Created: 5/19/1960

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Khrushchev .probably did not Intend to torpedo the summit conference whenay he began to exploit the alroraft incident, hemiscalculated the nature of Washington's reaction and then interpreted American official statements as defiance of the USSR and as an affront to his own prestige and that of the Soviet Union. Khrushchevhad decided before he left for Paris onay to break up tha summit meeting by confronting Presidentvith patently unacceptable demands regardingcast in the most insulting terms.

Several Soviet andsources claim privately that Khrushchev's behavior in Paris stemmedeeling of "humiliation" in the face of the Americanhich had the effect of placing the USSR in the position of apower." Following the meeting of the heads of gov-eminent onay, the Soviet premier reportedly complained bitterly to bloc diploma' President Elsenhove

had -

been prepared to close out the incident immediately if the President had said he wasof the flights or had dls-approved. Bloc diplomats in Moscow emphasized to American officials that Khrushchev had

been placedbad position" of inequality because of the American statements,which they viewed as indicating thatwould continue.

The abruptness and closely held nature of Moscow's shift vas reflected by considerable evidence that the Sovietapparatus was forcedomplete reversal following Khrushchev's opening statement ln Paris onay. Three hours after Khrushchev's statement, TASS sent out instructions to the Soviet regional press earlier_stories on the summit.

Khrushchev'say press conference suggests that he will vigorously press his bitter anti-American campaign in an attempt to brand the US as responsible forummit meetingelaxation of tensions. In an effort to secure thefollowing the collapse of the summit, Gromyko requested an urgent meeting of the UNCouncil to "examine the question of aggressive acts by the air force of the US, creating hreat to peace."


Khrushchev indicated earlier that Moscow would counter any setback in the Security Council with action ln the General Moscow will alsoto keep the issue aliverial of the American pilot.

Khrushchev'sremarks on other East-West Issues at his press conference, together with the line taken privately by Soviet spokesmen, are designed to give thethat Moscow does not Intend to make any sharpln the other major lines of Its foreign policy. Both Khruschav's remark* and Gro-

luclear test ban conferencesanner which implied that they expected the negotiations to continue.

In an apparent referencehe American announcementay, Khrushchev warned, however, that if the US conducted tests for research purposes, the USSR would follow by testing "nucleare also said that the USSR was "almost convinced" that the West did not want disarmament and that If Moscow met with furtherould, take the disarmament question to the UN.

Iromykontended to take no action to increase tension or make trouble during the six-to-eight month Interval proposed by Khrushchev before another

summit meoting. Reirect answer as to whether Khrushchev would sign apeace treaty during his visit to Berlin, andthe standard Sovietthat if no agroement were reached with the West, Moscow would be forced toeparate treaty.

Khrushchevimilar position In his press conference, but he warned that the USSR had almost reached the "limits" of its effort toreaty with both Germanya and that when this point waa. reachod, the treaty would be signed andto the world.

The chargo that the United States wrecked the Paris talks with its "provocative" actions against the Soviet Union remains the central themo of Moscow's propaganda. Presidentstatement ofay that overflights have been suspended was not reported at first, but bloc commentators have followed Khrushchev's lead in dismissing the statementere "maneuver to avoid responsibility." media report mass meetings in the Soviet Union denouncing American "treachery andand both President Eisenhower and Secretary Barter are personally attacked lnterms. Following selective Jamming of broadcasts on the plane incident, Moscow onay apparently resumed masslvo jamming of VOA Russian-language broadcasts.

Despite the harsh attacks against the US, Moscowhave convoyed no immediate


of crisis and have given no undue stress to claims of Soviet military strength. In an unusual move shortly after Khrushchev'say pressTASS began transmitting an accountew York Times article in which "diplomats in. Moscow" are cited as claiming that Khrushchev plans no chango ln his policies of basingstrength on rockets,the standard of living, and widening contacts with the out-aide world.

Chineso Communist Reaction

As the summit approached, Chinese leaders seemed resigned to the fact that the meetinga would bo held but maintained their line that "no unrealistic Illusions" should be entertained toward the United States, the "number-one enemy of worldnay, Mao Tse-tung stated that despite "big orhe winning of world peace must depend "mainly" on resolute struggle. He went

on to say that he hoped that thesewho have described Elsenhoweran who "cherishes peace" would be awakened by recent American actions. Mao's remarks suggested some apprehension that an accord might be reached which would undercut hia policy ofhostility toward the USesire to go on record as saying that summit results would not change China's foreigncy,

Peiping's initial comment on the summit breakdownthat the conference has justified Peiping's distrust of Khruahchev's policy of detente. It is probable, however, that any Chinese action in the wake of the summit will be in line with the over-all Sino-So-viet bloc policies will develop out of the wreckage of the summit.

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