IS years' active duty receive pensions calculated on the same general basts as those of officers: the product of the multiplication of average monthly pay for the lastonths of service by number of months of completed service, divided.oldier on volunteer duty fails to completeears' service, heratuity. All volunteer personnel discharged or pensioned belong to the reserve and are liable to recall up to the age

uality factors

The composition of the army parallels that of the populationhole and is subject to similar internal schisms and conflicts, intensified by the needs of discipline and command. The army takes in, on both enlisted and commissioned levels, the mutually antagonistic Sunni and Shiah Arab groups, as well as Sunni Kurds and AssyrianThese groups are further split into nomads, sedentary tribesmen, and city-dwellers, none of whom displays any liking for the others. Beyond this difficulty with ethnic conflict, the armyilitary force faces the basic difficulty ofto adapt the Middle Eastern tribal warrior to methods and techniques of modem warfare.

Enlisted men and NCO are drawn almostfrom the Arab and Kurdish groups, the Shlahs among the Arabs outnumbering the Sunnis significantly. Small numbers of Turkomans and Assyrians are also represented, but one group, the Yezidl, ls specifically exempted from conscription because of its resistance against service withother sects. The contribution of migratory tribes to army ranks, although considerable, is mostly dependent on what the chieftain of the tribe hopes to obtaineward for cooperation; quite often, his contribution has consisted of the tribe's least valuable men. Most conscripts are illiterate and in poor physical condition; although official sources claimf each annual class is accepted for service, this figure must be accepted with reserve. Attainment of an adequate basic training level usually requires much longer than the three months allotted for the purpose, not only because of illiteracy and poor health standards, but also because of tha limited number of literate NCO instructors.

The Iraqi enlisted man generally reflects the friendliness and natural curiosity of the peasant. Although trainingong period of time, soldiers retain what they have learned anda natural understanding of terrain, as welloat-like ability to move rapidly over rugged country. Arab troops display their tribal heritage of mobility and endurance; however, they also reveal the traditional Arab romantic craving for glory, resistance to discipline, and reluctance toause that is not readily seen touccess. The Kurds, who are considered better soldiers than the Arabs because of their superior energy and determination, make up the main strength of Iraqi mountain troops. They aretaller than the Arabs, exceed them instrength, and do not despise manual labor as Arabs in general do. On thelevel. Kurdish troops are more likely to remain loyal, even against their own people, subject to the continuing loyalty of Kurdish officers. Puritanical Shiah Arabs in the enlisted ranks are regarded as potential sources of trouble because of their fierce religious Army practices do nothing to alleviate this condition, inasmuch as they subject the Shiah Arabs to contact with other beliefs, and toirritation in religiousInstance, it Is impossible for Shiah soldiers to follow their dietary customs while serving In the army.

The volunteer soldier is attracted primarily by the security which military life offers, withfood and an Income comparable to that of the average peasant. For tbe ordinary conscript, however, this security is offset by separation from bis own family and tribal ties and by association with people whom he distrusts.

Army officers are drawn from the growing middle class and directly reflect its preoccupations, loyalties, and deficiencies. Although betterand more Intelligent than the enlisted men, the officers are by no means free of the typical limitations of temperament which make adaptation to modern warfare difficult for the Iraqiand tradition encourage the Iraqi officer in his thirst for personal renown, his fierce pride, and his reluctance to admit any deficiency in hisor abilities. In the past, this attitude has led to insufficient delegation of authority and little reliance on staff work; in the case of incompetent personnel holding positions of power the result

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been too often the adoption of erroneousplans, and policies which could notower level without insulting theofficer. It has led alsooss of contact between officers and men, since many officerscertain types of mililary training andbeneath their dignity: for example, that of motor transport and maintenance.

Personnel and pay administration of Iraqihasontinuing morale issue. officers of certain branches have been taken from field commands and assigned to choice staff positions in the Ministry of Defense, while officers who showed little promise have beeninto the administrative services. pay and slow promotions influenced byfavor have been sources of complaint and have, encouraged officers to indulge in thepractice of padding their salaries with supplements from unit ration funds. The Minister of Defense has, since the8 revolution, been trying to overcome this deficiency by granting large pay Increases which have been consolidated In the Officers' Service Law

II Reserve and mobilisation

system

After active service of approximately two years, conscripts are obligated to serve in the reserves fordditional years. There are no active reserve units due to lack of organisation and facilities. The reserve also includes those reserve officers who are In Inactive status.

system

There is no real mobilization plan and after the conscripts are demobilized from the colorIt Is administratively impossible for them to be recalled to the colors after more than three years.

potential

Due to the lack of an organized mobilizationthe reserve potential is calculated at not more0 men.

I. Trainingeneral

The quality of training ranges between poor and fair. Basic deficiencies in personnel and materiel make effective training difficult even underconditions; meagerness of facilitieswith lack of interest in both officers andhave often resulted in uninspired andexecution of over ambitious plans. The high rate of illiteracy in Iraq makes it difficult to train specialists, such as engineers, signalmen, andIn the past, training groups have been criticized for teaching soldiers by rote, leaving them unable to respond appropriately tosituations; and programs have failed to take advantage of the soldiers' natural ability for guerrilla tactics, scouting, and patrolling.

Iraq has always sufferedhortage of qualified Instructors, both for enlisted ranks and for branch and staff schools. Training wasby the British Advisory Military Mission (BAMM) untilt which time thewas fell to be no longer required and wasby mutual consent. However,raq haseries of Middle East Land Forces teams as training Instructors for new tunk and artillery units, and for repair, maintenance, and signals instruction The operations of these teams appear to have been enlightened andwith consequent improvement in the units and schools affected. The new regime hasWestern military aid and has turned to the Soviet Union and the UAR for military missions.

Training doctrine of the Iraqi Army is, in theory, entirely British.

Z. Prelnduction

There Is no system of government-sponsored military training for potential army personnel, except for university students who holdin the reserve.

ndividual

Individual and school training throughout the army Is the general responsibility of the Director of Training.

Recruit training is conducted in nine special training battalions, organized into three brigades, one under each infantry division. The normal basic training period of three months is devoted to Indoctrination, use of the standard3 rifle, and drill. Instruction in Arabic in reading, writing, and arithmetic Is given to the majority of conscripts, inasmuch as most arc Illiterate and lack basic education. The recruit, following his basic training, is assigned to an arm or service and transferred to cither an active unit in the field orraining regiment or depot for moretraining in his branch. The courses given by these training organizations vary in lengthto branch.

Upon joining active field units, all enlisted men are, in principle, subjectontinuation oforganized on an annual basis, with individual training emphasized during winter and early spring, followed by platoon and company training in April and May. and brigade and divisionalduring the fall.

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personnel assigned to certain branches requiring specialization and technical knowledge areraining status for much longer than the normal period for Infantrymen; fortheperiod" of technical school graduates Is four years. Training of suchand courses for noncommissioned officers are conducted by the depots and branch training schools. Various technical courses arc operated from time to time, as needed, to train suchas musicians, artificers, carpenters, and saddlers.

The quality of individual training varies with tbe quality of the unit and Its commander; it ranges from poor to fair. standards and, in general, takes much longer. IndividualIn the specialist battalions and depots isigher quality, due to the assignmentetter selection of personnel than in the Infantry

Officer candidates are trained at the Military College, near Baghdad, where theyhree-year course. During the first year, the cadettraining In small arms, drill, small-unitphysical education, equitation, and ordinary freshman-year college subjects. The second-year curriculumontinuation of first-year subjects, plus tactical Instruction to include company level. During the first she months of the third year, cadets continue advanced general instruction At the end of that time they are allowed lo select their branch of service, within the limits ofvacancies, and for their last six months' schooling attend specialized courses at theirbranch schools. The college, modeled on Sandhurst,igh standard, by Middle East criteria.

Advanced specialized iraining for officers isin the various branch schools. Staff training Is carried out at the Iraqi Staff College. The course, which lasts two years, includeshistory and strategy, military geography, armaments and organization, tactics, staff work, English, and equitation; all courses are modeled on British lines. In the past, teaching at the Staff College has often been in advance of theof the army and the thinking of the General Staff.

nit, combined, and maneuvers

. Unit and combined training and maneuvers are under the supervision of the Deputy Chief of the Oeneral Staff. Operations.

Prior to theuly coup, the armyearly training cycle with maneuvers usually being held in November. Where possible the army based the maneuver plans on some phase of the plan for the defense of Iraq in order to test the validity of the war plan and to familiarize the troops with the terrain which they would beto defend.

The last maneuver took place during the8 in the desert west of Habbanlyah. Itombined-arms operation utilizing armor, infantry, artillery, air, and supporting troops of the Ministry of Defense. The purpose of thewas to train troops in desert operations and to test logistical support procedures. Thislike Its predecessors, was poorly executed and generally ineffectiveraining exercise.

Since the new regime has taken power in Iraq, the army has done very little training and has had no maneuvers. Internal security currently appears to be the main concern of the army.

eserve

The reserve is made up of inactive reserveand conscripts whose service consists of two years with the colors andears with theThere is no active training for reservists due to lack of organization and facilities.

G. Schools and Installations

The educational system lsto Increase the professional proficiencyarmy officer throughout his career and tothe enlisted man with the necessaryinstruction. Most of the schools arethose of the British Army as manyofficers have been trained in British schools.

The schools are under the command of theof Defense.

and ckaractzb or schoolsof installations are shown in.

3. Logistics

of materiel

The Iraqi Army follows the British Army system of using the terms "supplies" and "stores" loosely to classify materiel. The term "supplies" includes rations, fodder. POL. disinfectants, and medical items. The term "stores" refers to materiel* other than supplies; stores are classified as ordnance, engineer, transportation and veterinary.

Supply requirements for quartermaster-type materiel. In theory, are determined by thedirectorates under the guidance of theOeneral, are programed by theDirectorate, and are procured through the Directorate of Contracts and Sales. However, the system for purchasing and distributing supplies

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Military College (Al A'oUiye al Atkariya) Ac RiMUrnlynh (Baghdad)

School of Infantry (Madratot ol Snuaaatt

Baghdad

Armored FlghUog Vetieie School (VoaVaaalo-'oj al MtMfarra'a),

AbaSchool (Stadratol al Ilaitolata)

Baghdad

ArUUexy Arbool (Madraaof al Marf/ifiirt)

Baghdad

Supply and Transportod'avU al

Signal School (Madroaot al

Baghdad

l

Reaervo College (A'alilyo ataghdad

SeniorchoolJ

I'wimoaYaaai Of .Vo'ol.n)

Baghdad

Klecuieal A Mechanical biginecncK at JCa-otir* ol

aghdad

School of PhvMcaladroaoireaVeri ar *rfaghdad

Ordnance School (liii'J'iuai ol

Baghdad

Trains arUcied offirun who have iccved al least ft yeara with rank ofear nmn> in advanced

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2 diviitom, combatant and jioneombulant Officer can-did ale online* modeled on Hundhnral Special "Toughntelligence, aod lUacrvc OHeera' ro-rtea give* al Ibe aebool.

Training In all iofanuy weapon- company officers and NCO arc laught modem infantry factlea including mountain warfare.

Aratorrdncluding mining in driving aad main-lenancp, tlgnala,nd heavy recoverylaiikt, nrmond ears,rucka.

Tralna offleen andmen la engineering

TraJoa batteryxecutivend NCO.

Driven and automotive maintenance men plusand aupply peraonoei are trained by Unt school ai deeded

fcisr.nl and regimental offlocnT uniniog and refroaher courare Superintendent* aiid repairmen'a NCO

onth counar for candidatta for reserve oommisuutn

week eouraea each year (or nun-etaS college graduate* Senior refreeaer eouraea given aleo.

I*rovldea expert fairlera and braina aeuior NCO in ajicciul counea.

Uaaie and advanced kntrucUon in ordnance subject* ..

Basic inalruttion In physical training for officers aad es-larted tnen

Basic Mid advanced Instruction in ocdnniicu aubjecta.

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abroad Is actually dependent upon the availability of funds to the Ministry of Defense. Funds for the procurement of materiel are made available to the Ministry of Defense through the annual budget. Orders are placed by the Director of Contracts, import licenses are Issued by theOeneral of Imports, and the MilitaryOeneraloreign-exchangefrom the National Bank of Iraq.

The Ordnance Service of the Iraqi Army is charged with procuring weapons, and with Issuing ammunition. The Electrical and Mechanical(EME) and the Mechanical Transport Service are jointly responsible for the procurement of transport vehicles. The Mechanical Transport Service Issues the vehicles according to allocations established by the Director of Military Operations.

Most of the weapons and equipment used by the Iraqi Army must be imported. The Unitedand the United States had been Iraq's chief source of weapons and equipment, but nownumbers of items are being obtained from the

.

Iraq lacks facilities for the manufacture ofequipment and consequentlyall its requirements in this field. The army procures equipment not only for itself but also for the Iraqi police.14 the United Kingdom was the only known source offor Iraqi signal equipment.4 the United Statesmall military aid program for Iraq but stopped when the present Iraqi Government was establishedraq is not known to have procured any signal equipment since that time.

Exceptew domestic medicines, all medical supplies and equipment are Imported; the majority come from the United Kingdom and the United States. The medical supply services of the Iraqi

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are modeled on the British system, with modifications to meet local needs.

Iraq is not known to have any productionfor CBR materiel. Local procurement of smoke munitions should, however, be possible after an artillery shell factory at Al Musayylb lsThis factory willnch,pounder shells.

In recent years, the Iraqi Army has beento lessen dependence upon foreignby increasing local production. Under the supervision of the Director of Production,military factories have been developed in and around Baghdad. Production is limited, however, to clothing and blankets.

Military automatic bakeries (stationary) have aiso been developed to alleviate dependence oncontractors for bread. These facilities are located at Baghdad, KirkOk. Ad Dlwanlyah, and Ba'qubah. The Baghdad Installationaily output ofons of bread. Four new bakeries, similar to the one at Baghdad, are underat Mosul, Irbil, JalQia. and Basra.

Iraq has two small government-owned arsenals capable ofery limited quantity of rifles and small-arms ammunition.

eacetime storage and issue

a. Ststim

fodder. POL, andtype itemsThe army has only limitedcapabilities. Supply reserves for rations,POL, and quartermaster items areThe system for rations, fodder,supply is geared to local procurement'contractors who supply the varioustbe times and places specified. They usuallygo beyond the forward maintenance areadivision. In addition, food consists almostof perishable items and Is not adaptablesubsistence of troops in the field.

The shortages of quartermaster items, with the exception of locally produced clothing, are so great that issues are made to using units immediately upon procurement.

materielAdequatestorage for ordnance materiel is providedarmy. Responsibility for the storage andordnance weapons and ammunition restsDirector of Ordnance Services. TheOrdnance Services controls the operation ofdepot located In Baghdad and theordnance depots which are located inthe army divisions. Requests for ordnanceby all units are made directly toDivisional ordnance depots, in turn, replenish their stocks from the CentralDepot In Baghdad. Responsibility for the issue of transport vehicles to using units rests with the Mechanical Transport Service, which issues them according to allocations established by the Director of Military Operations.

Signal suppliesThe Signal Supply Depot in the Ministry of Defense compound in Baghdad is the central storage point for signal supplies and Is responsible for all distribution The distribution system is described as inflexible, antiquated, and time-consuming.

Medical suppliesMedical materiel is stored in, and issued from, the medical depotsat Camp Rashid and in each of the divisional area headquarters. Lower echelon medicaland units are supplied from the headquarters depots. No other information is available on types and quantities.

b. in-tai :principal storageare as follows:

Heuahss

Main ordnance depot in Iraq.

Ttfe or matBlUC

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Clothing,weapons, and ammunition.

Clothing,weapons, and ammunition.

Clothing,weapons, and ammunition.

Clothing,weapons, und ammunition.

Rations, POL, and quarter master-type equipment.

Medical supplies

Otber depotsat

Central storage point lor all Iraq.

All garrison loiru de- Rations andott.

ar supply and movement

In general, the logistic support system foroperations is based on the British system. All resources of the country are to be madeto the army in the event of hostilities.in view of the shortage of trained specialists, lack of sufficient motor transport andfacilities, inadequate stockpile of materiel, and cumbersome stock control, army wartimecapability is negligible.

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Uniform repairs arc on an individual basis and no mobile or field repair units are used. Footwear and clothing requiring major repairs are turned into Ordnance Service workshops for reclamation.

The system or recovery and repair ot vehicles and equipment is patterned after that of theArmy. The repair and maintenance ofmateriel is the responsibility of theand Mechanical Engineersirstor organisational maintenance ls performed by personnel of the using units with the assistance of EME light aid detachments which are part of the unit establishment. Field maintenance isby larger EME light aid detachmentswith each division, while heavier repairs are made in tbe EME base shops In Baghdad. Maintenance efficiency is limited by the lack of - trained personnel and training facilities. Anhandicap has been the heterogeneity and poor condition of vehicles and equipment. Spare parts are in short supply, and maintenance ofis often neglected. The system wasimproving through additional training ofand increased stocks of spare parts which were being furnished as grant aid from the United States and tho United Kingdom. With theof this aid and with the Iraqi switch to Soviet equipment, the maintenance problem is probably again being aggravated.

turned to their unit or are sent to base hospitals for extended medical care and treatment. The army possesses mobile surgical units mounted on three-ton trucks; however, no evidence exists that mobile hospitals, trains, or aircraft are used. First-aid packets are issued to small detachments on independent missions away from medical

K. Materielrdnance

a. OenebalOrdnance materiel Isof Us and British origin. Much of the equipment is old and in poor condition because of improper maintenance. Limited numbers ofweapons and vehicles are held.esult of recent arms agreements withraq has received an undetermined number of Soviet tanks and armored vehicles.

Sufficient quantities of ammunition are believed to be held for the limited requirements of tbe army. Almost all of the ammunition is in reserve storage.

Domestic manufacture of ordnance materiel is limited to the assemblyew British-type rifles and the loading of small-arms ammunition. There is no ordnance materiel research and development of any consequence.

vacuation

Policy and procedures for the evacuation ofhave not been established. Any systemwith this operation ls almost certainlyafter that of the British.

The chain of evacuation for casualties is modeled after that of the British Army Medical Services, modified for local needs. Impetus is from the rear with higher echelon units evacuating lowerunits. Evacuation is planned to move throughnd brigade-level medical units, then to base hospitals for more definitive treatment as required by the patient's condition and tbe tactical situation. Adverse terrain and climatic features would create obstacles Inprocedures.

Evacuation from the front lines to the battalion aid station (BAS) is accomplished by litter bearers attached to each company headquarters. The BAS is operatedhysicianetachment of nonmedical personnel. From the BAS,arc evacuated by elements of the fieldunit, supporting each brigade, to one of the two casualty collection posts (CCP) or to thedressing station. Depending on the care required, casualties are cither treated and re-

b. Infantry weapons

The army ls equippedweapons primarily ofaintenanceItems is. standards

Information on holdingsLs incomplete; however. It Is knownBritishnfield.klebley,k6 revolvers are inin good condition.

Submachxnegunsprincipal sub-machinegun Is them Stcnoldings of this weapon are considered adequate for the present needs of the army and arc believed to be tn good condition.

Rifles and carbinesThek3 (SMLE) rifle is standard.goodto meet current requirements.

MachinegunsMachlnegun holdings consistariety of makes and models. origin, The principal standardare British3 Bren and Lewis light machineguns and Vickers3 Mkl heavy machineguns. These weapons are believed to bo in fairly good condition. The US caliberA4 Browning andmra Mk3 tank

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machineguns are used as armament on certain of the army's. and British armoredA small number.rowning heavy machineguna have been obtained from the United States as grant aid under the. Items are in excellent

Although machineguns arc available insufficient for present needs, no reserve is known to exist.

Infantry recotUess and rocketThem andm recoil-less rifles are in use and are in excellent condition-Both of these Items were received under the MAP. An unknown quantitynch rocket(probably. or British origin) are on hand and are believed to be in goodimited amountnch rocket ammunition has been obtained from the United States under the MAP.

GrenadesThere is no currentconcerning grenade holdings.kl hand or rifle grenade, which was on handrobably Is still available.

MortarsBritishnchof World War II vintage are the principal types In use. Holdings of these weapons arc deemed adequate for normal requirements.heavy mortarsewnch modelsumberhich were obtained as grant aid from the United States.

c. Artillery

il) OeneralArtillery) is primarily of British origin. In addition, limited quantities. weapons have been furnishedthe MAP. Holdings arc In good condition' and adequate for the current needs of the army. "

The supply of ammunition for all artilleryis believed to be adequate for the army's limited requirements. No coast artillery weapons, field rocket launchers, self-propelled artillery or guided missiles are known to exist in Iraq.

FieldThe principal field artillery weapons available arem) gun-howitzersnch packLimited quantities ofm)nchnch gunsnch howitzers are on hand. Inmall numbermm pack howitzers andnch howitzers have been furnished under the MAP. Except fornch howitzers, Iraqi field artillery pieces have been well maintained and are in good condition.

AntitankAntitank artillery defense Is providedew dozenm)m) antitank guns. The antitank artillery ls believed to be in good condition and sufficient for present army

AntiaircraftAntiaircraft artillery holdings include British andmmautomatic gunsewmm andnch antiaircraft guns. Althoughof these weapons are sufficient for current needs and arts believed to be in good condition, they are of little use against modern hlgh-altltude. fast-flying aircraft.

Combat vehicleHoldings consist of VS. and British weapons ranging in calibermmmm. VS. weapons consist ofmm gunounted on the US MS light armored car and the British Humber armored car andmm gunounted onight tank. Included among the British modelsmm gun mounted on the Humber armoredm) gun mounted on the Daimler armoredmm gun mounted on the Churchill Mk7 tank,m) gun mounted on the Centurion tank. Tbe condition of the British weapons Is not known. Tbe VS. types, all of which were furnished under the MAP are In good condition.

onlydevices available to the Iraqi Army aresights and associated off-carriageplotting instruments normally used withBritish weapons.

combat vehicles

GeneralIraqi Army Is equipped with armored combat vehicles of British. originany were furnishedthe MAP. Holdings are believed to be in good condition and adequate for army needs.

Tonftasmall number of British Churchill mediumanks armed withmm gun are on hand. In addition,ight tank (mounting themm gun) and the British Centurion medium (Mks3 andanks (mountingpounder gun) have been furnished In limited numbers under the MAP.

Armored cars, scout cars, andIraqi Army holdings in thismall number of British and VS.Scout car holdings are limited to theDaimler and Ferret models. British armored cars and carriers Include the Humber Mk4mmhe Daimlerm Besa machinegunoundernd the Universal Bren gun carrier. VS. armored cars and carriersmall number of the following which were furnished as grant aid: M8 light armored cars (mountingmm gun M6r-

mored utility carsingle21 half-track personnel carriers (which mount thehe condition of the British armored cars and carriers is not known. The British scout cars and vehicles. origin are in good

pecial-purpose vehiclesThe army has two types of special-purpose armored combat vehicles, both of which are. origin. The firstank recovery vehiclehich2 machlnegunaliberA4 machlnegun. The second typeof high speed tractors0 M2 machlncgun. Both types are held In small quantities.

f. Transportation vehiclesTransportare primarily of Britishesser number of Canadian models also available. The army's shortage of transportation vehicles was gradually being alleviatedtype equipment under the MAP prior to the coup inf the vehicles on hand and in use.. models are of most recent acquisition and are considered to be in good condition. Serviceability of the older British and Canadian vehicles ranges from poor to fair.

Deliveries of transportation vehicles under the MAP, as ofero as follows:

loo low bed

heel, cargo, all modala

heel, water

heel, water tank, all

Truck, fc-ton.ll models

Truck, ton. 4x4

Truck,it-ton,eapons carrier, all models

on.

Truck,nn.ll

on,

on,argo

Truck, ft-lon,

on, 6x8 prime mover and

ignal

Untilhe army had enough signal equipment to satisfy its peacetime needs, chiefly British types supplied under the terms of theTreaty. MAP for Iraq was initiated, much of theequipment of British origin had becomearid6 signal capability wasow point. The Anglo-Iraqi Treaty was no longer in effect, stocks of spares and parts had dwindled, and lack of replacement parts was makingmaintenance for British equipmentdifficult.

Even as late asnly small amounts. signal equipment had arrived In Iraq and these were, in the main, stockpiled at the

Signal Supply Depot in Baghdad pendingof transitional training for signal personnel. In the latter partoincident withS. mobile signal training team,amounts of signal equipment beganAt the time of8 coup, the Signal Corps appeared headed for an eventual and complete changeover. types of signal equipment,the. signal equipment which had actually been Issued were low-powered radio sets and some wire equipment. Test equipment and medium-power radio sets were still being held In depot stock until units could be formed and trained to use the equipment, and It is unlikely that this withheld equipment has been Issued since the coup.

A Ann evaluation of the present army signalcannot be made, since availableon the quantities, types, and condition ofequipment in the hands of using troops is neither current nor detailed. The Signal Corps probably has the capability of temporarilyminimum communicationsorps In aaction against invasion in strength. It is unlikely that this capability will rise unless new formal arrangements are madeontinuing source of supply for both materiel and training assistance.

Under the influence of its foreign advisers, the army had been placing increasing emphasis upon radio for peacetime use and as the only medium capable of providing satisfactory communications under fluid tactical conditions. Three separate radio nets (northern, central, and southern) are operated by the army radio system forwith army garrisons. Most of the army radio equipment known to have been procured In recent years is. types, but the majority in use is probably still British. The principal Items of radio equipment available to the army are listed In.

In peacetime, telephone Is the chief means of telecommunication in the army. The army has one direct telephone line from the Ministry ofin Baghdad toivision Headquarters in KirkOk; this line was bought from British forces who built it during World War II. he army bought equipmentine automatic telephone exchange from the Oeneral Electric Company,f England; reportedly thiswas to be Installed in the Rashid Military Camp. Most of the army telecommunication lines are furnished by tho Directorate General of Posts and Telegraphs. Tactical wire equipmentreported in recent years are mainly. origin.

156

Tib

CCIA j

DEA

. DIA

DOE

uartermaster

a GeneralUnitonus of the army and the police force arc patterned after the British Army service dress. battledressnd tropical dress uniforms. The army has built and operatesfactories to produce its own shoes, socks, sweaters, andextile factory for the production of rayon and woolenailoring factory for tho manufacture ot uniforms have commenced operationsmall scale. Individual and organizational equipment ls of standard British design and manufacture.

b. Umroaus

GeneralBasic uniforms for all ranks, of olive drab wool for winter and light tanor cotton twill for summer, fall Into twocategories; field and service.fficers of the grade of brigadier and above, commandants of schools, and military attaches and theirwere required to purchase and maintainand summer dress uniforms. The cadets of the Military College wear similar uniforms, and all officers on duty at the college are required to wear the dress uniform when appropriate

FieldThe winter and summerare the same for all ranks. The principal components of the winter battledress uniformacket with buckled waistband, trousers, shirt, and tie. Inhaki bush coat and khaki trousers arearrison cap. beret, or steeleb waist belt, canvas gaiters, andshoes may be worn with bothith helmeteck shield may be worn with tbe summer uniform.

ServiceThe officer's winter service uniform consists of an olive drab wool coatelf-material belt, trousers, olive drab shirt wornontrasting lighter colored tie.shoes,arrison cap or beret. Theof the summer service uniform are light tan and identical in design to the winteright tan shirt and olive drab tie are worn. The coat ls not always worn. Shorts and knee-length socks aream Browne belt may be worn with both uniforms.

Enlisted personnel wear the winter battledress uniform for service duty. In thehaki drill shirt, tie, bush coat, trousers or shorts, knee-length socks, canvas gaiters, service shoes, and garrison cap. beret, or pith helmet may be worn.

Paratroopsa maroon beret with the regularhite parachuteackgroundblue cloth is worn on the right sleeve,between the shoulder and elbow.

DressThis uniform is similar into the British Army's "dresstsconsistlue wool serge or whipcord coat for winter,hite cotton coat of the same pattern for summer, blue garrison caped crown, blue trousers, and black low-quarter shoes or half-boots. Trousers arc piped on the outside seams: General officersroad gold stripe; lieutenant colonels, colonels, andtwo narrow stripes (colornd cadets and officers through the grade ofroad red stripe.

River forcesPersonnel of the rover Forces wear regular army uniforms; however, each officeraval-type cap and shoulderfor ceremonial use.

Qxiatl-militaryThe army service dress, battledress, and tropical dress uniforms are worn by personnel of the Iraqi police force.grade insignia are similar to those of the. army; enlisted grades wear chevrons. Personnel appearing In high-buttoned, rolled-collared coats with grade insignia on the collar tabs, andam Browne belts, have been encountered. Po^ licemen on duty in the desert wear light-colored* hcadcloths, Arabic-lettered metallic Insignia af-.'j

6

RO

DEA

fA ' DOESWA

C[

FEMA

fbi

HOUSE

NASA

NAVY

NSC

NRC

NSA

OSD

STATE

SENATE

TREAS

USAF :-

USMC

6

9

FORCES

to shoulder-loops and above the left pocket of uniform coats and shirts, and ankle-length skirts slit about one-third of tbe way up the sides. Wide leather belts supported by crossed leatherstraps,eather waist belteather bandoleer slung across the shoulder, arestandard.

C. InSIQRTA

GeneralInsignia of grade andillustrations of other Insignia are shown In. Insigne for the army grade equivalent to. Army rating ofofficer, is not known.

GradeThe grade insignia for officers are of gold color and are worn on the shoulder-loops of uniform coats and shirts when the shirt is worn as the outer garment. The first orsergeantrown with crossed laurel branches Just above the cull of the sleeve. Other enlisted grades wear black stripes which extend diagonally across the outer half of the upper sleeve.

olored cloth tabs, metallic devices, and colored piping on tbe garrison caps indicate the various branches of service. Branch of service insignia are worn by all personnel on the garrison caps and berets, and by officers of the grade of colonel and below on the collar tabs of the dress coat and on the lapels of the service coat. The tabs for all general officers, regardless of basic branch, are red with gold palm leaffor brigadiers, the tabs are red with ared center cord which terminatesmall brass button just below the pointed edge, and for all other officers, tabs are In branch of service

(j

J

&

l-N"

j

'w>

o||

i

. Iraq, Army uwcmm of aUM

color and branch insignia are worn superimposed on theed tab surmountedrown is worn by cadets of the Military College.

Officers who are graduates of the Staff College at Baghdadne-half inch red band below the grade insignia on the shoulderloops. Astrip of cloth worn on the upper coat sleeve has been noted.

Branch colors arc as follows:

l[

SUB

Cavalry

Artillery

Infantry

Signals and fciiglnwrlng

Ordnance

Mechanical Transport and

Red Qrey Deep blue Dark R'ecn Light brae Light greenwn Maroon Black

policelack armbanded Arabic inscription. An army provost marshallack armband with while Arabic

pecialtyEnlisted specialists wear gilt insignia symbolic of their trade or specialty on the upper sleeve in the same general location

NND

Tab

(

fbi

DIA

DOE

do;

.-

DSW

NRC

specialty.

Carpenter Armorer .

as the grade stripes. Specialty Insignia are as

insignia

saddler Blacksmith Drummer Trumpeter .

. PUera. hammer and wood raap. crosses, and French curve. Pliers, crossed hammer and aaw. . Crossed hammer and wood raap with pliers and rifle at the side. Horse'sorseshoeram.ugle.

Order

. Broad red sashale blue center stripe. Gold ribbon.

d. Decorations and awardsMedals and decorations and colors of known suspensionare given in what is believed to be the order of precedence:

King Faisal the First

Class

Class H.

Class iii

Broad raid sash with three

black stripes. Red ribbon with three black stripes surmountedilt crown. Bed ribbon with three black strlpea

Black ribbon with redband. Green ribbon with while

center band-Black, red and white stripes. Red, green and white stripes.

Al-Rafldain1

Class II

Classes m, iv, and V

Gallantry Medal

ervice Medal

War Medal

Victory Medal

Medals may be worn suspended from around the neck on ribbons, or pinned on the lefl breast. For formal events and social affairs,may be worn in full size or as miniatures.are worn with service uniforms.

IndividualIssuesistol holster foror two cartridge bandoleers or two deeppouches, canteen, steel helmet, pack,and gas mask carrier. Items carriedbe of local manufactureweater

antzational equipment

Field sanitationAt the present time, laundry and bath units do not exist. Laundry and bathing are done on an individual basis. Earlyhe Iraqi Ministry of Defense invited bids for laundry units, both portable and permanent, of the type operated by tho US. Army.

Food serviceOil stoves of British and TJ.S. design are used to some extent. Locallywood is used for heating. The Meld bakery company of the Iraqi Army is equipped with eight trailers of British make. These include:heeled doughof whichough troughs for fermenting the dough;heeled trailers with bakery ovens;heeled "machinery" trailer which carries one nxed-pan type Veinnaraaterividing machine,oulder; andheeled generator trailers.

Petroleum-handlingFive-galloncans are used. Mo other information is available.

TentageTroops usually sleep In the open under operational conditions; small tents are used by officers for command post headquarters. The field bakery company is equipped with large wall tents.

RemountHorses normally arc used for ceremonial purposes, and donkeys and mules for pack transport. Remounts for the army are purchased throughout thetud farm is operated by the army near Baghdad. Thesaddle is similar to. McClellan saddle except that it has no split at the top. Packare similar to. item and consistetal frame covered with padding and secured by cinches and breeching.

ngineer

Most engineer materiel Isorigin, although an increasingto8 coup was being purchasedUnited States. There is only enoughavailable for training purposes

equipmentA stock Of plss-

tic explosives is held available for use instrategic points, particularly mountain defiles and bridges.

warfare equipmentThe armywith limited stocks of mine warfareof both British and domesticntitank mines areconsist of the British MarkV and amodel no longer produced, whichto the. Ml high-explosivemine. Small numbers of unidentified typesantl-pcrsonnel mines also arc believed to beThe army possesses no mine detectors.s not available concerning the cor.di-of Iraqi mine warfare equipment

and stream-crossingThis type of equipment is limited toboats,ets of folding-boatooteet of ponton

6

156

7

Army-9

FORCES

Chemical

Except for protective masks, smoke rounds, and smoke generators, there are no known stocks of CW materiel. Iraq's only protective masks are an unknown quantity of civilian-type masks with canisters (now unserviceable) purchased from the British during World War II, The most) indicates that Iraqi smoke munitions consistnch mortar rounds, smoke,nch mortar rounds, smoke,m)rounds, smoke,nch rockets, smoke, WP;mm artillery rounds, smoke, WP. Iraqi munitions are predominantly of British origin and were received under MAP. An unknown quantity of British trailer-mounted smoke generators have also been received under this0 were originally scheduled for shipment) and are reported to be available for smoke-screening the port of Basra in the event of hostilities

There Is no evidence that Iraq Is consideringuse of CW agents; and no preparations for CW defense are being made. Iraq Is notoffensive and/or defensive materiel.in offensive and defensive aspects of chemical warfare is not being given.

edical

a Supplies and equipmentExcept for pharmaceuticals (producedlant which opened Innd common vaccines, all strategic medical materiel is Imported. Drugs are generally imported from the United Kingdom, the United States, Oermany. and Prance. Vaccines, such as those against cholera, plague, smallpox, and rabies, arc produced in Iraq in sufficientfor the needs of the country. Limitedof medicines are produced by the IraqiCompany. The blood program isonly for current needs. Plasma and blood substitutes are imported. The first-aidresembling that of Johnson and Johnsonnches) forissued toof small, separate units to platoon level when their units arc away from the parent organization having medical facilities. Contents of the Iraqi Item include absorbent gauze, bandages, adhesive tape, compressed cotton, aspirin, vaseline, and wound disinfectants.

Ambulance units have Jeep ambulances; and some have three-ton paneled mobile surgicalimported from the United Kingdom or the United States. No Information Is available tothe existence of hospital trains, ships, or

Ing,eet of Bailey bridging. The foldlng-boat equlprrient and the Bailey bridging are of British origin, in addition, six sets of panel bridges. Baileyere received under the VS. MAP.

e. Construction equip mintThemall quantity of constructionMost of this equipment is of British origin; practically all the remainder was Imported from the United States. No construction equipment is manufactured in Iraq.

The following types of construction equipment arc Inton cranes, tractors, bulldozers, scrapers, rollers, air compressors, pumps, andmixers.

The School of Engineers, In Baghdad, conducts courses in operating and maintaining the various types of construction equipment; however, theof personnel in performing theseIs not known.

Iraq depends on foreign sources for Itsequipment and replacement parts, and the army hasimited amount of equipment on hand.

onlyequipment held is allocated tounits. Iraq received four engineersurveying equipment sets through MAP,and mapping equipment held byagencies is inadequate tomapping requirements.

equipmentEmploymenttype of equipment is not extensive. Agenerator sets, each estimateda capacityilovolt-amperes, areIn addition,kllowattsets were provided under MAP. MoIs available regarding the use ofor electric-arc welding equipment.

supply and purificationAvailable army water supply andequipment includes pumps, fabricand trailers. Water Is purified by

nuinaHTiNGonlyon this type of equipmentew pump-type fire trucks held by the Ore brigade in Baghdad.

J. Camouflage equipmentCamouflage nets of British origin are available in sufficientfor artillery and antitank weapons and some types of vehicles.

NND

Tab

DIA DOfc

nsa

156

fema

Trie quality of imported medical supplies and equipment In peacetime and wartime probably is satisfactory; the quantity varies Irom adequate to Inadequate. Information is not available tothe degree of skill of Iraqi medicalin using medical equipment; It Is believedto be low.

o

b. Hospitalhasilitary hospitalsase hospitals)otal known bed capacity of. (For additional details on military hospitals seehichap of both military and civilianocations and bedof the base hospitals are as follows:

Ba'qubah Camp Rashid

UN

100

Ad

No reciprocity arrangement is known to exist between military and civilian hospitals; however, In an emergency presumably the military would requisition civilian medical facilities. Standards In the military hospitals arc below those of US. Army facilities in all respects. Medical supplies and equipment are occasionally In short supply, and staffingontinuous problem. Hospitals sufler an acute shortage of both medical andedical personnel (especially qualified nursingospital administrationhe country appears to be weak. One of the few notable exceptions is the teaching0

si-is.

or

U-mm Stsn Mk3

(United Kingdom)

Man

o.

(United Kingdom) Manhlneguna:

IOA4 Browning..

ran, Light

(United3CJ Lswis. Light

(United Kingdom) Osl lot Mkl,

moss

(United Kingdom) CalB,rowning

(United Slates)

Brilirh psrsheJmn wcvice types.

IliUi-li tcivloe types

ype*

British terries types

aerrie* types

Briliali aerrice types

U.S. service typea

Blowbar.L, selective aulo midfire.

Manually, bolt-action, ninS

Short recoil, air-cooled, belt-fed. auto

gsa-opersted, selective auto or tmt*aU> Era. Air-eooled. gas-operated, auto Ore csUy.

Wster-rookd,as

aaaiat, auto fire Ottly. Cue-operated,ates

of auto fire. Short-recoil, air-cooled, bell-fed,

auto.

apprvi SOU

Idireet]

i.ran

i.coo

6 RO

hp

6 ssa

9

FORCES

of the Baghdad Medical School. This school has generally modem medical facilities.

In emergencies or war the army would require extensive medical support from abroad.

ransportation

a.The Iraqi Army has no rail or marine transportation equipment at this time, and there are no known plans to procure such equipment in the foreseeable future. Allof this type that ls being utilised by the army Is controlled by civilian transportationunder individual contract to the army. For information on equipment held by civilagencies see CiiAPrra HI,

b. An my aviationLiaison and transport squadrons of the air force which perform army aviation-type functions utilize both rotary-wing and fixed-wing aircraft. The inventory ofheld by these two squadrons is as follows:

Rotary-Win* Aircraft:

ELS.1

Flxed-Wlng Aircraft:

BntUh. De HaTilland Dove

Brlllnh. De Havilland

BriUiih. Bristol

B

abular data

The following Figures, showing characteristics of materiel, Include Information on small arms, infantry recoilless and rocket weapons, mortars,armored combat vehicles, and radio

IRAQI KM ALL ARMS

LOADS D

nr ykid IHM

tl.OF PIHE

o 10

ripOd>

Appro*willi bipod)

Appro*wjbipod)

MS0 rda of ammo andripod).

un only)

w/lrtpod)

d bos mag

d nmg, fedd clip. ..

d (fabricslink bell).

d mas

dpanmag..fabric belt

MS-rdbell

A. deaired Wnk belt)

rda per ana.

in.

o 20

o SSO (eyelw)

KI (wmiaulo)

SSO

MO

cyclic)

ttrvrol ar* been Uaued.

Differenmmark* are alignt.

British manufnolurc. Equivie lentAIL

Deed on Dnlmlnr armoredAppro*n hand.

nnd 6

no 3

156

lab

i6;

HA

DOE

DOJ

-

Fl

nd caliber (codWHY or ma nt ufactu nxl maximum koriiortal

RaKOB

rROJIC-TILR:

TRtQCtTT (rf. fBR ARC-)

Field:

ni Pack HowiKrr, MIAI

ml FMd Gnu

(Ceiledpdr ;r7 * Gua-Howilaer. .

m) Pack UowiUcr

m) Oun

m) Oun

m) Ilowitur

(UnitedmiL) Hovitecr.Cnr-nageM!.

(United Statea) Antitank:

nro) AntiUnk Gun

(United Kingdom)

m) Antitank Gun (United Kintdom)

Antiaircraft:

un Automatic Antiaircraft Gun, Ml. (Unitedmm Automatic Antiaircraft god, Boron, LAO. (Unilnd Kingdom)

n Antiaircraft Can, Ml A3

(United Statea)

n IM-mn) AntiaircraftUnited Kingdom) Combat Vehicle:

yn Gun, MO

(United Statea)

mm) Gun

(UnitedCan. M6

(UnitedTank Oan

m! Tank Cud

(United Klnariomt

w/HE)

heavy(light

imio

OE);0

AP).

0 (HE).

rta.

BAT.

0

No Ar" approved

No AP provided

a

No AP provided

Al'jP;0PDS.

P;PDS.

0

x30

O ml0 w'APC-T.

0

0

x0

UK S0.

4

HEEP and

;

P.

I.

.

NND

|

RU

|

a

sai

re available This weapon diuuetuibleeack load-.

4 on hand, obeoteio In Briton Army.a hand.n hand. Bon handn hand.

n hand.

on hand.

on hand

0 It.

nrange0 ft.

orange0 ft.

80 ft.

Uaedrmored ear and Briltah Humber armored car.be, tube and breechtnounL

Armament on Daimler armored car. be. with

breech mochanWin. Mounted. light. n hand. Weight

m, lube and breech incchankun. Cham burnt! to Aremm ammunition. Armament on

CburcbJU lack.. be, breech andounted on the Centurionanka. n hand

6 ro 3 j

haft*

.

156

|

[

9

. IRAQI ARMORED

xokexclatcre (oouvnty op HtncritTunti)

1 (in.)

loaded

pcrsUuc-ture

m gun,alG,

mmmm MC.

pdr gun; 1 nehinegun. Bro suing.

States)

Medium, Churchill, Mk7

(United Kingdom) Medium, Centurion, Mk3 and Mk7.

(United Kingdom)

vi (l

top).

5 (rear);3 (belly).

Cars, Seoul Cars, and Carriers: Scout and Recon nais^snce Car,

8

3 Bren LMG

1 i'1 Iln ii!

Car,erret

ifl.ooo

Kingdom) Armored Car, MM, Humber...

1 tvW UICII U

mmmm

Kingdom)

dr gun; Imm Besa MG.

Kingdom)

Armored, Light, MS

5

m guo.G.al

alG M2

States) Car, Armored..

"

5

States) British. Universal Brcn Gun

8

3 Bren LMG

Untied Kingdom) Carrier, Personnel, Halftrack,

. (United States)

An9

com DAT vehicles

ARMED FORCES

cm

indl-on t

p,pm.

34

e.

fl-eyl,S0 hp. al

cyl,p. at

ptn. ,

150

11

a

38

World War II tank. i

hand.

aa Increased amm mil lionami third fuel tank which double* fuel eapaoUy over 88 uii hand

gaa, TO hp,ptn .

p,p,pm.

6-cyl. taa.p.pm .

caa,p.pm

8

50

50

303

Mk

buu-

3 5

1

3 4

4.0

3.7

0

30

31

in Bntiah Amy dunnj World

Wat II.

Standard In uin British Army. n hand.

UrilMli World War II armored car.n hand

Britkh World War II arnored oarn hand.

n hand.

gai,ip,pm.

on hand.

p.pm..

1

p,pm

1

hand.

+n

UA* tllfttm

ttpi eiavu.r

Briltth)

nd Mk-II

(us).

SCR-Wt (uw

us)

us)

AMh uicA...

AM .

e/a

SOtft tefcprintir0 rack

nert;8 me/*.

FM nnrmnlly uaod wilhequipment* to provide additional voice9 mr/i.

KM normally unod withequipment to provide additional vote*tch.

General purpone

Cotpa mid division

orp* and Uiv'-tlot-

and higher head-

quutrn Divlilon and Itigher hnad-

quarlera

DivUion am) higher heid-

ouarwrl

RIriiuIadn

hand. t. UiuHln hand. IMS.

i received MAP.

eceived MAP.eceived MAP.

eceived MAP.

M

i i

FBI

NRC

-.:

Abmy-Awul

It!. Quasi-military and other ground forceseneral

The Iraq Police Force, numbering0 officers and men,emimllitary police organization under the Minister of Interior. The organization contains traffic, garrison, forest,and mobile forces. Although its primaryare civil, It is trained in weapons to enforce the peace by military operations, should thearise.

In addition to the police. Popular Resistance Forces (PRF) are being organized into three areas: Centralouthernnd Northern (Mosul)ivilian mllltla attached to the Minister of Defense. The PRF are composed of volunteers of both sexes between the ages of IS andho are subject to two years of active dutyhort training period. The volunteers are paid the salary of regular soldiers while on active duty. The PRF currently are estimated toncludingomen.

he Iraqi Police Force

The role of the Iraqi Police Force Is to maintain paw and order and Internal security.for Its operation Is vested In the Directorof Police, who is answerable directly to the Minister of Interior. The Director Oeneral Is aidedtaff equivalentilitary general staff, consisting of three assistant directorsfor operations, administration, and supply. The police departmenta, known as directorates, are organized to supervise and execute special police functions as indicated In. Each of therovinces ilium) in the nation has police forces of various types. These forces are directed operationally by the governor (mutasarrit) of the Ihoa, who is responsible for security. The ltwa police forces are controlled administratively by the Director General of Police In Baghdad. Because of better pay scales, police enlisted personnel arc can-

NND

FBI

DSWA NBC

NIS 30

-9

to be of somewhat higher quality than their counterparts in the army; police officers, however, have been of poorer quality than the army officers.

Recruiting for the police takes place principally in Baghdad although occasionally It is also done in the Unas. Short training courses may beoutside of Baghdad for training theseRecruits, particularly for the mobile forces, are drawn more from the southern part of Iraq than from any other section. There is no fixed period of obligation and the police or thecan terminate service at wilL

Police training in Iraq Is carried out through three schools: the Preliminary School, theSchool,igh School. The Preliminary School trains raw recruits for positions In the ranks and also provides some advanced training to qualify new men for noncommissioned officerThe police Secondary School takes men from the police force for training to qualify them as Inspectors (roughly equivalent to warrantThiswo-year course. In the Highhree-year course, inspectors are trained to become officers (assistant directors general) and also training isertain number of men with secondary school education but with nopolice experience. The courseroad area of instruction, including law andmilitary training. Graduates of this course are sent for their first tour to the mobile police In addition, some NCO are trained with the army In use of weapons, mountain warfare, and minor tactics. Personnel In the police communication service consist largely of men who have had army service In the Signal Corps. Otherwise, training for communication technicians is carried outon an on-the-job basis.

The police forces are equipped with the British Mark4 and long and short British Lee3 rifles. British automatic rifles including Bren guns, and revolvers. The rifles and automatic weapons are generally World War II relics and thearc in nhort aupply with the proportion of aged and unsuitable weapons very high.

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As ofhe vehicle fleet of theconsisted of:

Jeeps. WUlTi

Land Hovers (UK.)

Pickups, Ford (Ufl.)

Pickups. Dodse

Power Wagons, Dodge (DA) ..

Station Wagon. Ford.

Pilot, Ford

Lorries. Ford

LotTka, Chevrolet (US.) .

BO

Amoulances. Renault (French)

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Motorcycles Bicycles

Approximately two-thirds of the motor vehicle fleet is either in poor condition or unserviceable for various reasons at any given time.

Mobile Police Force

The Mobile Police Force is the tactical arm of the Iraqi Police Force. Its mission is to maintain Internal security by suppressing riots and revolts, both in the capital and in the provinces when local police are incapable of handling the situation. Its present strength isfficers and men.

The Mobile Police comprise two brigades; each brigade has three battalions, and each battalion has three companies. One of the brigades isalong army lines. In addition, the Mobileheadquarters has an armored carobile companyobile workshop. Two of the Mobile Police battalions are equipped with British Mark4 rifles while the rest use long and short British Lee3 rifles. Thehaveew mortars.

There are. In addition, three reserve policetwo are permanently stationed in the north of Iraq, and one in the south. These are static reserves and not part of the mobile forces.

t Police

The Iraqi Police Forces also Include three desert police organizations for the three desert areas of the country, the Southern. Northern, and Jazira deserts. Eacheparate command under aDirector. The headquarters of the Southern Desert Police is at As Salman, the headquarters of the Northern Desert Police is at Ar Rutbah, and the Jazira force headquarters is at Al Hadr.

The Desert Police units are attached, fordirectly to the Ministry of Interior. This arrangement facilitates the regulation of tribal affairs and relationships with authorities of the neighboring Arab states. The Desert Forces arc subordinate to the Director General of Police with respect to discipline, training, supply, andmatters.

The functions of the Desert Police are policing tribal units and settling tribal disputes inwith the tribal dispute law and otherlaws, administration of tribal affairs such as pasture rights and the encroachment by one tribe against another, and control of the frontiers with Saudi Arabia, Syria, and Jordan.

The Directors of the Desert Police have the power of provincial governors under the tribal law and also limited legal powers to deal withcases occurring in the desert area.

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Original document.

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