Created: 9/1/1959

OCR scan of the original document, errors are possible


TITLE: Colonel Abel's Assistant

AUTHOR: W. W. Rocafort




A collection ol articles on the historical, operational, doctrinal, and theoretical aspects ol inleNiaence.

All staiemenis of fad, opinion or analysis expressed in Studies in Intelligence arc those of

the authors. They do not necessarily reflect official positions or views of the Central Intelligence Agency or any other US Government enlity, past or present. Nothing in die contents should be construed as asserting or implying US Government endorsement of an article's factual statements and interpretations.

The reconstructed historyoviet deejxover intelligence operation against the United States.


This history ends in Paris, in the spring, two years ago. On Monday the sixth olhe American Embassyan Incoherent, urgent telephone call; someone hadof importance. security. Late in thethe caller cameburly manlue-and-red-striped tie, fortyish. unmistakably alcoholic but showing under his uncertain equilibrium the remnantsnce sure military bearing. He claimed tooviet intelligence officer on his way back from the United States to Moscow.

An American intelligence representative was called, and questioned him for hours. The man had all the qualificationsrackpot, but his story, if disjointed, was circumstantial, and he offered some concrete evidence of his profession. He was kept in contact until his data could be checked. Infor purported information about the KGB, it developed, he wanted to be taken back to New York, to his wife, and hurriedly. He couldn't wait, began communicating with her by tapping messages on his chest, his other arm held up as an antenna. Word came, none too soon, that his facts checked out. He was gotlane on Mayn the ensuing weeks, sustained by quantities of brandy and piled withIn his more lucid intervals, he furnished the essential fragments of the dismal tale that follows.*

State of Soviet StateS

Colonel Aleksandr Mikhailovicb Korotkov was exasperated. It wasn't the endless reorganising of the intelligence and se-

* The presentation of this easehronological narrative has been accomplished by ailing gaps with hypoUietlcal material,Oordlan knots ol conflicting probabilities, and manipulating

the arrangement of some facts. The circumstances of these seml-ficuonal reconstructions are discussed in the numbered notes assembled at the end of the narrative.

Colonel Abel's Assistant

curity agencies at the top; that scarcely ft flee ted him. As head of security's deep-cover foreign intelligence operations, he had the same Job to do whether It was under the NKVD. the NKQB, the MOB, or, as for the past year, the KI. About the only innovation under the KI had been the effort, now aborted, to amalgamate the deep-cover activities of military intelligence with his own; and the military people bad shown the same stufly aloofness to his own shop that characterised them before and after in the ORTJ. Now that that was over, it seemed certain the KI would eventually be dissolved, and Korotkov had already begun to think of his outfit as back with the MGB.'

The source of Colonel Korotkov's present exasperationifferent policy matter, one that affectedunrealistic Impatience of the Big Brass, all the way up to Stalin. He himself had been telling them for years that it was going to be necessary to concentrate mteUigence resources on deep cover to avoid being limited more and more to purely overt Information on the West. Especially in America, Just at the time when the. began to dominate all the Top Priority Intelligence Objectives, the Oouzenkothose military people, againh--had put an end to the lush years when you could go anywhere and do anything under paper-thin official cover. You simply couldn't run an effective agent net while under the kind of surveillance Soviet officials were getting in America nowadays.

But now that the Brass had finally been convinced that things had changed since the war years, they expected you to triple your deep-cover operations overnight. He and Shiryayev, who was In charge of his American section, were doing what they could, but it takes time. Shiryayev hadthe other day that Comrade Beria and the men around him must be too busy with matters of statein-fighting andbe concerned with the problem of lead time In getting officers out under deep cover. They couldn't understand why It should take years, even if youan already trained, to establish andegend to serveater-tight biography of bis cover identity. They had even wanted to send one ofhiryayev calledoffheesecloth

Colonel Abefs Assistant

and patchwork legend to take charge of.

Korotkov had got that one sidetracked, anyway.ew months one of his veterans, Rudolph Ivanovich Abet would arrive in New York to handle thingshile. Colonel Abel was not the ideal man; he was too straightforward andwhat had caused his trouble with theecade ago and permanently retarded hisnow he was getting on in years. But if he lacked pliability and youthful zest he was as sound and solid as an old oak; he wouldood routine job with irreproachable security, and if worst came to worst you could depend on him. Meantime Big Shot could be building up the documentationecent legend for himself. If he still wanted to take over when Abel retired.

You couldnl put all your powder behind one shot, though, especiallyig Shot who liked towathe rocking around in fastomeone in reserve should be readied during the next three or four years,oung officer with Initiative, intelligence, sound character, and practical training. Korotkov studied through the personnel papers General Baryshnikovhad sent him to look over; Vladimir Yakovlevlch, Deputy for Personnel in the MGB Foreignwas he stillriend of his and especially looked out for bis needs. This batch of potential recruitsood one. Most of them had domestic security experience, providing anof their reliability and obviating some of the need for training,ew were bilingual in Russian and somewhich would lend itself to the establishment of alegend outside the USSR.

One of these still unwitting candidates seemed outstanding. Hearty member of five years"eniorat one of State Security's posts in the Karelo-Finnish SSR, and onlyears old. He came of good peasant stock from the Leningrad area,ot of Finnish was spoken; his elementary and secondary schooling, in fact, had been in Finnish, and he had learned some German too. He had been graduated with honors from the secondary school and acceptedeachers' college without entrance examination. After graduation from coDege he had taught physics and mathe-


Abels Asuifanf

rattles In his old secondary school and at the samelassearby primary scbooL Called up In the regular draft, be had been grabbed eagerly by the security service, then under the NKVD. at the ageust before the Finnish war broke out. During that and the Great Fatherland War he had served continuously in counterintelligence and security duties in the north and had become expert in manyskills, notably in the recruitment and training of agents. He had nine years of efficiency ratingshim as Intelligent, energetic, resourceful, and dedicated.

The one blemish on this man's record, from Korotkov's point of view, was his apparent devotion to the girl. Aleksandra Ivanovna Molseycva. whom he had married sue years ago and to their adopted son. Well, he could leam to live without them; others had. Korotkov consulted Shiryayev and then asked Daryshnlkov to recruit Lieutenant Relno Andrey Hay-hanen. among others, for foreign mteUigence operations under deep cover.

Banc Training in Estonia

Family Hayhanen. riding south and west through tbe lake country, in its summer greenery, to Tallin, were excited and bappy. They hadot of traveling dunng the war. mostly In the KFSSR. but they had been stuck in Padany for two years now, and they had never been to Estonia. Aleksa Imagined it might be less raw and wild than the northland, more like her own quiet countryside southeast of Moscow. Tallin, they said,ity of about the same site as Tambov. The boy was forever making stupendous discoveries from the train window or getting Into other people's things. Relno thought about bis three days In Moscow.

He seemed to haveremendous Impression on them there atzerzhinskiy Square Very important people-Baryshnikov, Korotkov. Shiryayev and his deputy Akhmedov. not to mention the Major Abramov who squired himseemed to consider his accomplishments remarkable and to be terribly pleased that he knew Finnish and Russian equally welL He had enjoyed his wartime work in Finland, the land oflbert folks, and now looked forwardew and more Important kind of activity there. Presumably It would

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be Finland, although they double-talkedcountryfuture

The caginess and mystery both titillated and disturbed him. Only one man in the MBG office at Tallin. Colonel Pavel Panteleymonovicb Pas tele yak. would know that he waswith Korotkov'n outfit Foreign Intelligence wasigher-grade profession thanlorified policeman, but he wished it could be under official cover. The role of aforeign agent was bound to be an inconspicuous one, and the compartmentation might hurt his careeroviet officer. Yet General Baryshnikov had assured hun that he would advance much fasterear, major in two or three more. etc. And If they were going to put all foreign Intelligence under deep cover that helped take the curse off It. At least he had their promise that Aleksa and the boy could accompany him. Otherwise it would be no go. She was so dependent on

In Tallin Hayhanen found himself spending half his time on cover duties for the localwork, spotting and evaluating agents for activity in Finland. Sweden, and maybe other countries. The rest of the time, when he was supposed to be on "personal assignment" to Colonel Pastel-nyak. he was learning both the chauffeur-mechanic and the photographer Jobs, as tradccraft skills and as alternativecover occupations. Before long Pastelnyak told him to start learning English: apparently he was not going to operate In Finland, but In Britain, inPastelnyakhadsomewhere in the Far East. He arranged private lessons for himselfeluctant Aleksa; she was no linguist and was beginning to be apprehensive aboutoff to some strange country far from home.

Meanwhile hehance to compare notesouple of other Korotkov men in Tallin, and they ridiculed the notioneep-cover operator could take his family along with him. This worried him; but he was reassured within the month when Abramov, the junior officer of those who bad interviewed him in Moscow, came to Tallinew days. Abramov told him he would be going to the United States with his wife and son, that he should read books aboutand that after the turn of the year he would reportouple of weeks to Moscow to firm up the legend for his

Colonel Abel's Aniifonl

cover Identity, to check on his progress in English. and to

get Edition*!

Eugene Makl Gets a

In Moscow, earlye found that KorotkoT had two possible corer identities ready for him. One was represented by an American passportoy of aboutho had arrived in Russia with his parents But this boy would now be some seven years older than Hayhanen. and besides he had relatives in the United States that might prove The other was better: one Eugene Maid, born in Idaho the year before Hayhanen. had come with his family to Estonia7 and now worked In the KFSSRn MOB officer who had seen Makl thought that Hayhanenufficient likeness to him. He could assume this American identity In Estonia, ifufficient distance from Tallin where he was already known. They would getechanic's job in the government garage in Valga. down on the Latvian border. The apparentlyMakl birth certificate which Korotkov gave him could be usedhile to apply to. consulateassport His English, as good as could be expected afterear, he should in the meantime improve by himselfeacher.

There was no specific provision in the Maki legendamily, and when Hayhanen asked about it Korotkov was evasive: he should leave his wife and son In Tallin when he went to Valga as Makl, at any rate; he could go up to see them weekends. It seemed pretty clear that his superiors were maneuvering to back out on their promise, now he was In so deep that his whole career was involved in these plans. He did not tell Aleksa this, but she knew it intuitively. She stopped her English lessons, saying that she did not want to go on with them alone. She sal tight, dreading even theseparation at opposite ends of Estonia, hoping thatwould happen.

As the late winter and spring were frittered away In

stimulating, garage work and strained weekend commuting, the new Eugene Makl grew impatient to get on with hisHe got the promised captaincy to May; perhaps that meant he would be moving soon.onth or so Abramov

Co/one/ Abel's Assistant

showed up In VaJga; they had reviewed the Maki legend, he said, and decided that In Its present form it was clearlyIt called for him to go to America after recent residence In the USSR, thus inviting the attention of. authorities; it required fluency In Estonian; it did not take advantage of Hayhanen's knowledge of Finnish. Hayhanen wondered whether these obvious considerations had really just occurred to them.

Nowbramov went on. when the Soviet armies were liberating Estonia from the Germans, there had been aexodus of Estonians to Finland; what more logical than that Eugene Mail had Joined this migration and been In Finland ever since? He was therefore to quit his garage job and come to Moscow to make new plans. He would have to spend some time in Finland to back up this amendment to his legend. His wife and son bad better stay in Tallin they hadmattering of Finnish, would complicate the legend, and would seriously inhibit his mobility. He could get back to see them occasionally.

This was too much for Alckaa. She couldnt bear the thought of more months alonetrange city, without friends, living only for an occasional weekend. She would go back to her own country, stay with her own people, and wait for him as so many soldiers' wives bad done during the war years, half of them in vain. Hayhanen took her to Tambov, said goodbye with tenderness but with some sense of relief from the strain of conflicting demands on him. and went to Moscow for another round of conferences with Korotkov and tbe stan* of the American section.


He was told that the several months in Finland needed to backstop his legend would be useful experience In living bis coveroreign country, making contactsuperior under official cover and with local agents, and using drops and communications channels. He could resume his English lessons, too. He could even be of some operational use if he took advantage of the opportunity to find out more about the details of Finnish documentation. For his ownIn Finland, aside from the Maki birth certificateicture of Maid's father, he wasFSSR chauffeur-

Colonel Abel's Assistant

mechanic's workinsurance against thethat the Finns had some record oi the real Makl would also help to explain the" false Maki's deficiency Inand on his way through Tallin he was to pick up from Pastelard showing that as far as the MVD was concerned Makl had no dtizenshlp.

This documentation was not for the purpose of getting Intowas supposed to have gone in inonly for attesting his identity while there. His entry now was effected in simple If undignified secrecy, in the trunkar belonging to the Soviet embassy in Helsinki, driven across the border from the Soviet base at Porkkala. The visiblewere an embassy official and Ivan Mikhailovich Vorobyev, chief correspondent in Finland for the paper Trud and Maid's channel back to Moscow. Vorobyev was also to help him back up the legend of his residence in Finland for the past six years,

In September, on Vorobyev'sinnish agent took Makihunting" trip above the Arctic circle, in the agent's native Lapland. He told his Lapp friends that Makieserter from the Finnish Army who needed help, and he paid two of them to certify that Maki had lived with3he past thus sketched, he filled in the present by gettingob as blacksmith's helper. Working among the Lapps in this capacity into the dayless winter, Maki was not unhappy when Vorobyev suggested that he move closer to Helsinki where they could meet more often. In January heelper's Jobteel fabricating plant In Industrial Tampere.

0 dragged on, not idly butat the plant, monthly meetings with Vorobyev, reports on living conditions in Finland, on attitudes of the population, and on the industries around Tampere; made-work, thoughtit began to seem high time that these "several months" in Finland should be up. One late summer evening he was going over his legend, reexamining it for flaws, trying to anticipate Moscow's discovery of other considerations that might delay his departure for America. He picked up the Maki birthand his eye fell on the routine Warning, "ThisIs not valid if it has been altered In any way what-

Cofoncf AbeFt Assistant

" He held it up against the light It was only too apparent: in Moscow they had tried totamp which recorded the real Makl's applicationussianand hadoor job ofhis might easily do more damage than merely delay him. The certificate itself was perfectly all right, if he couldopy of the original before it had been stamped. Why not? He sat down andetter to the Department of Health, EnavUle, Shoshone County, Idaho: "Dearost my birth"

He didn't tell Moscow about this right away: they would probably tear their hair over anything so naive. They had still said nothing about applyingassport, and by the time they did he'd have the new certificate. His eagerness to be off, thus dampenedhile, was soon to bequenched.

Eugene Makiife

The quencher was Hanna Kurikka, young, blonde, andcrowned Queen of the Peteecent beauty contest. Maki was bewitched; this girl's gay and open spontaneity was so different from the almost anguished affection of Aleksa, so different from anything he had known In his life, something from another world. He was not bothered by her lowly social status or by the rumors about means she had used toher wagesousemaid- These things only brought her quintessence of vitality within his reach and comprehension. Hanna, for her part, was overwhelmed. She had never aspired to the affections of such an upstanding man, so well educated, so generous and kind. Thereysterious savoir faire about him which must reflect his origins in America. She loved him for himself, but she thrilled with half-conscious expectations at his hints that he might some day go back to visit bis native land.

They met in September. By November they werefloatingream-world, in toxica led. Maki stopped going to work at the plant; Ittupid waste of time. In January the new photostated birth certificate came. He showed it to Hanna. She kissed It In March they moved to Turku in order to be by the sea. Hanna began to mention marriage wistfully oncehile. Maki was em-

Colonel Abel's Auiifonf

barrassed, and felt vaguely guilty about Aleksa waiting there in Tambov. ,, . ,

Maki now worked ofl and on (or some plumbing contractors, and found odds and ends of information to report to Moscow through Vorobyev. Of course they knew nothing about Hanna. Be had better tell them about the birth certificate, though; he didn't much care If they did think him half-baked now. But Moscow was pleased, seeing In his initiative aof their estimate of his resourcefulness, and this maybe triggered their decision that It was time for him to apply for. passport. Hehile, but filed the application inortunately there werehad to show proof that he had not served in the Finnish armed forces or registered towould serve to delay action for some time.

Hanna was now more outspoken about her wish to getShe was right, of course, from heroman doesnt feel secure without that legal tie. And It really shouldn't matter to him. he told himself; after all. he was not Reino Hayhanen.ife In Tambov, but Eugene Maki. who could marry when he chose. Some day this wild, delicious dream would be over and he would be Reino Hayhanen again, back In theay world. As for Moscow, they hadn't played It very square with him; they needn't know. The Makis moved to nearby Tammlsto and were married In November.

Hayhanen Readied for the Plunge

So passed another winter, and the spring and earlyLate In July2 came the Inexorable passport, and swift on Its heels the order to report to Moscow for three weeks' gaining and final briefing. Hayhanen's grayedbegan to glowusiness trip to France and Italy, he told Hanna; he'd be back. He crossed to Porkkala hi the same car-trunk that had brought him in three long years ago He visited his mother In the KFSSR. and sent word to Aleksa to meet him with their son In Moscow. Be was back to reality, the same vigorous career-and-famiiy man be had been before these ties were dissolved in Makl's dream. He threw himself Into his final Intensive Moscow training.

His headquarters had moved to the KI building on thealthough the K3 itself was now defunct. Colonel Ko-

Colonel Abel's Assistant

rotkov was not tn evidence. Neither wis Abramov. Colonel Vitall Gregoryevich Pavlov, who had Interviewed him beforeember of the American section staff, was now Its Deputy. But It was mostly the Training Officer, Captain Aleksey Kro-potkln, that took charge of his TDY. Tbe trainingafe-house, with two shifts of instructors. He learned how to use ciphers, and wasipher of his own which he was never to reveal to anyone. When in New York he'd get one-time pads, they told him. Heefresher in taking photographs of documents and learned to dissolve their hard backing, leaving only the emulsion as "softe was taught how to make and hide microdots, and how to signal their location separately. He practiced tailing and evasion on the Moscow streets.

He wasull set of Instructions for his Americanwhich he memorized in part and in part noted down. He was introduced to tbe official who would be his contact and communications channel. Mikhail Nikolayevich Svlrin. about to leave for New York as First Secretary to the Soviet UNBut the effort to minimize the use of official cover waa still on, and later, when he had built up his own network of agents, he would be made assistant to the deep-coverin Newho would have direct communications to Moscow. On arrival in New York he should goinnish club and get them to help himlace to live. He could live wherever he wished, but should keep Moscow informed. He should let them know he bad arrived safely byed thumbtack on tho "Horse Carts" sign near the Tavern-on-the-Oreen restaurant in Central Park. If he suspected surveillance the thumbtack should be white.

He was not ordinarily to meet Svlrin in person. He wasist of numberedmessages could be hidden. When he hadessage he should go to the railing in frontentral Park West andhalk mark on the horizontal bar corresponding to theof the bank. If heeeting he could mark one of the railing posts. He shouldifferent location for the signal that Svlrin badessage for him.

He could lay low for the first three months, establishing his cover and making sure that he was not watched. On the

Colonef Abef'l Asiisfonf

twenty-eighth of each month during this period, at ten o'clock in thee was to be at the Prospect Park subway station in Brooklyn and simply walk through the south exit; thus Moscow would know that he was alhre and well. After three months he should begin to circulate, Joining ail the Finnish clubs and exploring all means to build up his agent network.

It was Major Hayhanen, this time, who ducked into the car-trunk on the Porkkala side of the border and emerged as Eugene Makl on the Finnish side. The promotion and his elaborate instructions gaveenewed sense of purpose and responsibility, which Hanna, when he reached Taramlsto. dimmed but could not dispel. He took her to Turku, his port of sail, In order to be with her as much as possible whilehis preparations for the voyage. Itorn and poignant month, the Maki idyll continually interrupted with Hayhanen business As soon as he got settled he would send for her, he said, because it was the thing to say.

The Promised Land

He sailed onia Stockholm and London. From London heish-you-were-here picture postal to his Lapp benefactor, care of general delivery. Helsinki. It would tell Vorobyev and Moscow he had got that far. He docked tn New Yorknd was passed through theand customs formalities without incident. He foundlodgingheap hotel In Harlem. Heed thumbtack on the "Horse Carts" sign.

He walked the streets and rode the subways, getting used to the dizziness of the city. He spotted his messagea holeement wall on Jeromeench tnPark, the spaceamp post in Fort Tryon Park, the iron fence on Macombs Dam Bridge. He sampled the night-Ufc, thinking of Hanna's fascination with Its distant glamor. He went shopping, and because he missed Hanna heresent for Aleksa. splurgingodish fur coat. He appliedinnish club and obtained room and boardinnish family In Brooklyn. Heessage for Srirln suggesting that the Jerome Avenue bank be changedore convenient place Inaportar Joint between some stone steps in Prospect Park, and asking

Colonel Abel's

that Svlrin forward his package to Alekaa. On the twenty-eighth, as scheduled, he walked through the Prospectsubway station. Svlrin answered his message and gaveew signal location, the metal fence ath St. entrance to Central Park;orizontal mark on tbe first post Maki could Indicate that he badessage at Bank

In November he enciphered bis first message to Moscow since the London postcard, his Letter No.e wanted to setusiness as bis cover means of livelihood; he0 for this purpose. He had forgotten the name of the chemical used to dissolve tbe backing from soft film. Did be have any mall, and what was going on at home generally? He would send details about where he lived and worked later on; when would he receive the promised one-time pads? Did Aleksandra Ivanovna get the package, and how was she?*

He photographed this message with his Exacts, developed and trimmed the film, and placed itmall round silver case. He snapped themarkka piece. Its special construction undetectable saveiny hole througheedle could push the two halves apart. He put the comagnetic change-container. He went to Riverside Park, sat on the designated bench, and left the container fixedteel brace on Its under side. Heark across the second post ofh St fence. Every day now he walkedence off New Utrecht Avenue In Brooklyn; soon amark appeared on the second post there; the message had been picked up. He went backh St. and rubbed bis own mark off.

Then he waited, rather idle and lonely for Hanna, andperhaps too much. Beobody and fender shop. In December Moscow's reply found Its way back through the same machinery, reversed. Makiollow American nickel open and tookicrofilm showing ten columns of five-figure groups. Using his own cipher, he converted It Into the Russian text of Moscow's first message:

Wa conaratQlaU youale arrival We confirm the receipt of your card to "V" aad the retains ol your Letter No. i.

for nigantMtlop of roar cover we have given lnxtrarUocaooo be transmitted to you. Consult with as prior to Investing tt In any kind of business, advising the character of, this boat-


Colonel Abaft Assistant

to jour request we will transmit separatelylor tbe preparation ot soft film and the news, together

-etteffrom your

to too early to send you the one-time pads. Encipherand for longer ones use Inserted numbers,the corresponding Insertions. All the dataplace of work, address, etc. must not beone cipher message.

he package was delivered to your wife In person.ll right with the family. We wish you success. Orcetings from the comrades. No.ecember.

Maki put the film back into the coin and snapped itot as much as he'd asked for. but as much as he really expected. It would cover the down payment on one of those little neighborhood garages he'd seen advertised. He thought of his work in the big garage at Valga, puncuated by weekends with Aleksa. That made him think ofeverything made him think ofhow utterlyall other people were. Hanna in New York, Hanna ridingew American car. He put the trick nickel In his pocket and went out to buy some American vodka. Next day when he wanted to check the message over he couldntwhere It was- Funny, he thought, how he'd picked up Hanna's habit of hiding things away so carefully he couldnt find them himself. He had no premonition that on some Brooklynewsboy would spill his change and see one nickel spring apart."

Living was unbelievably expensive in New York; Justsupply of his favorite brandy on handig dent InBy the time he'd made up his mind which garagehe'd already let too much of0 slip throughto make the down payment. And he couldnt gethis head the picture of Hanna ridingleekHe still had enough money to make the pictureIt was not complicated; Hanna was in preferredstatus as the wife of an American citizen.nd they took an apartmentar.

Maki now sent Moscow his Letter No.he firstong series of bimonthly equivocations and decepgtms. about his. operational activities. As he had learned In Finland, he could

Colooof Abefi Aisisfonf

either have Hanna or pursue his operational career, not both; and he had chosen. Of course he had to go through tbeand sometimes these motions wereor one thing, he had toatch on Svirin's New Utrecht Avenue signal fence. One spring day hehalked there. You adde remembered, and that means you meet at this Brooklyn subway station on the next eighth, eighteenth, or twenty-eighth of the month. You both getubway train, but keep apart, and ride past three stops. Then you both get off and take one going in the oppositeThen if you haven't been followed you transact your business. Then you get off and Svirin keeps on going.1'

MaM thus held his first meeting with Svirin. All this to collect your salaryoutine message, he thought; much easier to let the old man, the courier Svirin had mentioned, put them under the Fort Tryon lamp postollowt was complicated enough at best, this triple deception.must be made to think he was busily building up an agent net. Hanna had to have an explanation of where he got his money and of certain mysterious actlvites he couldnt share with her. (He hinted to her that illegal traffic in narcoticseal golde had to have some honest source of income in the eyes of neighbors and. authorities. (He was fired from his body-and-fender Job In May; he watched the want-ads and worked off and on as shipping clerk, vacuum cleaner salesman, or utilitye wasnt really on the square with anyone. Least of all Aleksa. Thathe discoveredhot of liquor before breakfast would steady him and clear his brain.

In the fall he had his second and last meeting with Svirin in person.'* Svirin gaveess routine message this time. In order to reduce his dependence on official-cover channels he was beinginnish sailor under the pseudonym Asko, whose ship called at New York three or fourear. Asko could carry messages for Moscow and bring back hollow coins and pencils. Maki should meet himertain movie theater In Brooklyn. Maki wouldlue tie with red strips,lue tie with flowers. There were greeting formulas for recognition.

Colonel Abefs Assislonl

The appointment came off as scheduled. Maki andup Jointthe seatelephone boothNew York bar,artition in the men's room ofFinnish notes could be tacked to

a meeting or to sayessage to or from Moscow had been deposited ta one ofessage would be on microfilm, concealed, say, ta the split coveratch-book. Asko bad previously beenankiverside Park lamp post with another deep-coverman couldn't understand Finnish, and so Askoard time doing business withhe and Maki agreedench in Brooklyn's Sunset Parklace behind the toilet ta another Brooklyn bar as the most convenient banks for them. For future meetings they chosehird Brooklyn bar. It was always fun when Asko came to town.

It may have been Asko, though, who causedit of work once earlyormally Moscow did not trouble him with assignments; he was supposed to be operating on his ownut now some agent, they notified him, had lost contact with his principal, wasn't receiving messages, and hadanger signal; Maki was to meet this man and giveessage setting up new arrangements. He always suspected that Asko's language difficulties with the man he'd worked for before had something to do with this confusion. He took care of the unwelcome chore, anyway, and never heard any more about It He was soon to begin getting more assignments than he would have liked to think about.

The Master Craftsman

Colonel Rudolph Ivanovich Abel was both an artist andaccomplished artisan, and be took pride inArts, rather, for intelligence tradecraft is hardly awith its range of skills from forgery to radiowas proud, for Instance, of his forged New Yorkthe birth7 of one Martin Collins, anmight have to fall back on some day. True, he hadhis present and last previous identity on his

skill:sis years ago,t was. citizen Andrew Kayotls that he had arrived in New York via Le Havre and Quebec because the real Kayotls, after gambling away his other valuablesopenhagen fling, with desperate

Colonel Abets Assistant

bravado put up and lost bis. passportinalnd. the Im poster Kayotls, once he was inside the country, had melted Into Emll Goldfus, who held theof an authentic New York certificate of birthecause there was no danger that the real Goldfus, having died at the age of some fourteen months, would proveGoldfus was safer than the completely imaginary Collins, but he would not be afraid to become Collins ifhe did his forging meticulously welL

Another painstaking pleasure for the master craftsman was the fabrication of the hollow containers he used to transmit or store messages, money, and other secretwooden pencil Inside which he kept or. microfilm the letters from his family and Moscow's radio schedule, the trickblock where he stored his one-timehe hollow bolts, screws, and nails with threaded heads, the cuff links withfaces, the toothpaste tubes opened at the bottom, the matchbox with the double sliding compartment, the dry cell with the threaded top, the metal cylinders and plugged lengths of pipe to hold money and other bulky Items. Heood deal of time making these devices for himself and his agents, and it was satisfying work, the creation of physical projections of an orderly, inventive mind.

He had developed his own formula for secret ink and his own method of making microdots, both improvements over what Moscow had givene enjoyed thinking up new ways to transmitthe staple in tbe bindingagazine mailed to an accommodation address In Paris, say, or under the stampetter to one of the "stampVladinec and Merkulow, in Moscow. He liked to hunt up better message banks than the usual Iron fences and parkspot under the carpetheater, for instance, or an apertureelephone booth. He would tryew bank by leaving something In it for ten days to see if it remained undisturbed.

Photography was his special hobby, and since it alsohis cover occupation he could indulge in it openly. He noweparate penthouse studio, on Fulton Street In Brooklyn, after five cramped years in his earlieronh St and on Riverside Drive. Aside from

Colonel Abel's Atsistanl

photographic work, the new studioonvenient placehis machine tools, his radio receivers andhis Morse printer, rather than In his Hicks StreetRadioesser specialty of his, but he madethe neighbors by fixing their receivers for them.

Partly, perhaps, because radio was not his first love, he was less than enthusiastic about Moscow's project that he setransmitter so he could send messages to them as well as receive their traffic He understood the desirability of getting communication channels independent of the official-coverand their diplomatic facilities, but he wasossafe practical way to setowerful secret transmitter in the crowded New York area, with radio and TV sets all around to pick up its interference and the radio police, the so-called FCC, keepinglose watch. Even the proposed two-minute bursts of ultra-high-speed Morse would not be likely to go undetected. It might work in the open country If he couldufficiently secluded high spot, but then he wouldore portable and hidable transmitter than theset proposed by Moscow.'" Perhaps he could make one himself. He would also need an operator, if he was to have any time for his other duties and his agents. Certainly something had to be done, if only against the eventuality of war, when there would be no diplomatic communications, when one would be willing to run greater risks, and when submarines lying off the coast could figure as relay points as well as operational recipients.

He himself would be out of it then, unless war cameanybody expected. He was getting on toward sixty,less than three years he'd have his thirty years ofHe looked forward more and more to his retirement.was fine, but it was reallyacrifice to stay sofrom his wife and daughter and from Motherhoped this new assistant they were giving himetter prospective replacement than Big Shotcharacter! And arrogant: thought he wasalready, before he was dry behind the ears.

twenty thousand dollarsover business. Kept running back and forth to Moscow. Cracked up his sports caron the0 just in doctor-bills. He'd beimeback in the Crimea.

Cobe ft Assi if on I

The Abel AuUtant

The new man might be Just theIs,Judge by what Moscow said, that during his two years in New York he had askedumber of name-checks but hadn'tingle agent. Abel himself had spent the first year Just looking around, but after that you should start producing. He would soon be able toirst-hand opinion of this man: On Labor Day, at Moscow's direction, he was to meet thisfor himself the code-namea movie house In Flushing, on Long Island. Vic would belue-and-red-striped tie and would make certain motions with his pipeecognition signal. Mark should arrange regular and frequent future meetings,training and supervision as necessary, and payajor's salary plus expenses.

the reader will have recognized asto meet Mark at leasteek. At each meeting they firmed up the time and exact arrangements for the next, with an alternate date in reserve againstcircumstances. The usual arrangement was for Vic to wait in bis carpecified street comer, Mark had no car and did not drive. If contact between them were broken each was to check the sign at the entrance to Tillary Street Park every dayignal from the other. It was convenient that they both lived in Brooklyn.

Mark's developing impression of Vic was not bad. at least by comparison with the late lamented Big Shot. He wasseemed interested and responsive, and caught on quickly to new techniques. He had even done some original work in microdot methods. On the other hand, hisnarcotics-trade cover showed poornd his reasons for not having produced any agents were thin: he was afraid that fraternizing In the Finnish clubs might blow him, he said; Moscow kept him too busy with specificthey had refused htm enough capital to get startedarage business. Mark told him to go ahead and join tbe clubs and promised that when he had some more training in photography he could set up his own studio.

At least he was usefuleg-man and chauffeur, and thatood way for Mark toetter idea of bis capabilities.

Colonel Abel's Assistant

He usedot In those capacities during the rest4

andne of Mark's assignments, for example, was

to check secretly on the activitiesan who lived

Queens, perhaps an agent Moscow didn't trust. He turned this assignment over to Vic. They drove to Queens together and Mark pointed out the man's bouse; whenever Vicree day he should drive up and mount surveillance on it. Mark didn't much like this counterintelligence business, which proceeded from the assumption that no one was to beimilar distaste subconsciously motivated bisshortly thereafter to shunt another job to Vic, that concerning an agent under the code-name Quebec-One day Mark had found In his bank in the bridge-wall near Central Parkroken slot-head bolt. He took it to the studio, unscrewed the head, shookolled and tissue-wrapped frame of microfilm, and put it in his viewer. He scanned the message;

QUEBEC.ormer employee ol the D8 Militaryecruited to our service Inn the basis of carapromUlnga tied up to us with his receipts andn bis own handwriting. After he left our country he waa to be sent to the school oft Ban Luis, California. He was to be trained thereechanic of the coding

He fully agreed to continue to cooperate with us in thee was to havepecial letters, but wet has recenUy been learned that Quebec Is living in Red Bank. N. J, whereownes three garages. The garage Job la being done by bitisorks as an engineer at an atomic plant In Camp,*

He had Vic drive him to Red Bank to make inquiries, andway told him something about the case. In Redfound that Quebec's wife was indeedaragebut had no idea of her husband's presenthe was out west somewhere, itildthought Mark; blackmail was the least dependablemotivations, especially when you weren't toontinuity of psychological pressure. He

ported bis findings to Moscow, suggesting that If they wanted to pursue the matter they might assign It directly to Vic; the

Job would increase his tenat of rrcpomrtbiiity. beittle


Colonel Abel's Assistant

Whenew weeks Vic received Moscow's instruction to locate Quebec,urther lead-on relatives toolorado, Mark turned over to him the original message in its bolt container and gave him three weeks free of other duties to go out west and see If the relatives knew the defaulting agent's address. On the way Vic could make someMoscow had requested about certain installations In the Chicago and Detroitt was close on to Christmashe got back; he had not been able to make theIn Chicago and Detroit, he said, because he had been sick throughout the whole trip, but he had telephoned therelatives and got an address to Arizona for the delinquent. Mark told him to report direct to Moscow, hoping Moscow might let It drop there.

As tune went on Mark came to the conclusion that Vic would perform competently ifpecific task and specific instructions on how to go about it, but poorly if lefteneral assignment calling for his own initiative andHe had indiscreetlyoman with him, Mark learned quite by accident, on the trip west that drew the blank in Chicago and Detroit" Moreover, he treated alcoholtoo much like water, even if he did carry It well. Mark had several talks with him about that, without any lasting effect, and so beginning5 confined his Independentto the simplea hollow pencil from Askooutine reliability check and sending it back to Moscow through one of Svirin's banks; knockingooroston address Moscow wanted checked and sendingescription of the man who answered it. Even on cases like that of Quebec lastwas this other one-time agent Moscow wanted to reactivate, but it turned out that his own Atlantic City relatives wouldn't trust him as far as they could throwwas afraid Vic might encourage Moscow's unrealistic pursuit of dubious agents, and so used him only as chauffeur.

That's just the way the Quebec business had turned out In the spring Mark received instructions from Moscow toQuebec and get him back on the job. In Arizona yet, and separated from his wife, undoubtedly (he fulcrum ofeD.he wouldn't;

Colonel Abel's Assistant

and talking to them In person there In Moscow he couldsee the light. His more Important business atbe to report on Vic, though; he would tell themwould do as an assistant, working under supervision,he seemed to lack motivation andeplacementbe quite Inadequate for the foreseeable impress on them the urgency of getting aman out to take over so as not to delay his own-

Five Grand for Helen Sobell

Mark scheduled his departure for not later than the end of June, so as to make the west-east transit in Vienna easy,the Soviet forces pulled out under tbe terms of the new treaty. He gave Vic the equipment and some money to set up his promised photo shop, suggesting that he locate inand take advantage of the relative freedom fromto get it started during his own absence. He alsothe AC-DC shortwave receiver which had burned out when he tried to plug it in on Vic'sknowing that the carwelve-volt batterygave it to Vic toreading Morse; Vic might some day have to handle the Moscow traffic if Moscow never came through with anHe had things about in shape to leave when Moscow sent him word to0 to Helen Sobell.

This was not so simple as it sounds, with Morton Sobell serving thirty years for espionage and his wife still underIt wouldn't do to simply walk up to her address, or even telephone toeeting. Best hide the money and tben get word to her where to pick It up. He bad Vic drive him upstate to Bear Mountain Park, taking0 in two tin cans. They walked up the Major Welch trail. They put one caneavy flat rock andignisused trail markerearby tree. The other can they hid in the hollow between some rocks at the rootree which alreadyrail marker, and they addedark and theo this sign.

Mark, his departure imminent, had to leave it to Vic to get word to Helen Sobell, but he gave him detailed Instructions. Vic should goympathetic friend ofnd say that he was Morton'sfurnished him 'credentials

Colonel Abefi Asiiifonf

to thathe was lying low but anxious to help, and that Helen should contact him atlace and time."Helen would know enough to be carefuL Mark handed him two photographs of her to avoid recognition

This matter arranged, Mark took off. Helane to Houston,rain from there to Mexico City. Leaving the country this way, all you neededitlsen's travel permit, and he had seen to these. In Mexico City he chalked then the telephone polehlhvahaa St, on the street side. The next afternoon, at three o'clock, he was outside the Balmora theater looking at pictures of the currentightseer standing next to him wasipe anded book in his left hand. Mark asked In English, "Is this an Interestinghe man said "Yes. Do you wish to see It. Mr.hey went inside and transacted their business, principally arranging another such contact in Parts, where Mark-Goldfus-Abel should telephone the Soviet Commercial Missionertain time andet French phrase. In Parts he would get his Instructions for travel to Vienna and for contact there, and then he would be off to Moscow."

In Moscow he reported on the status of the Sobell money and other unfinished business. He was able to persuade them not to pursue the quest of Rhodes-Quebec as an agent, but he was less successful In getting them to accept hisof Hayhanen, It was one thing to questionebased creature of the capitalistic environmentto entertain such doubtsoviet cithten who had proved himself with many years in the Service and met the highest Party standards. They seemed to suspect rigidity and perhaps even some professional jealousy on Abel's own part, and pointed out that It was Abel's job to see that his assistant's enthusiasm was rnaintamed and bis fulldeveloped. The best Abel could do was to get aagreement that on bis return to New York he should secretly observeperformancehilerevealing that he was back. They disclosed to him for this purpose the Eugene Maki cover name and his Newark address. 1

Colonel Abef'l Aniifonl

A AruU point of conflict with the headquarters stall was the matter of setting up transmitting equipment In New York. They argued down his objections, gaveefresher course In radio techniques, and told him they already had anen route. He agreed to take more vigorous action on hishus settling his official business, he managed to spend most of his time during the remainder5 with his wife andelightful foretaste of bis comingToward the end of the year thereessage which Hayhanen had dispatched though his courier Asko: he bad given up attempts at surveillance of that suspect agent whose house Mark had shown him in Queens, becausewas too obvious inuburban district; but he had dolivered0 to Helen Sobell. That lastricky Job involving some risk, thought Abel; perhaps the man has something in him after all.

Back In New York after tbe turnbel with some distaste set his agents toull check on Eugene Maki. They found Immediately that he had indeedtore-apartment suitablehoto shop and hadank account, giving his occupation as "colorut the details of his life in Newark, as they were graduallygrew leas and less favorable He bad made no further attempt to activate the photographic business, as far as could be found Heoman named Hanna living to thewith him as his wife. He rarely went out alone; she waa almost always with him. Theyeputation in theforlovenly house and drinking constantly. There were rumors that they dabbled in narcotics, perhaps not Just as stock in trade. Maki had never applied forIn any of the Finnish clubs in the New York area. There was no evidence of operational activity*

Abel reported all this to Moscow in early April. Meanwhile Moscow, as be later learned, having received an inquiry from Helen Sobell aboutad sentequest for full particulars on how he had passed the money to her. Showing continued trust in him. however, they had also furnished him the name and photographotentialemberoreign airline crew, whom he should meetheater In Queens after an exchange of notesessage bank there. Maki had failed to make this contact, but badessage

Colonel Abets Assistant


describing how he passed0 to Helen SobeU through an lnterrnediary on Septemberast yearMoscow hadhim toew contact with Helen tooint check on this intermediary, and Maki had pleaded that it was too dangerous.

Moscow now informed Abel of all this and asked hisAbel replied in May: he had checked the Bear Mountain caches and found them empty; Maki bad just moved to PeekskiU.ouse he had bought last September and hade recommended that Helen So bell be given0 and that Makl be recalled for interrogation about the source of his funds for buying the house, about the woman Hanna, and about his operational activities or lack thereof.

Moscow was cautious. There was evidently some bad blood between Maki and Abel. It was quite possible that theintermediary had taken the Sobell money. Thestories from Newark were Inconclusive; they could be Inventions,moke-screen for cover. Finally, if Maki had indeed turned bad, it would be well to hold off and find out what compromising associations he may have built up. Svirin would be coming home in October; he could do somefirst In the meantime Abel could reestablish contact with Maki and keep him under observation. Theyew payment to Helen Sobell."

Abel was annoyed. Recontactlng Maki in July, he told htm that since his photographic enterprise had flopped he hadapply now to Moscow for home leave; he had talked to them about it while he was there, he said. He added rather pointedly that while waiting for an answer Maki could make another contact with Helen Sobell so that Abel himself could personally give her the new payments AbelMaki stalled around on that assignment. Abel tried to keep him busyhauffeur, notably in searchinguitable spot for the radio transmitter, although the promised operator never arrived.

Exit Maki; Exit Abel

In October Moscow was convinced by Svirin's reportM that theyad egg in Maki, but they were relieved thatno one else was Involved. They'how" agreed with alacrity

Colonel Abel's Assistant

to bis home leave. Abel wanted him to go right away, taking

tbe Mexican route which didn'tassport, but

stalling and with Manna's security In mind, insisted on(or one. Abel, concerned at having Maki runningfor more weeks or months, tried to get him to comehimotel. Maki gave tbe excuse that ever sincehauled inraffic charge last summer he'd beensigns of surveillance on him, probably tbe FBI oragents, and he didn't want to risk compromising aman. Abel dldnt believe him. but to be on the safeto forgeirth certificate to support ain case Eugene Maki had to disappear.**

The passport was issued early in December, but Mahl stalled about leaving. He was getting worried: Mark was so curt now, and Moscow noncommittal. As if aware of his fears, Mark told him Moscow had sent notification that he was beingto Lieutenant Colonel. In7 Moscow, now impatient, told Abel to get Maki under way. Abel again wanted him lo go via Mexico, but Maki, still stalling, insisted on asking Moscow's approval for departure from New York by ship. Moscow, leaning over backward not to alarm him. agreed and told Abel not to see him any more; they would handle him themselves from here on out. They were afraid that Abel's stiff hostility mightolt

Abelinal meeting with Maki in February, to give him the forged copy of an Oregon birth certificate. In emergency Maki would become Lauri Arnold Ermas, born0 inOn the eve of his departure from tbe States he should leave notification of his ETD and mode of travelagnetic container on the railingrospect Park fence; Abel would check this bank for It every Friday. They said goodbye with forced cordiality, each with suspicion of the other in his eyes.

Maki-Hayhanen embarked, finally, on.oscow watched his progress anxiously. Theat Le Havre onn Mays scheduled,Commercial Mission in Pariselephone

In Russian:end two parcels to Russia through.

Moreyntm, as scheduled and confirmed by the telephone call, the man In the blue tie with red stripes appeared at the Chardon Lagache Metro station. He asked

Coloncf Abets Assistant

ravel advance, and was given It, Be was told torain to Mimichandlane to West Berlin, where he could cross over to the east sector on the elevated. There he should telephone500 pm. and ask lor Mr. Wojchek. Regardless of the answer, he should be at the Kaulert photo shop0here someone would address him as "Andrey Stepanovich."

On the evening ofayhanen was seen to walk, as scheduled, down the Avenue Victor Hugo. There was noIn his pocket. Good; that meant that he would proceed as arranged to Berlin. But in Berlin the imaginary Mr. Wol-chek waited in vain for his telephone call on Maygain onothing. KGB officers all over Europe were alerted. But by the time they found out where Hayhanen was he was beyond their reach, in the solicitous hands of the Americans, recounting his years of training that ripened to thisand betraying the lifetime service of another at its very close.

Hayhanen had known his boss only asnd didnt know where he lived in Brooklyn or the address of his studio. But he could tell enough about the studio from hiswith Mark for the American authorities to Identify it Surveillance was mounted on it When the radioed warning came that his erstwhile assistant was missing, Emil Goldfus disappeared, Martin Collins moved from hotel to hotel,ready to leave the country. But the studio still had to be made as sterile as possible: he had to take his chances and go back to Fulton Street Thereafter he knew he had picked up an ineluctable tail. He couldn't shake it long enough toram or ship or plane. Early on the morning of the summertill In his rughtshirtoom at the Latham Hotel, Collins-Abel was arrested. He hasn't talked. In the federal penitentiary at Atlanta they prize his skill with things electric and mechanical, his quiet helpfulness, his paintings and designs for prison Christmas cards.

DOCUMENTARYhe Komltet Informatsvy was act dissolved untilut some otunctions were tnmsferred back to the MOB as early as Decern- Asaston*

shot" was Abel'a nicknameigh-level official sentTork early Id ISM, apparently to break in aa Abel'stn the deep-cover residency. The IMS antecedents toare postulated here. Big Shot's penchant lor fast cars is not

a matter o(

and titles of HIS headquarters officials are presentedsomewhat greater deflnltude than Is actually established.

1 This is one of Hayhanens several divergent explanations for having

ew certificate.

Whether Bayhanen waa to Hart from scratch building up an agent net or was to be turned over an existing netuestionby uncertainty as to bis planned status In relation to AbeL It may be that be was originally Intended to reportas Abel's assistant and take over the direeUon of someacuve agents, but that some unforeseen circumstance--conceivably "Big Shot'a"It advlsabla to teava him on his own for two years. For the purposes of this narrative It Is assumed that his indtpendent operation was deliberately plannedest of his potential andeans to buildeserve against the contingency that Big Shot might be ineffective or even blow the Abel residency.

HayhanenrecouecUon of the date and Ume ol these monthly

appearances Is not dear.

contents of this message arc inferred from Moscow'saays Itequest for mouey without specifyingor purpose.

a Dayhanen's denial that be ever received tbe Moscow message

an be viewed with some skepUcUm. Turned over to the

FBI after the newsboy discovered It, It was deciphered when

nayhanen'a defection provided the key. 9 Hayhanen Insists that Us operational acUriues were aa allm as herein described. Although his statement la taken at face value

for the purposes of this narrative, It Is In fact open to

doubt: It Is hard to bebeve that Moscow would make so few demands of an operative, be so entirely misled by aim. oracquiesce inack of production. Hayhanen talks freely about many phases of his lite and work, but some of the Information be did supply on operational acUvIUrs had lo be elicited by repeated questioning.

procedure waa described for one of the meetings with Svlrin,

not necessarily tbe

what business was transacted with Brlrln Is notsupply of sort film may have been passed. Hayhanen cadthat the courier who serviced Bvlrlns drops was anuntil Abel told him later.

Colonel Abets Assistant

ayhanen acknowledge* only two meeting) with Svirin bat baa told conflicting stories, and the real Dumber Is uncertain. The whole question of what role Soviet officers under official cover, like Svirin, play with'respect to deep-cover operations, whether merely thatommunications channel or one including some kind of supervisory function,ritical one unresolved by the Information on this case.ot known what business was actually transacted at this fall meeting, either: the Asko message may have been delivered by other means.

IS. See notebove,

Although Abel is adept at graphic arts. It is questionable that he personally did the forging herein credited to him.

The real Kayotls, an unstable person, it Is said,arge ram gambling in the United States, left In mld-lM7hree-year European visit, and was last heard from In Lithuania. Abel says he bought the Kayotis passport In Copenhagenhousand dollars while on his way to the United states. Abel's storyimplies toorocedure for tbe documentation of Soviet operatives: the Soviet authorities presumably acquired tbe KayoUX passport by bribery, confiscation, or some such accident as the narrative suggests, and furnished It to Abel In Moscow.

hese things were found so concealedhey may not have been kept thus

Haybanen says that Abel's microdots were better than his own. and his own better than those be had been taught to make In Moscow. But he has alluded also to smaller Moscow microdots madepecial film of Soviet manufacture, and these may nave been the same as Abel's.

It wasear later, when Abe! was In Moscow, that this proposed transmitter was shown to him.

The type of car In which Big Shot had his accident Is not In fact recorded.

It seems Illogical that Hayhanen would have admitted narcotJcs-trade activity, whether as cover or not, to bis new boss; bat he says that later he told Abel the fictitious story that he suspected surveillance by narcotics agents.

This message, typed In English, was found In the bolt buried In Haybanen's basement; Hayhanen Implausibly disclaims knowledge of It Since trarismlsslon of the message In plain text would be Irregular and Insecure, this version Is presumed to be Abel's transcript from cipher, passed to Hayhanen when tbe case was turned over to him. It was effective Inonfession from Sgt. Rhodes.

Abel's part and his motives in getting the case assignedatter of supposition here.

Hayhanen has mentioned Chicago and Detroit installations as general Intelligence targets, not as an objective on this particular

Colonel Abefi Assistant

Hayhanen bad In fact taken Hanna with him, but there la no evidence that Abel knew that he bad not travelled alone.

Hypothetical explanation for this accident.

This friend Is postulated as the reason (or the forged credentials.

The travel and contact procedure described here Is reconstructed from Abel* proposals for Hayhanen'* travel and from evidence of his own plans for escape from tbe countryis mode of travel and points of contact4 are not known.

The entire content of these Moscow discussions is hypothetical.

There Is presumptive evidence that Abel made this Investigation, whether by agreement with headquarters or on bis own Initiative; but there axe considerations both la favor of the presumption and against It As Illustrated In Hayhanen-Abel assignments andIt Is Soviet practice to double-check on agents andAbel was back In New York for fullear before getting in touch with bis assistant, and did not reveal this fact to him even afterwards. He could not have failed to become quite suspicious of Hayhanen If only because of hi* alcoholism, and It hardly seems credible that Hayhanen bad kept Hanna secret both from Abel and from Moscow all these years, as he maintains. On the other band. If this Investigation was made and It turned up evidence of bis dissolute life with Hanna, as It would, one might expect Moscow to have acted more promptly Inhim. and to have made sure as well that Hanna was not left In New York free to tell whatever she knew. The narrative tries to reconcile these opposing considerations as best It can.

what particulars Hayhanen actually Invented to cover hisis not known.

The dating of Hayhancn's purchase of the PeekskUl house to coincide with his exappropriatlon of the Sobell money Is arbitrary. He has said that be and Hanna recovered It In September and spent It on hotels and hcnior.

t is assumed In this narrative that the second for Helen sobelleplacement for the Drst, which Moscow musthave known was not received. It Is possible, however, that two different payments were Intended. Coder this supposition Mo-cow's request for particulars on the method of passing the firstoutine check,ully trusted Hayhanen was asked toecond contact with Helen for the purpose, presumably, of passing more money.

he only positive Indication that Svirin made such an Investigation and report Is the apparent firming up of Moscow's decision on Hay-tianen at the time of Svirbrx return. If he did, the assignmentearing on the reJaUwishlp, discussed tn notebove, between Soviet official and deep-cover operatives.

M. Bee

Original document.

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