PAY FOR PERSONNEL OF THE SOVIET GROUND FORCES 1957 (SC RR 59-15)

Created: 10/16/1959

OCR scan of the original document, errors are possible

Off:cc of Research and Reports CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY

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FOREWORD

This report, whichts estimates ol (he pay MIL for the Soviet ground forces for tbe? together with the data and methodology on whichstimatesbased, was undertaken as part of an over all Study of Soviet militaryexpenditures. Althoughimate* applyhey embody the factors whichnin estimates of such pay bills for other years. * differ somewhat from the estimate* used toCIA.n Trends in Soviet Capabilities and. Z3FTr" la part, these differences result fromnformation recently received and from refinements in the estimating procedure. Furthermore, the scope of this reportfrom ths Scope of the earlier estimate*. Ground forces personnel permanently assigned to th* Air Defense (Protivovoaduahnaya Oboron*PVO) force* with aircraft warning a* their primary duty hawentative calculation of payariety of special dunes has been included.

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C ONTFNTS

PaCe

1-

II.

1.

Z, Rank

3. Length of

Pay

Temporary

Cipher

Service in Distant

Foreign.

Hazardous

6- Service as an

Specialist

Control of Classified

Tank Crews

Duty Travel

3- Orderly

4.

5 Change of

III. Calculation of Pay Bill

A.

Officers (NCO's) >

Between Officers and Enlisted

v

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Page

3. Basic Estimating

C- Tests of

D. Estimated Pay Bill in

1. Regular

Z- Special Pay and Allowances

Influence of Composition of Personnel on ihe Total

Pay

Appendixes

Appendix A. Statistical

Appendix S. Calculation ol Estimates for SpecialAllowances of thc Soviet

Appendix C-

Appendix D. Gaps in

Appendix E. Source .

Tables

1- Monthly Pay .for Position of Selected Personnel

in Rifle Units of the Soviet Ground7 .

Pay for Rank of Officers of the Soviet

Army.

of Service Required for Promotion of Officers

o: thc Soviet Army.nd

Percentage Increases in Pay for Length ol Service

o! Officers of the Soviet7

of Personnel tnth Rifle Corps

of the Soviet Ground Forces. April

of Personnel and Annual Regular Pay

ol the Soviet Ground Forces.7

Summary of Esnmatcd Annual Special Pay andof Personnel of ihe Soviet Ground Forces,

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ol Varying th* Proportion of Officers and the

Total Number of Personnel on the Annuel

Pay Bill and on tha Pay per Man of the Soviet Ground

Forces

Schedule of Estimated Monthly Pay for Position

of Sslscted Officers of the Soviet Ground

Schedule of Estimated Monthly Pay for Position

of Enlisted Men of the Soviet Ground Forces,7 . .

Monthly Base Pay of Personnelifle

Battalionifle Regimen! of the

of Estimated Monthly Base Pay of Officers

of Field Grade and Aboveifle Division ofGround7

ry of Estimated Monthly Base Pay of Officers

of Company Gradeifle Division of7

of Estimated Monthly Base Pay of Enlisted

Menifle Division of the Soviet Ground

of Estimated Monthly Base Pay of All

Personnelifle Division of the

of Estimated Monthly Base Pay cf Officers

of Field Grade and Aboveypical Riflethe Soviet Ground Forces.7

IT. Summa ry of Estimated Monthly Base Pay ofCompany Gradeypical Rifle Army ofOround7

13. Summary ot Estimatsd Monthly Bateypical Rifle Army of the

19. Summary of Estimated Monthly Base Payypical Rifle Army of7

20.

21.

a

Vll *

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Pai

22 Estimated Annual Special Pay (or Personnel in Selected Distant Localities of the Soviet

Ground Forces.

Zi. Computation of Estimated Annual Additional Pay for Foreign Duty of Officers of The

Soviet Ground Forces.7

24. Assumed Relationship Between Length of Service and Percentage Increases in Pay of Officers of the Soviet Ground Forces.

Chart*

age

Figure 1. Regular Pay for Position ofof the Sovietas Multiples of7

Figure 2. Comparison of Distribution ofand Regular Pay of8 and the7

Figure 3. Comparison of the Pattern of Base Pay of the US Army and tbe Soviet

Ground Forces7

Figure Schedules of Pay for Position of Selected Officers of the Soviet

Ground Forces7

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PAY FOR PERSONNEL OF THE SOVIET GROUND FOKCE5*

S un

Tho pay systom of ihe Soviet ground forces'" ha* paused through several phases, culminating in the adoption6 of the complex structure now in use. Pay based on th* position of thc lervicaman.rather than oo his rank, has been the predominant feature of the Soviet pay system throughout it* history, although there ar* other important elements No significant changes in the pay system or rates of pty for the ground forces have been noted The pay rate* for enlisted men haveeb**rved toeries of minor changes, but such changes havee sufficient lo affect th*f the payments of enlisted personnel.

" Ths estimates and conclusions In this report represent the best judgment of tbis Office aa

Th* term ground forces as used in this report refecs- to all the ground components of the Soviet army, including airborne divisions and those element* in the mgher echelons (military districts and tbe Ministry of Defense) not specifically parts of one of tbe other forces Elements directly subordinated lo Ihe Naval. Air. or AirVO) forces are not included.Thar* aredifferentfn th* Soviet military: liatees'officer*NCO'sendnd conicripts (NCO's and privates) Tne generalof officers often is broken down in the USSR Into the following group*: marshals, generals,nd officers. In thishowever, th* uim officar i* used in it* broaderto includ* allersonnel Soviet officers on normal active duty are careerlthough tbey may b* moved into or out of tbeat any time. Theefers to "voluntarily extendednli*ted men who havep voluntarily for additional servic* after having completed lh*ir normal tours of servic* as conscript*. CO'* or private* availablendicateo notignificant number of privates, allnlistees ar* treated a* NCO's for pur pot as of computation of th* pay bill. Th* tarm conscriptto men who aerv* regular term* of *erviceears in actual elapsed time, depending on their arm of service) and then are released into ressrve status. Any involuntary extension of their military duty does not affect their status as conscripts. In this report, conscript NCO'* always are referred to as such where it istothem from When used without corjertpt or re -enlisted tn* term NCO includesf boll categories rivates referred to in this report are considered to be conscripts, and the term private include* privates first clas*.

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The regular pay* of the Soviet ground7 it estimated to have totaled more1 billion ruble*. Vith th* addition of allowance* and special pay. the total pay bill t* estimated to haverlyillionverage pay ofuble* per man.

Thereraal difference in the average pay of officer* in the Soviet ground forces and thai of enlieted men. It is eatlmated that nearlyercent of the total regular payo officers, althoughonstitute less thanercent of the manpower. Th* numbar of limesifleman's pay must be multiplied to equal the regular pay of selected NCO'i and commissioned officers In Soviet rifle unit* I* shown in Figure I, t As can b* seen in Figurehe regular payoviet division commander is moreimes thatifleman. Byivision commanderGeneral) in the US Armyasic pay (including pay tor length of service) that is aboutimes thatrivate.

Differences In the estimated distribution of manpower and paythe Soviet ground forces and the US Army ar* shown la Figurelthough soma of th* Indies tad differeacee result from th* Sovietof using junior officers where NCO's might be used In the US. the primary difference lies in personnel policy. Ths US. for example,through pay and other benefits toubstantialof men in all categories of personnsl In career status. The USSR, for Its part, relies on conscription to supply most of th*Only thc officersery small group of enlisted men in the USSR are treatedas career men, and this policy is reflecledin tho pay scales,

* Regular pay is based partly on base pay. For example, the term officers' basen (hia report refers to the combination of pay for position and pay for rank received by Soviet officer*. m officers' regular pay refersfficers' base payor length of service. Tbe term officers' total pay and allowances refers to the sum of officers' regular pay plus special pay and allowances. Correspondingly, the term enlisted men's regular pay includes both pay for position and appropriate increases for length of service.

** Because little or no change6 has been found in rateaor ground forces, ruble values given in this report may be regarded as representing both constant and current rubles. The estimate8 billion rubles does not include pay of ground forces personnel permanently assigned to PVO. If Included, their regular pay would addillion rubles to lb* regular pay bill. With ;be addition to pay of food, clothing, and miscellaneousdirect costs for military personnel under the Ministry of De-fens* are estimated to have been more thanillion ruble*. The announced budget of the Ministry of Defense of the USSR7illion ruble*.

Th* corn par able value for personnel In the US Army9 is0 per man. 1 Following p. i.

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fiegular Ply for Position of Selected- Personnel ol Che Soviet Grounds Multiplesiflunin's Pay,7

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A comparison of the pattern of basic pay scales In Ihe US Army and the Soviet ground force* Is *hown inor purposes of thi* comparison th* dollar payaptain in the US Army and the ruble payoviet captainqual to each other. A* ta indicated in Fig-areh* relationship of the pay of officer* other than captain In th* two forces to the pay of captains in tbe raapectlv* force* i* very similar in pattern. In th* Soviet enlistedow. ever,liateea (estimated to comprise lea*ercent of trie Soviet ground forces) hav* the relatively lavorable position with regard to the payoviet captain that is thef the relationship alt US enlisted men have with regard to the payS captain. The bulk of the Soviet forces (more thanercent)pay which is in no way comparable in relationship to the pay of other personnel of either fore*. men, who ar* conscripts,ompulsory service obligation to tbe state, which in turn furnishes thetr food, clothing, shelter, and pay sufficient only tomode*!at tbe military atore*.

As indicated by the slope of the lines in Figureoviel career personnel have relative economic Incentives to advance similar tooffered to personnel in th* US Army. Soviet conscripts would aeem to lav*greater pay incentives, but th* base from which the pay scale starts i* very low

It was possible to testmata* of pay for Soviet ground forces contained in thishe actual pay bill* of two maior tvoes of mititarv unita.

When tha computed averages fore-er.liateea. atici conscripts were applied to the reported Strength eiorrrations, by category of personnel, th* rasult accounted for Substantially all of the actual pay bill as reported Although compensating error* undoubtadly war* present, confidence la the estimates contained in this report was strengthened considerably by tiis test.

Because the pay of officers dominates the pay bill for the 5ovtct groundhe total amount Is Influenced strongly by theof officers in the forces at any given time.

Following p. 4.

The captaincy was chosen a* the moat representative baaia forbecause captains are the most numerous of th* comparable ranks among tit*f the two forces who can b* eonaidered totatu*. is selection Is not meant to imply real equality between the payaptain in the US Armyaptain in teeground forces. In terms of purchasing power, tbe captain in th* US Armyy much better off than his Soviet counterpart. omparison of the US and Soviet pay levels on tha baets of enlisted pay would bc distorted by th*low pay of Soviet conscript*.

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Introduction

The Soviet military forcesomplex pay systemnd which has remained basically unchanged. the structure of the system had been altered by trieoa several occasions to conform with changes in tdeasequalityall Soviet militaryere considered to be equal in status and were granted noranks, and each individual received pay based on hisor job. Considering the wide differences in theand tbe skills required, this pay schedule had arange.

In IMS some ranks were introduced, and0 the rank of general was authorised. 1 the use of tbe term "officer"mi:ted.iilrerr epaulets were authorised. The range of pay between tbe highest and the lowest categories of personnel was broadened graduallyccommodate this rising status of officers. 4ay for officers was Increasedercent, the greatest increases occurring at ths highest levels. U* By World Warhs relative standard of living of the Soviet offlcers"was thought ie be at least as high as that of officers In Western armies, whereas theof living of Soviet privates was considerably below thai of privates in the West II

During World Warthe pay structure was altered to provideindividual Incentives for combat troops. Members of units at the front received certain percentage Increases iuyiy.sata bers of units which were accorded the designation of "Guards" for exceptional performance had their pay doubled. Priaes for specific losses inflicted on the enemy were added. Many awards and medals earned by service personnel carried monetary bonuses

Tbe system adopted by the USSR6 is based on thcof payment for position, for rank, and for length of service, with additional special pay and vnrioue personal allowances. Pay for position is considered to be the fundamental pay of the military and is based exclusively on the position of thc individual receiving it. Pay for rank Is rscslved only by officers. Pay for length of service may be made to personnel of any category, although methodsr according to the etatua of the individual.

II. Pay System

The baelc pay system of the Soviet ground forces was established by Orderf the Minister of Armed Forces,d no Important Structural changes in thatave appeared In available eource material.

"" There does appear to have been some change In las level of enlisted men's pay. During the. increases were made in the pay receivedimited number of enlisted groups. There appear to have been some small reductions In the pay of enlisted men. None of these changes, however, appears to haveignificant effect or. lhe tola! pay bill or on general levels of pay of enlisted men

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A, Regular Pay Position

Ir. the USSR, pay for position is the fundamental element in the military pay systemhe one type ol pay received by all For an officer, pay for position is an increasingly important partotal pay as he progresses into more responsible jobs. 7or most enlisted men, pay for position is the only pay received

A schedule of pay for position lor Soviet officers is attached to the table of organization) of each unit. The level of pay in this schedule reflects the command responsibility or technical competence required of the officers who fill the various positions'. The pay for these positions does not vary with the ranks of the incumbents. enior lieutenant whoompany commander receives the same pay for position asaptainajor in that position.

lso carries the positions for Soviet enlisted men.e schedules of pay for position for enlisted men are standardized to an extent which makes it unnecessary to list pay for each position separately on. With enlisted men as with officers, the payosition does not vary with the grade of the incumbent. unior sergeant who is an assistant platoon leader receives the same pay asergeant or senior sergeant holding ihe same position.

Pay lor position in tbe Soviet ground forces is related to rank only to the extent that the positions listedarry Indicated ranks or grades which reflect, as docs the pay for position, thc level of proficiency required of the officer holding the position. Positions frequently are filled by men whose ranks differ from that called lor in. Regulations require that an officerosition inf the next highest rank In order to be eligible for promotion to that rank. 41 The convenience ol personnel administration or the competence of the individual in question also may cause the rank of an incumbent to differ from that listed for the position in.

The range covered by pay tor position of personnel of the Soviet ground forces is great, as can be seen in the examples Shown in Table Actually, such pay is divided into three separate groups The most important group, the officers, is paid at rates whichfavorably with the beet paid professional people in tbe USSR. The middle group, the re-enlistees, .is: paid at rates comparable to those of Industrial workers. The lowest paid group, the conscripts, are paid at rates which are Intended to provide only enough cash toew personal needs through purchases at military stores.

The methods of determining pay for position in the Soviet ground forces are much more complex than are those for other types of pay. Because of this complexity and also because of the relative importance of pay for position, tbe criteria on which pay for position

ollows on p. k

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Table i

y lor Position of Selected Perewinel ie Rifle Unttj of lacround forces */

Ml

l-osilion

Rani.

commander

general

commander

general

commander

commander

colonel

commander

leader

platoon leader

sergcan:

leader

1 or other schedules of pay for poiltion. see Tablsspcndix A. pp espectively, below

to uaacd ure discussedeparate -action. The number ofbe ground force* for which specific rates of pay arj available is not large relative to the great number of different positions "found in tne ground forces The data which are available, however, cover a

efficient number of key positions that concern many personnel and thjs permit tbe construction of estimated pay schedulesumber ol units In tbe ground forces.

2. Rank

The present scale of pay for rank in the Soviet army was eiMQllt'ied for officers An officer's pay for ran'* la personal and is unaffected by bis poaitlon or arm of service. Such pay is changed only on apeclfic action and is not related to tbe position held. Enlisted men do not receive pay for rank. The schedule of pay for rankshown in Table 2

ew requirements concerning tbe lengths of service necessary for the promotion ot Soviet officers were published These new requirements increased me length of service to be spent tn certain ranks for mostofficers to become eligible for promotion. Aof the new schedule wlta the old is shown in Table 1

elow Tai,lqollows on p. I. ollows on p I

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y Length of Service a. Officer.

Alterears, an officer in the Sovietbegin, to draw pay for lengthfactor for

..nglhv.ce i. applied to an officer',ay.) Tbe schsdule of payor lengtr. of service, including both that lengthvlce ana the corresponding percentage increases in nay. i. mownable *

Table 4

Percentage Increases In Pay for Length of Service of Officers of the Soviet Army?

of Service (Year.l

2

I ID0 25

Percentage Increase in Pay

3

10

I >

50

Although available sources conflict on th* sixc of the percentage increase in the pay of Soviet re-enlisted men. it appear, that this in.re.se amounts toercent forear, of servic. bul may notercent of the minimum for th. grade.hl* figure ofercent is supported by the pay boohe-enhetedgssnt which, in an entry made inhowed anfercent in pay as he started his second termearsa re-enllatee. 8/

vie in on

ari1en conscripted into the et ground forces are granted the following Increases la pay per

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Increases in Pay (Rubles)

Senior

Junior

Private first

Available information does not indicate clearly whether or not position as well as rank Is considered In granting these increases. Tbe problem arisesignificant number of conscripts hold positionsanks different from their own ranks, and the pay they receive is dependent on their positions. Some sources havs intimated that increaaaa for length of service are baaed on the time spent!osition, but until more definite evidence Is obtained it is assumed that increases for length of service result simply from the time spent in service, regardless ot rank or position Bscause of the average termny.othei assumptionn that very fewconscripts ever would qualify for an increase for length of service, andituation appears unlikely in view of the rather liberal increases for length of service for other categories of personnel.

B Special Pay

There are various forms of special pay for the 'Soviet ground forces, forms for which Information is available follow;

Temporary Assignment

A Soviet officer temporarilyosition receives the pay of that position after servingays

2- Cipher Work

Soviet officers engaged tn cryptographic work receiveincrease In their pay.In-

crease is calculated by using the following percentages of the sum cf pay for rank, position, and length of service II/;

Length of

in Pa

0 to

5 to

o

r

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1- Service in Distant Localities

For service in distant localities. Soviet officers and re-enlistees receive twice their rate of pay for position (on Sakhalin,d one-halfhereas NCO's and privates who.are conscripts receive four times their regular pay (on Sakhalin, twice then addition, all member* of the ground forces receive prcfetenia! computation o: length of service and rations of higher calorific content Officers and re-enlistees also receive.addition: furlough benefits,heir families receive such benefits as relief from taxes anaif. kind while the head of the family is serving in the distant locality.

;cne;al areasuel iceot tor Sak/ial in. Island

,wh ich

ir.c

i'erunsulss, .in tne Far fast.Military/ definite is known about differentials granted in theSSR. The degrees ot isolation and hardship involvediven Locationare more Important than degrees of longitude and latitude.

Foreign '. " '

Soviet Officers may receive an addition to regularto ihe special pay for foreign duty of thc military servicescountries, but available eyider.ee of suchnconclusive by which the. total pay of Soviet officers serving in foreigni5 computed makes difficult thc identificationpecificfor foreign duty. Whileoreignoviet officerpar: of his pay in rubles and part In the currency of thewhich he ishere is little agreement among sourcesthe amountis converted into foreign currency Or as toanytime Cr.lv one soureiro-

efinite explanation of the method of computation of pay made ir. foreign currency. According to this source. Special pay for foreign duty arnounts toercent of Ihe regular pay, andercent of ihe sum of regular pay and special pay for foreign duly is converted into iheof Ihe.country in which the olficer is Stationed. * The rates of exchange at which this convention has been made have varied- In all known snuations, the rates have greatly favored the Soviet officers, al -though the trend has beeneduction In th* amount of foreign currency per ruble.

Soviet NCO'* are not known to receive special pay for foreign duly In thc past, while serving Outside the USSR, an NCO has had about one-half of his pay converted into thc Currency cf the country in which ha was stationed. At leastonversion in aast

* This method cf computing pay for foreign duly has been used in Appendix B, although the problems noted above make the estimate tentative.

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Germany was made at the rat*ubl*eutsche Mar* Easl- While terving abroad, both officer* and KCO'* are said only the amount converted into foreign currency. The moneyin ruble* ie credited to theccount in the L'SSR and il paid to himump *umhe return* to the USSR

A pnvato receive* hi* enure pay in cash tr. theof the country in which he ia stationed. At leastT. conversion waa mad*ats* similar to those cited for NCC a

Pecent informationa possible change' in the rates at which the pay of all Soviet servicemen is converted into foreign currency. Th* men may have had their ay menu in foreign currency reduced by aa much as one-third, depending or. :heir ranks and grades. For example, it was reportedajor who receivedME per month nowME and that privates who receivedME per month now receiveME.

5. Haiardoua Duty

Three types of personnel receiving pay for hasa.-de.ish the Soviet ground forces have been identified, asay technicians reeeiv* an additional allowance enua!f their pay for position. 'b:

th* aandj.ng of ethyl fluids was required, th* chief of a

fuc) depot, hi* technical officers, and hi* manager receive an5 pa icanrear of duty.orcentears, and 1S

percentears or more. Presumably th* increase is based

or. pay for position, (c) Enlisted paratroopers receive additional pay

amounting toubles per Jump. IV

6. Service as an Instructor

According to two sources, instructors in Soviet military schools receive extra pay. One source stated that Instructors who are officers receive an The second sourer stated that an NCO receivesonth above his normal pay while servingriver

7. Specialist Profic.encv

Skilled drivers, mechanics, and radio and telegraph operators In the Soviet ground force* are known ro receive increments to their pay for position- To receive pay for proficiencyob.an must pass specified test* to qualify for the designation of specialist and then periodically must pass testa to hole his rating. Officers as well as enlisted men may take the tests snd receive the designation of Specialist- In practice, it would appear that only enlisted men draw (his additional paypecialist must beob requiring his particular skill in order to draw pay for proficiency. Few officers are drivers, mechanics, or radio operators. pecialist receives a

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IV rV h*om lechntcalnd thai work, tor id, lit. and mtiur cuing.. Anof th. effect of IfMlUlMeal, for tank driver/mechanic. W

Special

First

Control of Claeaified Document*

Soviet offic.r. ando -old po.lllonahoreled document, .r.ntatned. and

rec.lv* additional nay ofercent.

* nigr.er eennon

xcept cmeia o: mil,eceive the additionalfor handlingdocument. The add.tlon on pay for

Tank Crew*

Accordingimited number of . ember, ofr"'lV'mounting touble, per

C. Allowance a

I Duly Travel

mt Soviet ground force.

com of food and lodging while on Official travel. On. .ource give, the per diem allowance ofercent of hi. pay for po.ition.inimumaximum ofuble--own. anduble.ural area..

"'Beam,ldi.re"

uble, par Jay for travel and ration..

concerning the militia of Magadan.kaya Obla.r . daily rate, ofuble, andopeck, for officer,uble, and SO kop.ck, for lerg.ant. andJ/

2. Quarter

from >aa fT^fS^"* to lodging

V"J, by ue Soviet

ll.htngcue. tbe rtght. of officer,enli.tee.uced rent for government-owned bou.lng:

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Rent it collected from commissioned offleeri who receive pay of moreonth on the basis of BO kopecks per square meter of floor-space per month Tbe saidpay for surplus lodging atsual privileged rates.

Privates and sergeants of re-enlisted service who receive pay of moreonth pay rent on the basis ofopecks per square meter of

Should such housing not be available, officers and re-enlistees may re privaisly owned quarters. According to one source, officers are paid an allowance for quarterseimbursable basis within the following limits when renting private quarters SO/;

Daily.(Rubles)

Moscow, Leningrad, and

Oblasts and small

Rural

There ie evidence that, especially ia rural areas, servicemen frequently are forced to pay very high rents which greatly exceed allowances

3. Orderly Service

Certain Soviet officersonth with which to pay an orderly if they wish. Commanders of companies and battalions and commanders end senior officers of higher formations receive this allowance III One eourceositions for officers at regimental headquarters andositions at division headquarters wnieh rated an orderly

4. Rations

Officers In the USSR receive an allowance for rationsubles per month. Re-enlistees may receive an allowance In lieu of rations. The amount of this allowance is sat annually according lo the norm lor the ground forces by tbe Directorate of Pood Supply. Ministry of6 ibis allowanceubles perome sources have stated that this allowance is not paid outside the

5. Change ol Station

Soviet officers receive an allowance for change ofne smouit depending on the distance moved and the position of tie officer"

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r. cunt equalonth'pay (or position Is received for transof moreilometer* (km) and oaa-halionth's ray ; position (or transfers ofom. No payment it made for transfers of Uts thanm. imilar but reduced payment is made for each of an officer's dependents.

Additional nonmonetary benefits In the form ofand tne movement of baggage and effect) alsoto Soviet officers for change o( station. The type andtransportation furnished depend onrrangements fortrainousehold effectsolonelbeen noted

D. Awards

Monetary awards received by personnel of the Soviet ground (orcei fall tnto two categories, both oi.which are givenonrecurring baslt. Th* first category include! awards made for etpeclatly merl-tortout performance of duty, and tbe tecond category includes awaidi made for suggestions as lo Innovations in military methods or In ths utt or design of equipment. Tbe criteria used in deciding lhe amount of these award* are so: known In general, lhe awards are small,ew hundred ruble*.

Medals and military orders no longer carry the wartimefor monthly payment* but do retain other benefits such as

relief from income taxes and privileges involving transportation

Calculation-of Pay Bill

The pay bill of the Soviet ground forcesignificant elem;ni of Soviet military expenditures. If only by reason of the large use of tha forces. Tbs number of uniformed personr.c'.round forces was estimated to be in excessillion men'. The total pay bill of ths ground forces is no; available from Soviet lourcet Lixe most other matters relating to fie Soviet military establishment, trio total pay bit;tate secret, and tae disclosure of pertinent information bear* severe cdntmum penalties. Therefor, :h* proportion of total military expendituree represented byill must b* estimated through ths tyntiesisats ol detailed information relating to military pay and to the pay system. Ths .nethed of estimating must take Into account every importantn the system, and the results must be submitted to tests ot reliability.

ractical matter, tnete conditiont have been satisfied by building up asample of tha Soviet ground forces as possible by means of detailed estimates for each unit. This procedure.vaxtirrjir. use ofdata on pay for position and permitsates of pay for position to be aperoxlrr.atedrocess of inter-colauem wfcich confines the passible errors witam relatively narrow limits.

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rocedure alio makes It unnecessary lo estimate ot toiacrtbutioD of ranks In the Soviet forces or to estimate or to assume tbe average pay for position for each rank. Rather,ie placed on the extenaive amount of valid information on'a of varloua units. Moreover, consistencyaintained when units are organised into larger entitiea and finally added in order to approximate the complete roster of units in tha ground force and the over-all personnel strength.

rocedure of building up the costnit-by-unit basis has two further advantages. First, information that can aerve as ato teat the reliability of the estimate ts availablenit basts. Secood. the procedureegree of flexibility so that both changes in the composition of personnelor example, the ratio of officertnlistednd changes in the unit composition of forces can be traced for their possible monetary effects.

A. Position

Pay far position or appointment is tbe largsat single element in the total payoviet serviceman and serves to give poaitlonnique feature of the Soviet military This element adds flexibility to tba personnel structure and. for military people, provides an incentive which is independent of advancement by rinh.

Ii Officers

To determine the rate of payoviet officer ia any given position requires simultaneous consideration of several factors.iven military organisation the relative importance or prestigeombat arm or support service conditions pay for Among units at the same echelon the same factor operatesetermine the pay for position of the respective commanders. Be-cause the commanders receive the highest pay in their respective units, their pay tn turn affects the schedule of pay for tbe entire unit. Finally, the particular echelon tn the command structure intoositionnit fall* also influences the assigned rate of pay. In short, tbe best way to estimate the payiven position Is to pat It into ica specific organisation*', context and to see how it relates to ths pay of oiner poaltiona within the unit and to th* pay of related positions in Other unite and echelons of command.

One basis oo which the USSR classifies militaryby th* combat arm or rapportwhich they aarve An

examination of the known raie* of pay for poaition* ha* led lo theconclusion that line and politicalechnical and medical officers, and supply and administrative officers are graded in ths above order ft pay a* well a* for other purposes. Pay for position mad* to officers of the same rank serving at the same echelon i* highest for officers la line position* and lowest for officers in administrativeith the pay for technically trained officers falling somswhore in betwesn. depending on the specialty involved.

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The commander lor chief)nil of ihe Soviet around forces, being the officer with the heaviest burden of responsibility, always receives the highest pay for position tn the unit. Th* amount he receive* depend* on th* combat arm or aupportto which hi* unit belongs olonellfl*receive! pay for poaitioaer month and ai* deputy for political affair* whoieutenant colonelubles. Inwith the principles concerning different levels of pay for different combat arms orotedhiefeterinary hospital whoolonel receive* I, ZOO rubles per month. Becauae h* cannot receive mar* than the chief of the hospital, Ihe deputy for political affairsubles, but the members of hi*group usually ar* better paid than ar* veterinarians.

Technical sad supply officer* In th* Soviet groundhen holding position! water* ahare in tbe command functionin* unit,, receive pay comparable to that of line officer*. Th* example which occur* most frequently ia that of the deputy commander for rear services who Is paidat*ar with other deputy commanders.

The rat* of payosition also I* affected by th* echelon in the chain of command in which the unit containing th* po*illoa is located. pparently identical tn titleank, yield different pay for poattlon at different echelon* For example, it wa* foundilitary procurator's examiningaptain, receive*onth at the division level. ubles at corps level, andubles at the group of force* level.

These interrelationships can be seen perhaps more clearly in the system of designating personnel which was in use before the re-introduction of This system Involved the use of series of letter* and numbers. lothree-par; designator which described tbe function, tha military occupation*', specialty, and tbe highest echelon of command for which the officer holding tbe position bad to tie qualified. Th* function wa*etter: KPndn. The military occupational specialty wa* expressed tn arabic numeral*. Th* nchalon of command for which the officer had to be qualifiedoman numeral! llVnd so on.For axample. tbe slotommanderors*-drawn artillery regiment wastbe "K"unction relatad to command," being onelock of numbers indicating borse-drawa artillery, and the "V" indicating the regimentalhe chief of staff of the regiment was designatedIVthe "K"unction related to command, the "IB" Indicating artillery staff, and the "IV" indicating that the officer must be qualifiedattalion command In order toegimsntal chief of

rtie kind of unit possibly designated by Roman numeral II i* unknown

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Although the USSR no longer usee these designations. it is clear that the principles Involved still are folio wed. By recoursehese principles, it ruts been possible, through interpolation, to obtain accurate estimates of pay rates for the large number of posi lions (or which there are no direct data. This process ol interpolationimitation. In that the highest rftte of pay known ai this time is thatolonelield army commander ertain amount of extrapolation ts permitted by the (ew pay rates known forstaff positions at military district level and by the consistency shown in the relationships between tbe rates of pay for similar positions at different echelons. Examples of the achedulce derived from the known pay for positions and the process of interpolation andas noted above are shown graphically in figure 4.

A detailed example of the procedure for estimating ta* pay for position of selected Soviet officers ie shown in TableThia example shows the effects of the factors discussed above and il intended to demonstrate the relationships in rates of payiven unit and among certain positions al different echelons As can be seen in Tablehereertain amount of overlapptag in tfcc range of pay scales for line, political, technical,dministrative officers at every echelon. The averages of th* pay for position of the different groups, however, indicate that the groups are graded in th* order given. Although the rate* of pay shown inpply to officers of rifle units, tbe relationships between the rates cf payarious levels remain valid, with minor modification, for other units. The pay ol commanders and that of officers Immediately associated with command (such as chiefs of staff) appears lo be influenced somewhat more by tbe type of unit involved than does the pay of the ordinary staff officers. The commanderank division, for example, is paid upubles per month moreommanderifle division, although the pay rates for the lower grade staff officers are* as thos*ifle division.

2. Re-enlistees

Re-enlisted serviceman in the Soviet ground forcessubstantially better pay and other benefits tnan do ottersn. Re-er.llltees do not receive pay for rank as such, although thsr* appeals to be minimum pay associated with ths ranks called forlots. For example, alllot* calling for icr jia:Ht provideinimum payubles per month. Additions ar* made to the minimum depending, as for officers, on ta* command and technical ability required of the man holding th* position. e-*nllste* mustlot calling for his grade in order to receivepay. e-eallstee whoenior sergeant but iaunior sergeant's elotuniorpay.umber of slotshich are set asid* for re-enlistees. bul the slots are not reserved exclusively for re-enUstoes, they may be filled by conscripts if suitable re-enlistees are not available, altheugn

following p. IB. *" Appendix A,elow.

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tb* conscript doe* aol receive tbe paye-enlistee 7ht* fact give*

the higher pay recelvad by re-enlistees th* aspectonus for re-

enlistmentonus which tha army pay* to kaap experienced Ban

la the mora important joba and to giva added stabilityystem which

uses line units to perform much of the basic training of conscript.

A sample schedule of estimated pay for position of enlisted personnel,

which illustrates these relationships, is shown in*

e-enlisted NCO tn tha Soviet ground forces is found holding an officer's position, ln that event the re-enlistee does not receive tbe officer's pay for position, but he does receive an increase to compensate for tbe additional responsibility

Soviet re-enlistees sign up for periodsears and probably accountercent of tbe ground forces. In spite of theeceived, however, the total number of re-enlistees appears to be on the decline. According to several sources, theof men who re-enjlst i* small, and quotas ar* seldom

3. Conscripts

Officer. ^NCO's)

The pay system for conscript NCO's in the Soviet ground forces is similar in structure to that of re-enlistees, altaougi the level of pay is substantially lower, a* shown in Like theonscript NCO's are paid according to tse position they hold, the minimum pay being determined bylot and ssrving to introduce the element of rank. Increments may be added to the minimum, depending on command and technical requirements of the position.

The pay system for Soviet conacriptand private* first class is similar to those of the otbsr enlisted grades bet. as indicated tn* much more restricted in scope The minimum pay for peeitioa.ubles for private* andublea far private* first class, t* nearly universal for nonspecialists.

An added increment ofubles per month for Soviet machine gunners ha* identified, but such addition* seem to be comparatively rare. rivate usually increases his pay either byechnical courss andpecialist rating or by being assigned to an NCO's alot, in whichCO's pay Inprivate* often sr* found in NCO slots, such as assistant squad leader and gunner.

Differential Between Officers and Enlisted Men

Th* rates of the pay for position for Soviet army officers are far above thoss for enlisted personnel. Th* addition of pay for

" Appendix A, p.elow

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rank to tha pay for position of officer* make* lhe difference* in bate pay even more striking. ewly commissioned juniorifle platoon leaderreceivesubles per month as base pay.hercas the riflemen (privates) in his platoon receiveuble* per month during theirears of service. The only pay of enlisted men in the ground forces approaching the pay of an officer is thate-enlisted regimental sergeant major after several terms of re-enltstmeat. These people, however, are few in number and have small effect on the average pay of enlisted men. For example, the average monthly base pay of officersifle division is approxiubles, whereas that of enlisted men is BO rubles.

B. Basic Estimating Procedure

To estimate the pay bill for the Soviet ground forces, the component parts of field armies, which accountarge proportion of the strength of the ground forces were selected as samples. The pay bill for each of these units was computed by makingnit roster showing sach position in the unit and by entering In thishe number and ranks of men estimated to be in each position, together with their pay for rank and position. The entries forosterlQe battalion are shown In The pay for position was taken from compreheneiv* pay schedules determined by the procedures outlined above. Thus, by providing appropriate columns inwith each of theee unitoth the total pay bill for the unit and the pay for each major category (officers, re-enlisted NCO's,NCO'e. and conscript privates) were ascertained by summation

To provide the basis for computing properly weighted pay for length of service. It was necessary to summarise the pay of Soviet officers by rank. This summarisation was made for each of the various units at each echelon, as Indicated by the summary of the monthly payifle division, which is shown Inhis procedure alsoomparison of the weighted average pa by echelon and by rank. As indicated by the data shown in* Successive summarisation* were prepared tomajor components Into larger unite, such asifle army, 'and fa for length of service were applied.

To compute the pay for other units In the ground forces that are similar In composition to components of the field armies, such a* artillery divisions and rifle brigades, the appropriate average rales of pay for the various categories of personnel in sample unite were used. Ultimately the types of unite covered included most of those to be found in the Soviet field army echelon and below, as well as two types of military district headquarters. This coverage was sufficient to account forillion men. or aboutercent oflmatcd manpower of the ground forces. The pay of the remaining

* Appendix A. p.elow.ee A. Appendix A,espectively, below. Appendix A.espectively, below.

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D. Estimated Pay Bill' I- Regular Pay-

Tha regular pay bill for the Sovial - orcea? waa estimated by an extension of tho procedure described. a: Soviet military manpower may be stated in terme ofunitsthat is. tn terms of line division* and other units which compos* th* total ground force eaubllshrnent otal ofifferent type* of unit*. The estimate* of manpower used in thi* raport -summarized on this basis and ar* shown in*

By reference to the sample unit roetera. which areon die estimatid average peacetime strength ofifferent types of units, the regular pay bill for these types of units may be estimated both In total and by major category of personnel (officers, re-enlisted NCO's, conscript NCO's, and conscript privates).

Such estimates include aboutercent of th* manpowar of the Soviet ground forces The remainingype* ofhich accounted for the otherercent of the manpower of thc Soviet ground forcesonstitute field units for which* not available, ancillary units of military districts, and theofnd its subordinateents. These element vary considerably in their composition. The field units, for example,airborne and machine gun artillery divisions in which the ratio* of officers. NCO's. and privates sre estimated as being close to other

h* group within th* Military Districtsoraample, technical repair units, for which the ratios of officers and NCO's ar* estimated tentatively as being high, and field baJtary unite, whare the asm* ratio* ar* low. Th* headquarter* ot th* Ministrynd certain of it* subordinate elements, *uch aa military school* and staff*rcb and development, are estimated to -or.-siit primarily of all officer*.

By reference, however, to the rosters of units which are Similar in sis* and function and for whichstimate* had bean made, it wa* possible toeasonably realistic average pay rug for each category of personnel (officers, rc-enlieted NCO'S, NCO a, and conscript privates) for each of these units andand to calculate th* total bill for regular pay.

* The sum of pay for position, rank (tond UnKth

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As shown tn Tableinal summation produced an estimate of more8 billion rubles for the regular pay bill of all the Soviet ground forces For the particular composition of forces that year the estimated average annual pay rate was aboutubles. Whereas officers are estimated to compose aboutercent of the force In terms of manpower, they receive about BO per-cent of the regular pay, as shown in Table 6. By contrast, conscript privates, who account for aboutercent of the manpower, are estimated to receiveercent of the regular pay, The conscript NCO's, who compose aboutercent of the force, receive about 8of the regular pay. The re-enlistedelatively favored enlisted group, however, receiveercent of the regular pay although they constitute onlyercent of the force in terms of manpower.

It is notable that the average officer is paidateimes that of the average private, more thanimes that of tno average conscript NCO, and almostimes that of the average re-enlisted NCO.

2- Special Pay and Allowances

The estimates advanced in the preceding section cover only regular pay of the Soviet ground forces. This section examines the Suestion of the probable sixe of increases resulting from special pay and allowances. Where possible, tentative estimates have been made of the amounts expended for the various types of apecial'pay and As indicated by the data shown in* such additional pay and allowances may add closeillion rubles to the regular pay bill. Because only limited information is available, no firm conclusions can be drawn on the basis of these calculations. It appears, however, tnat officers and re-enlisted NCO's receive thc largest sr.are of special pay and allowances. Nevertheless, the amount received by privates and conscript NCO's apparently accountsarger proportion of their total pay.

E. Influence of Composition of Personnel on tne Total Pay Bill

Composition of personnelorcehat is. the mi* of officers. NCO'S and privatess one of the dominant factors affecting Ihe Siae ol the pay bill and the average pay per man. The proportion of officers is the most important factor. For example, as indicatedfficers constitutedercent of total manpower in the Soviet ground forces If this proportion were to increaseercent and the proportion of other ranks were correspondingly decreased, the result would be to increase the average pay per manubles per year and tne total pay bill by moreillion rubles per year, orercent. In this calculation it is assumed that thc distribution of ranks or grades within each group would be unchanged. If the distribution

*bove.

ollows on For detailed calculations, see.bove.

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Table 7

Summary of Estimated Annual Special Pay and Allowanci of Personnel of thc Soviet Ground Forces7

Reason for Conscript Conscript

or Allowances Officers Privates

Annual Increase

in

locality

as In-

duly

c!

of

orderly

quarters

Average Annual Increase (Rubles)

Proportion Ol Regular

.

a. Figures are rounded to two places which do not necessarily represent significant figures.

b- Because re-enlisted personnel do notignificant number of privates, all re-enlistees are treated as NCO's andprivates asfor purposes of this report-c. Parachute Jumps.

should remain unchanged, it would be possible to increase total strength of the ground forces by morefficers and men for :he same additional expenditure,

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7

as been prepared to illustrate some ol tne ejects changes in these proportions both when the sire of Itotal isrceeld constant and when it varies. The hypothetical range o! total strength was established atillionillion men. Tnea* to the proportion ol officers were intended toange of possible real situations.

an be seen in Tablencers. .

tore*illion men. the total annua', bill far regular

illion rubles, orubles par man Should officers account forsreent of the force, the total pay bill wouldillion rubles and the averageubles per man.

A situation ia which the six of tbe total fore* increases but ths proportion of officers decreases may be conjectured on tne basis of recant intelligences indicated tn Tablen increase in the sue of the forces toillion men accompaniedecrease inproportion of officer* toercent would resultegular pay bill ofillion rubles per year and an averageubles per man.

Variations In the distribution of rsnks or grades within the groups also are possible. Ministerallr.ovskiy recently estimated isat the number of engineer and technical cadres in th*andas nearly doubled since World War IIthat the statement true and that mechanisation eventually reduces Ihe requirements for msnpower but increases the require, mams for skilled technicians,rend might resultore* of. in which If parcent -oould be officer* but inaverage officerve regular pay0 ruble* per year rather than0 Similarly, the average enlisted man mightubles rather.esult the regular pay bill mightillion rubles rather thanillion Indicated inn the basis of the estimated compositionnd the resulting average pay mightrather thanOO.

ollows on

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yi

"liiil

41Mb i

inil

III

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X

ti

3 3

lw 1

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COO

111

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Table 10

Sample Schedule of Em ma ted Monthly Pay lor Poattlort ol Er.listej Man of (be Sov.cc Ground Forces a/

Continued)

Cowbnl. An;.

Gunner

iXm loader

serrtosnt Junior sergeant Junior sergeanttPrivate

acr in Conscript Cooacri;t

Coic1 Conscript

(tore then ?than |

rr less More than 2

{iter* 1t

61

ltd too of pay not directly at^nubaolepeciric collated sen consisting of basic pay plus increases basec technical training Involved.

t-neral schedule of pay forf service snd the degree of rcsnonelMtitv and

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a

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j

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Tabic 15

Summary of Estimated Monthly Base Pay of All Personnelifle Division of the Soviet Ground Forces7

All Personnel

Pay

Number (Rubles) Number (Rubles)

350

079

175

40

500

670

:

000

100

headquarters andelements

Division services

Reconnaissance battalion

Rifle

Tank and assault gun regiment

Antiaircraft artillery regiment

Antitank battalion

Sapper battalion

Signal battalion

Artillery headquarters

Artillery regiment

Drivers' school

Chemical defense company

Tank repair Shop

Motor transport shop

Medical battalion

Motor transport company

Artillery repair shop

Total

Average per month W

Without length of service With length of service

Average per year

Without length of service With length of service

average peacetime strength)

for average per month have been rounded to the nearestubles.

for average per year have been rounded to theubles-

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5

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t

It!

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Table 19

Summary of Estimated Monthly Baa* Pay of All Pencnr.ilypical Rifle Army of tho Soviet Ground Force* */

Personnel

Pay

Pay

headquarters

artillery division

625

gun brigade

artillery brigade

brigade

launcher regiment

500

regiment

250

r*glm*nt

transport battalion

supporting

219

bate

shop

365

per month bl

length of service

540

length of service

720

per year c/

length of service

length of aarvice

500

tverage peacetime Strength.

for average per month have been rounded to the nearestubles.

for average per year have been rounded to th*ubles.

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APPENDIX B

CALCULATION OF ESTIMATES FOR SPECIAL PAY AND ALLOWANCES OF THE SOVIET GROUND FORCES

A lack ol data precludes eatimar.ee lor all ol the different types of Special pay and other allowances known to exist in the Soviet ground forcci. ense, therefore, the total of the figures itemized belowinimum, although little claim to accuracy can be made for any of the components. *

1. Special Pay

S Service in Distant Localities-

Because of uncertainty aa to whatdistanthe units considered are limitedivision in the area of Murmansk and to the units on Sakhalin and the Kuril Island* and the Kamchatka and Chufcotek Peninsulas. The computation shown inhich is based on the data show inused with the average unit strengths given innd with thestructure and average pay for field armies, indicates anofillion rubles per year to the pay bill.

b. Foreign Duty

Use of intelligence estimates (or forces stationed outside of theombined with use of the proportions and average pay of officers in forces of similar sizeay bill for officers'of the Soviet ground forces stationed outside the USSR (exclusive ofand military missions) of aboutillion rubles,. Special pay for foreign duty, which ia equal toercent of base pay. thus may represent an additionillion rubles per year to total pay for The details of this computation are shown In

c Jumps Made by Paratroopers

Assuming that one-half of the airborne troops are(as distinguished from airborne troop* who are landed) and that0 enlisted paratroopers in thi* force make lOjumps per year atuble* per jump, the additional pay for enlisted men would amount toillion rubles per year.

* iscussion of the various types of compensation, sec II, B. p.bove. -* P.bove. Tableollows onSee II, B.bove.

t Tableollows on (Text continued on

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d. Service a* an Instructor

Source material doe* no: define clearly "instructor" or make etear what groups of instructor* receiv* additional pay Fornly those IS, COO officer* estimated to he In thc staffs of military school* or military instructor* In civilian schools arein thi* report. If the average additional pay I*uble* per year, the total bill for the additional pay of these officers would be aboutillion rubles If all instructors in training units receive this additional pay. there wouldurther substantial Increase in the pay bill- For example, for the Instructor* ln training units for driver* and tank crews in line divisions alone, such additional pay would amount toillion rubles per year.

v Control of Secret Documents

Assuming that aboutfficers, or approximatelyercent of all the officers In the Soviet ground farce*, receive anin pay ofercent forillion ruble* per year would be added to tbe pay bill.

2. Allowances

r

On th* bail* of available information, it appear* that aboutercent of the officers in the Soviet ground force* ar* aligible to receive an allowance for quarters, IS percent of which is.inhousing andercent in private housing. Atquare meters for each officer and bis family, allowances to officers In government housing would amoant to about IS million rubles annually. For private housing, officers drawing allowances at an averageubles per day would receive aboutillion rubles annually.

Service

It would eeem reasonable to assume that aboutercent of all officers in the Soviet ground forces, orfficers,an allowance for orderly service. This assumption is based on Ihe percentage of field grade officersield army. The fastumber of field grade officers do not receive this allowance Is probably more than counterbalanced by the fact that captains who ar* company commanders rate this privilege- ubles per month, th* resulting addition to th* pay bill for officers is estimated atillion rubles per year.

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APPENDIX C

METHODOLOGY

Th* estimate o! the pay bill for the Soviet ground forces isthe detailed calculations of the cost of sample units. To |je:umber of different types of units wereaddition to the line divisions trifle, mechanized, and tank) allunits which are includedield army, as observed inof Soviet Forces in Germany, were cos ted. These unitsthe army headquarters, the AAA division, several typesbrigades, the signal regiment, the engineer regiment,transport battalion, and the various rear service units. of military district headquarters were calculated in orderthe effect of including large numbers of high-rankinglarger of these headquarters was intended to represent theof border military districts and groups of forces; themilitary districts.

Certain subunits, such as antiaircraft gun crews or riflepresented few problemsarge amount of information agreeing in all of the important respects is available. The roster for other units, such as the intelligence directorate at military district headquarters or the field tank repair shop of an army, had to beby reference to functions or equipment of the unit. It often was possible to use Information concerning positions in units of the same echelon with similar functions. In Other instances, i:nformation relatinguropean Satellite unit which uses Soviet equipment, such as the East German independent signal

Wherever's were used in assigning ranks to the positions. Defector reports, open source material, and intelligence publications indicate that tn peacetime the ranks of the incumbents in officer positions are close to those called for by- Deviations both above and below the strength provided byere noted, but not in significant numbers in either direction. 's or other guiding information could not be found, ranks were filled in principally by interpolations, on the basis of information regarding analogous Soviet and US units.

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ET

Averages of the actual strength of units that were used in this port, except for major command headquarters, were those furnished by the US Armv.

in-eenlisted men was based essentially

on the detailed breakdown of the key types of divisions (rifle, mechanised, and tank) furnished by the US Army. Other units were assigned ratios approximating those found in similar subunits of these divisions. For example, independent antiaircraft units were given the same proportion of officers as the proportion appearing in the divisional antiaircraft units. Ultimately, this procedure yielded the following percentages at the various echelons:

Type of Echelon

(Percent)

average/key divisions

units of army subordination

units of military district

Ministry of Defense

c

entire

The number cf NCO's was assumed to beercent ofround force. Ten percent of the NCO's, orercent of the total ground forces, were considered to be re-enlistees. Defettor reports seem to substantiate these percentages In peacetime. The remainder of enlisted personnel were taken to be privates unless defectorwarranted assigning the rating of private first class to specific positions.

The pay entered for each position.in the selected units was derived (rom comprehensive pay Schedules constructed for both officers andmen. ample schedule of Officers' pay for position is shown in Entries for this schedule were taker,attern of Curves (see Figurewhich reflect the influencesI).s determining the level and relationships of pay for position lor officers. The curves were constructed by plotting the known oay for position wiihin echelons up through military district. The pattern was filled in by interpolation and extrapolation to include all similar jobs at all the echelons. Available information on pay for position, coupled with the constancy of the relationships between the pay for different positions, permits considerable confidence in the general validity of the resulting estimates.

The pay schedules for enlisted men in the Soviet ground forces were constructed basically by adding increments to the minimum pay for each rank, depending on the amount of technical and leadership proficiency

* Appendix A,bove. "* Following p.bove. P bove.

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re qui tod by the level of the ; ton. Different Incrementa we refor different groups of positions, such aa line infantrymen, tankrtillerymen,nd warehousemen. ample pay schedule for enlisted men i* presented in The existence of some conflicting and incomplete information and of po*-sible adjustments in pay for some categories of position*ermits less confidence in the pay schedules for enlisted men than in those for officers. The spread between th* highest and th* lowest pay rates of the most numerous group, the conscripts. Is small, making improbable any important contribution to error on this account.

Pay for length of service to Soviet officers waa derived by making reasonable assumption* a* to the length of service of the averageink and assigning tho appropriate percentage Increases, as shown In

Table 24

Assumed Relationship Between Length of Servic and Percentage Increases in Pay of Officers of the Soviet Ground7

Length of Service Percentage Increase

Rank

Pay

than 30

40

of tho army

than 30

general

than 30

gene ral

to 30

general

to 3D

to 25

colonel

to 20

to 15

to 15

lieutenant

to 10

to 5

lieutenant

to 2

Those percentages were applied to total base pay of officers of each rank. In order to do so, it waary to summarise, by rank, all of the officer* ln the various unit*. Combining these units into elements of command by echelonor example, by battalion, regiment, and divisioneighted percentage increase for length of service, by echelon, .up through fieldeighted percentage increases tor length of service for headquarter* al*ment* was available only through the military district level. For personnel in the headquarters of the Ministry of Defense the weighted percentage increaae for length ofwas estimatedimple extrapolation. The following data are examples of the Increases for length of service which resulted from this procedurei

Appendix A, p.bove.

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Weighted Factor for Length of Service

Type of Unit

Ministry of Defense

Military district

Field army

Field

r.t

in* over-all weighted increase for length of service for the officers of tne ground forces ISercent of the average base pay.

To estimate pay for length of service of Soviet enlistedercent of the conscripts were assigned pay at scales which incorporated the appropriate increasesears'e-enlistees were considered to be serving re-enlistment termsto their rank: junior sergeants and sergeants, their first term; senior sergeants, their second term; and sergeant ma|ors, their third term. Th* appropriate percentage Increaeee then were applied.

The unit* for which estimatescomputed in completewith th* units made up from parts which had beandetail, accounted forillion men. or aboutercent ofmanpower strength of the ground farces. The units,the remainingercent of the manpower, could betwe groups. The first group includes those units whichin alio and function to units coated in detail and whichhave quite similarf average pay. These unit*,aboutthe total manpower, include th* airborneartilleryAA battalions, anda pa rata Th* second group, containing the remainingercentmar.power, included, for tha most part, element* ancillary toof Defense and military district commands. Typical ofare the military instructors in military and civilianof militaryfactory inspectors, and theand supply units of the major

In assigning average rate* ot pay lo the unit* and element*th*S* two groups, consideration was given to's and equipment, to information on rank structures, and to tha nature of the taska performed by the units, lt was foundudicious

w See n, A, i, p.abovn. It is possiale.thatercent isand that as many asercent of conscripts could bepay for length of service. If so, the conscripts added would have to be all privates and would add someillion rubles,or less than one-tenthercent to the regular pay bill.ee II.. p.bove.

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selection of tha average rate* of pay of appropriateoated in detail, could be made in moat caaea for units in the firat groupabove. Some minor modifications were made to account for differences in types and quantities of equipment. Informationto units and elements of the second group was more sparse and much less helpful. Estimates of what appeared to be ths most logical distribution of personnel were made, based on the mission of the unit or element and the position* and ranks of its assigned personnel. The average rates of pay were baaed on th* weighted average rale* for units or (or part* of units which had been estimated in detail and which most resembled the unit or element in question. The average rates of pay by rank of officer and by category of enlisted man and the weighted average pay by unit and by echelon, which were derived in connection with the computation of pay for length of service described above, were most useful In estimating pay for units and elements of the second group. In addition, the patterns of average pay both by rank and by echelon serveduid* in determining whether or not the estimated rate* ofmed to be within reason.

A final summarisation, including all th* unit* and elementsto b* within the ground forces as herein defined, yielded the pay billT and the average annual pay per man for each category of personnel.

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APPENDIX D

GAPS IN INTELLIGENCE

The structure of the pay system for the Soviet ground forces is such that complete data ere not absolutely neceeeary In order tothe pay bill. There is,eed for confirmatoryon officers' pay for position, particularly at the higher echelons, especially for officers at the headquarters of the Ministry of Defense, at headquarters of military districts, and In technical, supply, and administrative positions at the various field army echelons

Additional information concerning the methods of date: mtnatica of pay rates for Soviet enlisted men is needed, as ie moreon the current pay rates for enlisted men serving within the USSR. Very little is known about the actual effect of recent changes in the pay of enlisted men stationed In the USSR. Most of lhe availableis on pay of forces stationed in the European Satellites &nd is colored by manipulation of currency exchange rates,

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APPENDIX E

source referex;es

Allsources pertaining to pay and allowances and oer-SOnnel structure of the Soviet ground forces we re exploited. Theto sources cited in the report are Only representative of thc hundreds of sources which contributed information used in thc .Spoil. When equally reliable sources were in conflict, that information was used which seemed more consistent with known information or winch appeared to fit more logically the general Soviet military pattern.

Evaluations, following the classification entry and designated "Eval.ave the following significance.

r

Source of Information

ocumentary

Confirmed by other sourceu

- Completely reliable

Probably true

Usually reliable

Possibly true

- Fairly reliable

Doubtful

- Mot usually reliable

Probably false

- Not reliable

Cannot be judged

- Cannot bc judged

Evaluations not Otherwise designated are those appearing on the cited document; those designated "BR" are by the author of this No "RR" evaluation is given when tbe author agrees with the evaluation on the cited document.

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Original document.

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