THE INTERROGATION OF DEFECTORS

Created: 6/1/1960

OCR scan of the original document, errors are possible

CIA HlSIORlOAi RLViBV PSSGRAM

TITLB: The Interrogation Of Defectors

AUTHOR: Stanley B. Farndon

VOLUME; 4 ISSUE: Summer

STUDIES IN

INTELLIGENCE

A collceUon c4 articles on Ihe hisiorical, operational, docirinai. and theoretical aspects ot mlentoence.

All siaicmenis offset, opinion or analysis expressed in Studies in Intelligence arc those of

ihe authors They do no! necessarily reflect official positions or views of the Central Intelligence Agency or any other US Government entity, past or present. Nothing in the contents should be construed as asserting or implying US Government endorsement of an article's factual statements and interpretations.

and empiricalot the interrogation process as applied to East Europeanbona fide and nolo.. v

TERROGATION OF DEFECTORS Stanley B. Farndon

In time ol war the most massive source ol Informationarding the enemy is the flow of prisoners and deserters from his ranks,old war era an Important segment of positive and operational intelligence Is similarly derived from defectors, refugees, and would-be agents. Their offering of information, however, Is not laid freely and untainted at our feet. It must be extracted from them, sometimes against the utmostand the authentic sorted out from the deceptive,seless from what fills our needs. This process, the Jobhe interrogator, is made less difficult In wartime by ourng the prisoner wholly at our mercy for the duration; over peacetime enemy sources the equivalent control must for the most part be achieved by psychological means.

Particularly the critical first phase of anthat undertaken to determine whether the defector is genuine, an enemy agent, or Just amuch poise, knowledge, human understanding, dexterity, and perseverance. The Interrogator must have the manner and bearing tohis subjecterson of authority. His knowledge of the subject's country should be such as to evoke respect, and his command of the language so fluent as to permit easy, natural conversation and an Instant grasp of subtleties. He needs to sense the kind of person he is dealing with andquickly any change of attitude reflecting uneasiness,reserve, or unrestraint. He must be able to convince the subject of his deep personal interest in his welfare. He must -be tactically skilled and flexible in his approach, keepingpun threads of the story effortlessly In mind, spottingexploiting openings, recognizing significant to-formation, learning without revealing his interest. With some subjects he needs mordlnate patience and determination.

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fnferrogofion

Ainu and Precepts

In aU three types of defectorterintelligence probing of the subject's bona fides, debriefing abona fide defector of his knowledge useful to inteUigence. and the extraction of operational information from the purported defector in intelligenceinterrogator's aim Is to get the subject to give information willingly and withoutThis he can accomplish best byarmonious; atmosphere andlose personal rapport with the:apport based on the subject's respect for theerrogator and confidence in his good will To this end he: must on the one hand be understanding, just, and friendly, and1 on the other maintain the psychological superiorityto control.

During the early stages of an interrogation, the interro--gator's main objective is to discover exactly what sort ofon he is dealing with, and so how best to use his ownonality to get the subject to answer questions willinglyruthfully. But the subject also tries to use his personality. He usuallyumber of poses by means of which he hopes to gain the good will and trust of his interrogator in order to assure his own future well-being, or if he is an agent, in order to pass safely through the security channel and end up in position to fulfill his mission. Regardless of the capability of the interrogator and tbe character of the subject, these assumed poses make it very difficult to achieve frankness and sincerity during the Initial interrogation periods.

The process can be hastened, however, by preparation inand the interrogator should try to forearm himself with all available information on the subject's professionaland the details of his everyday existence In hisThus he canlow of conversation on topics within the range of tbe subject's knowledge and interest Then as he senses the subject's outlook on life and his views ondiscussed, his sympathetic understanding of these will lead the subject to talk more freely. Every effort should be made to induce him to speak freely rather than merelyquestions. Uninterrupted privacy Is an importantat this stage. Once the to terrogator has gained his own

Interrogation

impressions of the subject's personality and character, bis background knowledge of the case and his first-handwill enabl^hlm^tb-Sdrt-nut the*various"pcseVf" true characteristics, motives, and intentions.

The tension of the Interrogation situation makes thewide awake and perceptive to everything that goes on. The interrogator must therefore alsotate of keen perceptiveness in the battle of wits, fitting his observations quickly Into the emerging picture as the interrogationAn Interrogator not physically rested and mentally alert willost difficult time gaining psychologicalEven bateUectually inferior defectorsine Instinct for sensing the interrogator's qualities and spotting flaws in his attitude or reasoning which tend to destroy the respect necessary for psychological control

The factefector is dependent on the West's good will for his future well-beingever which the interrogator can utilize to control him; it does notefector long to realize that be enjoys favors in direct proportion to hisYet the prospective source may be under physical control and still fight the interrogator with bis brains and spirit At least he may be sizing the interrogator up,observing his statements and mannerisms, in order to find an area for maneuvering. And If he should be an agent, he can be expected to have been carefully trained and briefed in anticipation of questions bell be asked Tbe problem Is one of motivating the subject to cooperate, usually ofconfidence in the integrity of the Interrogator and assurance that his future will be adequately taken care of In resettlement

The best results are obtained when the subject is impressed with his Interrogator's good judgment and sense of Justice. The interrogator should make only such commitments as lie within his authority and ability to keep. One of the worst possible practices Is that of making promises that he cannot or knows he will not keep. The reversal of promisesmade destroys the subject's respect for him and the rapport between them. The Interrogator should have enough authority and latitude to approve or disapprove most

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of the requests madeubject; he needs to create the.

lin-^

facedequest beyond bis authority be should give the:ogical reason for delay without revealing that he-must ask permission from above, explaining perhaps that this:atter to which he must give some thought beforeInequest he should be careful not to leave, any suspicion that he is discriminating against the subject (unless he Is using this tacticevice In the process of breaking an agent subject).

It Is best for the subject to be brought Into theroom after the interrogator is already seated thereood position to observe him during theommon error made by some Interrogators is to keep theect waiting for some time for them in the interrogation' room: waiting gives the subject too much chance toomfortable familiarity with his surroundings. Theeg should be done in carefully chosen phrases on the subject's own language and vocabulary level The questions should be clear, direct, andubject is often unwilling tohis ignorance by asking for clarification of intricate ones. Leading questions should be avoided; they generally result in tbe subject's giving an answer he thinks is wanted, and so. frequently,ood deal of fabrication.

The subject's behavior must be Interpreted in the light of the interrogator's observations of bis personality. Apoint is whether he is naturally communicative or bard to draw out. If an inhibited man Is taciturn whenon personal aspects of his life, that reticence Isonly In showing the Interrogator that he must work the harder to gain his confidence. But If an uninhibitedbecomes suddenly taciturn, the interrogator can conclude

that his reticence, not being characteristic of his

hides deception. Some subjects, particularly Russians,end to be quite simple-minded and stupid te order to avoid! talking too much, but reveal their native intelligence once:

they are Induced to talk freely.

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Interrogation

ith the hazards that always al 'types and with Preservation tha'

Defector Behavior Patterns

long in essential thing

understand the individual subject's background andit Is helpful to have in mind some behavior patterns ob-served In the East European defector and several distinct! variant types of personality which occur among the Slavs-Like aU human beings, Slavs arc particularly talkativearrowing experience such as that which they havead In escaping from their homeland. Whatever their beliefs! and loyalties may have been in the past, the treatment they! experience in the Westremendous psychological im-pact. They realize how much better Western standards of life! are than those in the Soviet orbit Since self-preservation Is a' strong factor in defection motivation, they can be expectedry to Ingratiate themselves with their interrogators in the| hope of getting special consideration In their resettlement) They are susceptible to flattery and can readily be convinced that sincerity and cooperation will exonerate them from any1 guilt in defecting. They tend to undervalue the importance! of any Information they have, especially If it appears thatest already has some knowledge along the same lines.

Slavs are inclined to be cooperative when confronted byerlor authority. They are particularly sensitive at having, outsiders belittle their national heroes. They respondanly and well to kindness, consideration, andnce Induced to talk, itimple matter to keep themon subjects of interest to Intelligence.

I have found it advantageous, in my experience with East European defectors, to conceive of four variant types ofrequiring distinctively different approaches inTwo or more of these conceptual types, of course, can mingle and modify one anotheroncrete individual, and the mterrogatlon must be adjusted accordingly. Thestructure predominant In the four typeshall call rational, vital, emotional, and tense.1

*Cf. Guide- for Intelligenceuropean Command'. Intelhjeaee center. April Wa, col

r

Inltrrogauan

The rxUional-itructure personality Is one under superior control by the mind and will. It is characterized byssurance and reserve, with very little outward display ofons such as fear, surprise, joy, or sadness. An individual of this type is attentive during interrogation, franklynd privately he is estimating the situation with objectivity. His speech is well controlled and modulated. There Is little difficulty In establishing points of contact for conversation with him, but it soon becomes evident that thereell-defined area of personal matters to which hedenies access.

The interrogator must recognize these characteristicsime to avoid using an Inappropriate approach thatpoil all chance of achieving any degree of psychologicaleriortty. He must be somethingational typeo cope with one, adopting an objective, cause-and-efleet at-tltude. He must recognise the logical validity of the moralaterial considerations that underlie the subject'st ts rarelyational-structure personality turns out to be an agent

The vital-ttructurc personality, characterized byenergy and resilient vitality, is most often found In Rus-subjects. Its intense energy often gives It charm and the momentum of great self-confidence, but it is likely to be driven by instinctive urges without deliberate rationalIt can endure long suffering and emerge with vigor and self-assurance.

ubject of this type is met with inconsideratehe will defend himself with tenacity and resilience. He patiently stores up his emotions to react when he finds aspot in his Interrogator. On the other hand, anyentimental approach makes him suspicious. He Is shrewddaptable, and can conceal his true character by playing any part assigned him or one to support some theory he feels the Interrogator has formed. Then he can reverse the field and produce an entirely different story, rendering the results of all previous Interrogation useless, in order to gain timeresh stand for resisting the investigation

Psychological superiority over the vital-structure type tohard to attain. The Interrogator must likewise

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Interrogation

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strong and assured personality, with similar vitality and rd silienoe. He must avoid any effort to play on tha emotions, be'cause these subjects do not soiten'up ino conditions should he attempt to bluff one of them; all hi) declared intentions must be meticulously carried out. Pa tlence is an Important virtue for the interrogator dealingital-structure personality, and he should do more Ustenln( than questioning. The best method of establishing rappori withubject is by showing an Interest in the detail! of his life history, his environment, profession, family, an his desires for the future.

The ernoficmoJ-jfrucfuT* personality Is dominatedontrolled emotion, rather than mind and will or thebullient energy. It Is manifested by visible or audible erpres sion of any Joy. excitement, pleasure, depression,ther feeling caused it. by sensitive or violent reaction to an] changes of treatment, by emotional exaggeration and plead ing. and by genera] sentimentality of outlook. Emotion may drive this type to overflowing recklessness and tbe senseless risk of his whole career and life, orlind beating of his! head against obstructions and limitations. He usuallyasic yearning to escape the realities of lifeendency to; lean emotionally on another person, and so to hero-worship.j

The emotional type, being easily impressed, is susceptible to! almost any skillful approach employed by tbe Interrogator, But the Interrogator must be particularly alert,rolled, and quick on his feet In dealing with these subjects in: order to take full psychological advantage of their changes of mood. They tend toward extremes, and tbe Interrogator must' catch them at tbe right extreme. Logical arguments anduasion can rarely bringhange In their mood, and delving Into their emotional depths should also be avoided. They should be made to feel at ease in conversation on some objective topic,apport established with developingon the basis of confidence and respect for tbe

It Is particularly advantageous with this type that theerrogator be presentederson of rank and dignity. He; can take full advantage of the subject's characteristic need

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lor another person lo lean on, one In whom heeelingnder no.,clic3^tancesgator be pcrslstcntiy cool to the subject when heThis Is the proper psychological moment for himnot only strength and firmness but sufficientand Interest in the subject's future to warrant theputting himself In his

An mtelligence agent with an emotional-structurenormally does not bear up well under long strain. It Is often possible to catch him off guard by deliberately arousing certain emotions. After tenaciously holding out for some time he may suddenly abandon his position, havinghat it is senseless to continue his deception, andf characteristic recklessness confess that he Is an agent. Tills breakdown usually follows an Inner struggle that isimes obvious or at least noticeable in an attitude of gloom, brooding, and apathy. The interrogator should beensitive to recognize that such an inner struggle is going on and not be too aggressive: overvigorous handling could cause stubbornness and an Increased will to resist. He shoulderve perceptively the source's moods and calculate what steps he can tactfully take to remove the last obstacles of reason and will power.ittle prompting at theoment can often bring on the spontaneous outburstull confession.hange of quarters andproduces the additional momentum needed. Thisself-abandonment is usually genuine in an emotional-structure personality, but is sometimes simulated by others, most successfully by the vital-structure type, in order to get the pressure off and feed theew cover story.

The tense-structure personality results from an irreconcJl-discord of psychological forces which preventsatisfying dignity and meaning for his lifebehavior manifests his desperate striving for such dignitymeaning; he Is strongly egocentric,endency to-absurd boasting and exaggeration. He often appears tofrom contradictory motives. His artificial poses and im-attitudes may sometimes genuinely express his per-null Ly. but even then they appear Insincere and Inappropri-to his true

H

Interrogation

such subjects act diffident and are difficult toroach. They are unlikely to have any appreciable reserveitsdity. Close scrutinyubjea^lm?nnHory^Uiy',re?e^ symptomsense-structure personality Inpersonal quarrels with superiors and equals, claims of intrigues and plots against him, evidence of difficulty In adapting himself to social environments, explanation of his failures as the result of vicious actions of others, or pretendedresignation to the whims of fate

Subjects of tense-structure personality are most difficultnterrogate. By nature distrustful of people, they shyrom the Interrogator's efforts to win their confidence. Itard tohread of continuity on which to buildith them when they deny obvious truths stubbornlyenselessly, becoming subjectively convinced of thef their stand In their constant striving to protectwn egos, they lose tbe normal instinct to tell tbe truth.acts obtained from them have to be checked outgainst other sources of Information. It Is quite oftenossible to establish their bona fides, and even when theyonfessed to being agents the truth of their accountse constantly rechecked

The CI Interrogation. Center

A safchouse should be establishedomewhat Isolated area for exclusive useI interrogation facility. If it is usedolding area where several defectors are handled at the same time, its internal arrangement should be such that no one of them can ever see or contact another. Quarters for the defectors should be of threerooms furnisheded, small table,oreroom for high-level defectors or for those who, their bona fides established, are awaiting transfer for positivedebriefing;ell with only cot andmall Indirect light,lopfurniture, noasin, no conveniences-There should be at least two ordinary interrogationnd one special isolation room for obstinate cases One ofwo ordinary ones must have an adjoining room forecordings and visual observations unseen. They shouldurnished formally, with facilities forriendly or|

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v:.eser^ay-*.

fn.efrogoiion

unfriendly atmosphere, for exampleesk and executive chair, one oreasy rlyUrs. atable, one^rclinary! straight-back: chair, and "ne^uncomfortaDTe^ chair. There shoulduzzer to summon the guard.

On the wall behind the interrogator's desk there shouldne-way mirror, in, which the interrogator, ostensibly not waUming the subject as heey question, can observe his unguarded reaction. The mirror also provides forfrom the adjacent room: agents who, for example,articularly strong session the image of abused innocence, are left alone, have been seen through It to smile slyly andpreen themselves at having put their act over on theogator.

The Establishment of Bona

The defector Is brought to the safehouse at night, on aroundabout route and wearing dark glasses, to protect ItsHe spends most of the first day in administrativebeing photographed and fingerprinted, taking aexamination and an IQ test, and fillinguestionnaire that covers the salient facts of his life history and defection He also begins to get acquainted with his Interrogator before the day is over, at an Informal dinner on the first night. The interrogator encourages his subject to relax and talk freely on topics of his own choosing. Recorded for later comparison with statements made during the formal interrogation, this spontaneous talk immediately after the shock experience of successful defection often provides valuable leads. Evenagents are affected by the informal atmosphere and let slip clues that prove useful in urtrnatking them.

The interrogator studies his subject's personalfor further clues to his personality, as aplanning conversation and the sequence ofand to spot Items that appear Illogical oron the second day the formal but friendly CIsessions begin. Tbe initial phase Is Important. Theshould be formal but not officious, sympatheticmaudlin. He should strive to be the subject's superiorhis good friend, ah investigator andefenseattitude produces good results even when the*su>

sfjCfTET*

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There are many psychological burdens weighing heavilydefector. Regardless of his motivation tor coming over,spirits are low at this sfage STwhat might beGuilty about his desertion and apprehensive overhe feels lost and friendlessoreign land. else, he wants to be understood. The interrogatorfrom his feeling of loneliness by showing theand solicitude he needs and thus earning hismoral support Is probably more important to him atthan any possible material considerations. Anof relaxed, natural orderliness will help to eliminateand increase his desire to cooperate with his benefactor,he Is an agent, the growing sense of relaxation may stillhim off guard and cause slips that can be

Natural behavior on the part of the interrogator oftenuces his subject to drop any feigned idiosyncrasies bye had hoped to keep the Interrogator from prying too deeply into bis background or extracting information of suchance as to aggravate his guilt In deserting his nativelavs seem toeeper devotion than some other peoples to their native land, but most of them do readily adjust thelr psychological outlook. Often they are receptive to thethat in cooperating with their Interrogator they are not traitors to their country but rather fighters against Its alien Communist rulers.

The approach of the friendly interrogation can be slanted to take advantage of the subject's Individual propensities. If he has deep religious convictions he can often be madeby pointing out the great harm done to religion by the preachings of Communism. Even agents, If they have been coerced Into espionage by fear of reprisal against themselves or their families, can be helped by religious convictions to throw off this fear and cooperaterusade againstlsm. With vain subjects, and ones In lowly status accustomed to being Ignored, the Interrogator can successfullyubtle flattery, building op their egos to the point where they brag about the things they know to show what big men they ;ba their own country.^: '--

Interrogation

It takes from one to four weeks to establish the bona fidesctor.^MosLgf them are thus positive exploitation withta'*tro weeks or so,"but stubbornly refuse to talk about details of their biographies that happen to be embarrassing to them, more time isto clarify discrepancies. After each session theshouldeport of the taterrogation and analyze the data obtained, particularly with respect to those aspects of tbe subject's biography, stated motivation for defection, and escape story which experience has shown to be vulnerable points In an agent's legend.

A good biographical legend for an agent is likely to follow quite faithfully his true life story, omitting only hisand intelligence activity. It is to this point we look (or danger flagsefector's story. Certain incidents hemay be ones which normally would be followed by some kind of security service investigation and involvement with bun. If he claims there were no such consequences, the suspicion arises that this purported lack of security service action is attributableelationship between him and the service. Unless he can explain any such flags, the defector must be considered suspect and be subjected to more intensive interrogation. No single flag is necessarily an indication that he is controlled by the hostile service, but several such flagstrong prejudice. Some Important flags are the following:

Contact with foreigners which tbe security service is claimed not to have Investigated or questioned. (Makers of such contacts are usually Interrogated and warned.)

Mere reprimands for anti-regime activitiestudent (Such activities usually call for severe punishment)

Blackrnarketeertag or embezzlement

Arrest and periods of Imprisonment for criminal or anti-Soviet activity. (Often used to accountong gap ta employment history actually devoted to thorough agent training.)

Inability to account for any period of time. Membership In anti-Soviet elements during World War H, Including German POW labor force and any underground

Interrogation

Membership In an ethnic underground

Success mha^Uvedaisejpm>,

' Admitted informant activities for the security service. (A ;

tactic to gain the interrogator's confidence and lullas well as to account for any reactions that may <

show up on the polygraph) Manifestations of security service interest in him, but no

approach. No recollection of topics, events, and people -

that he obviously should

Indications of high standard of living or educational ad- j

vantages but denial of Party

No normal fear of the security service while planning de- ;

fectlon and escaping. Residence in the United States and return to the Soviet

Orbit in the early thirties. Relatives living in the United States.

Understanding of terms normally known only to persons familiar with inteUigence activities.

The subject's real motivation for defection is an important ;

deterrnlnation in establishing his bona fides. Agents under

defector cover usually claim to be anU-Cornmurnsts, saying

that regime reprisals against family members, for example,

caused their defection, or that they escaped to take up the

fight against Communism through Western emigreQuestionable motivation claims, however, do notevidence of espionage, since most genuine defectors also

claim to be ideologicallyetailed probing with

a foUow-up polygraph test is often necessary to obtain the .

truth. Under searching interrogation many ot them reveal |

that they escaped to avoid prosecutionrime, because

they had family trouble or an unfaithful wife, or because they j

had violated some decree and feared exposure. In analyzing motivation forareful look at the ;

defector's financial status Is important It is unlikely that a '

man of ample financial meansosition of dignity atisfying station tn life would give all this up for an

unpredictable future in the imfamillar competition of tbe Western V vi^t

Ir.fertogalio*

The defector's escape story alsoumber of nag signaling the possibility of th agent,legend. Some points e considered suspicious an'dTn' heed of clarificationollowing:

The claim that he burned or burled all his documents be* fore crossing the border, or that he does not remember what documents he used to pass known security check points.

Tbe claim that he encountered no patrols, barbed wiring, or other border controls at places known to have them.

The claimerson he met by chance willingly aided him in spite of the risk.

Implausibillty of escape with respect to weather conditions! mode of transportation, border guard, or Internalmeasures.

Physical condition inconsistent with declared hardships of escape.

Condition of dothing. especially shoes, inconsistent withstory.

Inadequate explanation for having large sums tn money or Jewelry.

Participation in tourist group trip while under Investigation

for anti-regime sentiment. Inadequate explanation for success In escaping from the

mam body of the tourist group and Its security officer.

areful review with the subject of all the Information and background furnished by him. the Interrogator must keep ta mind that people's lives ta Communist countries are deeply and directly affected by the internal security services, aboveefector fears reprisals apdnst his family if the regime authorities learn that he has escaped to the West and Iswith the American Intelligence service. This fear Is often sufficient reasonona fide defector to give evasive and misleading answers. By showing full understanding of this and using every means at his command, tbe interrogator must convince him that truthfulness and cooperation will not cause hardship to his family, since the Information he gives will never be disclosed. The defectors story is checked out against every available and aU other sources of tafonnattan. care being taken

Interrogation

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not to divulge to him any Information received from other

sources. Then, alter analysis of aU this material and Its im- . eries of questions designed to resolve all dlscrep-

ancles Is composed and presented to the defector In aexamination.

The moment of polygraph soul-searching is one of the most strategically valuable partsI Interrogation. Theshould not be used, however, until the interrogator Is certain that he has obtained all pertinent information or has reached an Impasse. It should be used not to reach but to subitonffafe conclusions. When workinguspected agent source, the interrogator should try to obtain abefore polygraphing. In borderline cases the polygraph will usually pinpoint the area of sensitivity and perhaps help to resolve doubts, but it should not be allowed torutch. The psychological approach by the polygraphplays an important part; when feasible be should bein the required language, so that tbe interrogator can remain outside the room and monitor the test by listening In and by one-way mirror.

Quite often, the defector clarifies the discrepancies in his story during or immediately after the polygraph examination.e-examination verifies these explanations, and if theof the interrogation material Indicates that the defector istatement of his bona fides is issuede Is removed, at night, from tbe CI safehouse to an overt residence for positive mtelligence exploitation.

Positive Intelligence Debriefing

The newly assigned PI interrogator normally needsery short time to get into rapport with his source. Hep where the CI interrogator left off. and his task isuch simpler by his being able to approach the sourcesuspicion. Since bis duties call for promoting bis well-being, he should be able to gain bis full confidence and respect and elicit whatever information he has. Nevertheless be should put some effort intoriendly relationship

before Jumping into direct questions, and he should continue

to emphasise that all information divulged will be carefully

insulated from tbe authorities of the'Bounce's homeland

SfcCRCT *

ona fide source, the defectoromfortable Ufa in which he receives lodging, excellent meals, dothes^touec articles,mall salary. In return for this support, he has to report for work fireeek, or oftener ifand give his full cooperation In the PI mterrogatlon. Although heree man in the West, he Is thus Immediately dependent upon the InteUigence service for lodging,and clothing, and ultimately for documentation to legalize his Immigration and for assistance In resettlement. Because of these controls and because he Is no longer under any suspicion, It Is assumed with reasonable certitude that he will be truthful In the Information be furnishes.

Before beginning bis debriefing, the interrogator should study carefully the report of the CI interrogation in order to provide himself with all available background Information; and foreknowledge of the source's psychological characterise tics, his special fields of knowledge, and the extent to which he can be exploited. Familiarity with the details of the source's past life will also be of immense help In establishing; quick rapport.

The aim of the PI interrogation is to fill consumerwithout revealing to the source what specific lnforman tlon Is sought. It is most important that the interrogator know exactly what Information Is required. The more he learns about the customer's needs, the more flexible andhe can be in the interrogation. On his broadof requirements depends also the degree to which wandering off from specified topics is permissible. Suchsometimes leads to topics of even greater value than the requirements being serviced, but the interrogator must be capable of distinguishing useless drivel from worthwhile Information. The amount ot research he needs to do in an) particular case depends upon the subject matter and what tbe particular source is likely to know; but tbe interrogator'! chief weapon Is knowledge, and his effectiveness is directly pro portlonal to Its readiness.

The debriefing will usually proceed much morehe questions asked are worded toanner as to ehcl specific answers. Each topic should be thoroughly explore* and completed before going off to to anotherhe inter -

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rogator should neveregative response to abe has revered aU possible variations on it: quite often.*!

a source knows thlngswhlch he does not even realize be

robing question brings them to the surface.

first answer covers what Immediately comes to mind, but

thoughts can be channeled to surf ace further

by brief follow-upyou explain that In-Can you give an example?" "How did you learn

this? Under no circumstances, however, should theask leading questions or make hints which mightthe substance of the replies.

The PI interrogaUon is usually not recorded verbatim;

record Is written up from the interrogator's notes.

are best transcribed on the same day as the Interrogation

sion. Then If they are found to be incoherent orany point, they can be clarified at the next session.

In most respects the PI interrogationona fide

tor parallels oidinary debriefing and interviewingus return now to the CI interrogation which does notthe establishment of bona fides.

The Extraction of Confessions

When the CI interrogator feelsreponderanceturned up by Interrogation and polygraphIndicates that tbe defector Is an mtelligenceore intensive Interrogation. This intensiveto the clarification of existing discrepancies mustplanned. The methods that may be used areand varied, depending among other factors on tbeof the subject and the capabilities of thethe Interrogator decides that drastic measures andare necessary, he must be sure that he can playdisciplinarian's role.

The variety of techniques for unfriendly Interrogation run from mildly unpleasant ones to measures Just short ofence. In one type of approach the subject may be made to feel it futile to protect information that apparently Is already in the mterrogator's hands, especially If he has toiscomfort and unpleasantness to do so. The interroeator must be thoroughly briefed for this approach- be begins by

Inlerfogalion

posing questions to which he already has the answers. When the subject hesitates to reply, the mterrogator iher^scom-fully gives the answer hunself, until the subject feels foolish at trying to hide things that appear to be common knowledge when by cooperating he would become eligible for better

The interrogator may exploit the subjects emotionalin personal problems and desires, playing up his anger, jealousy, homesickness, or other passions until he hastate of emotional confusion and instability. He may create In theense of insecurity and anxiety by becoming vociferous, Melting furniture around, banging on the table, and giving vent to well-acted rage, until theis willing to talk simply to escape this wrath. He can let the subject know that he is fully familiar with Soviettactics and could practice them himself ifby continued lack of response to humane methods. He can bluff with specific threats if he Is sure the bluff wont be called.

Sometimes it is deckled to use two Interrogators with two completely different approaches, the firstreat deal of aggressiveness, discourtesy, bluster, and threat, the second soft-spoken, kind, and sympathetic. The subject often comes to look to the second man for sympathy andfrom the first, and eventually converses freely with him.

If the subject is especially stubborn, he may be movedwindowless room withmall light built intoHe is deprived of most of his cigarette rations andmaterials. Only his underwear is left for clothing.very little chance for suicide with no light cord andHe is not permitted to shave. He is deprived ofcontact and attention except for being broughtThe interrogator keeps reminding him thattoriend, that he would like to ease thehe could make everything all right if only he had aof the full truth, whatever It might be. Mostespecially the gregarious and talkative Slav, cannotthis prolonged confinement tn utter loneliness, andbecome willing and eager to talk freely, resorting toas their only friend. jgiX

Interrogation

If the bewilderment of loneliness does not produce results, however, two or more interrogators familiar with all of the facts of the case may take turns at continuouso that the subject cannot rest and keep his mind clear. His resulting confusion leads to slips that disclose new evidence. Under further continuous questioning he usually reaches Inoint where he sees no sense in resistance andonfession When the confession Is reduced to writingrobing for details should commence immediately, tempered only by the subject's condition at the time.

Among the psychological pressures that can be brought to bear at various phases of these techniques are the following:

Pointing out the subject's untenable position, the fallacy of his story, persuading him that his service sold him down the river by providing him withtupid legend;that American intelligence has no interest in punishing him, but does have Interest in his cooperation in the future.

Isolationark, sound-proofed room, depriving him of sight, hearing, and mobility; consequent development of claustrophobia.sychiatrist should check to ensure that his sanity does not reach the breaking point)to isolation after removal and requestionlngresponse.

Irregular scheduling of interrogation, waking subject saym.ix-hour debriefing and on the following day.hour session.

Alternating light and dark, preventing rest and sleep.

Sound waves.

Creation of terror illusions.

Raising or lowering temperatures to point of discomfort Limiting waging and latrine facilities. Cutting food ration to minimum sustenance. cigarette ration. Jostling without actual physical harm, -Heavy physical training exercises.

Medical examination disclosing fictitious dreadto depend entirely upon the good will of

Interrogation

all else fails, the interrogator may request permission to use drugs and narco-hypnosis or hostile methods that may endanger the subjects mental and physical health. The need to apply hostile methodsegree of moral victory for the suspect even though he may subsequently confess. Before makingequest the interrogator must have exhausted all other means, must be convinced beyonddoubt that the subject Is an agent, and must have reason to believe that his confession would revealof critical Importance to tbe national security.

The severer methods seldom need be used. Agentsfollow Instructions to be insurerdinate and Insolent If pressure is brought to bear on them, an attitude whichtheir self-confidence and may also incite anInto thoughtless punitive action that In turn reinforces the agent's resentment and increases his will to resist But the exceedingly stubborn agent suspects are relatively few. Most suspects,eriod of shocked Innocence and steady denials, suddenly and recklessly confess. When thefirst became unfriendly they realized that they wereand their worry, loss of sleep, and fear of the future began eroding their will to resist, especially if they had been forcibly recruited by the Intelligence service, having neither stomach for espionage nor patriotic motivation.

Under these conditions the interrogator can utilize his subtlest weapon, his art of asking Just the right question at Just the right moment, and In Just the manner to elicit an answer that may leadonfession. The questioning may either aim directly at the discrepancies to the defector's story or search roundabout and apparently random paths for clues to concealed facts.

onfession comes toohorough and probing Inquiry for detail should be made. The hostile services knowan cannot be successfully prosecuted for spying against the Americans In Europe, and that if an agent confesses he may before long be legitimately documented and free to carry on any fine of activity he wishes. The Interrogator should obtain as much Information as possible about tbe readyservice and bis purported Intelligence activities. When be seems to have told.aH he^kikowa, he should be poly-,

Infer rogation

graphed again. If discrepancies still exist, the interrogationbe continued unULthey are clarified or imtUiithajjer-.period of confinement is exhausted.

i

Operational Interrogation

In any case, the debriefingonfessed agent forinformation should normally be conducted by theonfessed agent will frequently try tocertain elements of his mission and training, and itelatively simple matter for tbe CI interrogator to switch from debriefing back to bis old technique to impress the agent with the error of his ways and obtain his subsequentWhen all operational information has been obtained he can be transferred If desired for regular PI debriefing. The CI debriefing should cover:

Name, rank, position, unit, personality description, and all details regarding his case officer and any otherpersonnel with whom be has been associated.

Assigned mission, in detail, and time limit for completion.

Area in which the mission is to be performed and main targetintelligence, militarypolitical organizations, emigre groups, economic

Exact method of crossing border and passing various check

adio, codes, dead drops, courier, secretrendezvous

When recruited, how, and by whom.

Remuneration.

Intelligence training,ocation of school, names ofkinds of courses taken, duration, number and names of other students, unit sponsoring the school.

Documents, currency, equipment, and clothing furnished for his mission.

Names of any persons who may have assisted him to cross '. |

Method of accomplishing his mission.

Extent to which the mission has been accomplished.

Knowledge about his own Intelligence service, Itscommand structure, personnel

Knowledge about American

interrogation

Any special knowledge he may have.

Overall positive and operational intelligence knowledge.

Extreme caution must be exercisedonfessed agent discloses his knowledge readily, divulges Important-appearing information, and offers his servicesouble agent. It is quite possible that, acting according to the hostile intelligence service's plans, he Islay to gain the confidencemerican Intelligence. The authenticity and completenessis operational statements should be rigorously checkedhe polygraph.

If the results of probing operational interrogation andhe polygraph examination are compatible,ouble-agent play may be considered. Upon the man'so work for American intelligence, his true intentionse examined again by polygraph with extreme care. It Isirable to place him under careful surveillance and closely evaluate the take resulting from his activities. He should be checked periodically by all possible means.

Original document.

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