THE SHORTHAND OF EXPERIENCE

Created: 4/1/1959

OCR scan of the original document, errors are possible

STUDIES IN

INTELLIGENCE

A conecUon ol atbdes on the historical, operational, doctrinal, and theoretical aspects ot intelligence.

All sisiemems of fact, opinion or analysis expressed in Studies in Intelligence are those of

the authors They do not necessarily reflect official positions or views of the Central Intelligence Agency or any other US Government entity, past or present. Nothing in the contents should be construed as asserting or implying US Government endorsement of an article's factual statements and interpretations

c0nfimnt1a1

This true story of anspy has beenfrom records Of the postwar debriefings ofand witnesses to his

THE SHORTHAND OF EXPERIENCE Thomas F. Elxwelg

This Is the story of two men who broke nearly every rule in the spy's handbook, and were right. Oneerman. The other was one of the topdrawer Czechoslovak military mteUigence officers.oung man, long before World War n, he bad studied Intensively tbe unchanging axioms ofand was thoroughly versed In these fundamentals:

Identify the agent. Don't do clandestine work with parties unknown.

Study the agent. Know as much about him as possibleasking him to work for you.

Recruit the agent If it Is he that selects you, beware of provocation. You chooseaccess, reUabUity,stablUty, etc.

Train the agent Untutored, heenace to himself, to you, and to your service.

Tesf the agent Be skeptical not only of bis capability but also of bis loyalty. Establish aU possible independent checks on aU his contacts

Control the agent You ask all the questions; he provides the answers. You order; he obeys.

The man wbo breaks these rules In ignorance Is likely to die young, at least professionally. But General Z, the Czech, and Major L, the German, broke them wittingly and for good reasons. The resultrlllianUy successful; that began before World War n. provided Czechoslovakia and -the Western AUles with invaluable mteUigence, and survived to the end of tbe war. It was like tbe other great espionage coups of history, which are almost all full of deviations and exceptions to the rules.': Bat .in all of them the cdntrontng *

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service planned the rule-breaking before the operation began. It did not begin by the book and then stumble into anarchy

The story beginsour years after der Kor-poral became der Fuehrer. Tbe wind from the north, Dr. Goebbels, bowled around the ears of the Czechs. But their bouses were snug, their stores full; they were prosperous and free. The Nazi occupation of Austria was still six monthsearalt would pass before Chamberlain would go to Munich with his symbolic umbrella and return

igurative barrel.

In Prague the Agrarian Party was in power. It saw keenly the full national granary but only dimly the snaking of Sudeten German fists. And this myopia spreadthe country.andful of people, among them the Czech intelligence officers, saw the growing danger clearly Intelligence was busier than It had ever been before. On the positive aide. It was straining to learn everything possible about German political and military Intentions, whilestruggled to prevent or manipulate theof the Abwehr. This small group of men knew that war was coming.

The Agentase Officer

eached bis office in the General Staffat eight He hung up coat and cap. sat atread his correspondence. In other officesanalysts, code clerks and comptrollers, were alsoday. The machinery began to move. The generalcorrespondence swiftly. Policy, promotions,And then be stopped He bad opened anin Czech and addressed to him by fun name,.

and function. It had been mailed inown In northwestern Bohemia. Ithree-page letter, alsobat to Oerman, with only theor signature.

This Is what it '

Dear

1 offer you my coOaborutkm. After ass have hadmeeting and you have been given the firstafter mutual agreement on the terns of

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The Shorthand Of Experience

hall be paid one hundred thousand Reichs-

mark.' eed this money

Bert isan do tn return.an provide you

with information, partially documentary, on German preparations for mobilization; detailed order of battle; documentary material on Wehrmacht developments and current disposition; documentary material on Germanalong the Saxony border; information concerning German armament, tanks, planes, and airfields; Sudeten-German underground activities and the support provided for these by the government of the Thirdan also provide mformation about German espionage in Czechoslovakia.

Our interview will take place ta the restaurant at the Chemnitz railway station. The time and date are for you to select. Please send your reply, general delivery, toodehomutov, main post office.

L.

ead the letter several times. Never lo his wide experienceeddler made quite so crassly commercial an offer. You couldn't take It at face value: even worse than the possibility of fabrication was the probability ofChemnitz was well inside Germany, and tbeof the meeting place would make It simple for tbepolice tozech officer there. And what an array of Information the writeronly military, but political and clandestine as weU Surely no one German could have access to so much. Tbe language, too,aintly technical flavor, as though formulatedilitaryservice.ad recently conducted aprovocation against the Abwebr; sweet Is revenge No doubtnifT examination of letter and envelope would

prove only that both were sterile. Chomutov was tn

heck at the post office there would probablyblank. . .

But while the general's mind pondered everything that Was wrong with the letter, bis nose was telling turn something different Somehow the distinctly odor of the phony waa missing. His mind. Intrigued, began to weudder what waa

1 SWAM)that

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right about the letter. Well, It was too suspicious; the abwehr bad dernonstrated that its provocations were professional. Again, it dangled too many kinds ofrovocation Is builtunnel; he who enters may go deeper and deeper, seeing more and more; but he cannot turn to left or right. Ha Is confined to that area which the provoking service can control and exploit. Then too. that sentence about needing the moneypersonal consideration, of no concern to the Czechs, somehow not the sort of thing that an entlcer

would hit upon.

The general summoned tbe chiefs of his espionage and counterintelligence sections. Both read the letter attentively. Bothit blankly at the general, as though to inquire why he asked advice in soatter. Both had the same opinion: swindle or provocation.

The letter was subjected to technical examination.The Chomutov postmark was genuine. The general decided not toheck at the post office, because it would notoax and mightossibility. What next? II be dropped the matter, he could not be wrong.

etter went to Chomutov. It expressed Interest in L's offer but flatlyeeting on Oermanould select any Czech die be found convenient He was to send his reply to the Chomutov post office,heparticularly liked this last touch. It did not matter If every postal employee in Chomutovad: his own men would watch. They would find out who picked up the letter to L; or. If anything went wrong, they would at least see who slipped L's reply into

But they didnt. They could not determine who picked up the Czech reply, in its distinctive off-blue envelope. And the postal clerk who put L's response In boxas sorting his mall to normal fashion. The letter was stamped

L proposed thateet htm tn Ltnx, Austria.Taiwinatinn revealed only that his second letter was like the first, written on the same Oerman machine; Perhaps It wasiversion operation. If so, It had alreadyto tyingurveillance team and some technicalnot to mention one of the key men to Czech Intelligence.

f course, was as unacceptable as Chemnitz. By this time the Nazis were already on the march to Austria. The

Tho Shorthand Of Experience

was corning, and everyone knew it. eceived

another rejection and another proposal to meet on Czech

Finally he agreed. As the place he chosetile town situated directly on the Saxony-Bohemia border and lying partly In Germany, partly in the CSR He set the time at midnightis letter" said that he could bethe unlikely event that anyone else should be standing In the square of the sleepy town at such anbecause he would set his watch by the clock in the tower.

as decidedly unccstatlc about this proposal. The border town could not be controlled as tightlyholly Czech village. The dark forest which came marching to the outskirts on one side was on German territory. Ninety-nine percent ofillagers were Sudeten Germans, the most fanatical of Nazis. Available for protection in this situationix-man patrol of local gendarmes with doubtfulRecently there had been several kidnappings along tbe German border. Not long ago. In fact, an Intelligence officer of the East Bohemian 4th Division had been taken by force.

The general nevertheless decided that he too would betown square at midnight. He knew perfectly well,that by simple logic be should be anywhere inexcept Kraslitz that night. But his initial decisionthis matter had been Intuitive, and it was not tothat later decisions could be based entirely onZ knew bis subordinates agreed unanimouslyofferiece of cheese poised neatly on antrap. Therefore he did not feel Justified Intoisk which he evaded. But at leastbe made His own trusted men, heavilyidden ring around the square. Tbe most loyal of(or least disloyal, thought the general) would . as outer circle. Signals for the timer ring wereone to Indicate tbe approach of L, or anyone else;to warn ofinally, the general wouldKrasUts only long enough to Identify L. Within minutesL, with selected subordinates, would bear andway to Chomutov, some thirty miles away, where abeen fully equipped for Just such anight was black. There was no moon, and an oppressive

blanket of black clouds' shut away the stars. There was no '"

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wind, either. Standing at one tide of the seemingly empty square, the general beard all the unreal noises created by tbe earsaiting man. Now and then he glanced at hiswatch The unlighted clock was as Invisible as the tower In which it was ensconced. Darkness blotted outTbe hands on the general's watch moved to midnight and beyond. No one came. The general began to beratesilently. It was obvious now. The cat had spotted the mouse In the town square, but it had also spotted the waiting dogs. No one would come.

Then.inuteshe generaligure standing motionless In the center of the empty space, near theNeither the approach signal nor the danger signal had been aounded. The stranger had apparently not walked into the square. He Just stood there. Then he turned toward the town clock that he could not see, raised an arm, and made an indistinct motion with the other hand.oung Czech officer emergedoorway, walked over to the man. andew words. The two approached the general, who now could see that the stranger wasuitcase In either handong roll of white paper under one arm. No greetings were exchanged. The three men walked swiftly to tbe car, parkedear-by streettaff officer, drawn aside to report, said that neither the outer nor the toner ring had spotted anyone entering the square. The general ordered that the outer ring stay In place for three more hours.

The villa to Chomutov was comfortably furnished and warm. Among IU facilities was an excellently equippedlaboratory. The experts and technicians were waiting.

In the livingut down his suitcases and turnedgeneral. Thise said in fluent, accentedwhat you may keep. Youave to photograph,of the other,ust take back with me Ibe over the border before V

help youffered the -Thank you.refer that the car drop me nearake my own waynow the border well"

The general heard the hunt cock of the shutter as acamerahile he spoke. He hopedad not heard tt Two Czech officers, both^hlown to the Abwehr, came Into the room. One left wtth the sufteasea and

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Tho Shorthand Of Experience

the roll of paper. Theolonel, remained. The three men sat down.

Identification, Study, and Control

general leaned forward slightly. The time had come, clearly, to get this operation on the tracks. "Would you mind telling me youre asked pleasantry.

aid.

"Oh. WeU, in that case, would you please state your

"No."

"But this informaUon Is necessary, soan determine what possibilities exist, what you can do forYou have my suitcases. They speak forWhy do youFor personal reasons."

"Is the money your only reason for offering to work for us?"

aid L, and now for the first time he looked less guarded and withdrawn. "My fiancee, who comes from Lau-slts. Is of Slavico not like the things that ourFuehrer and bis buddies have been saying about Slavs. In fact, there are several thingso not like about our heroic leader and his UtUe group of trained animals."

"Money and ideology do not usually go hand tn hand thishe general observed bluntly.

L smUed. "If it were not for thee said, "who would befieve in God?"

They fell silent, waiting for the analysts to report whether tbe stuff was jewels or Junk. No one said anything untfl, on signalergeant, the general excused himself and left the room. In the hallway the first analyst reported, and then the second. They were enthusiastic. The report on the defenses along the Saxony border tallied with information from other sources.

It was hard to believe that Czech mteUigence now' had In itsrue copy of the German GrenzscAtrfz plan in aU its meticulous detail- .The plan for border protection was

in all the countries of Europe one of the most closely guarded secrets. The Germans hadtate of border alert In order to proceed with their mobfflzation on schedule anddetection; knowledge of the preparations frxc war would

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The Shorthand Of Experience

re veal to the Czechs the areas of main concentration oftherefore their Intentions, not to mention otherYet the Information on border defenses

The general re-entered the living-room, the border plan still rn bis hand. "This documentand-made copy, I

aid L.id It myself. Took me twoIt will require furtheraid therinned. "It's all there. And now that you hare It, you may be Interested to know that we have yoursrom bis pocket he drew several sheets of paper and passed them to the general. The briefest of Inspections was sufficient to re Teal that It was tbe Czech border plan for Northeastern Bohemia and that It was wholly accurate.

"Where did you gethe general asked.m sorry,hall not be safe unless you figure It out foro assure you that this plan, like everything else I've brought, is genuine."

(Subsequent Investigation led Anally to the arrest of aof the Czech General Staff. He was hanged for treason.)

The general turned to other documents. Two contained original orders from Abwehrstelle Chemnitz concerningsubversive activities of Sudeten Germans. The nature of the orders made It clear that the underground work wasentirely from Inside Oermany, by the Abwehr.It had been instigated by Oerman Intelligence and was financed by Abwehr funds. (These documentary proofs were shown to the Czech government, which tn turn passed their contents to Its Western allies, but the evidence was largely Ignored In the prevailing atmosphere of appeasement.)

After four hours of talkingnd examiningad formed several conclusions aboutFirst, he.ilitary background; It waain his speech, in his bearing, and in the documents he e was an Abwehr officer or at least was ssociated with the Oerman service. He knewand specialized operatkrnaliy in this border area.knowledgeable in security matters. Apparently

be had direct access to secret documents. He was

The Shorthand Of Experience

Meniallyeviewed tbe standard data form for new agents: true namejs) In full, with all variants; aliases; exact place of birth;tc Mot one of tbe required blanks could be filled There were only these deductions and conjectures.

So the general hired L. He paid himelchsrnarks. And feeling ratheran who props up one splintered door at the entranceuilding wracked by war or revolution, heittle weakly,onder If you would mindeceipt? Tbe administrative" His voice trailed off.

L grinned companlonably.e said ign it"

He picked up the receipt,otion, and returned It to the general. It nown the lower right-band corner.

Well, there was one consolation. In General Z's shop the auditors had no jurisdiction over operational expensesthis first meetingould have been the hurt And maybe it should be, tbe general thought.

e said in firm tones, "our work Is beginning ta unorthodoxuite understand that ft had tothis way, or not at all. But I'm sure yougree with me that it would be best tothe circumstances Lo the future. We shall need one or two rules."

- agreed "Three, In fact The first Is that you will not pass any requirement to me but will be content to reviewrovide.ere to try to carry out assigned tasks, I'd be practically certain to make mistakespples and peaches, and you want apples and pears, throw the peaches away. You needn'troschen for them. Bnt If I

try to steal pears for you, I'm likely to lose my .

aid the general. He did not even wince.

"The secondontinued. Is that you wfll notascertain my identity or my vocation. If ynu do so. you are ' .

Hkely to direct the attention of Oennan countertalaangaoee toward me."

Againgreed. ^

"The last rule Is that there will be no othermutually ,

-ap,"

It cu near dawn now. There was time for only two more questions. "Tellaid tho general, "how did youto mail your letters from Chomutov?"

ave myaid L.

"Well, what about coming across the border, then? Rather risky for someone who stresses security as much as you do."

now theaid L. He smiled at the general, not In the least Insolently or tauntingly, but understandingly,riendly fencer might smileighly-trained opponent who looks clumsy against an unorthodox attack.

Arrangements were made, of course, for continued contact, personal and postal. The next meeting was set Two Czech officersy car to the outskirts of Kraslltz. He walked away from the road, into the last of the darkness.

But he reappeared on schedule, not onceew times but through the years. His value remained extremely high. In fact.nd his staff, both in Prague and later Inhad no source of greater worth or reliability. The Allies, too, discoveredearl beyond price. One British general said,eports, armiespisodesartnership

The value and validity of L's information clearly reduced, or even eliminated, the normal need toource's Identity and obtain as much personal data as possible. Unless, that is, tbe entire operation were aimed at one master stroke of deception. What if all this accurate reporting which clearly hurt the Nazi cause were intended solely to Insure that when the big lie came, at the critical moment, it would be accepted unquestlonlngly? But In that event any prying at L's secrets would be certain to establish only that he was exactly what he seemed to be, an Abwehr cancer.

Of course, as the contacts continued, the Csechs learned more about L. For one thing, tbe general and the agent began to discuss their respective needs and capabilities withfrankness.ecame less guarded about himself as time went on. Gradually It was learned that he was Indeed an Abwehr officer, stationed In Chemnitz and assigned to Abwehrateue IV, In Dresden, He mentioned hisuite casually one day. But nothree years after the

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Shorthand Of* Experience

started, was his Identity established by name, and then only because he chose to reveal it

The major unsolved mystery remained bis motivation. At tbe outset he had claimed an antifascist Idealism whileat the same time large sums. He was in fact paid handsomely: he had received moreM up to the German occupation of Czechoslovakia.as well aware that the swindler (especially the wartime swindler) customarily professes the highest motives while lifting your wallet;as noercenary, then, aof secrets without loyalties. Strictly cash-and-carry. Or was he truly antifascist? Perhaps he belongedmall clique that was deliberately leaking information as one means of hastening der Fuehrer's defeat?

Whatever else be might be, be was engaging Onceit the safehouse atasittle, as usual "How about doinge asked.

as painfully consciousignificant raise or bonus for L, already better paid than any other source, might placeudget squarely in the red. "What ise asked cautiously.

ave orders to establish fourets Inside the CSR. Two go to Slovakia. The other two are supposed to be placed in Moravska Ostrava, inon't have any operators In tbe towns chosen by the brass for these fourould recruit them, of course, and let you know who they are. I'd like to do It that way, tbe natural way. But the brass have put one of those blasted "urgent' stamps on this one. Tbe sets arent supposed to go on the air now, you understand They come up when you begin emergencySo bow about givingand?"

"Your realize the problems?"

ead them from our side, and you read

The problems were Indeed horrendous. The four radio teta could not be faked or quietly forgotten; tbe abwehr might check at any time. The four

"Let's sayaid the general. "Better to fan on one; nothing more suspicious than Infallibility,"

aid L-ant all four, After aU, my professional reputation is tavolved."'

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Shorthand Of Experience

"All right; maybe they do think you're Infallible. But these four men must be completely loyal to us and yet acceptable to you. And they must be skilled already or else they will hare to be trained. They cant be trainedon't want to tell them the story, and your people would hare to do the training. And you're going to want testuppose, which my people are likely to pick up."

emained cheerful and helpful. One by one the knotty problems were solved. Finally the four sets were all In plaice, and Czech Intelligencehorough knowledge of Oerman methods and tactics in radio operations, German equipment, German codes and signals. Exploitation of the Information led to the discovery of seven reallyseta in the CSR. L's four seta could be used by the Czechs at will, to remain silent or to furnish deception.the severe pressure exertedor speedyof the sets had been an unmistakable warning that the war was near.

This success seemed toven happier-n fact, thereenuine and mutual cordiality In the rela-tlonshlp. In the summer of that year occurred anotherwhich is worth describing because it reveals howdanger threatened the operation and also provides an added insight into L's character. At that time serious public disturbances, Hearing tho proportions of armed revolt, occurred in the Sudeten German area of the CSR. Units of the Czech Army had to be dispatched to the border regions to put down theontinued to appear (ormeetings, punctual and serene. One night two Czech Intelligence officers were returning him, as usual, to theof Kraslitz. Tbe car was stoppedarricade; armed men appeared; their leader, In gutteral Czech, ordered tbe occupants to get out of the car and hand over their Identity papers. There was no doubt that this was an insurgent group, and the lives of the two Czech officers would be In seriousif they were searched and exposed as intelligence

In sharprdered the leader of the group to step aside with him.istance he showed theaper of some kind. The Sudeten Oerman listened respectfullyaluted, and then shook hands, as though he could not

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decide whether dvillan or military courtesy was required ofnd his two associates got back Into the car, armed now with the password for the return trip.

at the nextaughed over theothlng could bee said.howed him an official Abwehra name ontold him that your chaps were two of my best agents who had Just supplied me with excellent material and now were guiding me back to the border."

"You thought quickly.ant to thank you on behalf of my subordinates as well as myself. You saved theirMine was on the sameeingas not an Ideal agent. It was obvious, for example, that hereat deal about Czechs who were spying lor the Abwebr. In fact, he bad promised at the outset to deliver precisely such information. But whenressed him for it, he became evasive. "Do you remember banging that General Staff captain because he was an Abwehrsked sharply. "Every one of your arrests IsInvestigated by the Hi-boys [Abwehrrimaced at the memory, "And not only the Abwehr, but the Gestapo and the Slcherheitsdienst asBut you did not identify thathe general protested. "Exactly. That's why I'm still'ead-Yet once, inexplicably, be volunteered tbe information that someone ta Artillery Regimentn Ctyry Dvory {South-em Bohemia)erman agent ieutenant colonel of Oerman parentage was arrested and confessed 'This time It wasaid L.

Be was proud and sensitive At the time of oneother business bad calledway forand his deputy filled In. The deputy was aprecise of *.

L was coldly angry at bis next meeting with the general "Keep your good little boy away from me from nowo not risk my hide this way to talk with fools and pedants"

m sure that he meant no offense.'*

-Of courseaid L, rmmonrhed. "But be is forevertag, Tnase, one does thus and aa The rule to followthis or that- He doesn't appreciate our nice little'

coNHbi^ruL mm*Mii mm**, m

Shorthand Of Experience

lion, he unt Interested; he only wmntt to know what type ot operation it la, so he can decide which of the three sett of rules he has memorized ought to apply here."

he isrgued. 'Ttules are

shorthand of experience."

"Rules of this kind are the crutches of feeble minds,"I* "The simple truth is that the world we live inaps And most minds are uncomfortable when confronted by chaos. Scatter blocks in frontaby, and it makes patterns. Any child can do it. and does. So we Impose on this whirling formlessness all kinds of Imaginary structures, each different from the next. Confusion Is too much for us; we create an arbitrary order. That's all right; but then we confuse our subjective patterns with reality and say that these structures are inherent, that they belong to the nature of reality.-

The general drew the correct conclusion from this discourse. He decided that his deputy had somehow offended L's

Munich and After

The work of Major (lateror thefalls into two periods: from7 to theof the CSR tond from then to thetbe war. Through both periods he was anThe Czech army and government were keptup to the ttme of the Munich conference, often Hons and capabilities affecting Cxeehoslovakia.this flood of reliable InformaUon served to revealIn Czech knowledge and thus to stimulate newIn positive collection and in countertotelllgence.Munichppeared only once. Obviously hebusy In connection with the Oerman mobilisationpreparations for the forthcoming campaign; It wasthat he could get away at alLtension bad tightened the border controls on

ooked completely relaxed, however, as he sat In hto favorite armchair at the safchouse and calmly reported that unless the Csech government surrendered the Sudetenthe Germans would open fire.

The Shorthand Of Experience

"Der Fuehrer and his foot^kissere are convinced that there isountry Ln Europe. Including jour ally France, that will come to your aid If Oermany attacks. The main thrust will come from Lower Austria, where your fortification* are weakest.-

L continued, explaining the German plan in detail On the basis of his information the Czechs were able to inform the French High Command that aU but two of the first-lass German divisions would be employed against tbearmy. The rest of the divisions along the border of France would be second and even third class, incompletely equipped The entire length of the Polish border would be guarded by only two divisions. This concentration of force upon the CSR left the German flanks obviously exposed,the Czechs were under no Illusion that the Allies wouldhrust against tbe CSR by an attackThe solution. Instead, was "peace in ournd some months later the Nazi occupation of Czechoslovakia.

L did not appear during this interim.ssumed that Munich's elimination of Czechoslovakiailitary power had caused him to lose interest in any furtherMoreover, the changing times had wrought collaborative changes in theow bad Increased reason to fear betrayal to German counterintelligence if he persistedtoo, he suspected that there was little cash left In the Czech coffers.easonedither would cease to work against the Hitler government or would now seek supporttronger, wealthier power.

asame, hurried but unagltated, to the safehouse9 and told the houseman toan immediate meeting with the general The latter left an Important conference and sped toeported that the occupation of Bohemia and Moravia would take place onethe German armies scheduled.for participation,he directions of advance, and the objec-

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Shorthand Of Experience

police units advancing with tbe German armies to arrest all Czechoslovak Intelligence officers and subject them to taune-dlate interrogation. Of key interest were tbe Identities of all Czech sources in Germany or reporting about Germany.

Thirteen days! And so much to do.

L was not smiling now. Bis face showed plainly hisand deep concern. "Looke said, "what are

yourOh, we have something cooked up, ofWell, It's plain that you've got to clear out, unless you want to Invite the Gestapo for tea.on't advise Prance. Wherever you go, you'll be able to setafe meeting place or two, nlcht?"

an give you an address in Holland, and another in Switzerland."

"Good"rote them down. romise to get word to you as soonan. ant you to promisean,"

"See to It personally that any Ale material whichme, or even points toward me, is destroyed."

"It has already been taken careaid the generaL

The two men stood, then, and shook hands. "God protectn German. "This is not goodbye. Ill bo In touch with you soon. Just get out in time to save your skin."

"Yes. Thank you."

"Hot necessary, if you'reut L's eyes, usually full of toquiduvenesa or amusement, now showed his anxiety for his associate.

The general sat down againad gone There was much to do.as, aseasing enigma Why did he risk bis life to appear atune? And why did beto continue serving the Czechs even after bis own people had driven them from their homeland? He couldraw.ven if the Czechs were so unscrupulous as to betray him, they would not profit thereby. He had been paid so well that he could now live comfortably throughout tbe war and (or years thereafter. Or If he were greedy, be could seekajor power and reap far handsomer rewards than could be offered by an Impoverished government to exile.the promise wasesture intended to console

The Shorthand Of Experience

an associate in distress, offered without any intention ofit out. Vet his mariner had not been one of pious sym- athy; it was too sincere and friendly.

Still baffled, the general was driven back to Prague, where he reported his latest information to the Chief of Staff. But the report was met with governmental skepticism.had already Infiltrated the government, and many of those free of this taint seemed half paralyzed by tberush of events and the ominous clouds gathering. La information was labelled tacredlble, and the general wasto disseminate it. Under these circumstances heon plans for the security of bis own staff.. onix hours before the German armies crossed the border and twelve hours before they entered Prague, the general and twelve of his staff members left tbe capitallane made available by the British.

Intelligence-in-Exile, Impoverished

Czech operations were resumed from London throughtn Switzerland, Holland, Sweden, Denmark, and Poland. The ranks of Czech Intelligence officers were augmentedumber of military attaches abroad who refused toitter-dominated government.

The spring passed, and the summer, without word fromthe refutation of his earlier doubts. General Znow convinced that he would never again see tbeor hear from him. Undoubtedly, be thought onehe attacked his morningad worried to thethe possibility that Czech documents or arrestedofficers would reveal bis Identity and the storysilent battle against the Nazis. Now that nothing badfor nearlyear, he probably felt safe. Andfrom this anxiety would beelcome relief thatwould not be likely to put bis neck Into the same noose- . -"

Thus theorizing,etter from Switzer-It came from L. He would soon arrive to tbehe would like to meetr even theHe would reach the Hotel des Indeam.eptember and would register there underof Bra-

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Shorthand Of Experience

On the appointedeceived the deputy cordially. "Please telle said quietly, "that if he IsI am prepared to resume our association."

m sure he will be delighted-"

been transferred to Berlin, to the OKW Abwehr Ab-teUung (Oeneralhall haTe plenty ofto travel and can easily meet you.ave some first-rate information for you."

The deputyhade uncomfortable. "This Isnews, ofe said,

"But what?"

"It's the money. You'll understand that things are not the same for uso not mean that we cannot pay anything, but In comparison with the old days

on't wantaid L.as done very well by me; my only money problem now is to keep yourfrom endangering my security. So don't give itthought"

The general's deputy was tempted to ask what caused this remarkable about-face on the part of an agent who hadabout one million Bcichsmark for two years' work But his earlier encounterad made him cautious.

L turned over valuable and detailed Information aboutarmored and mechanised divisions. The deputy agreed to his proposed arrangements for the next meeting, andto London to report

istened to the story with surprised delight. Was nothingid ever to conform to expected patterns of behavior? Now he did not want money, and was willing to serve an emigre organization that had lost much of Its power along with its funds. Why? His fondnesslavic fianceear from sufficient answer. If heurning anti-Nazi, was he operating all alone? Or did he perhaps tie in to some German underground group dedicated to Hitler's overthrow? Was he part of the dissident Canaris group? Was this groupiaison channel to the Allies? But probably. In that event, it would have sought contact with the KnglUh, or another power, rather than the exiled Czechs.

Now that contact had been reestablished, reporting flowed smoothly. Correspondence embroidered with secret writing went to cover addresses in neutral countries, usually "

The Shorthand Of Experience

land or Portugal Personal meetings were also held in these countries and in Holland One meeting was held inIt Is no exaggeration to say that L's reports,on both military and Intelligence subjects7ere of momentous significance. Hereew

advance information about the German attack

on Poland and plans for the subsequent campaign This information included the now familiar fact that Qerman SS units garbed In Polish uniforms wouldan attack on German positions to furnish afor war.

concentration of Oerman armies for the taraslon

of Denmark and Norway.

warning of the German attacks upon Belgium and

France, together with clear indications of tbe main lines of thrust.

The opening of hostilities against the TJ.SfiR

Plans for the German offensive in tbe Kharkov area In

the spring

A series of reports on German order of battle.

Reports on the movements of major German headquar-

ters from one battlefield to another.

Some Information on preparations for

Hitler's plans for Spain, which did not materialize.

ritten reports were almost always brief. Sometimes tbe secret text consistedingle sentence. His oral reports were somewhat lengthier, but they too were pithy. During these personal meetings the friendship which hadnd the agent nevernto confidences or irrelevancles. In time the Czechs managed to organize fromespectable, agent network, but L's value con-tinned k> outweigh the combined work of tbe others.

At one meeting In Lisbon he eyed the general reproachfully, "it looks as though your British Mends pried my-name out ofe said. "

The observation was accurate. Forong timeZ had withstood tbe pressure of British questionsidentity, but finally things bad reached the pointtt was no longer

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Shorthand Of Experience

i

"Same rery smooth customer dropped in on me right alter our Last meeting and with an air of engaging franknessall the practical reasonshould work for bis firm directly Instead of through anaid the general "And what did you tellI told himidn't know him and that he had obviouslyistake. You know, you might tell them to check with you before they come calling, and get your blessing."

"Perhaps you should agree to cooperate with ouraid Oeneral Z. "They can pay you better than I"

"I've toldont want money. Look here: I've worked with you for about three years now. and I'm still alive."

aid nothing more. It was typicalo profess the purest self-interest as his sole motive. He would have blushed at tbe mention of loyalty. In fact, the generalthe idea of fealty has been out of fashionong time.

Inrote to askeeting inHe reported that be had been promoted to the rank of colonel and transferred to the Prague military command His new assignment precluded frequent travel.

iscussed this change with his deputy. It haddisadvantages. The transfer from Berlinway from the brain of tbe Oerman Army. It also posed delicate problems of communication, for secret writing mailed from Prague would obviously be too risky. There were someThe Protectorate bad grown Increasinglyto German military operations aa the result ofon both fronts. The war industry there was virtually unmolested by Allied bombing, so that the railroad network served the German High Command efficiently. Moreover, It had become clear4 that the Allies were going to win the war. The railed Czech government therefore neededfrom Prague Communications were the hardest problem. There was good radio contact between the Prague underground and London, butelt thatn touch with the underground so that he could use Itswas too risky. He anticipated, In fact,roposal

The deputyn Constantinople The new Abwrhr colonel proposed that communication*^ by

The Shorthand Of Experience

radio; lie was willing to use the Czech undergroundiswith It were restrictedingle reliablead previously selectedolonel Studeny. It was decidedeparate code would be employed for L's reports. The time and place lor future meetings with Studeny were chosen by l, and arrangements for dead drops were worked out in detail

andew life. His assignment as chief of the counterintelligence section of the Prague military command, under General Toussaint, providedeasure ofHe usually knew In advance which persons wereto the Germans and which were slated for arrest. This knowledge was not Infallible; the Gestapo and Sicherbeita-dienst wereunfriendly terms with the Abwehr. And sometimes Gestapo arrests were not only unannounced but seemingly capricious, made forreasons, on suspicion rather than evidence.

But at least tbe operation was now conducted inwith the rules Colonel Studeny had dropped all other underground activity and functioned solely as L's cut-out There were no more chancy meetings In neutralad received no money for years, so the danger which an added and inexplicable income always brings bad nowL and Studeny never met; theyumber of cleverly concealed drops. Perhaps itiracle that tbe operation had survived its cowboy years, butad for protection an intelligent application of the rules.

His reports continued to be very valuable, fulfilling alsofunction of providing warning about forthcomingarrests. The months rolled by, months In whicharmieseries of major defeats. Tbe endsight _

Mission

In4 Colonel Studeny was arrested. It seems that he had been under suryetUancc/for somendurprisingly, the Gestapo had not found his dead drops; for if they had they would haves well What they did find, when they searched Studeny,iece of paper bearing questions obviously addressed to eomeone in theheadquarters at Prague- Colonel Studeny was lntex-

CONFIDENTIAL

Shorthand Of" Experience

rogated under relentless torture. Heero, without rev-adlng anything about the radio station or the Identity of the Oermanven participated, on behalf of the Abwehr, in the Investigation of the case.

L's own arrest came In December. Its causes remained as obscure as those that had led to Studeny's apprehension. Perhaps an analysis of the requirements on Studeny's person had led, tn turn, to Investigation of the past activities of all safjeaJ suspects.eview would presumably haveL's presence near the Czech border before the war started, his specialisation as Intelligence officer In Czechhis extensive travels,umber of other significant Indicators. Or perhaps, after the attempt on Hitler's life Inas one of the large number of Abwehrwho fell under suspicion of complicity. Whatever the reasons for the arrest, the Gestapo used much the samemethods on him as it had previously employed onStudeny.

There was oneust have sometime read The Arabian Nights. At any rate he emulated Queen Scnche-rezade by prolonging his story, relating only one episodeime, and ensuring that much additional Investigation would be required before the next chapter could be drawn from him.

In this wayought to remain alive until the dying war reached Its end and he, along with the other prisoners at Terexm. was set free. He nearly succeeded. In fact, this rational plan would almost certainly have worked except that [ate Is notoriously Irrational. The S3 guards at Terrain, growing more frightened dally as the Russians stormed closer and closer, got thoroughly drunk on their last afternoon as masters of the concentration camps. They decided to shoot forty prisonersinal Teutonic orgy of death Byodden sergeants one' of tbe forty.

Aa he was led from hishe rnanaged tofew wordszech lnmate.net marked fortold him to seek out Oeneral Esndtefi him what had

-Tell htm itonderful time. Tm sorry It stopstellalways wanted to know why, so tellmy reasons In life were Just as logical aa themy

.

The Shorthand Of fcxpei

And there you have ft. thought General Z. pondering the story. Maybe no one can proceed by logic or rules alone; maybe nobody knowsont know why be was the bestveront know why hepy atont even knowroke all the rules at the outset. One of my English friends once said that the prerequisite for Intelligence Is Intelligence. He's wrong. The Indispensable organ tn this business is not the brain. It's the nose.

Original document.

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