Created: 4/25/1960

OCR scan of the original document, errors are possible




MEMORANDUM FOR: The Honorable J. Edgar Hoover

Federal Bureau of


Director, :JfBralnwaahlng

attached study on brainwashing was prepared by my staff In response to the increasingly acute Interest In the subject throughout the Intelligence and security components Oi theeel you will find it well worth your personal attention. It represents the thinking of leadingpsychiatrists and intelligence specialists, baaed in turn on Interviews with many individuals who have had personal experience with Communist brainwashing, and on extensive research and testing. While individual specialists hold divergent views on various aspects of this most complexelieve the studyynthesis of majority



expertill, of course, appreciate any comments on it that you or your staff may have.

v ttachment:





APP8QVE0 FOirfaiaa^ MIE * '

conrcenaa '

e::twrsa ra

snr zz JZ


Tbls study should not be reed a> rvpreMotlag the synthesis ia the Central Intel"Ageaoy cn tbe subject of brainwashing. Sereral working groups in CIA are actlrely concerned with the subject,this paper reflects tbe progress so far nada by only one of those groups. It Isinal report.



ft* Suspect

me Acuuaulstlon of Evidence

fte Arrest Pjwdure

be Detention Prison

Bm Beglasn Within the Detention Prison .

me KTfeeta of the Sieginea ln tee Isolation Cell Other aspects of the Isolation Interrogator

it ion

Pressures Applied hy the Interrcemtor

Iheadly Approach"

of the






rj 3*


Point oa*

BralswuUas, asteia, vu originatedeporter who vu interviewing Chinese refugeea. It bee gaioedcurrency eod bee been eppliedide rasas of Uch-nlouea edncetlca ofCnaaBUstle country or cltUrrs, thought control In Soviet end satellite countries, technlanes of eliciting laforeatlon, ss veil se tbe intenslre ladl-Yldualised re-edneatloo of belief!ev selected Such uncritical um of the tern bee done nothing to reduce tbe lapect on tbe public end offiolaldoa generally ot tbe confeeeloea of rob ana ae Cardinaland especially of tbe results of treetnent of prlaonere-of-anr by tbe Chinese Coanonista.

Bm tera ltealf is anxiety producing. Its oonaotatloe of epeelal oriental bscvlsdge ofypnosis, sad other exotic and devious means of controlling huasn bebavlor creates credulity sacag tbe unlnforasd. ore proaale view is that tbe techniques aeed la producing coafeseioas aad "conversions" are readily understandable in terns of ordinary psychological priaclples aad bare been used, especially by polios atatea, for oentorlee. It is ao* clear that Russian ewtfaode of

obtaining lnforaatlon aad eoBfeealoo* bat* been oe-mloyed ay Kyi and aerlier varslons of tola organisation over tho eeatwrtoe, but especially taxing tho pastearn oftic offbrt toInfonatlcn or confessiona. lbs Chlasso haw tbolr own tradition of tolerance for brutality. Thay aru lnfluonrsi by the Russians, but place uore cnpbeals on converting tha prisoner tobeliefs, at tines bahavlng aa typical "eeger-bsnvor" revolutionaries. In sun, the nethods are police aurthods developed by trial and error to milt the Deeds of tha police atnte. Bo aclentists, no drugs, oo nypnoele, no new psychological principles hare as yet been Involved.

larly In the reriav of the llverse Infomntion catalogued under theven In serious scientific art Idea, It eeeaunt evident thereeed for betterof tha wort on this topic and nore work directed at speelflo probleaw and issues. It was, therefore, concluded that thin United effort wan bast devoted to (l) clarifying tho eoteepta connoted by the ternelating these to such 'basic psychological principles as learning, perception,discussing the brainwashed person as an Involuntarily re-educated parson.

All people arere-edncated continuously. Bee inforaatloa rhengee one's beliefs. aVeryone has tvperlenced to

iw li|in the noeflletmot infomartien la

not eonadstantrioraexc ono concerned elthproblena na rellxloa, nnn none, and

politicaln nor-ni experience. Moot

ta4lTldnnlo nro nolo to reaoln the conflict by ono weans or nnothor; nnny do no by Integrating the nev with tho


The experience of the brainwashed (in our eonne) differs In that the Inconsistent lnfomntlon is forced upon bin ander relatively controlled eondltlonn after th* possibility of critical Judgneot haa been reduced or renored by sneh aeaanraa aa production of eaeeeelve fatlgwe, Isolation, deprivation of various sorts, and sonatinas physical torture. Whan reduced to extrena Janenaanaaj and confusion, the Individual Is ready to react favorably to any pareen or idea which proadees to and his painfullystate. At thin point, the ra-education beglne, as described In tan ajultsij Of costbol raKaamts.

Bo* iadlTlduals vlli react too ellolt lafomntlon, to eonfeas falsely, to brmlnvaahlng aa ve have defined It dependa on the Intelligence, pazeonallty and exparlsajee of the 'ndlviduel and on the knowledge aad ell Magna as of captors to pornist ln techniques alned at

dellberusely destroying the integrationmonuity. Vita each alii there itiint little doubt that am individualeyehologleelly to tan point ummre lavoliartary re aducatloa will tab* place, up to met,tthoda developed by trial and error bare net fully exploited tbe payeaologleel seal* for re*ult* tbaa far obtained; aarall restraint* In treatteat of prisoner* been east aside, bote, too, that the restraint* referred to need not ooneera direct physical tortare. It is not necessary to use direct physicaltoersontate where Involuntary re-edaeatioa eaa take place.

BrelaveebiBg conceived as Involuntary re-education,epresent*ontinuum of traataunt by, aad resistance to, captors. At th* other and of thl* aoal*ctlv* volaatary collaboration with the enemy. Ia betveea am varying aagreea of brutality and subtlety of treataent and degree* of resistance thereto. Clearly, policle* conceralag traatarnt of repatriatedlll depend oa vbereIndividual la placed oa thl* *cal*. At oa* end, therehe legal Jurisdiction for treason; at tbe other, psycbiatrle treatment.

Th* vise pretested herein baa eeverul lapllcatlon*.tarn public should b* glvan iaforaatloa which will

dlvpal tn- ayvtorr nbleb *sn*ara to naveth* concept of Tiral erne* tag

Second,aepaultal* foroller tor


returned ptiaaaere bev*irst problaa the deteraiaatloa unere oa Urn eenla between lnrolnwtnry reaad volnetaryarticular ladlridaal at aide.

Third, th* banea organise aeed notoapiata pm of bla earlreaaaat until extras* eoadltloaa an created, baa la adaptive, aad vltb *oev knowledge of vbat to expect froa bla captor* aad aa aWaeaaaaaaaal of bla ova reaeticaa, be oaa develop asaas of reaming, a* can be bslpad la tela by prior kaevtadga of tea treataeat be can expact aad bla oaa reaction* te It.

rDurtb, tb* truly bralaaaabedsychiatric, not a

I legal problem, tie treataeat aboold be tberapevtle, not


punltlTe. Beeovery oaa be anticipated aiac* tbs braiaaaabed

pereca place* la bla aornal anvixoanwnt will taad to revert to hi* prior

fifth, bracan b* aue cane fully acooasllabed on th* baaia of pr**eat tnowladg* by aaytan aaffielaatly lntereatad la ecewlrlng aa understanding of tb* paycbologlcelInvolved.

ftlatb. It la poaalal* that tb* beet lent raaga defence

aralaeanhdae; la to ante It pnlitleally dlsnnr#nntafnona for ato parnit its at*.

While thin payerIta attention on asnlaeenMdefined, th* political nntnre of Ita effect* nnfeea It noeeanary to cur ileal too effects of nllitnry ana otbnr polley. Where eertala possibilities oeewx ontarally ln tbe peycnolonicnl context, they aro awntlonaa. The najor purpone, however, la to olscene brainwashing,sy-ehoLocleal point of vie*. It Is not pre Baaed that thisnhaa Into aeeonnt all the factors needed ln detemd-nlng policy.

t I


yuiyuee of tolaU to loeraaa* undeiutnndlng

Of taa "trainvnshlag proCOM".

There ar* probablynd unelnaalfied docuanota, article* aad took* directly related to SoTivt aad Satellitef Interrogation and brainwashing. Approxlaataly one-third of the available clasalfled and ynelnaalf lad aowreee ear* anaalned to prorld* th* finding* of thle etndy-

I By far the createat proportion of thle notarial baa con* from prl*enar-of-war eoercea of Worldnd tha Kbreaa :conflict. lttonal material haa eottt from



ntelligencend civilian natlenalabeam ralaaaad froaCertain.

A nnnher of re March etudle* haw* conudeted or ara do* In proceM by Tnrlou* agenciesther frlandly gmrnaaat*. Ihe obtainable final an* of all researchf 1ani11ite relevance were utUliad.

a, considerable body of araf*Mlonal research isslUg with eoadltlan* tbnt result In rhsmgai la the perceppaal aad

intellectual organisation of thoersonality he*ro* ualveraltlee ud other private researchduring the pset deeed*. Appropriate selections thia material have been applied to aaderetaadlas General Orlaatatloa

Thia atady baa been writteneneral enelyale of the available natertal. It la recognised that agmnelaa engaged In InteUlavace collection bava unlove operationalla dealing with Soviet interrogation and Iadlvlduala forced to confeaa to having engaged in espionage or aabotage eabarrasa national policy plannera. Vhila tha a* probleaa are recognised, ao atteapt baa been aade In thia atady to provide epeelfle practical guidance.

Thia atady la vrlttea froa tbe viewpoint of profeealonal payehology. yetanetle approach, tbla baa not been done before, although nany previous analysea have, of course, aade eons use of psychological ideae. The preaent approach attempts to nab* full una of current pay etiologicalathe prooea* of bralnwaahlng.

It la reasonable te expect that the Soviet* will coatina* to refia* theirnd that v* aball enatlam* to awear*knowledge about tb* subject. Thar* aboald, therefore, be periodic reappraisal* of braiavaablag In tb* future.

stjltb0or cp th fftosla

Aa v* snail shav later la tola chapter, theary aatfallag from tha standpoint ofoath* peraoa *ho la breinuaah**. If th* proeee* had baaa rloatd la this light from the beginning, ao doubt v* viuld by ao* hawreater aad mor* aiderpraog tmser-ataadlag of It. Actually, it ha* not been confronted la *oa aaaner aa tbat. It be* been esed by the Soviet* and th* Chlneae oa quit* different Und* of people and forariety of rontons. It hasid* rang* ofcme intended snd perhaps none unintended. It has faced Intelligence, mllltnry and political leadersaaavrhahly wide range of problen* with which eneh sach group bad to eop*. All these variatloa* ofoa-eeiruencee, aad probles* have nmd* for coafualon ln our effort* to understand what waa really going caw

Western usage of th* tern bralnunahlng haa caused It to bo applied from tine to time to each of th* following altaatlons:

or group Indoctrination ofth* Iron Certain.

of key personnel lnsld*countries to naheir political reliability.

(3) fa* lanai logatlcay which positive lalaraatioa of Intelligence Talma ia obtalaaH froa individuala.

roup indoctrination ofof-uex. aaalln aa attempt to obtain attention* aad daaorallto aUltary pereimaMl, thl* proceaa appaara to bare been one*elaetlTe aarice to aaeertaia which "prograaaivse" ornight fabact^anrUy be annul laore lnteeeire proeeea aa definedelow.

be intensive lndlrldnel proeeea during wbicb individual* era denrlved of their criticalnd aabaeeaaatly eoaa to bellere an true that vbleh, prior to the brainwashing, they would bare designated aa false. The fact that tbe ternbaa been applied tonear sltuatloas baareat deal of coafualoa In attempting to laara snr* about it and la attempting to develop aouad praetlcea and poUclea for coping with it. Aa aa shallaorehis study, v* find tbe term "bmla-saahlag" to be aost vaeful when It Is applied atrlctly totb* involuntary re-education of aa indlrldnal duringhangeeveloped in tb* perceptual aad intellectual organisation of bla rarsoaellty ao that he will:

Accept a* trot certain Ideological principle* which a* noald not hnva accepted na tna prior to taa and/or

Adult that cortala eventsna aad fnctnal haala which hn would aot baTo ndadttod fora*rly. Then* fain, heliafa an? aa trnaaltorj. Ta fact, thara la good reanoa to belief? that ta* falaa bnllafs resulting front brnlnwaahlng will break down ipontaneoualy whan the IndlTldaaleamederiod of tin* froa taa oppressive control*.

It ahotld be noted that bralnwnnhlng, no defined, dona not engewutti* what hnppena to the Individual, hut what happen*bin. na changeora or lea* coaxuete re-education of al*ea. Tulf change la brought aboutrig?tly controlledusing pressures designed to create and samrpnr Into rani conflict within the Individual. Tha IndlTldaal la forced to resort to problen-aolvlngand the net effect la the brainwashed state. Two slsnatnnneu* eincaeaei are present. The flrat la charnetertaedrogresslf* deterioration and ohnobllizatlon of the UnUwiinal's critical and Judging capacities. me nanne the Individual loan* all anane of perapactlv*. fh

is tha laarnln* of heliefa h* would prarloaaly

s he seeks to gala acae structure for his eronbUag personality. Ism criteria of sneeesa of brainwashing are:

The observes, conviction endwith which the Individual uiutesaee bis changed ideology and beliefs concerning palpable errata.

Tb* length of tine hi* changed belief* are maintained after the Individual ha* been renorod froa tbe control anvironnant.

The aaount of surprise and confusion that accoapaniea his "dlacorery" that be he* beenduring hi* subsequent recovery, indoctrination, and eren education, can lead to falaa

beliefs. These proceeaee are scat effective uhan tb*baa gap* ia hi* knowledge, or hi* understanding of tb* asaaing of certain erent* la sufficiently tenuous that b* haa littl* difficulty inew and different Interpretation. Brainwashing, however. Involve* th*of well-established bend lapllea that tb* Individualthe re-education, it is this very resistance with its eoacoaltaat internal conflict, we nam-tain, which ia the vary core of brainwashing.

In tb*f Mooring information of Intelligencehe procedure* used by tbe Csatiulata, although

iwumittedly harah, do not appear to differfrsa thoe*und In eliciting nllitnry inrbrantion. Thewamvrra'1 intlon of oaptivee dons not appear toajor objective.

An understanding of brainwashing la Important in eeverul cootcxte, among which nro tha following:

night ho nor* fully protected if

military and other peraonnal subject to captor* could understand bruiireuahing and could be trained an veil an

poaalhl* to cope with it.

Dealing properly with hralnwanhcd individual* dapenda heavily on understanding their condition. For the truly brniawnnhed, paychintrle tientnentin order; for th* deliberate defector, legal proceRses or* approprlut*.

The nropngendn-vulu* of fnlneon* an* been front, and the fear-producing lnpact of "braln-wnnhins" In th* public nlndatter worth considerable concern. Public understanding Of th* proceaa should help canald*TUhly.

lear understanding of th* process la important If govarnnmatal agencies axe to nak* rapidowardreh and aader*tand1nd, amd

to develop ecoaietant policiest the umliTa* of brainvesaisg.

Itch of tans* objective* of prootor uaeerstasdiag la laportaat. fa* propaganda-taIm of falsa coafesalon* aad tbs pablle anxiety concerning brninvaahing loon, however, as mnjor precceupetloas. Stntaaaata of brainwashed individual* barobarp-edgsd tool In taw Comwualst propaganda alt. Everything front the parens of the brsiniaahad 'old revo-lutlonarloa" la tbs'a to tb* Korean gora warfare BdalBsloaa baa advanced tbe Soviet strategy line. Possibly on* of tbe greateat advantage* for the Qaaamist* In tb* Far aast has been to lover Caucasian prestige. Another and eveneffective propaganda goal any be the creationtate of fear within tb* pepulnee of western-bloc nation*. Th* concept of brainwashing la frightening. Mother* of nana, who go latovlee against tb* Soviet* or Chinese, aast concern tbaaaelve* with th* fact, not only that their son* Bay be killed or wounded, but that their aentalay be distorted If they are captured. Just a* knowledge that tb* Soviats bar* theraoanclcar weapon* baa dhapaaed the national feeling of security, so brainwashing has created the belief that our opponents are mysteriously feral debla.ot ao reaoved froa pre-scientific

beliefs that neh processes as breln-uahing fall to aroaaa eavnicoa borearlas oa superstition* m.

V* ton oovero detailed explanation of jaot want bapinaM to tha adnd nod body of the .wenneH nil, end dla. organlied person vbo can properly be described an hrala-waahod, sanlonsideration of now this state can he brought about. We shall describe the general processes involved in changing the behavior and tho beliefs of aa Individual when his euvlrornarnt can be fully controlled. These processes are coupler and they involve the basic principles of learning, perception, activation, aad phynlo-logical deprivation.

Iapiicatioue of theaa findings for policy and practice ln various areas will not be spelled out in detail. Bone such lnplleatlona, of course, would need to be Integrated with other eceaUae-retlons la arrivinginal policy.a the other hand, appear to point owrvhelningiy toward certain specific policies and practices, for eraaple, the treatanrat of bralnvaahed repatrlntos ahould clearly be sui ather than punitive. This study sbould provide uneful guidance and helpful polnta of viewunher of lapcrtant areas.



Thlch culminate a alse confession, di-lWrred

ct loo and humility, to antisocial Intent andcriminal act*requiresnewledge of1st control techniques and an analysis of their lJapnct upon tha cornel personality. Tula aectlon describee the battery of pressures' applied to the prisoner and hla behavioral reactions to these control preaaures. In the following aectlon an attempt Is ande to analyze the psycho* logical Impact of these assnults upon the personality during ths coume of the brainwashing. The Bnapect

Those who fall under the suspicion of the XVD nsually have sons reason for exciting ita suspicion. Although th*nay not know way he Is vupected, the WTO on* son* rnnnon for singling hla oat. Because of the broad mtar* ofnd the free Banner in which the KTD can interpret these, any "suspect" ban ccandttcd bob* "crln* agnlnst th* state" aa the MTD defines the tera.

The lapllcaticas of thisare algnificant. Innation in which th* state own* all property, vher*

works for tho atate, and where only approved opinion* may bo bold,person vfao ban accidentally broken or loot none of tbn "peoples property*', vbo bnnistexe, wbo haa tat worked bnrd encogh, who hen talkedoreigner, or wbo baa no rely expressed what be Inferred was an Innocent opinion, nay be Ipso facto guiltycrime against the state." Is practice, this Beans that alaost anyone within the Soviet Onion say be suspected by the MTD at any tlae, and thatbe is suspected the MTD Is always able topecific reason for Its suspicions. The Accumulation of Evidence

Accordingmi in 1st ideology, no one nay be arretted unless there Is evidence that beriminal.

According to the practice of the MTD this senna that when an individual falls under the suspicion of an MVTt officer, this officer aast accumulate "evidence" that ths individualcriminal" and take this evidence to tbs state prosecutor, wbo amst thenmrreat before tn* arrest can be carried out. Tn* Investigating officer accumnlatee evidence showing that the victimeason to, that he waa *of agroup) by acoianilntlag tb* statiasnte of sola* and lafcrmanta with regard to bla. XT this evidence is not sufficient to aatlafy the officer be plan**

tb* suspect ud hit friends ud associates under surveillance. These menu tad attoclttet any to* arrettad tad held for interrogation In order to supply evidence against the suspect, the raasoa for their arrest being that ther are waocletesspect, and thereforeeset lees.

Covert surveillance and tb* arrert of aeeoetatea are carried oat carefsllv, bat they cannot alvayi be concealed froa tbe auapect. Be say becone aware of It or bla friends amy tall bla. As bearfced sen in the eyea of his friends, they begin to avoid bla. Their demeanor acanrtlaea Indicates to bla that be la under aneplelon. Tbe knowledge that he sill be arrested, without knowledge of vfan thia will occur, obvioaaly creates anxiety ia the Intended victim. Although bVO officersabout tbe paychologlcal effect which tao^illaace baa upoa euspecta, and aake use of it, they probably do not use it with tbe calculated conning that tbs victla soastlaes auppcsea. Tbe pocu-ly concealed aarvelllaaca and tbe arrest of friends and associates, followed by an indefinite period before tb* arrest of tb* aaln auapect, are not neceaaarlly stage eaneuver* to frighten tb* victla. They are often avinsaesa of rather alow aad eluasy police aetlvlti**.

of tb* STOh each otter la trying to turn up suapectt and secure their conviction. ertain

txtent,re Judged by tb* number of *rr**t* -bleb they obtain. Sine* Cisam inlet theorythat no person b* *rr**tcd except whan It i* clear that b*riminal, offleer* wbo arrestho*re wbj*ct toThar hav*ey hav*an wbo lariminal-

tbe cooaeqaence* are lsnjortant from tn* point of vlev of tbe victim. In effect, any nan wbo la .Treated la automatically la tb* petition of beinx. guilty. Anyone arretted by tbe Ml auat knew that in the eye* of the Sovietnd la tbe aye* of those who have arreated bla, fa*crialnal". Tb* only question totled after the arreat la th* extent of bla crialnal activity and theature of bla erlnma. The officer* la charge of bla case, both tho a* who have aade the arreat andwho will carry out tbe interrogation,ersonal interest In teeing that the arrested nanrompt and extensiveon, for their ova reputations areStake.

Tbe Arreat Procedure

According to Ccaaajalat theory, nan should be arretted la such aanner aa not to cause them aabarraaaaeot, and th* nolle* should carry out arrest*anner which doe* not unduly disturb tb* peculation. For aor* than twenty year* Ita

prectlc* of tbe Busalan Stato Pol lot to tolao their suspects in the middle of the night, the 'midnight knock on the door" ha* Decanttandard episode in fiction nboot Bosnia. The police arer* of tbe fact that th* intended victim, foroverned bj hit previous surveillance and *he cfainglng attltade of his friends. It farther terrified by the thought that ha nay be avakeaed fron his tleep nlnost any night end taken away. It Is custcaauy for the arresting officer to be nceonpanled by several other nan. Be usually read* to the prisoner the arrest warrant If there is on*. It does not, of course, specify the details of the crimes conadtted. The prisoner is then taken promptlyetention prison. The Detention Prison

In aott of tho large cities of thenion the MTOdetention prisons. These prison* contain only persons naderhose canes have not yet been settled. The most modem of these prisons are separate lnstltations, well built and spotlessly clean. In addition to the cell* for th* prisoners, they contain offices fornits, rooms in vhieh Interrelations are carried out, ear other rooms, usually ln th* basonent. In which prlaoners ar* executed when euO punlahnant la decided upon. Thar* ar* attached medical facilltlee,rocn* for the ear* of tat nick dotal nets, an exerela* yardtandard facility.

Tb* typical cellaall cubicle, abouteet loneeet vide,ingle tucklop Jar. It usually baa ao other furnishings. Ita valla ars barrca, aad it la lightedlogic electric leap in tbs ceiling. One vail usuallyaall window above eye level, froa which the prisoner can see nothing of hie outside environment. The dooreephole through which the guard la the corridor outside nay observe the prisoner at will without the prisoner's knowledge. Such typical cells will not, of course, be found In all prisons and especially not In those which are old or lap revised, but the general aspect of baxreraeaa and complete lack of access to ths outside world ia characteristic. Thethe Detention Prison

The arresting officers usually do not give the prisoner the reason for his arrest beyond that in tbe warrant which they read to bin. They usually search bla and also search the place la which ha lives. They than take bla directly to tee prison,ha laeebout bla identity, and personal valuables and his outer clothing are taken froa bla. Thee* are carefully catalogued and put away. Be nay or nay not berison uniform. Be la usually eiasrtnadriaon physician shortly after hi* Incarceration.

The entire introduction to tha detention pri*cn la brief and la carried oa without explanation. ew hour* after ala arraat tho prlaooar fiada Msasif* locked opall.

Prisoners within detention collaigid reainen. With sone variation* thia regisarn la ataadard turoughout tho Sonet union, and haa been adopted by nearlyaaiiilat cnuntriea. The rigidity of tbe regdnen amy be relaxed or tightened by tbe direction of the interrogator.

An alaost Inrarlabla feature of tha aaiakgaaw, nt. of any inpcrtent auapect under detentioneriod of total Isolationetention cell. The prlaooar la placed within his cell, tha door is "but, and for aa indefinite period be la totally Isolated froa baaaa contact except by tbe specific direction of the officer In charge cf bla case. He ia not allowed to talk to the guards or to coaanailcate with other prieonera in any aanner. when he la taken from bla cell for any reason ha la accoapanleduard. If another prisoner esproaebe* through tha corridor be turns bis face to the wall until the other prisoner has

Tbe hours and routine of th* priaoner are rigidly organized. Be la ewaxar-ed early in th* aoralng andbort period In wMchwash Masaif. His food la brought to bla. Bshort and fixed tin* la which to eat it; the standard diet la

Just adequate toutrition, ma anat clean Mnself mad police bio own cell; but be la not nlloaed enough tine to knep It spotlessly clean. At some time ln tbe morning be usually ban an exerclae period. Typically, hie exercise conalcto of walking alone ln tbe exerclae yard. If be ia lnolation, bo ney not be allowed to exercise at all. Be la usuallylop Jar la bin cell Which be can utilise for defecation and urination, but fionetlnes this is taken away. Then be euat call the guard and perhaps wait for hoars to be taken to tbe latrine.

At all tines except whan ha is eating. Bleeping, exorcising, or being Interrogated, the prisoner is left strictly alone ia his cell. Be has nothing to do, nothing to rand, and no one to talk to. Order the strictest regimen be mayo alt or stand ln his cellixed position all day. Be nay sleep only at boors prescribed for sleep. Then be anat go to bed proaptly when told and aunt lieixed position upon his back with his hands outside the blanket. If ho deviates froa this position, the guard outalde will aaaken hla and Bake hla resume it. The light in his cell bums constantly. Be nust sleep with his face constantly toward it.

If the prleoner beccaes ill, ha Is takenrince physician by whoa he is treated with the best medical ear*according to the practices connect to Soviet nedlclne. If

necessary, be any be placed under hospital cere;oon aa be baa recovered the rrpiaen will be resumed.

Meenera are Dot allowed to conalt suicide. Those wbo ottenart to do so are thwarted and carefully nursed until they recover; then the reglaan is resumed.

Cerlntiona froa the preacrlbed reglnen are proaurtly noticed by the guards and are pnnisbed. Dlstarted bebaTior ia punished also. If this behavior persists and tho officer in charae of the cane is convinced that tbe prisoner has becoas, tbe nan any be placed under nodical earn until bin health baa returned; then tha regimen is reauned.

This regimen within tbe detention cell is Inoet potent weapon in the hands of tbe MVD. It has been developed and refinederiod of anny years snd used on literally thousands of prisoners. It la highly effective in 'breaking the will- of prisonersso much so tbat anny MVD officers are convinced that thorn la literally no bob who cannot be brought to do their bidding.

The Effects of the Peglnen ln the laolatlon Cell

The effects of this reglnen upon prisoners, are It baa been nenUoned tbat tat nan who ban btea arrested by the mtb la usually Intensely apjn-enenalve. Often he has known for reeks that be veend be arweeted but baa had no clear kaoMsdge of when

or for what reason. Be boa bees telaod In tbe "ladle of too night and taken vitboot explanation to prison. Be know* tbat ao friend can help hla and tbat tbe MVD nay do with blr what they plena*.

A anjor aspect of his prison experience Is 1eolation. Manocial anlaal; he does not lien alone. Proa birth to death, he llres ln the company of bis fellow nan. fits relntlonn with other people and, especially with those closest to hla, ar* alacet as lnportant to hla aa food or drink, an is totally Isolated, he Is renored froa all of thslon* which are so lnportant to hla and taken out of th* social role which sustain* hla. His internal as well a* his external life is disrupted. Exposed for the first tine to total isolation in an MVD prison, heredictable group of syngrteaa, which night almost bediseasehe gonrd* and NTD oxflcars are quit* fandllnr with this syndrom. They watch each new prisoner with technical Interest aa bis synptons develop.

The Initial appearance of an arrested prisoner la on* of bewilderment. ew hours, be any ait quietly ln bis cell looking confused nnd dejected. Buthort tine eoat prlaonara bacons alert and begin to take an Interest In their envlrcenaent. They react with expectancy when

ttaa door to to* coll. Theyinterest sad anxiety a* theyto each new feature of to* prison routln*. Insy anyor basin conwarsetion*. Base ante deaancsj theysnow any they areald, and protest that they If they are foreign nationals, they nay Insist Seasyon can't do thia

to aa" attlteH. Soas passrief period of snouting, threatening, aad denendlng. All Of this Is always sternly repreeeed. If need be, tea officer In chargs of the ease will sea the prisoner, raalrd bin of tbe routine, threaten bin with puniarasmt, and punish hla if be does not subside. Daring thia period the prisoner baa not yet appreciated the full laport of his si tost ion. Be tries to fraternise with tbe guards. He leaves part of bis foot If he does not like It. Be tries to speak to prisoners whoa be passes in ths corridors and reaches back to close the door behind bla when he la taken to the latrisa. tha guards refer to thia as the period of getting "acfllsatlted* to tha prison routine.

ew days it becoaea apparent to th* prisoner that hi* activity avails bla DOthlng and that he will be punished or reprimanded for even the smallest breaches of the routine. B* wonder* whan h* will be released or questioned. Bla requests nave been listened to bat never acted Upon. Be becoaas

docilityrained animal. Indeed, tbe guards aay that prisoner, are 'reduced to eninel*". It is estlsated that la tha avareg* case It take* froa four to six weak* of rigid, total Isolation to produce this jiwm aannn.

The ana vho first sxperlsnces isolation in prison is, of course, experiencing fsr sore than slapla isolation. He uaually feels profoundly anxious, belpless, frustrated, dejected, and entirely uncertain about bis future. Hie firat reaction to tbe isolation procedure ia indeed one of bewilderment and eons nuabness at tbe calamity which baa befallen bin- Thia is followederiod of Interest and apprehension about every detail of the prison regimen, accoapanied by hope that he can explain everything aa aoca aa hehance, or anthat he will be released when the proper authorities bear nbout bla plight* Such hopes lastew days, but they keep bla alert and interested during that tlas.

as bop*eaction of anxious waiting Ia thl* period, the profound boredom aad complete looellneaa of hi* altuaticm gradually overwhelm the prisoner. There is nothing for bin to do except ruminate. Because be baa so much to worry about, Ms ruainatlonsar* seldom pleasant. Freonently, they tabs the form of gDlag over and over all the possible-or hi*-rest. Ii* mood becomes on* of

dejection. His BlSBp la disturbed by nightman-a. Fa) ultiamtelytags of doproBtloa la vblch be ceases to cere abort hla paraonal appearance and bobBTlor and para little attostloB to hla surroundings. TA this stage tbe prisoner say bare illoaory axperlenees. istant aoond in tbe corridor sounds like aonecae calling hla naae. The rattleootstep nay be interpretedey ln tbe lock opening the coll. God any aeea to speak to bin In bis prayers. He nay see bis wife standing beside bin. Bis need for human cojaaanlonabip and bis desire to talk to anyonenawing appetite Ilka the hungertarring awn.

other Aspects of the Isolation Reglnen

hot all of the reaction to this lnprlaoraaont experience can be attributed to Isolation alone. Other potent force* an acting upon the newly Imprisoned nan. The prisoner's anxiety about himself isy worry about what amy happen to hla friends and associates, and. In tbe case of thoee who posses* Information which they wish topprehension about how aach the MVD knows or will find oat. nven in tha absence of isolation profound and uncontrolled anxiety la dleorgmaltlng. uncertainty adds to hi* anxiety. Th* newly arrested prisonerot fencer bo* long he will be confined, brar be will be pemdehed, or with whate churned. Be does knew that bis


be anything up to death or permanent Inpriaoiaafnt. "any prlecaers say thut uncertainty le the Boat unbearable aspect of the whole experience. Slacp disturbances oodead to

further fear asd fatigue.

The effect! of 1eolation, uncertainty and anrdfty are usually aumelent to Bake then eager to talk to their lntarro-gatcr, to see*aathod of escapeituation which baa become lntolarable. If these alone are not enough to produce the deaired effects, the officer In charge has additional liapl* and highly effect It* nays of applying pressure. Two of the Boat effective of these arc creating fatigue and preventing the prisoner adequate sleep. The constant light In the cell and, the necessity ofigid position In bad produce sleep disturbances; and the guards can awaken the prisoner at intervale. This is especially effective If the prisoner la awakened Just aa he drops off to sleep. CoatlBaed loss of alee* produces ciloedlag of consciousnessoss of alnrt-snes, both of which impair the vlctla'a ability to sustain Isolation.

Another simple and effective type of pressure la that of aa1ntain1ng the taapeiature of the cellevel which la either too hot or toe cold for comfort. Contlauoas heat,evel at which constant sweating Is necessary la order to ami stale


body lanpueUui, Is enervating androducing. Sustained cold ll unccnTfortable end poorly tolsrotod.

Still soother pi-tssuro is to reduce th* food ration to tho point to ohleh ths prlnonnr ozporlaneos constant hunger. Deprivation of food produces lassitude, loss of general Intsrest ud sane breakdown of cccoaga. There Isoos of wight, often associatedweakness end anthenln. Sons lndlTldnnls become profoundly depressed when deprived of food. Both in prison camp* ond ln hiamn experiments, it has been chsorTed that chronically hungry people can be Induced to break down their culture-bound Inhibitions snd carry out antisocial acts in order to relieve their hunger.

The effects of Isolation, anxiety, fatigue, luck of sleep, uncorfartahle temperatures, and chronic hunger produce di ites of nood, attitudes, and behavior la nearly all prisoners. The living organism cannot entirely withstand such aasaalta.

The Coaaamists do not look upon these aaaanlts aa "torture", undoubtedly, they use th* netbod* which they do In order to cenfora,ypical legalistic asnair, to Cceanmitt theory which iTannsiiils that "no fore* or torture be need la ext/actlag Information froa Batathoda do constitute torture tad physical coercion ande considered otherwise. All of them lend to snrloam aiatarhancea

y bodily procHftM and toation of tho


Tha Int*rrC*ntor

Th* MTDho baa chargean* daring the period of aaeplclon, surveillance and arrest le now supplanted by another officer who la changed with the Interrogation of the prlaonar and tha preparation of the deposition, within tha MTD, assignments to interrogation are not highly regarded. Soch work la not looted upon aa giaateroua or exciting. Tery often It lnrolTea aeelgnncat to outlying and reintlrely dull reglona of the Sorlet On cm, and iiaually It la bard and thaakleaa. tb* interrogation of prlaonar*iring and an emotionally trying procedure- It can be anauandajorlty of thorn* iDTOlTed in th* Investigation and interrogation of urJnportAirt prlaonar* are nam of arerage ability with no greator their Job. *ow*ver, the MTD doe* alsoighly skilled, well-educated, extremely knowledgeable, experienced end able interroamtor* who are devoted to their profession and proud of their abiliti**. The interrogator assign* It to an isawrtant prisoner can be expected to bemen of such high caliber.

Soma of those who go into political police activity receiveort of "on-the-job" training umdar th* guidance of mas* adnea;air proportion of theee polio*

officers ara especially trained at aa HTO school near ats*eev. Tale school baa baas la existence for at leantears. Itoarse of too yemro dnrntloa. Txeinoo* ar*ohncnstrutlon interrogation bat do not actually conduct Interrogations themselves. Ho formal training In peyebedegy, peychintry, pharmacology or pbynloloayncluded in ta* cnrricoluB. There are do repreaentatlvea of any of theee sciences on the faculty and, a* far a* can be ascertained, there never have been. Trainees do receive Information froapolice officer* oa bo* toossier, how tona, and ho* to estimate what sort of netbods to use in 'oireking" hla; but the Instructors draw entirely upon police experience. Theyontempt for theoretical psychiatry and psychology.

whan the prisoner has been arrested and incarcerated la hi* cell the officer ln charge of bis cane submits to binlan for the interrogation of the prisoner. This plan is drawn up on the heals of what is already known abomt tho prisoner. It describes the method* to be used upon hla, the attitudes to be taken toward him, tbe type of information which It la expected that ha will reveal, and the type of crlaaa which be is believed to have committed and themotivation for them.

The purpose of tall plan appear* to be primarily that of aakln* tha Interrogator approach thc ptiaoaereflalta eoaee-ptlaa of what he wanta to do, aad how he la solas to proceed In do las


Sonet law spec If lee that,an ia detained on suspicion, the firat protocol of hit interrogation aunt be given to the abate prosecutor within ten day* ao that aa arreat warrant nay be laauad, or the nan nay be released- In general. Interrogators areto eoaply with this regulation, and they try togh evidence to obtain an arreat within ten days. Because they have little except suspicion to guide their questioning, they are neceaeerlly vague in describing the prisoner's crlaea to bla. They auat ba cautious leat tha prisoner get wind of what they vent bin to any and refuse to say it. It ia probably this aore than any calculated cunning which causes then to sake to tha prisoner such enigmatic statements aa: "It ia not up to na to tell you what your crlaea are; it ia up to you to tell ae"statements wbicb lead tbe perplexed prisoner to rack bla brain for an answer. The prosecutor la not hard to satisfy, and the Interrogator Dearly always obtains enough evidence to aake an 'arreat'*. If not, he can apply for an extension of ths detention period. Tbe las provides ao real protection for the prisoner. It haa bean estimated that moraf those who are aelsed aro ultimately convicted aad pualabad.

Intel lotions, once legun, ere ccrrtlirwd. until the cm la complete, net la mean ciirjiawf rrw thoj are intentionally delayed. It appear* teat tale delay is Imposed when taa priecner lahen aa la thought to be vltbaoLdloaj information, when the HV> iaeerfeeelon to crlaes other than thoae foraa evidence, and especially whan It want* to una the prisonerublic trial or toropaganda confaealon froa hla. Tn such caeee, thematlon begina when the officer ln emerge feels that tha prlaveer la ripe for It. fall Is nsmnlly when he obserree that the prisoner has become docile and compliant and shows evidence of deterioration in his need and personal appearance.

Interrogations are alnoetarried out at night. It Is aald that than practice of night interrogation originated not from any preconceived idea of ita effectiveness, but because the early Cneklatn were ao overburdened with police duties during the day that they could find tine for Interrogations only nt night. For one reason or another, it haa become standard procedure, possibly because the physical and psychological effect of night Uterroamtloms prodnees amend pressure upoa tha prisoner, at la deprived of sleep aad placedtate of added uncertainty by never knowing wham be will ho awakened aad Questioned.

Typically, he will be awakened suddenly by the guard abortly after me has dropped off to sleep, without erplaiatlon ha la

taken fro* bin cell end duvaorridoreewod carren interrogation room equippedesk and chair for the Interrogatortool for the prisoner. Tbe lighting in arranged oo that the prisoner con be placedright light while the Interrogator sits ln relative darkness. tenographer Is present in one corner of the room to take notes. More often the Interrogator ankes his own notes, writing ns the prisoner speaks. Usually only one Interrogator is present but occasionally other officers are Introduced. Sometime*-alternate, for psychological reasons, one being "friendly" and tbe other "hostile". If hla work Is successful, the original interroamtor any carry tbe case throughonclusion, but if he does not achieve the desired goal, he amy be replaced.

Tbe atmosphere of the Interrogation room generally baa some degree of formality about it. The Interrogator nay be dressed In full uniform. If he wishes to Impress the prisoner, he any takeistol, cock it, and lay it on the desk before hla; but this psychological gambit does not seen toequired port of the protocol.

The interrogator adjust* bis attitude toward tbe prisoner according to bis estimate of tbe kind of nan be Is facing. If the dossier indicates that the prisonerlald and fearful man, the Interrogator nayierce end threatening demeanor. If

prUcCntr Is thought tO b* proud and sensitise, tbe Interrogator Bar/ be Insulting aad degrading. If the prisoner bssaa of prestige aad iaportanc* In privet* life, tbs interrogator nay call hist by hie first nane, treat bla aa an Inferior and rewind bla that he haa lost all tank and privilege. If It la known that the prisoner haa been unfaithful to bla wife or haa ecawltted scan crlae aucb aa cabezzleaent, tbe interrogator nay blackmail bla by threatenlna; *rpo*ur* or punishment anleaa ha cooperate*. All thee* and aany other trick* nay be esployed. Tbay are not basedcientific theory of huann behavior; they are trick* of tbe trade, eo to apeak, developed out of police experience and appliedrul* ofoaaonasis.

Alaost invariably th* interrogator take* tha attitude that tha prisoner is guilty and acta aa though all of hi* crlaea are known. Alaost invariably he point* out to the prisoner that heonpletely he1 pieas, *ad that there Is no hop* for bla unlaee fan cooperate* fully and confesses hi* crlae* completely, alaost naver doss tb* interrogator state specifically what th* prlaoner'e crlae* actually are. Thl* is left up to th* prisoner who la told. In affect, that be knows the extant of bla ownnd need only toonplete statement of than. Almost Invariably th* interrogator does not accept the early statemento of th* prlaonar. so aatter what crises heth* Interrogator force* tha

prisoner to repeat bis statements again and again, and to elabcratfl on then endlessly. Almost always he uses any discrepancies an indications of lying and questions tbe prisoner at length about then.

The first Interrogation sessions are nearly always concernedomplete review of the entire life experience of the prisoner. The Interrogator wishes to Icoow about thebackground, his class origin, bis parents, brothers aad sisters, bis friends and associates and everything tbat he has done throughout his life. If the case is of any importance, no detail Is overlooked, ana every period of tbe prisoner's life Bust be accounted for.

This review of the prisoner's life say occupy several Interrogation sessions. It has several purposes. Its first purpose Is to ecstplete the prisoner's dossier. It gives thehorough picture of tbe type of nan be is dealing with and further guides bin to the nnn's weaknesses which can be exploited. Furthermore,an to account for every detail* life producesoluminous and Involved story that the prisoner can scarcely avoid being trapped intoIf ha is concealing anything. The information obtained froa the Ufa history can also be compared with tbat already la the police files, which is usually extensive. From the police

point of view, it ia also isportant to knew thc aeeoclatee of the priaoner because thia nay reveal blaho then becone suspect* aad can be interrogated. Moat important, it reveals nany "crialnal" features of the priaoner such asclass origin, oeaberahip in reactionary organisations and assoc 1st ion vlth enemies of the state which are by Cosaainiat definition "crlaea" no natter how long ago they were committed-

The prisoner, taken from his cellong period of 'eolation, anxiety and despair, usually looks upon the first interrogationelcome break. The mere opportunity to talk to scmeone la Intensely gratifying. Many prisoners have reported that after long periods of isolation they eagerly anticipate lnterxogatlou aesaiona and try to prolong them almply for the ccarpanionship which they afford. Mot lnfrecuently, the priaoner also regards interrogation as an opportunity to Justify himself and feels false aaaurance that he can explain everything ifhance.

usually be is ouch taken aback by the fact that his crimes are not specified, and that his guilt la assumed, la la further distressed when hia protestations of Innocence are greeted as Use. But the opportunity to talk about hie life experiences ia generally Looked upon, eapeciallyerson froa Western aoclety, as an opportunity to Juatify hia behavior. Many men willingly divulge

all they canbout teaanwlve* bacauac thay feel quit* mar* that they hew* done nothing which any be regarded aa criminal. They are unaware that, froa tho point of view of Ciaaaiiilat theory and of the WD, auch of their past behavior undoubtedly will te construed as "crialnal'. If tha interrogator offera thee the opportunity to have paper and pencil in their cells and to write out their biegraphlea, they arise upon thia avidlye*na of relieving the boredoa of th* tedious, lonely routine to which they are exposed.

ure* Applied by th* Interrogator

A* tha interrogationhe interrogator changes bla behavior according to bis previous plan and tbe development of the case. If tbe prisonerooperating and talking freely, the Interrogator continue* toelatively friendly attitude. But sooner or Inter he Invariably expresses dissatisfaction with thc information which th* prisoner ha* given, no natter how ccarpLst* It Be flaaenni oevnd show* angreat interest in the accoapllces of th* prisoner and th* "organisation" to which boupposed to have been attached. When th* priaoner protests that b* has told all, and denies any other crime* or accomplices, tbe Interrogator becomes hostile and begin* t apply preasur*.

Some of tha pressures which can be applied limply by altering the routine- within the cell hnve been deacribed. Tow interrogator haa aaay other* at hla ccammad. Continuous aad re,-title* Interrogation lc aa effective and very ccavaon form of preeaore. Another which la widely used la that of requiring the prisoner to stand throughout the interrelation sesaion or to naintain some other position which becomes painful. This, like other features ofrocedure,orm of physical torture, la spite of the fact that the prisoner* and MVD officers alike do not ordinarily perceive it as such. Any fined position which is Maintainedose; period of time ultimately produces excruciating pain. Certain positions, of which the standing position In one, also produce Impairment of the circulation.

Many man canhe pain of long standing, but sooner or later all nan succumb to the circulatory failure it produces. Afterours of continuous standing, there la an accuaulation of fluid in tbe tissues of tho lege. Thin dependent "edema" is produced by tbe extravasation of fluid from tha blood vassals The ankles and feet of the prisoner swell to twice their normal circumference. The edema any rise up the legs as high en tha middle of the thighs, the skin become! vena* aad Intensely painful, large blisters develop which break mad exude watery serum- The accumulation of the body fluid in the lees


produces en impairment of ths circulation. Tbs heart rate increases and fainting nay occur. Ive-ntually ttasr*enal abut dove, and urine production ceases. Urea and other astaboUtas accuaulata In tbs blood. The prlaonar baccaaea thirsty, and nayood deal of water, which la not excreted, but adds to tb*of bla lag*- Hen hawe been known to remainfor period* as longeral day*, ultimately they usuallyelirious *tate, characterised by disorientation, fear,nd viaual hallucination*. Thia peychoalaroducedombination of circulatory Impairment, lack of sleep, and uremia.

Periods of long standing are usually interrupted from time to tine by latarrogation period* during which the Interrogator demand* andhile pointing out to the prlaonar that It would be easy for him to end hi* nlaary merely by cooperating.

The MTD hardly ever use*radort* to physical beatings. The actual physical beating ia, of course, contrary tc MTD regulation*. Th* ostensible reason for these regulations is that they are contrary to Cram unlet theory. Then for them l* the fact that th* MTD look* upon direct physical brutality a* aahod of obtaining the ccaDliance of the prisoner. It* opinion In this regardhared by police In other parts of the world. In gen*ml, direct physical

successful of uy of the tricks et his crnawaS..

his demeanor. The prisoner, returnee once again to nn Interrogation session that be expects willepetition of torture aad vilification, suddenly finds that tbe entire scene baa changed. The interrogation roca la brightly lighted. The Interrogator la seated behind bla desk, relaxed and nailing. Tea and cigarettes are waiting on the table. Be la usheredoafortabls chair. The guard Is sent away and aoaatlaaa tbe secretary also. Tha Interrogator remarks about bis appearance. Be ia sympathetic about the dlacoafort which he has been suffering. Ba la sorry that the priaoner has had such atime. The Interrogator blaseIf would not have wiahod to do thia to tha prisonerit la only that the prisonrequire this treatment, because of the priaoner'a own stubbornness. "But let us relax and be friends. Let as not talk any aore about crlaea. Tell an about your family-* and ao on. The usual line la to tbe effect that, "Aftereasonable aaa. ant to get thia bualneaa over aa much as you do. Thia la as tlreeoan to aa as It la to you. eady know about your crimes; itt re fomellty for you to write out your confession, why don't wa get it over with ao that everything oaa be settled and you can be released?"




Prisoner* find this sudden friendship aa* releee* ofalnoet lrrealatlble. pearly all of then eridly aalan th*to talh about tassneelve* and thair feelings, and than go oa to talh about their fnmille*. Hoot of tnaa proceed froa thin alaoet autonatlcally to giving tha Infomatlon vhlch thaMake. Bvon If they do not provide evvrythlng th*annta nt this tine, he nay continue his friendly aenBaaor and tha relaxation of pressurenl aore aaoeloaa before reaualng the old reglnen of torture. But If tha prisoner doea reveal significant lnforaatlon aad cooperntea fully, the rewards are proapt and gratifying. The interrogator sal .is andBin. Clgnrettca ar* forthcoming. Therearge meal, often excellently prepared aad aerved; and after thle the prisoner retorn* to hi* call and sleeps aa long as he llkme, ia any position that heh* Course of th* Int*rrogatlon

Such friendly and reversing behavior vill eoatlnue for aeveral amy*sually aa long aa th*l*ignificant amount of do* infomatlon la being produced, it tain point the prisoner may conclude that hi* ordealv*r; bat luTurlably he is disappointed. For an soca as the interrogator decides thatnformation la being yielded, th* regimen of constant pressure aad hostile Interrogationaun*I. Again it

is curled to tbe point et which tbe priaoner is near breakdown. Again it ia relaxed, aad again the prisoner ia rewarded if be cooperates. Ia this Banner, proceeding with regnlar atepa, alternating punlahaent with reward, the priaoner la constantly pressed to revise and rewrite the protocol until it contains all the statements which tha interrogator desires, and lainal fona which aeeta with hia approval. When it haa at last been agreed upon and signed, the preaaure ia relaxed "forut the priaoner continues to live In hia cell and continues under tha threat of renewed preeaure until such tine as he haa been takenourt, has confessed, and baa been sentenced.

Throughout the entire interrogation period, tbe priaoner is under tone fora of nodical surveillance. Prison physicians are familiar with all the effects produced by MTD procedures, and evidently they are skilled at Judging Just how far the various procedures can be carried without killing or peraanently daaaging the prisoner. Prisoners who have' been beaten have their wounds carefully dressed. Those who are forced to stand for long periods of time are examined periodically during the procedure-Sometlaea ths physician intervenes toalt If he feels tha prisoner la in danger. The unintended deathriaoner during the Interrogation procedure la regardederious error on the nert of the prison officials.



It tan been Bald that the interrogatorha ir vita ta* esevaptioa that a*uilty. It ia that we define ttala rtaiwt, precisely. Ita* intarroaator ln not aware of th* "tran facte" of thehat that hahan in th* light of riideology, th BTB officernnul it. I* haa eeleeieu this prisoner froa one of the grcup* of susptete described earlier, the naa *as *rTeete4 bee*aae the Wft, which represents the Cearunist State, regarded hlaennce to the Party or It* program. Anyone whotnac* to ta* PartyVy definition, guilty of threatening the security of the Clit State, froa th*It paint of view, th* anauilty". In worae, th*ha* decided that thla naae dealt with iaBanner, "for the good of the State." One* tha nan hasrrested tail point is ao longer opea to question. Thiih* tree thcejghaeaaiag of the frequentlyat statement that,oammniBtnnocent people are never arretted." If aae accept* their definition of "gallt" aadhis laact.

the interrogator doei not know jest what specificth* wan Bay have ccnaitted. Ta fa*t, itmit* clear that aoct of taa people arrested by th* HTB hav* not really

ccandtted any apeelficcrlaa* at all. But the police do know that the prlaonar he* ccaarltud aoa* acta which are contrary to tha broad Soviet lava against politleala vail aa"actual" crlaaa. Furthermore, experience haa taught then that If they pat enough preaeure upon the pilaoner, aocner or later they will eat hia to confeaa to acta which canmajor crime" Once thia coafeaaion haa been obtained, tbe MTD can demand from tbeualebaent equivalent to that wbicb it Intended that the priaoner abould receive when it arretted hia.

Much of the activity of tha interrogator can be looked uponroeeea of pareuealon. The primary work of an interrogator la to convince the pxlaonere that what they didrlae. Having gotten evidence from hie lnforaere and from the priaoner, it la up to the interrogator to pereuaae the prleoner that certain action* which he baa carried outrlaa. Tha priaoner ia oaunlly prepared to admit that th* act* have beea carried oat. Often aa not, be leveeled then freelya* did not coonlder then to be crialnal. It la up to th* Interrogator to amk* th* prisoner eee thatcta doioas crlaa, and acknowledge thl* byepocitloa and aaklng ain court Ify. auaiat legal aystea requires that thl* be donean* can be Battled.


The feet that the interrogatoredicated Cenaamlst makes hia teak of persuasionasier. The interrogator approechea the prisoner with the knowledge that the men iariminal by Ccaaaasist definition; and hearge boor of convenient Conaunlat definition* and rationalizations to help hia lahia Tictia of this. For example, according to Communist theory, acta are Judged by their "objectiveathery the aotlvee of those vho cosavltted thea- Thus,risoner,



rough an honest mistake, hasiece of machinery longing to the State, hewrecker". Objectively, he ha* wrecked an important piece of property belonging to tbe State. The fact that he did thl* with innocent motivesot a nd "accident"crime" all become the sane thing.

Likewise, according to Communistan's acta and thoughts are Judged "consequentially". Thus,riaonernown to bar* said that the MTD was too powerful, the fact that be has aald thl* nay aeketraitor" and "saboteur". The Communist reasoning isan who Bays that the MTD is too powerful, believes that Itoo powerful and will ultimately set upon thl* belief. Thl* ultimate set will constitute sabotage and treason;h* who has friendly association with foreign


national* nwt km tea* friendly fe*llng Mart than; foreign

enpiteliat and laperlaliat; a

l* friendly

foreign aetioaala lo glTlas help to the agent, of cnpitnilit inperlnllna)an aaa It*py whether he rsellnr* It

or not.

Such peculiar twists of Ccanamitt logic are difficult for wenern prlaonara to accept at first. OsuaUj they ob>ct strenuously to these definition* ofnaat alt last* ly, jadsr constant pressur* andrlaonar uaually agree* to aca* statement to the effect that, "By Coaeeeaiatpy." Thereafter, there follows furtheri iinasl and persuasion to the effecterson is Judged by the lavs of th* country la which th* crlae* are coaaitted. mtiaately th* qualifying phrasealtted, and th* final dspoaltlon contain* tha alapl* statement,py."

Many MTV officer* lanreaa th* prlaonar by the alneerlty of their de-dicetloa to Ciaannila* and lta oatenslbl* lea*la. The interrogator oftenatUnt sympathy whichapparent to tha prlscaer. Bla attitude that, "Tale is aonathlng we sButt go thrcagh vith and oalthar youan atop until you hav* cooperated andropera to aoa* extentgasulne attitude. Tfa* Mrs aystea allows of no otherfroa tha Interrogator'* point of view. It is in fact

true tbat tbe interrogations will bare to go onroper deposition ben been signed. The prisoner often ecaes to recognise thle sincerity. Hairy see tbat Indeed the interrogator anat follow the system, and. there is nothing vhich he can do about it. Thus, the prisoner, ln his need for conpenlonshlp, nay displace bis hostility froa the interrogator to the "system". Manygenuinely plead with the prisoner to learn to see the truth to think correctly, and to cooperate. The Reaction of tbe Prisoner to the Interrogation

The way lnrisoner reacts to the whole process of Interrogation Isreat extent dependent upon the wanner of nan he Is, his pre-existing attitudes and beliefs, and the circumstances aurroimdlng his arrest and iaprlaonment. All prisoners hare this in cosmos: They bare been isolated snd bare been under unremitting pressure In an ataoephere of hostility and uncertainty, they all find themselvesilemma at the time fthat the Interrogation begins. The regiaen of pressure and isolation has created an overall discomfort which is well nigh intolerable, the prisoner invariably feels that sonething aunt be done toay out. Denth is denied hla. Ultimately, he finds himself faced with the choice of continuing interminably under the Intolerable pressures of his captors or accepting the way out which the Interrogator offers. The way out la a


rntionnlitntla*. It ell ova tbe prisoner to neet tha Iraarrle of hil interrofiator by degrees, wbllo at the sane tine ratalplant, within himself acaao ahred of belief that by bis can standarda ha has not capitulated. Tha rationalisation may beand rery oftaa lao patently nbsurd and untrue tbat the victim, in hisould be utterly incapable of accept ins it- But he isa hla right mind. Bis capacity to distinguish true froar good froa bad, has been deliberately urslervdned. With rare exceptions priaonera accept tola way out, provided tbe preasures aro prclcoged and intense and the interrogator can effectively adjust his persuasiveness.

Various categories of prisoners respond to different types of persuasion. Persons who have been lifelong nenbers of the Communist party are familiar with the Ccaaruniat concept of "crime" and the functions of the MVD. Furthermore, they have all been trained la tbe ritual of eelf-crltlcien, confession, punishment madwhich has been part of at procedure since beforevolution. Many Conmualsta canelief that they are nctanUy criminals as specified by the MVD and conn to see thelv ptmlshnent as neccssury for the good of tbe State and th* Party. TO the true Party member, such nartvrdoa carries with It an air of triumph.



to-Coasnalst prisoner* ofi*fe or socialist sympathies appur**tly sake ready Urnti for too logic of tbe interrogator. Such person* aro usually eonpallmd to agree that the extensible and ldeaUatlc motivea of the Ccannmlat Partj ar*nd that those who oppose these ideals ax* "bad". Th* laticoaliiation in this ease takes th* for* of getting the prisooer to say tbat the Ccaummlst Party ha* the sane value system that he dees; samething which th* prisoner agrees is "bad" by his own definition. Proa this point th* prisoner proceeds through the usual steps to the ultiante signing of tbe deposition.

parsons who cany withtrong feeling* of guilt associated with highly organised syataa* of noral values likewise becoa* ready target* for the persuasion of the lnterrogntor. Tory few people are entirely free of guiltut, inappropriate as It eeeae, such feelings often ar* found ln the highest degree in those whose objective! and behavior are beyond reproach- Forsmy strongly religious peoplerofound sens* of They feel guilty of shortcoming* of their own which are nuch anmller than those found ln most of their fallow am- They constantly *eeaa transgressing their own noral cod* and In th* need of forgiveness for doing so. Skilledana* use of this.

Individuals with ao-called eoclopathlc or psychopathicie. whooralre vmlmerebl* Iiumi they cma be bribed.ense, to tehe tbeway out. Obviously, lDdlTldumLt actually 'caught with ths goods' rooalTs abort shrift at the heeds of the KTD interrogator.

Tb* naze In which any prisoner findsban ao nsnythat it la alsost impossible for him to encase front it withoutrotocol and being convicted. Anything he has dene amyrlae. Be has been adjudged guilty before his arreat. Be is putituation of Intolerable pressure. It is made clear to bint that bla only way out of thia situation is to cooperate with the interrogator- Be iseasonable rationalisation for doing so. Sooner or later, under these elrcuea<tances, the prisoner and the interrogator alsost inevitablyo aa agreementeposition which satisfies both of

The Trial

when the prisoner ha* finally reached th* point of admitting his crimes and be aad the Interrogator bare agreedrotocol aatiafaetory tof then, berofound sense of relief. Bvee though hi* crimes say be serious aad the punlabment for them severe, beurcease from th* unrelenting pressures and miseries of th* Interrogation procedure, whatever

the furor* amy bold for bin, ba bee for Um nonnntay of ao intolerable altaatloB.

atlsfuctory deposition baaprepared aad aigned, tba pressures upon tbe prleonar are eustonerlly relaxed. Be lo allowed to aleep aa long as be wlehee; be any nave reading and writing ante rial in bis rooa. Scant tinea be can Join with other prlaonere in periods of exercise. El* naa la laprov* and Ma guards bacons friendly or even solicitous. This easy treatacut la continued until be la thoroughly rested and hla health has been restored. Then, ln acert ceeee, be la tahen before the court The state prosecutor preaeata tha court with the algned protocol and qusstloo* the prisoner about hla crinae. afanna attorney la assigned; thia nan Invariably llndta hlanelf to requesting leniency froa the court. The whole procedure la usually brief and fornel. Thar* ar* no verdicts of "noth* function of the Judge is solely tbat of presiding over the trial and passing upon theentence which has usually been agreed upon beforebnnd by the prosecutor aad th* MVP officer In charge of the cane.

Ithis aspect of tbe proceedings which Is noat bewilder-lng to Veaten. observer*. It is easy to under*Und how prisoner* can be tortured Into signing confeaalona of erlans which they did not conadt, bat it in tifficult to understand why th* prlaonere do not renounce these confeaalona Inter at the public trial*.

Beginning with tbe Purge Trial* ofe, tbe mm and It* successor* mam offeprlag is Bo**la, tbs)kn-emean sstsllitss, sad China base pTeseuted tbe world wltbeerlea of public trials st which tbe prisoners calmly eadwithout coercion asks cmtregmons confession* of unbelievable crimes, prsnhmr tbelr captors, and ash for tbe aost aerere pODlaharnt forbsee prtscaara bawa Included larportaat Piassailst officials, former aXTO officers,citizensnd foreigners of the aoat diverse backgrounds, all of these prisoners apparently were innocent; some faced certain death- and aany were profoundly antl-Conaunlat. Han of the highest caliber and Integrity like Cardinal Nlndssenty seemed to have ths strongest posslbla aotlrntiaaa to resist; bat none of than stood up in court and denounced the confession and bla captors. This phenomenon denands an explanation.

The explanation la available but It Is sot simple. It la Dsceaeery to examine the propoaitlon in detail la order to view it ia Its proper light.

rirst. It IS by no mesas true that "all prisoner* confess freelyublic trial." ary snail minority of priaoner* of th* Ooaamnlet state polio* *var appearublic trial. The proportion of thorn* triadail. Th* MTB will sotprisonerublic trial

unlese It la soarmced that ba will ao through with hla

u If th, re la aa? doubt ahoot this, ao public trial la vca with tola precaution the MTD la not lnfeilibln. At tha Pargn Trlnla aaweral of the prlacenrr tried to recant parte of their rieoosrr tried to recent, th* proeecutor haltedani nation of that person. Usually, when be returned fro* hla call several day* later be was again docile and cooperative. f th* ao-called "publicar* not actually been They bar* been carried out in the presenceelect audience while norlea and recordings are wade of the prisoner'e words which ar* later trunnaltted to the public.

The najorlty of prisoners do cone to trial, but theae trial* are not public. They are bald in car re. The state police are concerned ccil> with political ciiaea aad espionage. Their prisoner* are tried before "Militaryhich are not public court*. Thoae praaent ar* only the Interrogator, the state proeecutor, the prisoner, theewndew officers of th* court. Atrial there la no opportunity for public protest, and any protest which la and* can be readily expunged froa the record. So far aa the prisoneroncerned, this so-called trial appear* aaext atep ln hla proccaa of iuprisceawsnt. Be baa entirely la the band* of hi* interrogator* aad


with acctii te- do oo* ale*. Whoa finally eoaee before the court be sees bo one wt except tbe state pToeercotor, tbe Judge, aad the court offlclale. TbeettoraeT, if om it aaaifaea, above not the slightest interest ia refuting any of the evidence ia the eonfeaaioa or inlea of "act guilty". Be never questions the fact that the priaoner la guilty as charged. Sea*tines he ask* tha Judgeut not Infrequently a* lnforna the court that be la convinced the prisoner la just aaooster a* the prosecution says bend that he cannot bring blase If to aak the court for leniency. The Judge likewise shows no interest la tha question of guilt or innocence. Be Halt* blaaelf toorder In the court and passing sentence. If the prisoner ha* any lUaslon* that the proMCutor, tha Judge, and the defense attorney are golag to allow hia any opportunity to dispute the fact* in tb* ease these are soon dispelled.

By ao means so all pri*OB*r*rial of any sort. Those who ars stubborn or repeatedly recant their eonfeaaioa* during the Interrogation procedure will not be trusted even at private trial*. Uncooperative end stubborn prisoners andho might make ameer aing atnteaent* are "dealt with adalnlstiativsly." for many year* th** police hav* had tb* right to carry out administrative trial* for any prlaonar* whoa they do not wish to expose to tb* asaal trial procedure. Tb***

admlaiatratlv* trials cooelet of .imply yimiHn tamt priacamrr togroup oflor polio* officer* (th*ho pmm* sentence 1and hsw* it carried out forthwith- dalnlstrativ* trial* tmka placa within th* detent loo prlnon. Sometimes th* priaoner la not even present atmce Is passed by tha Troika merely upon the basis of the slgmed protocol.

Scnetlae* the alleged records of these trials bav** public, but generally the fact tbatrial bad taken pine* la never revealed. For every Soviet cltlun who baaublic trial there have been tbounands who have been triad only at privet* trial* by allitary tribunals or bav* been dealt with adalni etratlve ly by tha police tb earn elves. reat number of high Ccemmznlst officials, captured German officers, sad slallar prisoner* who fell Into the bands of the Russian aacrrt* not tried at nil. So far as tbe public waa concerned, they Barely

It la said that elaee the deathla and th* dissolution of th* Ita, th* right of administrative trial has been withdrawn from the hvD. Th* history of put attempts to reform the secret police suggest that It will be quietly restoredewf it ba* not been already. Public Confessions

If w* exclude from consideration allpriaoaar* who are dealt with adaialscratlvely, two queatlone nam In why do all of

tho**who ore tried to privatelacst without way ooprisoners confess at public trlala wheza than iaaw opportunity to aaka ao open denial of


In reaponao to tha aueatloo of way prlaooar* at private trial* eeafea* alaost without exception the followingvera can be given:

Tha eettlng of th* private trial aa wa have Juat described itt apparent to th* priaoner that any attempt at recantation ia

The priaonerrivate triallways under actual threat by th* MVD. Th* officer in charge of hi* oaa* ban clearly indicated to him that any attempt to alter or recant any part of hi* confession will lead to an immediate reauaptlOQ of the interrogation-torture regimen. Thie threat ia aa poignantocked pistol.

Warn aad positive feeling* between prlaonar* and their interrogating officer* often develop during the interrogation process, and anny prisoner* com* to trial withllng that, If they attempt to altar their testimony. they will be dishonoring an sgreemaat with their interrogator*.

inally, ito b* nereis slsed that in spit* of all of theseom* prisoners do recant at their private trial*. Tha court then decides that these priaoner* hav* not



ull awareness of their crimes. They are aemt back to the detection prison, sod oaee again pot through the torture-interrogation rcarlsma. Sooner or later, theythat pleas of "not guilty" are not aeeeptable la Soviet courta, and that they suet behave theaaelvei at their trials. Othereiae, they are indefinitely detained or executed. In answering the question of why scsse prisoners Ci nfeas publicly when there la ease opportunity for then to renounce their confeaslone and thereby gnbarrasi their captors, one aust consider the TBxious categories of those who hare been triad In public. Widely publicised trials are staged by the Ccnaamlsts only under axceptlcaal elrcAaaitaacea and always for propaganda purposes. They are carefully aanaged "set pieeee" in which ewery psrforner aust play hia role exactly aa prescribed. The MTD and other Ctxaaunlat police organizations select the prisoners for these shows with great care.

The firat category of those who have aade public confessions are prominent Bolsheviks who have fallen froa grace; Zinoviev, ismensv, aykov, Bukharin, Madek and theirt tha tlaa of the great parens; aore recently. Lues, Rajk in Hungary, Traloko Eostov la 4julgarla, Slansky, Clement la, and othera in Csschoalovnkla, China, ate. Tha list is extensive, but sot nearly oo extensive as ths list of oroalment Ossein 1st officials who were liquidated


administratively, probably beCtUM they could BOt be trusteduhlle trial.

But why old these confess, who did ao? The old Boisherixs "eoafceaad" pxiamrily beceaee they were lifeleenj,naailsta They had committed their live* to the belief that do thine i> aaered but the Forty, and the Party la always right. If thereentral point in tbe Ccsnanilat creed, it la thin. Theae awn all aubacrlbed to tha belief that opposition to the laxty line, an expressed by the Partyriaa. WhnteTer else they vera, they were "chronicnd knew tfaeaeelve* to be so. They all subscribed to the Ccaammlst ritual of public self-critic Ian and punisbaent. nearly all of than bad at one tine or another publicly criticized themselves and bad been puniahed. Several had been expelled froa the Party, not once but several tines. They all knew tbeaeelvoe to be in opposition to the Party leadership, aad they all felt guilty about this. In spite of thin, they still considered themselves to be Bolsheviks and warein principle to accept any demand which the Party night make upon than, even to th* point of death.

Another category of thoaa who have eonfeaeed puhliely ia that group of Intellectually or ideal latlcally motivated people who war* thought to be oppoeed to Coaasaalsm, or nt least to be noa-Ctnsaenlst, prior to their arreat. Host prcmlaant in this group 1*


Cnxdlnnl Mlndaianty; also lxlukn la this are other tkmrnm Catholic priesta froa the antelllte couetrto* aaeh aa Bishop Craail.

atlll another category of tbca* Mho hare confessed publicly aro Taiious foreign puslaeaaaan, oewopapanam aad military mem who wero arrested or captured ln tha course of their routine dutlea; Robert Vcgeler In Bungmry and WlUlma Catla In Ciechoaioraki* are eimmplea. In all of these caaea, the following factors ara evident:

confessions aad* by the prisonerstrue" in the sens* tbat the specific actathe confeaaion* actually occurred.

interpretntioo put upon theae acta wasinterpretation.



aer bad been ot< 'jh- to agree tbat In ths country In which h* waa nrrwated the Conanmlat lnw* applied and, therefore, theae actarime. The prl*on*r, therefore, pleaded guilty to "crtaeo" which were "crlaea"t definition, hut which ba bad not intended a* criaaa or coosldered to beat to* tins that be carried than out. This qualification, however, waa aisslng froa th* atatm-aents end* by the prleonere at the trial*.

(*) All of theae prlaonere were under tbe threat of


torture-Interrogation reglnen If they recanted or

their confession*.


lawny of them bad tbe actual or Instiled wall as tha flra belief that ther would be released if they cooperated with the police.

furthermore, all of them were able to ratloaallae that their coofeeiloos would not be believed by outsiders la any ease. This retloneatIon was laorrectheir confesalons were widely disbelieved la the United States; but ia scam other areas of the world their eoafeeelons are accepted as factual.

<?) Finally, It aust be empheaiied that ia all these cases, though probably to varying degrees, the brainwashing processhe disintegration of perooaality aecosrpaaled by some shift In value-systeB had taker, place. In the case or devoted Caaaunlsta, It is possible that fanatic loyalty to the Partyarge part In bringing about thewithout the necessity of extensive brainwashing' On th* other hand, sal or shifts In their thinking processes aast have influenced the public confessions of Cardinal II lads testy, Vogeler and Ontls. when absurd events sad incredible logic are apparent in convincingly sincere etate-annts by nan of such intelligence, no other explanation la sufficient. These san were reducedtate in which their conceptual processes ware no longer encxarhered by processes of critical Judgment.



protocol, la China tha preparationirst confession isrolan*ong period of lndoctrlnutlon and r- education, which any go on for year*. It is notuntil tbee* la charge of tbe prisoner believe that be haa finallycorrect" attitude aad behavior. It la only then that tbe trial, th* sentencing and the fornal tern of lnprisonaent or other punlsbnent begin*.

frill be tbe MVD, the Chines* nake extensive use of group interaction aaong prisoners, in obtaining information, in applying pressures, and in carrying out Indoctrination.

The goal of the MTTJ detention and interrogation procedure is the preparationrotocol uponuiteolscam be baaed, so that the MVD can then deal with the prisoner according to its preconceived idea of what anat b* don* for tbe good of th* Party aad the Boeiet State. inority ofhisublic trial for propaganda purposes. Th* MVD does not appeal- to ba greatly concerned about the future attitudes and behavior of the prisoner, ao long aa be behnvae properly daring th* period of trial and aentenelng. The goal of taa Chlneae detention and interrogation procedure, oa tha other band. Is prlaarily that of insuring that the prteonar willelatively long laating ehaag* In hla attitudes

mad overt behavior that will be sustained after bla release, ao that he will act againo thai rT atata. The aeouriag of lnforaatloo by lateiroaa-tica, the preparation of proper protocols aadnd tbe partleipatlon of the priaonare ia publio propaganda trial a, are secondary to tola prlaery goal.

(a) ahereas ia tbe Soviet Dblea aad the aatellitaa tha ritual of public self-criticise, coafeaeion, aelf-lagradatioa, puniabsent, and rehabilitationarty procedure oonflned to Coaanmista, the Chinese have extended thia practice to the aon-party population, and to the prison population la particular, and has* aade It an important feature of their

Indoctrination proceoure.

Fhyeieal torture of tbe traditional aort la cosaaon. lenatclaa and leg chains are frequently used.

are leaa atandardltad.

Detention facilities are aore prialtiTs.

The essential differencee appear to be in those of eaphasls and objective, as Indicated In (l)bove. The Soviet objective ia one ofonfeeeloaelatively abort tins. The Chlneae objective ia that of indoctrination, of con-

tha victla to

and the proceaa any be prolonged

years. Th-ilewaehjag la bat oaa of aany techniques uaed.



lecture* and constant aad Intensive social preseures are also proalnent eleuent*.

Scaat person* who have eaerged from Chlneae prisons have been characterised by amusingly altered politicalad laay^Uate loyalty to Conaunlen. They bare. Indeed, been described aa the

aoat thoroughly brainwashed of all: While the story of Chinese Indoctrination is an interesting and iapreaaive one, we believe that it la in the interest of clear thinking to confine our use

of the tern 'orainvashlng" to that syateaatic breakdown of the

personality which is deliberately brought about for tbe purpose

of securing false confessions.

Coo elusions

Froa thia general description it is possible to draw two general conclusions about Cceawnist control techniques. Firat, there la little that la new la their repertoire ofew pagee of Malleusor example, will convince any reader of the aaawtng similarity between present-day CosBBJBlst bralrnrashlng aethods and those used for obtaining confessions of witchcraft three and four centuries ago. Ccmmunlat control of the Individual and the nassas is little different froa controls exercised by virtually all absolute forms

I, M. Malleus Mhleflearua. London Pushkinp.

of governaeat, port nod present, what la oov with th la tbe extent of application and tbe unsurpassed orsanlsntloa la administration of control techniques.

The second general conclusion la that thebarelghl7 systematic use of techniquea for controlling tbe Individual. This eye teal zaM on apparently baa been developed pregaatlcaliy by trial aad error, rather than froa the beet available theoretical principle*. There ia evidence tbat no aclcntlate have participated in tbe actual brainwashing process. And cconlderlng what is known of the brainwashing process, acre eysteaatlc application of established psychological principles could probably increase tbe efficacy of brainwashing.

Both the Soviets and Chinese are flexible In developing "tailor-nada" control pressures for specific individuals. This tailoring of treatment ia dependent upon scan) ability to diagnose what combination of pressures will be Boat effective laarticular pereccallty. Finally, it any be worth re tibssiting nt thle point that kinds of people who have been ln tha hands of the CoBsaadsta have done neny different things for anny different reasonso all of which tbe tern ^rvUnvaahlng" has at scan tine beea applied. Loyal Coaaunlsts have confessed falsely "for tbe good of theo doubt in aone cases with little laaedlate


coercion. Soma uoeviucated or rooUen pence* care been easyfor coaTersloB to Coasamlea it team* viae, hoverer, to raatrea tba tarafor that aaaaalt oa tbevbdeblear and prominent ramlt of the Sonet regimen Just deocribed. It If that aaaaalt oo the personality to which wonov torn car attention.


Having gotten the "feel" of the Ccnnomiwt prison Interrogationwhich culainate la tha false confession, we should now organise our thinking with reepsct to Jutt what ia sceosplished and how thia obJectiTe ia

brought about.

Tha objectire la tolausible, detailed, reasonably consistent confession of crlaea. ajor characteristic of this confession la that nearly all of It is false- Scene of the specific acts or utterances ascribed to the Tic tin nay, to be aura, be true. But the crialnal aeanlng of the acta, the crialnal Intent of the victla in perforate* than, aany eabellishnents aad elaboration! of the acts, the victla'J guilt with regard to thea, and hia belief that he should bell theae are distortions, and quite at variance with thc facts.

A second and moot essential characteristic of theconfessing Individual is that he appears to haveonviction that what he confeaaea la true. Thia la indeed the aost startling element in the whole picture; and this Is the eleasent which demands explanation.

Aa illustration amy nek* this clear. rlaooer baa beaa choeen for breiawuahlng, ba cannot, escape going through tbe entire process alaply toanything be is anked to slap. In public trial, such confesslone would be unconvlnc lngly supported by tbe victla, or nigh* be denied. Tbe whole proceis aunt be carried through to tbe point where the rictia literally evince* belief in bis confession.

The bar figure in the brainwashing process is Be is tbe protagonist around whoadevelop* his ccoflict, ond upon whoa theto depend as heolution for thatprovides the general outline, though not the dathe great fabrication which the vietla auntand eone to believe before tbe process is culalnnted.

Is Initiates tbe pressure* which are applied to the victla, and readily adapts his own behavior to provide additional pressure. Bis role is predominant.

The process of brainwashing is essentially one ln which two paths are being followed. On* is th* deao rail tingth* result of which Is to reduce the vietla's critical faculties to the point where he no lccnpir discriminates clearly between true and false, logical and illogical. The

other la the re-or**nrlzlng process, la which ba la required to coaatruct hia confession, elaborate it, defend it, and ballava it. These- tvo processes are actually going oa all tha tlac, though aa initialusually precedes thc in ten* Ira interrogation and the initial con*tract of the eonfeaaioa.

Tha preriou* section deacrtbad in *oa* detail the control pressuresy the Ccaamnlata. Recognition ofo logical effects of these preeeure* within th* IndlTldialeccsaary to an understanding of brainwashing. It ahould be noted that thisheoretical analysis. A* indicated in the last eectlon, the Ccaaus-lat* did not design their pressures toarticular need to achlero these effect*.

A Hypothetical Bcbedule of Brainwashing

Za the period laaedlately following captur* or arr**t, hi* cantor* are faced with the problea of how to exploit

th* prisoner BBXlSBlly. When,n* Of arrested

Sovieth* arrest and interrogation plan already developeduitable, little further need be don* to carry out th* assault upon the priaoner. When tha prlaonaritizen of th* Coaaualvt country, or h*rlaonar oflan aust be developed froa scratch. Therefore,


ad lax both forho an to ba interrogated for intelligence and ihcee vha are toyataaatle breinvmahing. Oa* practical eccaeeueaeo

. Immediately beccanrs apparent. Tha alnda of thee* van arc to ha Interrogated for intelligence anat be kept sufficiently

| clear aad intact tooherent, undlatorted revelation of the dealred information;n br*ln*aahinaj the Initial aeeeult la upon the clarity of the thought proceaaea.

Concurrently with prulialnary adminietrntlv* contacta the prisonerhysical and psychological eoftealng-up process. This softening-up Includes Halted, unpalatable food, regimented ererclae end use of toilet fncllltlea,

withholding of rending mmterimls, deprivation of tobacco,

and strict Twgalatloo of tha conditions and position of sleep.

As previously indicated, tha moat important mechanism of tha brainwashing process la the interrogation. During thsf the interrogation th* Interrogator amy attempt to elicit infomatlon (especially in tha case of captured Militaryo indoctrinate his victla to thepoint of view, to attack hla value-system and his thought processes, and to lead hla through th* demoralisation


and reintegration that chnrarterlie* tb* brainwashed state. In achienog his objective the interrogator control* the administration of all the other preneuree.

The following emotionalre created vithln thc lxidlvldual during the systematic courae of the brainwashing i

A feeling ofn attempting to deal with the Impersonal machinery of control.

An initial reaction of "surprise".

A feeling of uncertainty about what la required of bin.

eveloping feeling of dependence upon the interrogator.

A aenae of doubtoaa of objectivity.

reelings of guilt.

(7}uestioning attitude toward hia own value -eyatea.

feeling of potentialsight go insane.

aaad to defend hie acquiredA final sense of 'belonging" (identification).

The order in which tbe feellnga arcithin the individual any vary somewhat, but all areto the braiasnelilag proooee.

A fw:in* of belpl*iimii iato aval vita to* larernonal aaehlnery of control develop* within tha Individual ehrlng the early stages. Th* Individual vhoh* Kftenlng-up trvahaaot da scribed above not only begin* to feel like an anlaal but feel* also that nothing can be don* Bbout it- Be one pay* *ay peraonal attention to hia. lla complaints fall en deaf ear*. Hia ioaa of craaaaalcatlon, If he baa been JaoIntel,eeling that he haa been forgot ten. Bv*rythlng that havren* to hia ceenra according to an lnperaoonl tin* schedule that baa nothing to do with hie need*. Th* voice* and footsteps of th* guard* are anted, benny eontraet*. Tbe eell* are cleen bat h* ia filthy. Bla greasy, unpalatable food la served on battered tin dlebea by guards laaaculately dressed In white. The first step* inersonnllsation" of the prisons? bave begun. Be has no Idea what to expect. Awrple opportunity is allotted for bla to runlnete upon all the unpleasant or painful things that could happen to bla. Ba *neroacbe* th* *ala laterrogatlon withliaga of relief and fright.

Th* controlled individualonstantly experiencing surprise hat be expect* la often not what actually

happens to Mb. Barely is the urlncnmr prepared for the feet that interrogators ore often initially friendly and considerate. They nake every effort to dexmstrat* tbat they are reasonable buann beings. Often they apologire for any bad treataent received by the prisoner and promise to iaprove the prisoner's lot if he, too, is reasonable. This behavior is not vhat the prisoner has steeled blaseIf for. Be lets down sone of bis defenses and tries toeasonable attitude. The first occasion, however, tbat tbe prisoner balks atequest of the interrogator, he is in for another surprise. The formerly resnonable interrogator unexpectedly turnsurious maniac who screams epithets. The interrogator may slap the prisoner or draw his pistol snd threaten to shoot bin. Usually this stora of emotion ceases as suddenly as it began snd tbe interrogator stalks froa the room. These surprising changesoubt in tbe prisoner as to his very ability to perceive another person's activations correctly. Bis next interrogation, as likely as not, will be sarked by the very Impassivity of tbe interrogator's mien.

A feeling Of uncertainty about what Inla likewise results from the prisoner's early contacts with the

Inter- nttor. Pleas of tin prl*oner to learn epecifieally of vBot he lo ae owned ud by whoa oreby the interronator. mtlelly the interrogation la left tan tree-tared. The priaonar la asked to tell why he thlBha he is held and what be fowl* be la guilty of. If the prisoner falls to coae ap with anything, he it accused ln tame of broad generalitiesrplonage, sabotage, net* of treason against th*tc.). This usually provokee the prie-oner to nake acaw statement about hi* activities. If thla takea th* foraenial, be is usually sent to isolation oo further decreased food ration* to "think over" his crimes.

Isolationo be an unusually efficacious Individual difference* ia psychologicalIsolation are wary grant. Son* Individuals appear towithstand prolongnd periodsj*rioneffect;elatively short period of lreduces other* to the verge of peyehosls. rjactlon varies considerably with th*the isolation cell, gone liniel duals have Indicated n

reaction to th* filth and vermin, edthough they had anwrllgible resotlcem to the laolatioo itself. Others, how-

reacted violently to Isolation ln relatively dean cell*.


of the latter reaction appears to h* the lackiy The even arayjBJhBl of the valla (or total lack ofhe lack or sound, the absence of eoclal contact, all coablne to deprive the iadlTidunl of differential stimulation of his sensory sod organ*, nesearch has indicated that, when sensory stiaulstlcc, haa been ayetea-atlcally dec leaned the indlridual Is incapable oflng his own subjective imsunicn* for soreery Hal tad number of day., kaperinental subjects repcrted vividand overwhelming fear*.

this process of alt* mat lag periods of isolation vith demand*onfession during interrogation can be repented again and again. The priaonerorced to aakeccarproalae to break the intolerable cycle. A* soon aa be can think of scam thing that night be conaidered self-lncrialnntlng, the Interrogator appears noaentarlly satisfied. The priaoner le asked to write down his atatemear. in bla own words and sign it.

I**anwhll* the controlled individualtrong sense of dependence upon th* Interrogator. It does not take bin long to realise *hat the interrogator la the of all punishment, all gratification aad all

cation Uat tbe prisoner can bare. Tbe interrogator while dencaatretea his unpredictability. Be la perceived by the prlacoerreature of whin. At tinea theeon be pleased wary easily and nt other tines ao effort on the part of the prisoner will placate hla. The prisoner any begin to channel so nuch energy into trying to predict the behavior of the unpredictable Interrogator that he losea track of what la happening inside hlneelf. Hla recognition of eepenaeneeelatinly unpredictable Interrogatorourer of lntenne internal conflict.

After tha prisoner but developed the above paychological and eosrtlceel reactionsufficient degree, thebegins ln earnest. First the prlaansr's remaining critical faculties nmst be destroyed. He undergoes long, fhtljpiing interrelations while lookingright light. Be is called sack ngaln end again for IrrUrrcejatioas after alninal Bleep. Drugs any be oned to accentuate hlaswinge. He develops depression when the Interrogator la being kind and be cones pupfaorlc whan the interrogatorhreatening the direct penalties, aad than the cycle Is reversed. The prlaoner finds hlneelfonstant state of anxiety which prevents hla froa relaxing even when he la

permittee; to .leer, abort period* of leolatlen new bring ce -iimi and auditory telleeln*tlonn. The Btlaoner feels hlmeelf Ice lag hie objectivity.

The prieoner may be tortexed by beingo stand In one spot for several bour* or earume some other paln-ln-duclng acVtieej. The pbyeiolcwrlcul effects of each tortureean described. Psychologically, thle type of tuitmw create* additional Intarnnl eccnTXlet. tfhen the prlacoer It required to atand In con position, there la often engendered within him an Initial determination to "stick It out" Thle Internal act oftance providesfeeling oflr*t. as time passes nnd th* pain aouots, the individual teconee aware that, to aomeIt la hla own original determination to resist that Is causing theof pain. Thereonflict within the Individual between his moral eetermlnatlom mad hi* desire to eollnpne snd dlaccntlnue the pain. It la tela extraeonfUct, In addition to the conflict over whether or act to give la to teaBad* of hla, that tend* to ashe ted' method of tortuT* bo effective in tha braehdown of tbe ladlvidual

it is in thia state that the prieonjr Bast kacp up an

, ev


ignauul with bla lrrUrrogator. la amy ha faced with thaon* of othar lndivliinalB who "collaborated-with hia la hia crlaea. thelonsly begins to doubt bla oaa. thiseightened by m* laability to recall little things like the aaaas of the people ha knows eery wall or ths date of his birth. The interrogator patiently aharpena thia feeling of doubt and aacartaintyea of quest ion lng. For exanpla, if the goal of the brainwashing la an adalsalon of participationa-warfare actiwitiee, thc following queatlona nay be asked lnesssnurtly: "Wd you personally supervise the loading of bcaoe la yoar plane? Did you know exactly ahat waa la each of then? Dig you count the explosions of thc heaths you dropped? are you aura? Mere you told to hit eecooaary targeta if yon couldn't achieve your prlaary tarssrteT were you ordered to drop aU of your boaha wall-within aaaay territory? Vara sobs of your explosives of tha antl-personnel type! are yon sure that none of your boabs eoatained bade rial If you acisoaally bad any objection to thc aaa of Saab gem-sarfare was pens, do yon think your superior* would nvw told you what you war* cerrylngTtc.' This line ofa tea Individual has lostf hi* critical

faculties, tends toerious state of uncertainty, this bus been deaceotnted, vhsn eoccmpnnylns; pressures were virtually nil. under experimental conditions.

The prisoner eust suffer additional internnl conflict when strong feelings of guilt are aroused vitbln hla. Aa any clinical psychiatristara, it is not nt all difficult to create auch filings. Nilltary personnel axe particularly vulnerable. bo one can aorally Justify atiiing even ln wartlne. The usual Justification la on the grounds of necessity or self-defense. The Interrogator Is careful to circumvent such Justification. He keeps tbe interrogation directed towards the prisoner's personal noral code, (why is tbe prisoner personally killing civilians and troops who have never done anything to hla? Did he personally want to fight this war, or van tn drafted T) fvery noral wiOaerabillty is exploited. (How does tbe prisoner feel about the fact that tbe weapons of war cannot ba sufficiently controlled to guarantee the killing only of soldiers? Or did the "eras nafcnrs" design the* that wny? Does the prisoner really believe ln fighting to support colCBlnllaT Mould th* prisoner feel any obligation to support his country if an attack were nade upon aaxlco: abw is this different froa tha fhlaeas position la ahrea? what dees the prisoner feel about the fact tbat. was th* first to utilise nuclear weapons la

wartar*? Dee* th* priaconr aupportall u. policies caT his If not, doesn't this war support son* of the olicia** not sppToreT is ths prisonerChristian! Bom Christianity condoneof the type noted out by sir boablngst) Incessant auestioning of thle type tends toany doubts baaed upon Irrational guilt feellnga. The prisoner begins to owaetlOB the very fiinlsanitals of Me can Talue-systaa. One bralnvaabed priest reported that after Interrogation he really began to feel intense guilt about the very adealooary work to which he bad devoted bis entire life. Constantly, tbe priaonerightotential breakdown. Be finds that hia nlnd la "going blank" for longer and longer periods of tine. Be cannot think constructively. If be ia to aalrrtaln any seablance of psychological integrity, be nust bring an and to wis state of iateralnable internal conflict. Heillingness toonfession.

If thia aare truly the end, no brainwashing would hav* actually occurred. The individual would eiaply haw* "given in" to irrtoler-ahl* pressure. Actually the final stage of the brainwashing process na* Just begun. Bo natter what tb* priaoner write* In hi* confession, the interrogator is not astlafieA. Theor assetion* every Mntancc, every porase of tha confession. Be to adit while working with the prisoner. The prisoner is

"simple Pavlorian condltlcsilng" accounts for in tbe final stages of brainwashingsn.ii misconception. Thc an Jar alnllarlty between what bappebs to Pavlov'a dog and what happens la brainwashing lies ia tbe preparation of the dog for the conditioning experiment. Brainwashing eon be llswnad much more fruitfully to the aore complex concept of "Instiavoidancehich requires that the animalolutloo to avoid pain. It ia much aore difficult to -da-condition" an animal that haa learned in thia way. Actually brainwashingreative act of learning (internalof tbe thought processes) on the part of the brainwash-vlctla. Thia does not imply that he could "help" laaamlng any aore than tb* child oaa "help" learning that fir*ot ana should be avoided.

value-syaecOMi ecenjlete. It ta extremely lnportant to recognise tmmvqualitative daengn has taken piece within the pritooer. Tbe brelrfwmah-Tictlm does Dot conacloumly change hla value-system; rather tbe change occura despite bla effort a. Wm is nc more rarDonalble for thla change than la antx> "amps" andsychotic. And like the psychotic, the prlacaxer ia not eren aware of the transition.

An interesting point is raised by the bebnvlor of returned prlseners-of-var who had been brainwashed during the Korean conflict. Some of these Individuals stood court-emrtinl; others were vilified in the press. One wonders why they did not say,as brninwaahedI believed nt the tinsaid over tben their own defense. Appnrently they could notclearly what happened to them. One wonders if this inability to ccaaaunicate their experience is relatedost interesting psychiatric finding tbat it Is virtually Impossibleecovered ecnizopbrenic to tellsychotic "state" ia like. All that be can say la tbat It ia unimaginably horrible. Similarly, acme of the brainwashed have characterised their ownsftermath

Since the changed value-ay atea of tbe brainwash-victim has developedeverely ccntrolled enviroaaent when hla critical


JodjBjeot was at its nadir, it omn be coaaldared,eeee, like and anforead The *lctia literally "fcaajaU-aaay of tbe create that occurred during the brairaaabiae; process. If each an analogy is oeeful, it could be predicted that the brelnweah-vietia, once freed froa oppreaolve controls end having recovered bis critical faculties, wouldpootaneous reintegration and recovery with tbe paseage of tlae. Thia appears to he the ease. Aeeonpanylag thie recoeery ofvmlee-eywtea acre conalatent with his beliefs prior to brelnwaahlag it thc gradual recall of the various aspects of the brainwashing proeeea itself.

Original document.

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