ANALYSIS OF SOVIET PRESS AND RADIO REACTION

Created: 4/14/1959

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Soviet Press and *adlo Fraction to the First Pobli*oa* th* Aesado Ban*

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CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY

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INTELLIGENCE MEMORANDUM

SUBJECT: Soviet Press and Radio Reaction to the first Public Announcement of the Atomic Bomb.

We have been requested toomparative study of Soviet press and radio reaction to the first publicof three items concerned with unconventional weapons of war: the atomic bomb, the Merck Report, and Mr. Forrestal's press release of9 on biological warfare. We have been given to understand that the purpose of this report Is to afford guidance la the release of information on subsequent developments in thesether fields.

, Close investigation of the scientific periodicalshlzn' to the endnd Moscow papersanuarynd monitoring of Soviet broadcastsanuary toave revealed no press and radio reaction whatsoever to the Merck Report Current processing of Soviet newspapers and radio broadcasts has as yet revealed no reaction to tbe Forrestal release. We are,o provide the comparisons requested. The single item on BW (Appendix D, p.annot be directly related to the release of the Merck Report' or Mr. Forrestal's statement

Our report, which Is attached as Appendix A, is based upon careful scrutiny of Soviet press and radio material. It examines in some detail the reaction to the first announcement of the atomic bomb. Appended also are

hronology of Coverageigest of Press Reportsigest of Radio Broadcasts

NALYSIS AND CONCLUSIONS

and Radio Coverage.

Announcement of the dropping of the first combat atomic bomb on Hiroshima was madehite House communiqueugust; the announcement was printed immediately in the Moscow papers of

ugustews item paraphrasing the communique. It appeared in similar form in the provincial papers the following few days. There was thus no attempt to delay the first announcement, but editorial comment was withheld for moreeek. zJ On the other hand, no announcement was made of the Nagasaki bomb (dropped

August)eptember, when it appearederiodical of limited circulation. It was not further mentioned until after the end of the year.eferences to the Nagasaki bomb which appeared in US statements and speeches wore apparently deliberately omitted in the Soviet summaries, at least up to the beginningress and radio silence on the Nagasaki bomb is attributable possibly to the immediately prior Soviet entry into the Pacific War and possibly to

a desire to conceal the US capacity to produce more than one atomic bomb, or possibly to both.

Soviet interest in the atomic bomb was not transitory, and atomic energyubject of continuing interest in the Sovietnd radio. Its treatment appears to fall into three phases:

(a) Initial phase (from the first announcement to then this phase, reporting was largely in the form of brief news items, given little prominence, and generallyto news of the victory in the Far East There was little

ome "editorializing" was done in an English-language broadcast, beamed to the United KingdomAppendix

n early Soviet mention of the Nagasaki bomb appearedmall book on nuclear energy byrenkel', publishedts preface was dated5 This almost appears to have been an oversight

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editorial comment. Articles (as distinct from news items) tended to stress tbe entry of the USSR Into the Pacific War and directly or by implication to minimize the effect of the atomic bombactor In the collapse of Japan. Tha general Impression Is that the announcement of the atomic bomb was submerged by the mass of reports on the Soviet victory over Japan. Dozens of articles reported military operations, mostly of local Importance,many persons even of lower rank.

This handling of the question appears to Indicate (a) Initial uncertainty as to how to treat tt; and (b) an earlyof the military significance of the bomb and the need toil

Hie predoniinant effort of the Soviet press and radio ln this phase appears to have been to belittle the Importance of the weapon, not only through the space allotted to the items on It, but also ln the content of editorial comment and articles.

(b) Second phase (from the end of the war to the end of: In this phase, the increasing but stilland scanty references in Uie press consisted largely of articles on the scientific aspects of atomic energy and the wider political Implications of the bomb. Articles dwelt On the secretive attitude of the US respecting production techniques, and gavelarge coverage to the Molotov speechovember and tbe statement of the Western leaders that they were determined to preserve the secret of the atomic bomb. Popular interest in atomic energy appears to hare outrun material available In tbe Russian .ipress. Two numbers of British Allyoviet Ministry ofion publication) dealing with the subject werelack-'market figure thirty times their list-price in October. Inublic lecture on atomic energy was announced.

During this phase the fact of secrecy was freelyand the theories upon which the atomic bomb was based were claimed as common knowledge. It was optimistically promised that the secrets of production could not long remain In US hands. Molotov declaredWe shall have atomic energy andoviet research in atomic energy and in cosmic rays was stressed, with the emphasis always upon the peaceful uses to which these would be put.

On the other hand, while depreciating the fact of secrecy, ttie Soviet press and radio belabored the US for keeping the secret, reading into this an intent to use the atomic bombiplomatic weapon, and perhaps ultimatelyilitary weapon directed against the USSR itself. In comments on the foreign press, both the press and radio disparaged articles which urged theof the secret and extolled those which advocated its being shared

Up to this point, the Soviet attitude may be.

atomic bomb is not ain warfare;

energy and its useecret;

of the atomic bomb as anof coercion by one nationallowed;

The monopoly of the secret of produc-

tion poisons international relations.

(c) Third phase (beginning with the Foreign Ministers Conference in Moscow in5 and continuing to theThis phase, only partly covered by this report, shows the Soviet press and radio concerned with problems of the internationalcontrol of atomic energy. The Soviet press and radio generallyworld press coverage, reflected the appearance of the question before the UN, and covered US announcements in the field. The Bikini testsnd B) were reported in somewhat critical and at the same time flippant terms; the Eniwetok tests were not mentioned.

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IZVESTIA, BED FLEET, TKtTD,"RAVDA, carried

announcement (President Truman's official statement).

Aug. PRAVDA again carries brief announcement.

Aug. 'Joscon Radio coanentary criticises foreign press reaction.

President Truman's broadcastug. reported In ell Soviet

papers. Speech reported in full except for last sevenwhich are

Radiobrief reference to Truman speech and the

atom bomb,

ug. INVEST IA editorial containing brief refer mce to bomb. ,

Uoscow Radiofirst reference to military significance of bomb.

ITvAug. Moscow Radio commentary plays down atom bombings.ug. NEW TIMES article quotea British article re atom bombings.ug. SOVIET NEKS quotestatement onoo bomb.ug. NEW TIMES again quotes British article.

Sept. SPirTNIKcientlfic article on atomic energy.

NOT TIMES, lengthy article (aix pagea).

NOV CUE VRHiTAwo long articles (several pages) minimising atomic boob.

NEW TT'SS, No.tatement re capitalistic use of atomic

energy.

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U Sept. Moscow Radio comaentary on political implications of boab.

6 Sopt. Uoscow Radio broadcasts shortened version of NEWept. article

cientificrief reference to atomic

energy

PRAVDA and Moscoweferenceneo

atonic bomb as diplomatic "lover*1.

Moscow Radio broadcasts RED STAR article playing down tba

bombings.

ept. NEW TIMES, short article re sharing atomic bomb secret.

Sept. KaiSOIOLSKATAcientific article on structure of atom.

Sopt. PRAVDA quotes statement by Eaker on continued OS research work.

Moscow Radiotom bombubject to arouse aplit in Allied unity

KAZAK HSTANSKAYAcientific article on tbe atom.

ept. RED STAR and RED FLEET carry translation of British article onK atomic defense

9 Oct. PRAVDA and IZVRSTIA report American scientists* protest against secrecy surrounding bomb.

Moscowrief commentary on secrecy of boab. 4

ct. PRAVDA andi-line report on Truman;America was not prepared to disclose secret' of atoalo bcmbff >:

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Moscowhort commentary on US-UK slanderous attacks on

USSR. (Atom bomb Instead of international cooperation.)

ct. NEW TIMES quotes British editorial on secrecy of bomb. (Three paragraphs.)

hort, tart comment on Turkish article ro use of

atomic bomb on Balkans.

Hoscoir Radio broadcasts same...

RED STAR article playing down psychological effect of bomb on

Japanese.

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ct. Moscow press carries Truman message to Congress. Text lo part. No comment.

ct. Uoscow press carries Truman Navy Day speech with fourons (all references to the bomb). No

Moscowrief coanentary on influence of atom boob on

OS foreign policy.

Uoscowhort reference to bomb and the Turkish suggestion

of its use on Balkans.

1 Nov. NEB TIMEShree and one-halfnalysis of

foreign press reaction toct. message to Congress re secrecy surrounding bomb.

Nov. Uoscow Radio repetition ofct. broadcast mentioned above.

Nov. Uoscow prase and radio carry Molotov speech (one hour).

press and radio cany selected comments on Uolotov's

(approximately seven paragraphs).

press carries auemirlas of Bavin and Churchill speeches

atom boob. Moscow Radio broadcasts similar summaries.

Sot. Moscow Radio cccumntary on Molotov speech.

engthy attack on British ECONOMIST article whichto Molotov speech.

Moscowrief TASS report on atonic energyWashington.

LTTEftATUKNATA OAZDM Mliounoss lecture on stogie er.orny-

Ui Nov.' NEWrticlesive pages) dealing with atom bomb.

Nov. Uoscow Radio reports building of astrophysics laboratory,

Nov. Moacowrief Washington TASS announcement of Joint

Communique.

Uoscow press publishes Washington Joint Communique In part.

SCffihta end LITE, seven-page article on construction of atom.ov. THED carries oooasnta from US press on Truman-Atleo-Eing statement.

ov. Uoscow Radio broadcasts two HEW TIMES articles (see Ih >lov. above).

BO

ot. Moscowuaaary of Uttlee'a apeech on Joint Connunlque.

Not. KOMSOMOLS?-ATA PRAVDArief reference to atca bomb.

Nor. Moscow Radio commentary on Turkish suggestion to use bomb on

Balkans.

ov. TRODS labor union letter to Truman re the atom boab

ec. Moscowullinal statement on Conference.

Chapter VII dealing with establishment of Coemlssion given special notice on another page.

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3 July Moscow press reports Bikini test (baaed. TASS report).

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TRUMAN ATDJOUKCES NEW ATOMIC BOMB 5

The White 'louse hu released an announcement by President Truman, The announcement reads: "Sixteen hours ago an American airplane dropped on the important Japanese base, Hiroshima (on the island ofomb, the deotruotiTo poser of which surpasses that0 tons of explosives. The destructive po "or of this bombines greater than that of ths British bombSlam" which was the most powerful bomb ever used in the history of war."

" Truman continued, "scientists considered the use of atonic energy only theoretically possible, since no practical methods for such use were known. owever, we learned that the Oermans were working intensively tooans of using atomic energyupplement to other weapons of warfare with which they hoped to enslave the world. They did not succeed."

Trunan further disclosed that inven before Pearl Harbor, the US and Great Britain had pooled whatever scientific knowledge they had which might serve for military purposes. The experimental work for the atonic bomb was done in accordance with this policy of common exchange of scientific knowledge.

Trunan revealed that at present there are in the US two large plantsumber of smaller enterprises connected with the production of atonic weapons. During the period of most intensive stoeie bomborkers were employed in these plants, and0 still are employed. Many workers have spent twoalf years

ln this work. ew of then knew what thay were producing.

the presentaid TruEsn, "we are determined to destroy as rapidly and completely as possible all industrial enterprises which Japan may have in any city. Tie shall destroy thalr docks, factories and communications. There may be no mistakes we shall destroy her war potential completely. The ultimatum made at Potsdam onuly was delivered with tha intent of saving the "apanese people for utter deetruetion. The leadera quickly rejected thla ultimatum. If they will not accept our conditions now, they can expect such tremendous destruction from the air as the world has not yet seen.

air attack will be followed by attacks from sea and by land, with forces of such number and power as the Japaneee have never seen, snd with the same fighting ability with which tha Ju pane so have already been acquainted."

In conclusion Truman declared that he will rec corn ond to the US Congroaetudy of the questionaor.lttee for control and utilisation of atomic energy in tba US be made Immediately. Truman said that he mill make further racoonendations to the Congress on the) question of "how atomic energy canowerful and efficient factor in the maintenance of universal peace."

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(Extract* fron President Truman's speech on his return frcai Berlin)

of the secrets was disclosed yesterday when the Soviet Onion declared war on Japan. The Soviet Union agreed to participate in the Pacific war before it had been informed of the existence of our new weapon."

"It has been agreed upon in Berlin that the Japanese will soon learn some other military secrets. Trey will loam about these from the original source, and they will not like them."

TTo have defined the conditions under which Japan may capitulate. No attention was paid to our warning, and the Japanese have since learned what an atomic bomb can do. They can imagine what that boob will do ln the future. The first boab was dropped anilitary base. This was done because we wanted that objective in the first attack. The destruction of civilian population was prevented aa much as possible. But this attack isarning of what will happen in tho future. If Japan doos not capitulate, bombs will be dropped on military enterprises and unfortunately thousands of civilians will perish. dvise Japanese civilian populations to leave industrial cltiee immediately in order to save themselves from destruction."

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It la true that some American newapapera are trying to mlnlmiae tho contribution of the Soviet Union to the common oauao of the Allies. Far example, the New Tork paper pally Hews boaatsi "No could win tho war with tho help ofen bomb." The sensation of the atom boob haa Indeed obscured tho ninda of acne people. They are prepared to transform sciencehamanlatlc invocation. It' Is worth while to remember the very sound remark made by Lord Mountbatten in London. He statedroas conferenceugust 1 "It would be the greatest mistake to start with tha assumption tbat the atom bomb can make an end to tha war." This la not the conjectureublicist, ao using himself with illusionsield unfamiliar to him, but an authoritative and sobering statement of on experienced military leader, Corwander-in-Chief of the Allied Faroes in sauth-esst Asia.

The war will be ended not by sensational miracles, but by powerful Joint efforts of all Allies, who have conquered with common weapons both Hitler Germany and imperialistic Japan.

Novoye Vremya, No,opt5

KHD OF THB WAR TH THE PACIFIC, by Col. M. Tolchonov

By tho beginning of "ugoat of this year,eculiar situation had cane about in the Pacific theatre of military operations. Land operations mere being carried on in Burma, on the Island of Borneo and on some other islands in the southern Pacific. But the operations in these regions mere really of secondary' importance fron the viewpoint of the warhole.

Describing the situation prevailing then, the American military observer Swing wrotei "We are now on tbe threshold of Japan. Tot did not penetrate any part of the Japanese islands. Our air attacks caused great damage toeven mere than we think-. However, experience of previous air bombardments has made sufficiently olear that no war can be stopped by air bombardment aloes."

Numerous statements by Allied political and military loaders show hat Allied comoanders did not expect to achieve victory over Japan by air raids only.

Onugust, In the House of Commons, Churchill said, "Nobody oould evaluate the cost in British and American lives that would be

paid for theseless (could be estimated) the time

the Japanese could hold out ln conquered territories and in Japan Itself."

Contentions were made ln some organs of ths foreign press that any hold-out resistance after the formal capitulation of Japan could be

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overcome vith the use of atonic bombs, however, the etatectent by Winston Churchill which we have quoted shews that the leading circles of tha united States and Great Britain did not share such an opini oni only three seeks before the atonic bomb was used against Japan, tha Prima lUnlater of Great Britain and the President of the United States mere planning operations which "Involved efforts unknown in this war" and which would have incurred great sacrifices on the part of the Allies.

(The article coos on to deal with the preparations for invasion, and states that, according to Secretary of War Patterson, the war oould not have ended before. Col. Tolchenov conoludeaart of the article with the following statements 0

While the Allies would doubtlessly have rooted Japan ln tho end, the results of the iwo Jlaa and Okinawa invasions Indicated how extremely costly the invasion of Japan itself would be. Even after her defeat, continued resist anoe on the continent could be expected.

What made the Japanese adventurers give up the Idea ofof every inch of territory" and made thorn accept unconditional surrender? An overwhelming majority of the foreign press has quits properly described tho entry of the Soviet Union into the war ae the major factor which obliged the eneery to aurrender.

(The second part of tho article is entirely devoted to the contributions of the Soviet Union in the war against Japan. Quoting foreign sources, the author states that the main part of tho Japanese

Amy was on the continent. He stresses the importance of tha Kwantung Army and noteo the surprise abroad caused by the speed of the Soviet victories. Conclusion of the article follows.)

The struggle against Hitler's aggression has demonstrated to the world the firm decision of the Soviet Onion to bring to an end tbe noble task of destroying the imperialism of the German gangsters, regardless of the enormous sacrifices and hardships entailed. When the situation demanded tho Soviet Union's entry into the war against the last aggressor, imperialist Japan, the Soviet people again made this great sacrifice, by throwing all her might against the largest group of Japanese armies, the Soviet Union decisively speeded the downfall and unconditional surrender of Japan, bringing the war to on and, and opening the period of peaceful collaboration among freedom-loving peoples.

FORRTQKCTIOI3 TO MEovoye Vrcaya,5

The periodical frivoye YrmaygSkS, contalno articla by M- Rubirishteyn on "Foreign Press Reactions to tha Atomic Comb". Tha first two pages of the ar;iols give an historical account -if tha development and use of the atonic boob. It starts with resident Truman's announciooeiitegarding thentm boob which had been dropped on HiroshArie. It io further stated that the subsequent press publications of varices countries, and especially the statements made by polltioal and military leaders of tho United States and Great Britain,etailed picture of tbe historical development and organisation of the work in connection with the atomic baub, but at the same time tbey avoid ihe question of tho technioel nature of processes applied ln the production of thobe boxes. This, saysarticls, ia the subject of numerous conjectures on tlw part of the press.

afterescription of the coordinated work of the united States, England, and Ccada in this field, and laantionlng tho seUblisn-ment and location of various otomie bomb plants and Isbomtoriss in the United States, the article mentions that the second atomic bomb was dropped on NagasakiS> and thataboratory was cstabllahad on tho asrianas for the assembly of boobo fron parte shipped from tbe United States.

The articleeta tea' organs of thr- foreign press, partly due to sensetlonalism, and partly because of their desire to minbrlas the iapox-Uj-t'ieoint struggle of the /alien arjainet the forces of aggression, hasten ed to declare that the prompt capitulatioa ofwas the result of the action of the first ctende cowbe.

Ifcwever, this version did not become any more pie mil bio even when the farmer Ja.enese InperUllate subscribed to this opinion, after the capitulation of Japan. Their aim in this connection was quite obvious. It is connected with the vain attempts of Japanese militarists to save face and to Justify before history th* disgraceful collapse of their adventurous undertaking.

ersion is definitely rejected by competent circles. Thus, for inetance, Commander of the Air forces of the United States, Arnold, definitely objected to ths announcement that at cole boobs had caused the surrender of Japan, when speakingress conference. He stated that the situation of Japan had boon hopeless oven before the use of atomic bombs.

"major General Chennault, former chief of American air forces in China,orrespondent of How fork Tinea i* The entry of the Soviot Colon Into the war against Japan was the decisive factor, whloh precipitated the end of the war ln ths Pacific} this would havo happened oven If no atom bombs had been used. The sudden blow given to Japan by the Bed Army completed the encirclement, which brought Japan to it*nees.

stands to reason that the two bombs dropped on military objects in Japan do not provide sufficient groundseneral appraisal of the Importance of atomic bombs in military affairshole and their effect on the further development of military technique. Nevertheless, the foreign Press contains premature conclusions, dictated by certain political calculations. For example, the well-known fasclstlo theorist

on tankuller, made etataucnte to thle effect; however, hia prophecies regardingompletely mechanised "robot" arm lea were definitely proven false by the experiences of ths World War. In the pages of tho London Daily Mail, Fuller declares in his usual vociferous nanner that 'the Army, Navy, and Air Forces have gone out of the picture'; that 'they, figuratively speaking, have been burled under the wreckage of Hiroshima.'

"There ia no need to prove that Fuller's latest prophecies are as unfounded as his previous prognoses. The experience of ths second TTorld War, and in particular the unrivaled experience of the Red Army victories has clearly shown that success in war is not achievedne-sided development of one or the other form of weapon, buterfection of all types of forceskilful organisation of their combined effect.

"The first reaction to the announcement of atomlo bombe ln the foreign Pre as is characterized by afeeling, mixed with relief over the fact that this new weapon was used by tho Allies, and not by their enemies." However, as Manchester Guardian points out, "the feeling of satisfaction over this latest achievement of the Allies le obecured by fear of ite future consequencesThisis apparently fanned by certain circles who strive to use it for their own interests.

the Press of the United States and England, varloua tendencies appear aa to the estimation of possible consequences ofonic bomb discovery.

"The progressive Press emphasises that the enormous potentialities of military utilisation of atomic energy make it all the more imperative

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for the United Nations to work for tho conservation of peace and pro rant tbe possibility of future wars. The Labor Party or ran, pally Herald, statedead article entitled 'The last warning'i 'The atoaio boob la the last warning to oankind. Humanity now has the meana of self-destruction. The invention of tho atonic bomb raises the questiont should we not make all efforts toeal moaning to the foundations of international cooperation, which wore laid at San Fronclscoi Con our judging capacity and our knowledge develop as rapidly as technical progress is developing?'

last question of tho labor newspaper seems to be directed against those people ln tha United States snd England who have made new attacks against cooperation of tha United Nations in connection with discovery of atomic bombs. The opinions of such peopleack of understanding of the real international situation. However, these opinions deserve some attention because they reflect the doslres of certain circles, pursuing their selfish Interests and opposedirm peace between the nations,

reactionary part of the *merfcan Press Insists that the United States should keep the manufacture of atonic bombsecret, in anticipation of future wars. Suns isolationist circles frankly state that inasmuch aa the United States split the atom, tney can also split tho United Nations.

isolationist Daily MewsThe largest known deposits of uranium are found in Canada (which,atter of font, does not correspond to thehis meana that Canada will serve its own

Interests, .besides ours. In supplying us with the required quantity of uranium and not supplying it to otherith regard ta> uranium Canada must become our complete and only ally. If she refuses,ill have advantagese field of atomic bomb or eduction as compared with the rest of the world, and one could probably find enough patriotic Americans to force Canada to actith regard to their uranium.1

"This statementrofascist newspaper needs no comment. Hot&vbt what would be the reason for 'patriotic Amorlcans' to lay hands on Csndaian uranium? An answer to this question is contained in tha weekly paper "nited States hewa, which states that ths monopolistic ownership of atomic bombs gives tho United States the possibility to 'conquer tha world ond rule over it, if they so desire.*

"Harn/ other newspapers of Ifearrt, ifcCormlck and Patterson, have published articles written in the sane vein. They openly demand that the United States should guarantee its world rulers hip by threatening other oountries with atomic bombs. These outspoken imperialists do not think of the failure of Hitler's plans for world rulership, which also were based on temporary advantages in the develcpaent of military technique and neverthelessomplete collapse."

"Ann UacCormick In Mew fork Times writesihort period of time, the United States will oontrol the weapon, which is more dangerous as en instrument of politios than the victory itself.' From this sho draws the conclusion that the United States should 'take over theof the world.*

"Ufa Magazine states that the -tonic bomb strengthens the diplomatic position of the United States, making it possible to enforce universal peace 'on tho basis of true cooperation.' To eliminate all doubts as to what is meant by 'true cooperation', the magazine acccnpantee its statement by directing violent attacks against the Soviet Union*

"Similarere voiced in the English Vrese. Tho conservative newspaper Observer declares that 'the possession of the atomic bomb secret guarantees American and English superiority, st least at the present time'. According to marc' English newspapers, all details on theof stomlc bombs are to be found only in the United States.

"Emery, former Itldster for Indian and Burmese Affairs, goes even further. In the pages of the Sunday Chronicle he states that at present the United States of America 'from the point of view of power politics, can rule the world. In comparison, the Soviet Union Isulnerable, secondary power.* In spite of the fact that the majority of tho English people has clearly expressed their views of the niunich' policy, their representatives continue to repeat tho foolish statements of lUtlor regarding 'vulnerability* and 'secondary role of the Soviet Union. It is true that the 'Judging capacity' of aome political representatives is definitely unable to keep up with technical progress'.

"In all fairness it should be said that such views on utilising the atomic bomb for establishing American (or Anglo-American) world rulers hip are expressed by comparatively narrow, although very loud-voiced groups of reactionaries. Here widely expressed are vague discussions on tha

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subject of the atomic bomb, slating tliat with its invention it has beccos necessary to re-formulate international problems, aa tho former agreements between powers have bee ace obsolete. Statements of this kind can be harmful only because of tlieir ambiguity. Without finding out why tho former agreements have become 'obsolete', such statements can only cause unnecessary confusion in the minds of trusting people. However, one must not. forget that questions of world defense are political questions. They must be not considered onlyilitary-technical angle, without considering political, economical and social factors.

It is evident that sound-cdaded politicians and Journalists understand thia fact, as It appears from certain publications which ore opposed to Imperialistic propaganda. Thus, for instance. Daily Uerald, into Daily toll, points out that in many other countries besides England and the United States, there are scientists who hare studied tba problem of splitting the atom and who will now work with doubledn an effort toeapon which le equal, or even superior, to that .of the English and Americana. This newspaper Is of the opinion that 'the atmosphere of secrsoy and suspicion brings discord into Internationalnd asks for aa immediate agreement onoontroleduction and utilisation of atom bombs between representatives of ths Big live.

The greatest English physicist Chadnick, who took active part in tho development of the atomic bombs, stated:

utilisation of atonic energy in one foro or another will require international control. Tho baaio technical principles of atonic boobs hare become so well known that fron now on It isuestion of tine necessary for any country to produce atonic bombs (even without publication of the secrets of England and the United States).'

"The lord on weekly paper Tribune notes that there ere people in England and *rvrica who rejoice at the thought of Anglo-American monopoly In the production of atomic bombs, as they haws hopesonflict arising between the Soviet Union and the western powers. Bow-over, Tribune statea that 'any attempts to maintain this monopoly will lead to disastrous Therefore, Tribune suggests that production bf atom bombs should he under International control.

"The progressive organs of English and American Frees emphasise the fact that tho agreements between the big powers are now even more important than before. T'anohoeter Guardianhe ideal guardian of the new weapon and its roans of production can only be an International organisation, whose duty it is to uphold the peace.'

"The American radio commentator Steel states that Soviet science has surpassed English and American science In many fields, and drawe the conclusion that ths salvation of hunanity does not lie in tho competition of science of various countries. Only the developncnt of on international system makes it ,osslhle for all the nations of ths world to use the advantages of this overwhelming discovery.

The progressive representatives of the Anerlcan public demand inmediate action in strengthening the United Nations tronghold against the dangerew agression.

to Associated Press news from Washington, many Republican and Democratic Senators hare expressed the opinion that after ths war in the Pacific has oome to an ond, tho United States should share their knowledge of atomic energy with other countries through the United Rations

The foreign Press also disc usees tlie quostion of tho possibilities of world utilisation of atomic energy. A'number of American papers are filled with sensational articles on miracles to be performed in the very near futureew grama of 'atonic fuel', etc. However, most of the scientists who have worked on the development of tho atoalo boab, oppose these sensational srticlea and warn against the illusions of an immediate practical utilisation of atonic energy ia Industry.un her of persons whoeading part in tho scientific research work point out that this work was almost completely devoted to questions of military tilisation, therefore, the problem of using atomic energy In industry4 willong period of intensive research. mall scale, research work on tbe utilisation of atonic energy In peace is being done by the scientific research departmentollege in Iowa. However, this cannot be ocmpared in any way with tho work done on the development of tho atomic bomb.

"We soe that the general attitude towards world utilisation of atomic energy is very restrained. Radio comoentator Allistor Cook

remarked thatn ln the United States, especially heads of petroleum concerns, mining industry, power industry,re greatly worried over the latent possibilities of the new Invention.

"The Workers' Proas of the united States warns against the danger which will arise If the utilization of scientific achievements in the field of atonic energy should be ontruated to monopolistic corporations.

The invention of atomic bombs makesit more imperative to mobilize all progressive forces in order to guarantee world peace and security for Groat and small nations. However, it is obvious that this invention does not solve any political problems eithor within individual countries or on an international scale. Anyone who has Illusions in this regard will be greatly dlssppointsd.

"True International cooperation in the field of science ahould be organizedarge scale as soon as possible, which is one way of developing mutual understanding of all freedom-1oring nations of the world."

Pravda95 (Internettonal Review)

n reviewing the questlonof tho derioeretlcf Bulgaria. Rumania, and Hungary, the newspaper New Yorkplaces great hopes on "the strength of American democracy, which showed Itself In the role the united States played ln the victories over guropo and Asia, the apotheosis of which was expressed In the atom bomb". he atom bomb snd th* future help from the United States, isowerful hantmor held over the peopleB of the Balkan countries I Thla is what th* Hew fork Times has finally succeeded In saying.

Signed: The Observer

Pravda Zl5

Deputy Chief of. Air Forces, U. General EcJcerade the. followinc statement to the Conmdeelon on Military Affairs of the Houss of Representatives. "The United states mustomparatively small but very highly efficient air force. It is necessary to continue the research work."

In regard to the question of tha future air force, Ecloar states "one should fully take into account the new, extremely important military inventions."

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Isvestlys95 Prarda 5

In connection with an announcement from TTashington that United States aciantlata are protesting against the secrecy surrounding the atom bomb, the English newspaper Evening Mews published an article stating that "nglish scientists were also being organised in ths fight against misuse of the great discovery* One of ths well-known soientlsts, who had been working on the atom bomb,ewspaper correspondent! "The Mlentlsts of England feel* that inasmuch as neither the political nor the military powers are apparently inclined to take charge of this discovery, the scientists themselves should come out inton and widely inform,the public of tbe social and international importance of the atom bomb. o not intend to stay in our laboratories and keep silent. e refore, the soientlsts whoesponsibility, intend tooint declaration regarding the atom bomb. They have split the atom for the purpose of having this discovery used to the benefit of mankind, and not in order toatastrophe. Bow Is the time mhon we should definitely decide how to express ln the best possible way all of our present experiences and feelings, many outstanding scientists sill participate in the declaration."

Tbe nsarspaper assumed that the declaration would be published in one or two weeks.

^

S. ViviloTT, Pres. of Academy ofnd the New Five-fear Plan."

"The war strikingly hastened the technical realization of radiolocation, physical mines (nuyjnetic, acoustic, hydrodynamic,uided shells and aircraft, and finally the uranium bomb."

the forthcoming Five-year plan it is necessary, undoubtedly, to radically reconsider questions of fuel and energy. Aside from the problem of the use of energy within tho atom, whiohomplete reality since the development of tho atonic bomb and which promises an unheard-of technical revolution primarily In the field of energy, it ie necessary to indicate many incomparably more unpretentious, but. actually extremely important energy problems."gas, coal, coke, etc.

5

According to tho correspondent of Associated Press, President Trumanpeechpecial press conference in Tipton*ilia, Tennessee. Truman stated that the United States does not intend to reveal the secret of the atom bomb to any country whatsoever. He also stated that he did not consider the Conference of Foreign Ministers to havoailure and pointed out that the interests of tbe United States did not collide with tho interests of the Soviet Union, but that sometimes the differences in language and translation caused difficulties.

HUH;

5

In ft speech delivered by President Truman on Navy ^ay, he made tbe following etataaente. In regard to the assertion that the invention of the atomic bomb eliminates the nooesslty of the Navy, Army, and Air tores, Truman stated that at the present time all these discussionsercent in error and that there is no substitute whatsoever for the Navy, lie stated furtheri MA Navy equipped with all forma of weapons provided by science is still dedicated to its historic tasks to keep guard over the oooan approaches to our country and the sky above them. The atomic bomb doos not change the principles of United States foreign polioy. It only makes the development and realisation of our polioy more imperative and urgent than we could have expected six months ago."

Truman declared that the disousaion of the atomic bomb question with Great Britain and Canada, and later on with other countries, can not be postponed until the official formation of tha United Nations Organisation. "Thla discussion, which aimsree exchange of basic scientific information, will begin in the near future. mphasise once more,ave done ln the past, that this discussion will not touch tho produotion processes of the atomic bomb or any other Military weapon."

Pravda85

Brltdeh and US coccienta on Molotov's speech.

Pravda95

US comments on fcfolotoVs speech.

(ttsst of tho US articles quoted in these two numbers of Prarda mention the paragraph dealing with atomic energy- and oomraent favorably on the statement by the Soviet Foreign Minister.)

Pravda95

peech delivered by Qiurchlll in the House of Comrwns, he made the following statements regarding discoveries in the field of the atomic bombi ope that England, Canada, and tbe United States will follow the policy announced by President Truman and will consider their Icnowledgo and their methodsecret pledge." Churchill added i lso agree that it wouldCO percent error to think that the existence of the bomb eliminates the necessity of tho Army, Navy, and Air Porceon

C-26

(

5

Text of Joint statement by Truman, Attlee and "fcaeasie King (Two paragraphs! first doalo with naoeeslty for keeping atomic

bomb production secretj second discusses establishmentontrol

Co-xiission.)

(Total,ines)

I

o

5

(Comments from the American press on the Trumui-Attlee-MoKensie King statement)

Not5 (TASS)

PMi "The establishmentommission under the United Nations oontrol mill place ths USSR on the same level with that of Portugal and Argentina, leaving the. US and Great Britain in lead positions,"

a radio commentator, declared that ther

statement "provides for tlie release by the Allion to Russia of aactually isecret, and requires that Russia follow aby Washington and London. It io doubtful that Russiasuch a;

Dally Workert tomtomicecret traded for the acceptance ofverybody knows that only unity between the United States and the OSSR can prevent war."

'It!

Ij1

m

rat

ARTICLE. BELEN'.flY. "FISSION OF THE ATOMIC NOCLEOS"

Aa reported la

hizn,

i5

Pago 12

Extracts

5 the world learned of the use of the atom bomb against Japan by the USAF. The havoc wreaked by thla' boob was colossal. The explosion of uranium Isillion times more violent thanimilar amount of the moat powerful explosive known heretofore. Tho pillar of smoke and dust over the target areas roso to an altitude ofilometers. Three fifth's of the town, whose population was, was reducedirtual graveyard.

Facts gleaned from foreign press reports lead one to believe that the atomic bomb operates on the principlechain reaction" byin the light uranium. English and V. S. soientiats have discovered an efficient aethod for Isolatingrom ordinary uranium. Tba explosive substance appears to bend heavy water. Heavy water is neceesary in order to bring about the "chain" reaction by slowing down the speed of neutrons.

The study of intra-atomic forcesew field. There ia no doubt that some day nuclear energy will be utilized for poaceful alms. It Is difficult to forecast the changes in our civilization which will be brought about by the use of this energy.

Above extracts which contain all data pertaining tof the total artlols and are the last three paragraph*.

SPEECH BT TJL MOLOTOV

GIVES AT THE TRIUMPHALF THSTKCTL

As reported in

hian,

Extracts

The entrance of the forces of tba USSR broughtapidto hostilities in the Far East.

Peace can be Maintained by well organised armed forces. This is particularly true in the case of those nations who have to guarantee world peace. But safeguarding the peace is ln no way related to tha political Imperialistic designs of certain foreign nations. In this connection it is necessary to sentlon tbe development of atoalo energy and tbe atomic bomb, the use of which in tbe struggle against Japan revealed its great destructive power. Atomic energy, however, haa not proven itself in ths attempt to stop aggression or to guarantee the peace. However, under present conditions there are no technological seorets which can, be mono- olixed by any one country for any length of .tin*. Therefore tbeof atomic energy can not be used effectively for any considerableih length of time eitheractor in the power politics, oruture threat to peace loving peoples.

At the present timeemarkable tec) mological achievement such as utilisation of atomicreat deal can be acccenpllshsd for the people's economy. The war hasarge percentage of ourbut with hard work our industries will once again flourish. We will even achieve the utilisation of atomic energy and much else. (Loud,enthusiastic applause).

0 ^o

above extracts which contain all data pertaining to subject

requireaent comprise approximatelyf the total article, and were

in the beginning, middle, and end of the

.

* H: f'i

- 32

SPEECH. KOSITSKn ATOMIC ENERGY IH BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE

Reported ln

hlsn, Ro. 7

6

PageS

Extracts

Intra-atoraio energy has been utilised long before the discovery of tbe important reaction and its utilisation for Military purposes. The slower processes of atomic fission have been used for manyn medicine and other sciences for humanitarian purposes.

The atoalo nucleus hasarge new field of endeavor. Only under conditions of Soviet Socialism can the possibilities ln this new field be fully utilised for the advantage of humanity.

(The above data, an oblique reference to subject requirement,mall part of the article and are the first end last

o

Bikini tests

The first Bikini tost was ro ported by6 edition of all newspapersASS story fron New York, based on Associated Press and Reuters reports. The coonents by TASS minimi tod the effect of tho bombing. On tho sameeature article on the Bikini test appeared in Pravda. which criticized the expenditure on the test, tho results, and the alleged non-scientific nature of the test, and commented upon plans for control of the bomb. No further reaction apoearad untilASS report of tho underwater test of Julyas published, again based on an Associated Press story. The effect of the explosion on the ships and the atoll was minimised.

-

-

/

soviet rajip rxah'iag to;

l'. Tho Firnt Use of the Atcmlo Bomb Against Japan:

Tbe Merck Report on Biological Wsrfaret

Forrostel'B Reeont Press Roleaeeloglenl Warfare.

I. INITIAL SOVIET REACTION TO THE ANNOUNCEMENT OF THE ATOMIC.

of President5

Bomb and Soviet "Precipitation" of the Japanese Surrender

The Politioel Implications of the Atomio

d. Comment on5 References to the Atom Bomb...

II. EHRENBURO'S ATYPICAL REFERENCE TO BIOLOGICAL

III. moscow'S GENERAL AVOIDANCE of SPECIFIC MILITARY

69

CENTRAL INTF^XIGENCE AGENCY

Initial Soviet reaction to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki gave the appearance of casual and unexcitcd observation. The first monitored reference to the military significance of the boob did not appear untiline days after Truman's first announcement of the atom bomb's use. From this date, and continuing until5 address on the anniversary of the October Revolution, the relatively few Soviet comments on the atomic bomb fell into two phases. Tho first phase,with Soviet propaganda efforts to build up tho Red Army's campaign in Manchuria, consisted of brief but pointed references which implicitlythe military effectiveness of the "sensational" invention, in com-parison with the Red Army's "crushing blows."

These references declined markedly ot the end ofnd were superseded ln September and Octoberocend phase, in which the political implications of the atomic bomb were considered. Commentaries pointing- out the increased need for "international collsborstion"esult of "this greatest discovery of science" acknowledged, by impliestlon, the destructive power of the bomb. However, It woo not until5 address (in which the phrase "tremendous destructive power" occurred) that thia faot was given explicit expression, together with statements to the effect that the bomb cannot remain the exclusive property of "any one country." Exceptleeting reference to tbe fact that President Truman "indicated that the Soviet Union had agreed to enter tho Pacific War before he cad mentioned the existence of the newoviet broadcasts did not

^

- ii -

touch on tho quostion of the bomb in relation to Allied military collobor-otlon.

No reforonce to tho Uerclf Report has appeared in available Soviet radio news releases or cccxosntorlea for tbe relevant periodsnd to date, no notice of Forrestal'corch press otatoment on biologioal warfare has appoorod. Vague allusions to tho potentialities of biological warfare do appearecent commentary by Ilya Ehrenburg. Ehrenbur^'e-statements, howover, depart from the characteristic Soviet propaganda pattern vlr.ch has tended to avoid caneretereference to tho development of nev military tootles and weapons either by the Soviet Union or by othor countries.

Data for this report were obtained from the following radio broadcast sources:

FBI3 DAILY REPORTS: 5 to6 to6 to6

DSC iXNTTCRING REPORTS (Daily): 5 to

65 to6 to5 mayo6

tMITOR (TASS publication): , and5

>

r iW*

I. INITIAL SOVIET REACTION .TO THE ANNOUNCEMENT OF THE ATOMIC BCWB

of President) Statement; On 7Moscow reported that "all papers" had published Presidenton the first use of the atomic boob; and the Soviet radio'sprograms included the Preaident'e statement in full. The FBIS"Survey" noted, however, that attendant publioity was "unexciting The statement itself did not receive wms-prioritybroadcastsugust; forress review placed thelasteries of four news items, and it ranked thirteenth in aTASS news releases beamed to the Soviet provincial press. (On theaor reported froa Moscow that "everybody is talkingatom

Bomb and Soviet "Precipitation" of the Japanese Surrender: no mention of the barb either in the Soviet declaration of waror In any incnltored Soviet broadcastsugust, which weredevoted to the latterhe Soviet-controlled Berlina press review, however, which featured TAEGLICHE RUNDSCHAU'sthat. Government will take all requisite measures tomisuse of the atonic bomb" and that "the release of energy byIs to serve, first and foremost, the cause of peace."

* On the evening'ha date of President Truman'sthe use of the first atonic bomb against Japan, Farasworthcceimentator, reported as follows from Moscow: "Everybody is: talkingatomio bomb. . The Sovietas been'quick to appreciatesof this revolutionary.discovery. Repcrte nf JitsresultiInbe awaited with great

WWBBT*

disparaged the Sovietcommentatorfollowing

thelssue of

to nave beenU*

"Two or three voices have been beard uttering the thought that 'after all, Russia's taking part In the war against Japan can alter practicallyr. Gurney of the National Broadcastingeclared right away that the invention of tbe atomic- bomb considerably lessened the influence the Soviet Union's entry into tho Pacific war would have. He went cm to say that the atomic boobeapon for the dissemination of democracy and that its creation sharply changed Anglo-Soviet -American relations, as it deprived Russia of that influential situation which she formerly enjoyed.

"It seems to us' that Mr. Gurney, on whom the Berlin Conference decisions apparentlyistinctly adverse effect, has misunderstood the., ignificance of the atomic bomb. Jvyjgjng by th* vnv it ts bolngitop the enemies of dn-ro^rafy. the pnemios of America. Britain, tho Soviet Union. China, end the rest of tbe Unitedfter an anti-Allied statement like that, it is hard-to believe that Mr. Gurneyemocrat by conviction." (in English to the Unltod

A few days later, Soviet Prof. Yerucalimoky barely touches tho question of tbe effect of the atomic bomb upon Allied military collaboration. Inpproving review of Presidentugust radio address on theonference, he notos that the President "underscored tho irportanoe of close collaboration between tho three great democratiche President onphaaized, Moscow's oommnntator continues, that the "fighting partner- abip^aad been "further sealed" by the Soviet declaration of war against Japan; and the President also "indicated thaj, the Spviet Union had agreed to en.tpr the Fanjfje warad mantloped, the nxjirtpneo. Qf th?weapon." (in English to North America,

*As distinguishedews report.

It was not untilugustecorded Soviot broadcast appraised the military significance of the atomic bomb. ackground of heavy propaganda oaphasia on the Red Army campaign in Manchuria, an IZVESTIA "International Boview" implicitly belittled American press claims for the effectiveness of the "sensational atomic bomb." IZVESTIA's article began by stressing that the Red Army's operations against tbe Kwantung Army wore of tbe "greatest significance" in bringing about tho Japanese surrender, and

r

j -

it concluded with the following "reminder- to those who. it Implies,the effectiveness of the atcodc

"Scorn American papere attempt to minimise the contribution of the Soviet Union to the cession Allied cause- Thus the New York DAILY NEWS blustered: 'We could win the war with the help of atomicho sensation of the atomic bomb has truly obscured the world from the eyes of some people. They are ready to turn science into Voodoo witoh-craft. It is worth reminding them of the vary sober remark made by Mountbetten ine saidIt would be supreme stupidity to base oneself on the presumption thet atomic boobs could put an end tohe end of the war was not produced by sensational miracles but by powerful combined efforts of theSoviet Home Service,

nor flurry ef similar references to the

It V" "tmic ^the Red Army appeared ia Soviet broad-

broadcast of s

vurtorov cca&entary, the Red Army's overland drivo in Manchuria was again hSSJi ISreserves, Vilrtorov asserted, "could.not properly havo^ forces flying fortresses, or even by the sensational

For Soviet audlencos, Gon..Chennault was quoted as having eaid "that the Soviet urdon'a entrv into the war against

iSFJTiriJ06factor "bio* speeded up the war in the Pacific. That would have been so even If no atomic bombs wereUelnikov,

Internationalnd TASS in Russian at dictation speed to theMhonnault'fl statement was againa RED STAR article, "Glory to Our Far Easternroadcast byHome .

f the AiKtnfopVffiihr with thio Army's "decisive" exploits, thi^SovieVradlo turned Itsthe Japanese war, the BBC noted. No' furtherreference to theSvTteober; and beginning with this date,o the political iaplicaticms of the bomb.of the atomio bomb with ita official denial

ASWNGTON POST report that uranium shares In Canada "were bought up, allegedly at the instructions of the SovietSoviet Bene

On the same day, an English-language breedcast paired twoviewpoints on tho atomicEW TIMES military"aerate" the bomb;ommentary by

VtfSS"international cooperation"

ss necessitated by "this greatest diecovory of science":

titled 'The End of tho War in the Pacific' convincingly criticises tho attempts of various oirelee abroad to exaggerate the significance of the atomic bomb." (NEW TIMES)

0 - n

pecial review, 'The Foreign Press on tho Atomicyalso devoted to this question. Basing this reviewiohfacto, Rubenstein allows tbat tbe reactionary foroea andare attempting to utilise tbe atomic bomb for theirends. Progressive humanity, on the contrary, demands Inthe invention of the atomic bomb the strengthening of The author of the review states: 'The invention ofbomb gives even more reason for mobilising all progressive forces

toasting and stable peace, and security for all nations, both large and small. At the same time thla greatest discovery of science, the very possibility of utilising tho boundlose forces of stomic energy, demands International cooperation ln the field ofhighly effoctive mo ana toward the development of mutual understanding between all freedom-loving peoples tho world over."

A fuller version of Rubensteln's article, broadcast In Italian, referred to the "Hearst end UcCaroiok" press as advocating that. should secure its possession of the whole world by menacing other nations with tbe atomic bomb." But other sogments of the. press sere said to havethis "short-sighted"hey point outapart from the fact tbat An Anplo-lliS.JB the beat of eqafs, ieny attempt at preserving this monopoly would bring catastrophic consequences.'" Equally short-sighted, Rubens te in stressed, is "the opinion that the Invention placed all international problemsifferent basis, with the result that all agreements previouslyro obsolete." urther allusion to the bombolltioal weapon appearedRAVDA article which mildly reproved the HfiV XORK TEfiS for Its "stubbornness".In misrepresenting the "democratic development" of Bulgaria, Hungary, end

Rumania. In illustration of the paper's lack of judgment, PRAVDA cited the following:

"The HE* TCRK TIMES places great hopes on tbe strength of American democracy, which found ita expression in the role ployed by the United States In tbe victory ln Europe and Asia, the apotheosis of which is the atomic bomb. It also bases its hopes on too foot tbat the whole world expeots to receive aid from. (regarding) the ptomic bomb: (it hope a). aid (will boused)ever of pressure against the peoples of the Balkan countries. This is how tbe HEW TCRK TIMES reveals itself." (Soviet Homemphasis on the necessity for "international collaboration" continued cs the pattern of recorded Soviet references to the atonic bomb until Molotov, In hie address onh) of the Revolution, refers to its

"tremendous destructivell recorded references to the subjecturing5 ore Included ln the following excerpts:

"London,ASSIn connection with reports fron Washington which ssy. soientlsts are protesting against the secrecy which Is surrounding the atom bomb, the EVENING NEWSeport which said that prominent British Scientists are also organizing themselvestruggle against abuse of the great discovery. One of the well-known scientists who worked on tha'British scientists feel that as long as no politician or military authorities are apparently inclined to occupy themselves with this discovery, tbehemselves must speak and inform the people of the social and international significance of the atom bomb. We do not intend.to sit silent in our laboratories.ntend tooint declaration on the atom bomb. Tha? spilt the atom so that this discovery may be used .'or* tba benefit of humanity and not toreat dieaeter of.it.'" (TASS, to the USSR provincial

(The above report ie also summarisedoviet Home Service pre so

An FBIS summaryommentary by "Analyzer" ofotobor, stated test "Analyzer" stressed the importance of the "problem of atonic energy" in view of the failure of tbe London Fcroign Minintere' He criticized. press cconentators who "envisage the atomic bombeapon tbat will safeguard the Interact of their country better than any Internationalnd makes the following points in rebuttal; eed one'point out that atonic bmbs and other terrific weapons of war such as, for instanoej those mentioned the other day by Generals Uarahall and Arnold areo be usedunder conditions of war not by any oneThe'expactatIona ofhunanlty cravingeally lastingBatisWe^ only if, as ,the BALTBCRE SUN put It recently, all effortsiied for'a friendly settlement of urgent problems end all-round coUaborationv (ln English to tbe United Kingdom,

Osipov, advertising Soviet polioy as "the mainstay of internationalade the following references to the atomic boob: "Every passing day makes tho warmongera more cynical andt is already being proposed tbat tbe atomic bomb should influence tba foreign policy of the United States. urkish journalist, urges. not to waste this opportunity but to take:advantaga of time while itonopoly of tbe atomic bomb aecret. He demands from the Anglo-Saxons ultimatums to Bulgaria, Rumania, and Yugoslavia, based on tbe threat of the atomic bomb. Obviously, you cannottable and lasting peaceasis like tbat. That ia why the USSR has been calling so persistently for Great Power collaboration, whfeh it regards as the principal factor In maintaining peace and friendship amongin English to the United Kingdom,

d. GaamfinXgn5 Referent to thefjhffc in his address onh anniversary of the October Revolution, Haiotov noted "the tremendous destructive power" of the atomlo bomb. Aa may be seen from the foregoing account, this was tho first explicit eoanowledgiaent of the boob'a dectructivenesB to appear in recorded Soviet radio commentaries.atimate of the boob was coupledeminder that it oannot "remain the property of any one country":

"Tbc interests of safeguarding the. peace have nothing in cccmon with the policy of an armaments race between the Great Powers, which is being preached abroad byeference ahould be made, in this connection, to the discovery of atomic energy and tbeboob, the use of which in tbe war against Japan demonstrated ite tremendous destructive power. However, atomic energy has not os yet been tried in the task of preventing aggreeaion and of safeguarding the peace.

"On the other hand,n now exiat no such large-scale technical secrets which can remain tbe property of any one country or any narrow grouping of atatea. For this reason, the discovery of atomic energy should not encourage either enthusiasm regarding tbe use of this discovery in tbe interplay of forces In tbe sphere of foroign polioy, or light-heartednose regarding the future of the peace-loving nations.

"In our ern of high technical achievements and wide applioation of science In production, when it has already beocoe possible to utilise atomic energy, our planssa raising tbe technical level of industry and tbe training of) highly qualified technical eodres;

"The enemy has Interfered with our peaceful creative work, but wc will make up for it ell and we will achieve the flour lobing of our country. We will have atomic energy, end much else! "

The:tosmef of subsequent Soviet radio cocoent on Molotov'e address was tbe 'determination totable peace that was expressed (in his)omment en the portions of his apeech dealing with Soviet economic plans similarly generalised on the "tremendous creative energy that will have to beithout explicit referencoo to the development and use of atomic energy.

A few broadcasts, however, noted Molotov's remarks concerning atomic energy, utilizing foreign press comments to emphasise tbe wisdom of the Foreign Minister's words. oviet "radioor example, pointed out that 'Molotov's words (about) tho discovery of atomic energy"orce in world polities were "in line" with the "Soviet policy to maintain and safeguard peace." (in English to North

t-elfn Quotationss

lnce Uolotov'8of atonic energy, the

ufiflia would havo her own ^

^Paterathc Moat of

tne papers regard the epeech as an important contribution to the cause

2out Molotov's references to the atwbcet

and in regard to blocs, the UNITED PRESS political observer points out

l^^js'sy; consider Molotov's frankness as psr'.iculerly timely,

sincewill aid in removing tho atmosphere of suaolcion and lay tlie

lZ,TtUT "ltUalService.^

to"eEatiV0 connont from tho London ECONOMIST is employed bol? "eobarrasanent" of those who had hoped to use the atomic bomb ss en instrument of political coercion:

1 sealoua supporters of the notorious

Western Bloc, reveals great embarrassment at Molotov's statement on

eivcehatobviously "anted toof ell,^that ia, its dssire to use the atomic bomb as an

ofpressure to bear upon

the Soviet Union. The tendency showed by the ECONOMIST and

tt 8t tune of "Wotov'o speech, one ofof the problem of atomic energy appeared inBevin to the British House of^ommons on

soviehostService

regardinfi exploitation of atomic

energy in tho immediate future. He is said to have added:

he organisation of the United NotlonT

for peooetime efforts, and ss this energy is absorbed into Industry?**

8 irwerter ' (Soviet Rome Service,

IX. EHREKBURG'S ATTPICAL REFERENCE TO BIOLOGICAL WARFARE

Aw previously noted, no Soviet radio reference to the Morok Report or to Forrestal's statement of9 on biological warfare has been obtained, (Available monitored Soviet broadcasts have been examined for the6 to56 tond9 However, Ilya Ebrenburg,ecent eoianentary on the North Atlantic Paot, alludes to biological warfare and to other developments of militaryla reference to specific military developments Is In contrast to the propaganda pattern, noted over tbe peat tooalf years, wMoh has avoided discussionossible war situation in concrete terms. Decrying the claim that the North Atlantic Pact is not aggressive, Ebrenburg oitea tho following evidence to the contrary:

"They repeat It on all wavelengths, short and long: 'Our pact ie strictly

efensive nature But why. If tbey think of defense, does

Mr. Shafor, the Vice President (sic) of. Congress Armed Services

Committee, announce quietlyj 'Par with the USSR is inevitable,

uby do the Americans feverishly erect military bases in the Near East and

Greenland, in Japan aad ln the Philippines? Why doee the Aaerican-

publiahed French periodical SELECTION writs: 'For theears the

best American flyers have been trained to drop bombs on tho industrial

centers of an eoaumed enemy.1 Why, in other words, are 'they studying

possible Russian objectives and suitable routes?

"Why does Gen. Le May, conraander of tbe long-range air force, eayj 'We shall be able to drop the atom oonb on any place;in the world] shall be able to arrange it inay that the-bcolb will fall beforewill know that the bomber baa taken> ;j

"In their bloodthirsty froney, there reminiscent of that man (whoa the gods made mad ln order to illiam Vogt' writes: he only way out is universal birth" centred end the deetructlon of the surplus of people with the help of starvation and epidemics.* However, the American military have no confidence Inome-made method as hunger; as to epidemios, they Intend to cause them artificially.

Ebrenburg takes another allusion to "artificial opidemios" when he donounces the State Department's refusal of visas to prospective French delegates to tho recent New York peace conference. He says;

"Any American, whether he bo connected with atomic research, or Just an ordinaryreeder of plague microbes,windler, tho trainerare called 'Wonderr even the mere herself, can freely enter Into (Soviet Home

(Ehrenburg, it may be noted, baa in the past deviatedumber of ways from tbe standard pattern of Soviet propaganda, as If he Isegree of greedom not granted to his colleagues.)

0

III. MOSCOW'S GENERAL AVOIDANCE OP SPECIFIC MILITARY; DEVELOPMENTS

Tbe Soviet radio's narked avoidance of bothen boab and biological xarfore, during the periods specifically covered by this report, is in line with Its tree-talent of the sane topics during other periods also.

Throughout the two years during which FBIB has been reporting systematically on Soviet radio broadcasts (sincehere have not been mare than three or four monitored references to biological warfare, and these have been of the voguest and briefest sort, comparable with Ehrenburg'e ccsnents quoted above. Since monitors have been oonalatently alerted to any mention of biological warfare, the mccitared references probably represent In this instance all or nearly ell of what has been broadcast on the subject.

As for the etomlc bomb, the typical policy has been not to avoid the subjeot completely but to play it down wherever possible. (For en extended description of the contexts in which the topic has been avoided, end of tbe techniques of evasion which have been employed when events seemed to necessitate some discussion of it, see SURVEY OF USSR RADIO The one needing exception to thiswas the very strenuous but short-lived campaign to "outlaw".atomic weapons during. meetings in the fall Even this campaign, however, was characterised by an enormous concentration on tne simple slogan, "outlaw atomiceais for oaoorting that the United States was refusing to do so; thereontinuance of the Soviot radio's charaoteiv Istio evasion of tbe actual basis of disagreement within the Atomic Energy Conmleslon (Ace SURVEY OF USSR RADIOontinued absence of -any concrete picture ofombs ready to drop on the Soviet Union (SURVEY OF USSR HADIO9o.f. Viehinsky's eawtional Warning -of en'"atonic Pcerlublicised by the American press, wis^pdblioited" ra* paralleled la any way by the Soviet Radio, and Visbinaky himself dlfl hot repeat ^t.

As far as the dangerous character of the bomb is oonoeraed, attention has been focused on its necessarily "aggressive" charaoter (as one more proof of the aggressive intentions of the "ruling circles" in the west) rather than on the effectiveness of the weapon as such. One broadcast, far instance, denounced it aseans of defense but of piraticaleans of the wholesalo slaughter of civilians and the destruction of big cities" (SURVEY OF USSR RADIO BROADCASTS, When the question of the bomb's destructive power has been directly touched upon at all, it has been in brief ridicule of the ideaar could now be won by anyhis theory is compared with Hitler's Blitzkrieg ideas, and is dismissed as equally fallaolous.

It mar also be noted1 that the typical absence of concrete reference to an atomic danger threatening the USSR is paralleled by tto other general characteristics of the Soviet propaganda output: an absence of any material wbloh might frighten the Soviet audience vith the prospect of imminent war, and an absenae of sceciflo discussion of military strategy, tactics or teabniquea as developed either by the Soviet Union or by the west. Forinstance, the Initial Congressional controversygroup air force was not reported; the strength of Soviet land forces as cctspared with tbe land forces now in western Europe has been barely mentioned; ln recent discussion of Norway and the Atlantic Paot, there bae bean little or no strategic discussion of Norway's special advantages as an air base against the Soviet Union; and tho recent round-the-world flight of "lucky Lady II" Is not mentioned even by Ebrenburg, who quotes, in another context (seerom Gen. Lo May's statement In wbloh he reported the flight.

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