Created: 3/31/1959

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Brig. General A. J. Goodpaster. USA Staff Secretary The White House

The Director asked that the attached be forwarded to you. AsU recall, the subject of Australian immigration policy came upecent NSC meeting. Thie question cannot be answeredord or two; ueuce the length oi the memorandum.

J. S. Earcsaa Executive Cificer


Memo tor DCI from AD/SI, "Subject: Australian Immigrationatedar 59



KSMOBAXDUU FOB: Director of Central Intolligonce

Director (Intelligence)

Immigration Policy

is Australian policy to encourageimmigration Into tbe Coicaocvealth, primarily

of white British subjects but also, especially through formal agreements since World .ar IX, of non-British Europeans. An immigration targetas sot Although there Is no federal logislatloa barring colored persons as such, exclusion of colored people is in fact achieved by discriminatoryof prohibitions against "undesirables." 7 Official Tear Book of the Coarsoawealth states, however, that "In pursuance of established policy, the general practice is not to permit Asians or otherpersons to enter Australia for the purpose of settling permanently."

to Australia is regulated byRestriction Actnofficiallytbe White Australia Act, enacted by tbe firstpaxliaaont. Too Act contains no specificto race but defines categories of "prohibited

immigrants" Including tbe physically, mentally and morally unfit, and those likely toublic charge. The principal device for excluding porsons of colored races is embodied in tbe folloving citatloa fromf the Act: "The Immigration into the Commonwealth of the persons described ln any of the following paragraphs of this section is prohibited: (a) Any person who, when asked to do so by any officer, falls to write out at dictation and sign la the presence of aaassage ofords ln length in an European language directed by tbe be Act was amended to road "Any person who fails to pass tbe dictation test: tbat is to say, who, when an officer dictates to bin not less tbaaords ln nay prescribed languago, falls to write them out ln tbo presence of the officer." The Immigration Act permits exemptions at official dlscrotlon; according to tho Official Year Book, permanent entry (over one year) may be granted to bona fide merchants, students and tourists while they remain ln that status.

3. Tbe White Australia policy Is commonly regarded as excluding all persons of colored race, although it is aimed primarily at Asians. Apparently, the dictation test Itself Ib not oftea applied since its more existence is sufficient to keep out most "undesirables." It has,

bowever, been used even to exclude undesirable white British subjects. In one case, Gaelic was tholanguage; in tbe court case E. V. Davey Ex Parte Freer, concerning tbe use of an Italian test tohite Britisb subject considered undesirable, tbe judge consented that the dictation test "was never intended toeal education test or provisionagainst the entry of illiterates. It wasonvenient and politeor the purpose oftho Executive Government of Australia to prevent the immigration of persons deemed unsuitable because of their Asiatic or non-Europeant vas officially stated that tbe dictation test was never intended to bo applied to immigrants of an European race." External Affairs Minister Casey bas defended Australianpolicy as seeking to maintain tbe integrity,*institutions and living standards of tbe Australian community, pointing out tbat the term "White Australia" does not appear in any official document.

4. Restrictive legislation against colored races began to appear in the separate Australian colonial states5 with the largo-scale importation of Chineso miners during the goldnd later of Pacific Island laborers. Hestrlctive laws were repealed during

the following decade, but were reenactedith the establishment of the Commonwealthowever, immigration became th* responsibility of the federal government,ational policy of racial exclusion has beon effected through administrative means rather than by any specific legislative ll aliens entering Australia are classified statistically both by nationality and by racial origin. There are four categories of racial origin: European, Asian, African, or Polynesian. Presumably an American Negro entering Australia would be classified as of American (US) nationality and of African race aod generally excluded from permanent immigration.

5. Dnder tbe Nationality Actreating the status of Australian citlrensblp, "prohibited!are generally excluded. While exemptions are sometimes granted, as in tbe caseew Japanese brides of Australian servicemen, racial restrictions on naturalization continue. or example,to official statistics, naturalization certificates granted non-white persons numbered only two Burmese, four Chinese, and one Japanese. *


UUKTINGTOH D. SHELDON "Assistant Director, Current Intelligence

Original document.

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